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Challenges of Implementing New Technologies in the World of BIM – Case Study from Construction Engineering Industry in Finland

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In the world of building information modeling (BIM), effective usage of available technology is an asset. Due to general complexity of information technology implementations, difficulties occur. To choose a technology for company's next spearhead tool, the road is usually long and rocky. This paper aims on introducing and analyzing the wide range of obstacles generated by customers, company's own organization, social behavior and immature technologies in Finnish construction engineering industry. As a result of this study, 23 different key challenges were identified that can alone stop a successful implementation of a BIM technology.This study serves as a base study for future tool creation to manage better BIM technology implementations.
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Procedia Economics and Finance 21 ( 2015 ) 469 – 477
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
2212-5671 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Selection and/ peer-review under responsibility of Tampere University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering
doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00201-4
ScienceDirect
8th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization
Challenges of implementing new technologies in the world of BIM
– Case study from construction engineering industry in Finland
Risto Tulenheimo*
A-Insinöörit Oy, 33210, Tampere, Finland
Abstract
In the world of building information modeling (BIM), effective usage of available technology is an asset. Due to general
complexity of information technology implementations, difficulties occur. To choose a technology for company’s next spearhead
tool, the road is usually long and rocky. This paper aims on introducing and analyzing the wide range of obstacles generated by
customers, company’s own organization, social behavior and immature technologies in Finnish construction engineering
industry. As a result of this study, 23 different key challenges were identified that can alone stop a successful implementation of a
BIM technology. This study serves as a base study for future tool creation to manage better BIM technology implementations.
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and/ peer-review under responsibility of Tampere University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering.
Keywords: BIM; ICT; digitalization; technology implementation.
1. Introduction – The world of BIM
In the era of Building Information Modeling (BIM), construction processes have taken a similar leap what was
e
ncountered in the 1990s when engineers and architects started utilizing computer aided design (CAD) and
computers for designing instead of using pen and paper. New property and construction modeling aims to support a
design and construction lifecycle process that is of high quality, efficient, safe and in compliance of sustainable
development (Henttinen 2012). One outcome of this process is a building information model, which is an as-it-is
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +358 207 911 532.
E-mail address: risto.tulenheimo@ains.fi
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Selection and/ peer
-review under responsibility of Tampere University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering
470 Risto Tulenheimo / Procedia Economics and Finance 21 ( 2015 ) 469 – 477
representation in 3D environment of the structure to be constructed, including all disciplinary designs as well as
lifecycle and product information. BIM models are utilized throughout the building or other constructions lifecycle,
starting from initial design and continuing during use and facility management after the construction project has
concluded (Henttinen 2012). BIM processes and products are not static ideas but dynamic and they are constantly
developed hand-in-hand with information and communication technologies (ICT). Most of new technological
innovations in construction business can be proclaimed as part of BIM. This could be, however, highly arguable but
not discussed in this study.
The concepts, approaches and methodologies that we now identify as BIM can be dated back nearly forty years to
1970s, while the terminology of the “Building Information Modeling” has been circulating for at least fifteen years
(Eastman et al. 2011). BIM theory has evolved along with ICT but the basic principles have always been the same.
However, before 21
st
century BIM based project delivery was practically non-existent due to immature technologies
and lack of will. Consequently, there has been a considerable time lag between the emerge of visionary expectations
of building information models transformative potential in the architecture, engineering and construction industry,
and the deployment of the technology in the industry’s daily practice (Linderoth 2010).
Currently in Finland, governmental bodies and local authorities as well as industry are seriously starting to
understand the possibilities of BIM. The Common BIM Requirements 2012 handbook was compiled for the growing
need of standardization and common rules. As the first mandate was merely compiled for buildings, common BIM
requirements will be announced for infrastructure projects in 2015. Similar promotion of BIM on governmental level
has been encountered in many countries across the world. One of the biggest investors on this new process is United
Kingdom, where local government has declared that all public sector’s centrally procured construction projects will
be delivered using as minimum Level 2 BIM by 2016 (HM Government 2014, BIM Task Group 2014).
