Different anthropogenic activities as well as natural sources contribute enormously towards various heavy metal contaminations in aquatic habitats. Cadmium (Cd) is one of most prevalent and toxic heavy metals with a long half life. Unlike terrestrial animals, exposure of Cd in fishes may happen not only through feeds but also from its habitat water. Bioaccumulation of Cd in fishes occurs in many tissues, but mainly in gill, liver, kidney, skin, and muscle. The concentrations of Cd in fish tissues depend upon the extent and duration of Cd exposure, species and age of fishes, dietary minerals and antioxidant concentrations, and habitat water quality. Specific histopathological observations in liver, kidney, and gill are useful to understand the effects of Cd, which could help to determine the ameliorating methods to be adopted. Exposure of Cd exerts several adverse effects on general growth and development, reproductive processes, osmoregulation, morphological and histological structures, stress tolerance, and endocrine system, mainly due to changes in biological functions induced by differential expressions of several genes related to oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, immunosuppressions, genotoxicity, Cd chelation and carbohydrate metabolism. Chronic biomagnifications of Cd exceeding the permitted level may be harmful not only to the fishes itself but also to humans through food chains. Amelioration of such toxic heavy metal that has been categorized as a potent carcinogenic in humans is of utmost importance. Main modes of amelioration encompas reducing oxidative damages by promoting the antioxidative defenses, decreasing Cd absorption, increasing excretion through excretory system and improving the tolerance of fishes to Cd toxicity. Many amelioration measures such as use of minerals (for example, zinc, calcium, and iron), vitamins (vitamin C, A, and E), different herbs, probiotics and other agents (taurine, bentonite, chitosan, zeolite, and metallothionein) have been explored for their effective roles to reduce Cd bioaccumulation and toxicity symptoms in fishes. The present review discusses bioaccumulation of Cd, histopathological alterations, oxidative stress, synergism-antagonism, and gene regulation in different tissues, and its amelioration measures in fishes.