BIM maturity model describes levels of maturity with regards to the ability of the construction supply chain to
operate and exchange information. Organization may claim to be operating at Level 2 but still it may have a number
of projects that are only able to operate at Level 1. This is perfectly normal and expected as different organizations
will mature on different timescales depending on a number of factors. (BIM Task Group 2014) According to Fig.1,
the levels vary from 0 to 4 where first level project is being delivered with unmanaged computer aided design
including 2D drawings. On the other end, data is managed through federated BIM models including all discipline
information. Data may also include construction sequencing, cost information and ultimately project lifecycle
information.
Fig. 1. BIM Maturity Model. (Applecore Designs 2014)
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Risto Tulenheimo / Procedia Economics and Finance 21 ( 2015 ) 469 – 477
Reflecting to this background and general BIM requirements, this paper discusses difficulties of implementing
new technologies to the BIM based design and project delivery. It aims to be a base study that clarifies practically
the reality and complexity of technology implementations what engineering consulting companies are facing in
Finland at the moment. The ultimate goal is to produce tools for better management of the deployment processes.
The scope of the research was to gather and analyze all experienced concerns and challenges regarding BIM
technology implementations. Four different sized businesses were chosen to be case study objects, which were
analyzed by semi-structured interviews as well as participant and non-participant observation. Literature survey has
been used for better understanding of the research subject and connecting the substance to a wider scope.
Additionally, author’s general experience from the industry plays a significant role in the study.
The author has been monitoring and following the development of BIM from national and international
perspectives for several years. He has been working in BIM and ICT supporting elements, implementing new
technologies for local authorities and private consulting companies in Finland and Namibia.
2. Challenges of implementing new technologies
Due to the nature of BIM, it allows and expects that new technologies have to be implemented to achieve the true
potential of BIM. Before that, also current technologies have to be mastered to produce acceptable BIM models,
manage the process and meet the fast growing expectations. Nowadays, it is not clear that everyone can do it.
Fortunately, as mentioned, there are many levels of BIM and to work in a BIM project, every stakeholder has to
meet the same agreed level. In order to realize the agreed expectations and the final product, needed technology
implementations have to be dealt accordingly.
Another characteristic of BIM is its close connection to information and communication technologies thus
challenges in traditional ICT implementations apply closely to BIM technology implementations.
2.1. Customer needs, project organizations and company strategies
All companies are dependent on abilities to satisfy customers. Regarding BIM in Finland, awareness is growing
all the time and especially governmental bodies, big local authorities, industry and developers are requiring BIM
based project delivery as default. However, the level of understanding vary within these stakeholders and required
BIM maturity level can be totally different between each project. Especially in infrastructure projects the tools and
general knowledge are not yet matured enough to embrace the full potential of BIM whereas building projects have
been spearheading the whole process. Especially architects, engineers and big contractors have been pushing BIM
implementations for years. Consequently, small firms are having troubles and eventually facing downfall in case if
new processes and technologies are not implemented in time.
Regarding remaining unawareness of BIM, customers do not always know what they want and need. Especially,
small local authorities tend to not have resources to use BIM in their projects. To sell a very advanced BIM product,
such as playable virtual model of the product, the customer has to be persuaded to want it. Without general demand,
new implementations cannot be justified economically. Similarly, the role of as-built models tend to lose their
meaning due to the fact that customers do not know how to use them. Consequently, the customers do not want to
pay for them even they are the basic products of every BIM project. However, currently in Finland, certain size of
projects are delivered almost always with BIM models although it would not have been required.
Project organization is one of the key factors for successful project delivery. They consist of multidisciplinary
personnel and work processes with multiple tools. According to Linderoth (2010) and actor network theory, project
workers are parts of a social network. Due to disruptive nature of building and construction projects, the challenge is
to maintain and re-establish the network in which BIM is used in consecutive projects. When project organization
changes from one project to another, mode of operation changes requiring people to adapt and learn new practices.
This leads inevitably challenges in technology implementations.
Customer’s needs are the base of a company’s business vision and strategy. In case the company does not give
provisions for implementing new technologies, BIM standards can be met only partially or not at all. High level
management as well as project managers should be enlightened and interested of potential new business products
realized by new technologies. Without this vision of BIM and the executive leadership behind it, the effort to adopt
472 Risto Tulenheimo / Procedia Economics and Finance 21 ( 2015 ) 469 – 477
new business practices will struggle and waste dedicated resources (Autodesk 2012). However, return of investment
has to be taken into consideration and realize the implementation in such a way that it does not weaken productivity.
This formulae is sometimes hard to understand and put in figures. In any case, usually some risk have to be tolerated
to achieve tools that have potential to overcome other competitors.
2.2. Competence and competitiveness of technologies
Worldwide, there is endless amount of software and hardware to be utilized. Technologies develop fast and to
pick the one for companys next spearhead tool is a long process. To get new technology out from the blue, it has to
be recognized from the mass or developed by someone.
In case of implementing an existing technology, first of all, the tool has to be capable of doing what is expected
for current and future needs. According to Kautto (2012), in building projects and in the detailed design phase
structural engineer’s design has to include connections between structural elements and, based on contract
agreement, all cast-in reinforcements in the BIM model. Currently, there are not many software capable of doing
this in a cost-efficient manner. This narrows the scope of available software but to figure out of necessary features, a
lot of investigations and testing have to be realized per proposed software. Due to high demand of advanced features
required by the highest level of BIM, full implementation will take a lot of time. However, it is noteworthy that
design standards vary between countries thus different tools can be usable in different places.
To open up more the difficultness of finding suitable software, some examples are given in the next paragraphs.
Nowadays, one of these previously mentioned advanced features is collaboration between different software and
devices. Traditionally, all stakeholders have only suffered from not-compatible file formats. The same awkwardness
has followed construction projects until these days and it is likely to continue in the future. However, new
requirements have been introduced to support collaboration between BIM model information from different
construction disciplines. This means that produced models should be possible to merge together without losing
information. Furthermore, every stakeholder should have possibilities to communicate through BIM models and
different devices such as PCs, tablets and mobile phones. To address these issues, international organization called
BuildingSMART is governing the development of international file format standards such as Industry Foundation
Classes (IFC) and Building Collaboration Format (BCF) (BuildingSMART 2014). Fortunately, software vendors
and technology developers are, mostly willingly, implementing these international standards into their products and
simultaneously pushing these features to the users. However, still and inconveniently, some international companies
are trying to push their own BIM standards forward.
When potential software has been identified capable for project delivery, software’s modifiability has to be
evaluated. When all companies have the same tool, somehow, it has to be enhanced to give more business advantage
compared to others. Modifiability is also important thus necessary amendments and revisions can be realized to
support companies own processes. Component libraries play also major role of usability of the software. With pre-
configured BIM model components, design flow can be speeded up remarkably when time does not have to spend
on modeling every element from a scratch. According to Finne et al. (2013), 36% of surveyed Finnish construction
consulting companies had to build their own custom components by themselves when they were not available in the
software. 56% bought them from a specialist outside the organization.
Software support plays also a big role whereas it is a reseller or vendor based. Usually, it has to be physically
near, in Finnish language, in the Finnish case, and instructors should be available soon after request. Otherwise, the
quality of service delivery is highly arguable. Regarding that, in software industry, owners tend to change when a
specific software has reasonably punctuated markets. In these cases, the big ones usually buy their rivals out from
the markets. This may lead unexpected problems with support, records management and upkeep of an implemented
software.
In case of own or outsourced software development, companies have to allocate funding and resources for not
core business of traditional engineering consulting company. Own software with possible own developed device can
provide a solution and business advantage for a specific purpose but can also cause a notable amount of work with
implementation, maintenance and support of the product. This relates especially to highly specialized BIM software.
Due to developing nature of BIM, all potential and described needs have not yet been realized technology or
decision-wise in any way. This means that there are no matured-enough products and best practices available in the
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markets for a specific need. One example is the lifecycle management of construction products. Internationally,
there is not yet experience enough to determine what features should be expected from the related software or
devices. This leads inevitably to risky decisions regarding possible first-round implementations. Similarly, another
example is records management. In Finland, filing is governed by law and together with companies’ own interests
they give restrictions. Especially cloud solutions, where data is stored in an anonymous server somewhere in the
world, may be potentially risky and unacceptable for the sake of accessibility and data protection. There is not yet a
thumb rule or best practices, where data should be stored in order to maximize the benefits of BIM.
During the run to superiority of adopting BIM, companies face also problems with expenses of the acquired
technologies. Currently, all relevant modeling software are relatively very expensive, meaning their investment price
is usually thrice or more of the value of traditional 2D CAD software. Moreover, to keep updates running and
getting new versions, subscription fees have to be paid seasonally. Usually these fees are 5-20 percent of the original
investment prices. Even big companies will inevitably face the problem of lack of funds. In developing countries
these prices are overwhelming and sometimes totally unaffordable. Despite this, in the future, all engineers should
be able to produce BIM capable models. To rectify this, cheaper solutions have to be implemented. Forthcoming
question would be, how to level up traditional 2D processes? Could the answer be a cheap 2D CAD software with
capability to produce BIM data, such as IFC models from 2D drawings? This is not real life yet although some
practical demonstrations have been seen. In any case, in Finland, it will still take many years to come before all
work is on the current highest level of BIM. According to Finne et al. (2013), only 39% of engineering consulting
companies expect to use BIM in every project within five years.
License compliance and vendors’ license policies play, surprisingly, a critical role of powerfulness of certain
technologies. Software licensing is divided into proprietary software licenses and free or open source software
licenses. In the propriety model, developing firm usually owns and retains all the rights over software it produces.
Under proprietary model owners do not make their source code available to the end users and vendor gathers fees
from sold licenses. Opposing, open source model gives the source code to the users free of charge and freedom to
modify it. (Ballardini 2012) This is a clear advantage for self-development and crowdsourcing of new technology
innovations and implementations.
Regarding license policies, some companies, usually big international ones, govern their software licenses more
strictly than others. This becomes a problem when a corporation that consists of subsidiary companies, wants to
distribute these new tools to all corporate employees. Some license policies do not allow these subsidiary companies
to use mother company’s licenses. To overcome this issues, several and potentially costly revisions have to be done
to corporation’s license portfolio.
Lastly, license types grant different kind of usage of the software. Stand-alone license represent the basic
approach where the license is locked in employee’s computer. Floating licenses allows user to obtain license from a
license server for the time being while he or she is using the software. This allows many users to utilize the same
license but not simultaneously. Volume licensing is basically the same as stand-alone licensing but giving more
freedom on installations. On-demand or rental licensing, such as Software as a Service (SaaS) model, is one the
newest vendors’ solutions to attract customers. Limitations of mentioned possibilities may affect negatively on
implementation of a new software.
2.3. Social aspects on new implementations
When new technology has been recognized, found potentially applicable and tested, it has to be introduced to the
work community. New and fast developing BIM software and devices bring a lot of challenges to the users. Until
now traditional CAD software such as Autodesk’s AutoCAD has been basically the same for many years. New and
relevant features have emerged only seldom making it easy for engineers to keep up-to-date. Parallel with high
speed development of computer technology, modeling software gains new features and power to visualize more and
more detailed models. This introduces engineers’ new routines and more work to do since all as-built information
have to be modeled with more and more accurate product information. This means that every single piece of the
structure have as-built geometry and position. Every structural element knows its purpose, material, analytical load
and so forth. Similarly, mechanical and electrical installations product information have to be included in the model.
474 Risto Tulenheimo / Procedia Economics and Finance 21 ( 2015 ) 469 – 477
In the past, 2D CAD engineer could have evaded some of the work and intensive detail making by just duplicating
old drawings and specification texts.
Engineer’s professionalism is usually based on a certain tool and he or she has been using it for a long time. Only
seldom a person has time and motivation to adopt other software. However, this does not apply persons who
voluntarily discovers new tools to make their work easier and to provide better quality products. For conservative
persons, implementation of a totally different software and new routines can be sometimes overwhelming.
Depending on the person, new tools might be considered as a threat to his or her profession. For implementation, it
is highly recommendable to start the implementation through some CAD or BIM development steering group and
create first a proof of concept. In that way, conservative people may be more easily persuaded to work differently.
In every non-development oriented work community, project timetables are considered at utmost importance. In
such an environment new tools are hardly introduced even if the community would like to have them. This may lead
to a situation where the engineer do not have the necessary tool to satisfy the customer. Consequently, the needed
technology has to be implemented in a rush or the job will be outsourced. In any case, the outcome can be
satisfactory but company will not be self-sustainable for some time.
2.4. Role of developers and supporting elements
BIM requires high level of information technology support (CURT 2010). Many of the engineering consulting
companies accommodate separate research and development (R&D) units beside ICT that are responsible for
maintaining and developing current technologies as well as introducing new ones. Usually their responsibility,
together with project engineers, is also to productize new technologies and processes to sellable products. In the best
case scenario, these R&D units are funded adequately and they work hand in hand with innovative ICT units to get
up-to-date hardware and systems to be tested in real business. In case of outsourced ICT, this companionship may
not be as fluent as it should be. Similarly, lack of multidiscipline personnel with know-how and innovation skills,
will decrease organization’s ability to introduce and implement new technologies. Lastly, if the team does not have
members with a vision or people who are open minded to change, implementation projects are doomed to fail
(Decker 2010).
Usually, if new ideas are introduced from a supporting element they tend to encounter obstacles on the way.
Users are not allowed or do not want to spend their time on understanding and testing new potential tools.
Sometimes the supporting element does not understand the need of project delivery and may introduce less viable
tools. Ultimately, if the management is not interested, the project will be silently put aside. As in software business
in general, the timing and sales skills are crucial. An idea has to be presented and sold at the right moment for a
specific need and people.
If the high level management is specifically interested on something, resources will be allocated. This may lead
to awkward situations if the management does not really know or understand what they want and does not have
competence to evaluate impacts on other matters. For example, engineering consulting companies tend to have
licenses for tens or even hundreds of different kind of software. If the idea is to change document management
system for the whole company, it will affect all above mentioned software including all other ICT systems as well as
work processes. The great idea may become costly and resource intensive project for many years. A competent chief
intelligence officer, with respectable experience and negotiation skills, is clearly an asset. He can influence the high
level management and own employees to go to right direction. To summarize and to be effective, a BIM technology
implementation must reach across a business. It cannot be an ICT initiative, or R&D’s, or done solely at a project or
disciplinary level. These approaches, while yielding some results, in the end do not transform business and deliver
only a portion of the benefits promised by BIM. (Autodesk 2012)
Beside above, traditional ICT unit has a significant role in technology implementations. Especially, big
companies with hundreds of computers have to deliver acquired software and their updates, with appropriate
licenses, to the users with some cost-efficient way. To rectify this, companies have centralized their installations and
use automatic software distribution systems for deliverance. Smaller companies have to rely on local installations
and agile ICT personnel. In either case, without effective merging of company features in the installation packages
and distribution, implementations will not materialize effectively. Similarly, many software are dependent on license
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Risto Tulenheimo / Procedia Economics and Finance 21 ( 2015 ) 469 – 477
servers to cater floating licenses. Without a proper ICT infrastructure and, usually virtualized, license servers,
effective usage of a software would be impossible.
Adequate ICT infrastructure consists also workstations and laptops that have BIM capable hardware
configurations. Similarly with computer game industry, new design software tend to demand a lot of power from
hardware. Before implementing new technologies, computers have to be boosted up to serve the needed system
requirements. From experience, approximate life time for a consulting engineer’s computer is only three years.
Suitable leasing or other procurement solutions for computers are a must. In addition, BIM files are large, causing
si
gnificant need of hard drive space and equal backup systems as well consideration on files’ shared access amongst
project partners (Aschraft et al. 2014).
3. Discussion
According to Fig. 2, 23 different aspects can be identified that can alone stop a successful implementation
process. Depending on a calculation method, there can be even more.
Fig. 2. Key challenges of implementing new technologies in the world of BIM
The figure of key challenges represent the complex environment, where a decision maker has to act. The number
of parties involved and questions to be answered is vast. When this figure’s information is compared to a traditional
IT system implementation, pitfalls are remarkably the same. However, some unique features may be identified. To
enhance this approach, more intensive literature review would have identified better the specific problems of BIM
technology implementations apart from general information technology implementation. In the end, the figure could
develop as a useful tool for decision makers to understand relations and manage technology implementations more
sufficiently.
The topic of this study is certainly important. In the digitalizing world, more and more business advantages and
competitiveness are being searched from information and communication technologies. Currently, it can be stated
that engineering consulting companies need an ICT-minded R&D team of their own only for BIM technology
implementations parallel with a traditional hardware team. Consequently, small companies are in a very unequal
position when compared to market leaders in terms of available resources. On the other hand, small size can be an
advantage especially when considering social aspects. Implementations of new technologies are resource addicting,
time consuming and risky business.
Chosen research methods were found suitable for this kind of study, although more structured case studies with
metering would have given more substance. Also, some other research methods, such as social construction of
technology and its subtopic actor network theory could have given more fresh approach on the matter. This paper is
476 Risto Tulenheimo / Procedia Economics and Finance 21 ( 2015 ) 469 – 477
in very general level and all statements should be put in close scrutiny. Nevertheless, all written information has
been encountered in real life in different instances thus the reality is tensely present. More emphasizing should have
been put also to recommendations to overcome difficulties, this paper is merely evading that change. In due course,
this study is opening up this matter and, hopefully, give valuable background information for tool creation and more
deep future research projects such as investigations on specific construction disciplines. For instance, town planning
and civil services are generally lacking behind in BIM development.
4. Conclusions
BIM technology adoption and implementation should have a socio-technical view as it is as much about people
and processes as it is about technology (Arayici et al. 2010). To succeed in BIM technology implementation, the
complexity of BIM requirements, customers, social aspects, company’s own organization, information and
communication technologies have to be taken into consideration. This paper concludes by noticing that many of the
key challenges can formulate an obstacle hard to penetrate. Without understanding and suitable tools, totally
successful implementation is difficult to realize although partial success stories can be achieved. Due to fact that the
people is doing the implementation, the utmost importance is to have the support from all organizational levels from
the company. Competent and innovative development organization with in-real-life connection to business and
experienced leadership forms the basis of a successful implementation team. Provisioned by adequate technical
resources and support from an ICT organization, the final implementation and product can provide a significant
business advantage for an engineering consulting company.
Acknowledgements
Authors acknowledgements goes to Arto Möttönen from A-Insinöörit Oy for giving his input and proposing this
subject in the first place. Furthermore, special thanks belongs to colleagues and friends for commenting this paper
and giving valuable feedback, namely Tapio Katko from Tampere University of Technology, Antti Seppänen from
The Finnish Government Shared Services Centre for Finance and HR, Juhani Seppänen from TSS-Group Oy, Jarkko
Tervo and Antti Pekkala from A-Insinöörit Oy.
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... In the context of Building Information Modelling (BIM) ICT adoption in construction, Tulenheimo (2015) identifies 23 aspects that can prevent its successful implementation. These are grouped around five categories: "Customer", "Company", "Social Aspects", "Technology" and "Supporting Elements". ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the challenges faced with mobile information communication technology (M-ICT), more specifically tablet software, in the construction phase of UK infrastructure projects. Quality assurance in the context of passive fire protection is scrutinised, where M-ICT use is prevalent, to provide an industry perspective. Design/methodology/approach The research design is founded on exploratory multiple case study approach. Specific themes are developed, based on a critical review of previous ICT studies. The themes identified are used to inform a qualitative interview protocol for investigating three large UK infrastructure projects. Each project is at different stages in the construction phase, with varying examples of M-ICT implementation in use. Participants are interviewed regarding their experiences of the implementation of M-ICT on each project. Findings Findings identify diverse experiences across each project. Single and multiple M-ICT platforms are currently being used, with individual stakeholders using ICT in isolation, and in some instances, multiple project stakeholders are using it together. Complete replacement of paper-based processes is evident in one case study, but more commonly, digital technology is being used in parallel to traditional paper-based processes. The challenges, although varied across each case study, can be categorised under the themes of Technology (IT support, ICT infrastructure, IT security, contractual, software), People (social aspects, user competency, safety), Technical Compliance (technical compliance evidence) and Process (conventional processes). Originality/value It is recommended that each theme be reviewed at project commencement, with all key stakeholders, to ensure key aspects are considered prior to M-ICT deployment. This will ensure avoidance of challenges reported and maximise the opportunities that are available through M-ICT in a multi-stakeholder infrastructure project.
... Today, technology is no longer a strange thing in modern times, humans are required to be able to coexist with technology and make full use of it. Tulenheimo stated that there are challenges in implementing technology, including [8]: 1) customer needs, organization and company strategy; 2) competence and competitiveness of technology; 3) social aspects in the implementation; 4) the role of the developer and supporting elements. For details, see figure 1 on the main challenges in implementing technology. ...
... For details, see figure 1 on the main challenges in implementing technology. The main challenge can represent the complexity that occurs in the environment so that decision makers must act immediately [8]. These main challenges must be conquered so that, with education, Indonesia can answer the challenges of the world and towards the 5.0 era. ...
... However, in its implementation, technology does not only have positive but also negative consequences. R. Broderick and J. W. Boudreau stated that in addition to increasing productivity, technology implementation has an impact on the more time it takes to create an innovation and other quality problems [8,9]. The following table I is the impact of technology implementation according to experts. ...
... Besides, during BIM introduction within the transition period the employees often should carry out double work, e.i. to perform the necessary functions in the usual type and to duplicate on BIMplatforms. Such labour productivity decline alsi leads to some decrease in the cost efficiency of the enterprise activity [26]; 6) lack of the state support and direct motivation to BIM introduction from the state [22,23,25,30] as well as lack of demand for project implementation by the means of BIM from private investors [18,24]; 7) problems of functional compatibility [18,23,25,27,30,31,32,33] and fragmentariness of the information model parts, created by the means of various software, various contractors, etc. This obstacle is noted by many authors, therefore, also it is to be considered as extremely significant. ...
... In addition to the technical aspect of the question, there can be problems, connected with interaction of contractors, establishing interorganizational communications, etc.; 8) lack of norms, standards and tools of BIM implementation [18,23,27], focused on the domestic market of each specific country. The matters of the legal and regulatory base, procedural matters are included; 9) resistance to changes in the organization, arising at various levels [18,24,32] and connected with the need to study something new instead of work in the usual and familiar format, risk of the increase in labour loading, concern not to cope with work in a new format, changes in the organization culture. As we know, resistance to changes is followed by low motivation to transition to new methods of work [19] and often can be a significant factor of the decrease in the efficiency of new technologies implementation; 10) lack of standards of the use of BIM [18,24] and accurate methodical recommendations on implementation for the organizations directly [21]; 11) other obstacles, such as lack of awareness of BIM [18,22,24], matters of determination of the detail level in projects of various scale [34], feature of contracts among the project participants [18]. ...
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The construction industry as a significant part of national economy, develops in the direction of accomplishment of the purposes and matters of the state development, connected with improving of the Russian economy competitiveness (first of all, due to the increase in its efficiency) as well in the direction of the digital transformation. The solution of the digital transformation issues in the industry as well as the increase in the efficiency of investment-and-construction projects implementation is in the plane of implementation and distribution of the technologies of information modeling (BIM). In spite of the fact, that orientation for BIM at the national level was chosen in 2014, the industry still shows the signs of unavailability to mass transition to BIM; that is connected with some problems and obstacles. The authors of this article conducted the research in the form of poll, directed to identification of such factors and their importance. 180 respondents (representatives of the enterprises and organizations, authorities, professional associations, whose activity is connected with the implementation of investment-and-construction projects, became the participants of the research. During the processing of the research results the hypothesis was made, that the type of activity of the organization has an impact on its assessment of the importance of the factors, interfering BIM implementation. The purpose of the analysis, which results are provided in this article, was the verification of this hypothesis. The conclusion is drawn on the basis of the received results, that the type of the organization activity has an impact on its assessment of the importance of factors (problems), interfering BIM implementation. Thus, the hypothesis of the research was confirmed. At the same time, it was revealed, that the respondents from the Universities group highly appreciate the problems and obstacles of BIM implementation most of all, in comparison with other participants. The respondents from the Investors group, on the contrary, are inclined to a lower estimate of the problems importance.
... The success of the BBCPS thus must be assessed in order to show that the project performance is high. Studies, such as those by Zandieh et al. (2016) and Tulenheimo (2015), provide support for the relationships between the project expectations of the BBCPs and the extent of the effect of BIM adoption on BBCPs. Likewise, Liu et al. (2017) contend that BIM adoption on construction projects is a potential risk that must be overseen, because risk factors on construction projects increase with the degree of BIM adoption and the difficulties related to BIM adoption, such as capacity factors and experience. ...
... The findings of this study did not support the third and fourth hypotheses. Contrary to the conclusions by Ryd (2014), Tulenheimo (2015), and Zandieh et al. (2016), the results of this study suggest that regulating the extent of BIM adoption on BBCPs with the extent of project expectations, was not a valid strategy for minimising BIM adoption risks, and maximising BIM adoption benefits in South Africa. ...
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Strategic planning of BIM adoption has become increasingly important, owing to the need to minimise BIM adoption risks, maximise BIM benefits, and ensure successful BIM adoption. Our understanding of strategic planning of BIM adoption in a developing country is limited. Therefore, this study develops a framework for strategic BIM adoption on construction projects. The applicability of the framework was tested by using it to analyse the pattern of BIM adoption on construction projects in South Africa. Findings of the study demonstrate interrelationships between project milestones and deadlines, the extent of use of BIM software platforms used for the BIM-based construction projects (BBCPs), and the extent of collaboration on the BBCPs. The findings also confirm interrelationships between the regulatory system, the extent of use of BIM software platforms, the extent of collaboration, and the extent of integration on the BBCPs. This research has shown that the strategic planning of BIM adoption enables the proper management of BIM tools and processes. The research has also provided practical guidelines for strategic planning of BIM adoption in developing countries.
... Frequent interactions that develop reciprocity among project participants are the results of BIM processes, which are perceived as a technical change and key to these conditions. This change requires alignment among people, structures, processes, and cultures of the organizations involved (Tulenheimo 2015). ...
Article
Building information modeling (BIM) and its associated digital tools have been widely adopted in designing, constructing, and operating infrastructures, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the influence of these communication technologies on the interorganizational trust among project team members is unclear. In this study, BIM and its communication tools were conceptualized based on the perception of trust in communication technology, to examine their influence on interorganizational trust. The effect of trust in communication technology on interorganizational trust was investigated through the mediation of obligatory cooperation and voluntary cooperation. In addition, partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to explore and predict the causal relationships of the model. The results show that trust in communication technology has no direct effect on interorganizational trust, but it positively affects the relationships via the mediation of obligatory cooperation. In comparison, trust in communication technology significantly impacts voluntary cooperation, which does not considerably influence interorganizational trust. Lastly, the findings of this study contribute new knowledge to trust theories for construction teams that use communication technologies to collaborate in BIM-enabled projects, and provide an explanation for the development of trust by communication technologies through improvement of the interorganizational trust in BIM-enabled projects.
... Moreover, it is difficult to convince people to take additional time for training and workflow adaptations (Venkatesh, 2022). Tulenheimo (2015) has discussed the challenge for engineers to move from Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Business Information Modelling (BIM), and it is a bigger challenge for the blue-collar workers on site. ...
Conference Paper
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The goal of this paper is the introduction to the digital transformation of business models as it occurs in the Israeli real estate and construction technologies landscape. To achieve it, we have observed that landscape by using digital data and conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs and experts in the field. Although the real estate and construction industry has faced many challenges, such as the ability to recruit talented workers and diminishing bottom lines, it has been slow in implementing state-of-the-art digital technologies for dealing with these. Therefore, in this paper, we bring forward the technologies and especially the digital start-ups that shape that industry and solve its challenges while fundamentally transforming its traditional business models. Moreover, we contribute further to the digital transformation literature by showing, for example, how digital start-ups bridge the technological acceptance gap of workers in the industry.
... Applications of construction prediction and management [19] and Tulenheimo [20] presented a case study to identify the advantages of using BIM technology for industrial design, signifying benefit in team coordination by providing a sustainable environment with reduced work error, saving material resources and providing an information-based design environment. Several investigations revealed that the major advantage of BIM over traditional approaches is that it provides a convenient and modified design platform that can be implemented for a construction simulation [21][22][23]. ...
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Abstract In competitive growth and Industry 4.0, construction prediction and management have a key role. To find a way to provide a simulation method for the damage assessment of buildings and Industry 4.0, building information modelling technology is the most suitable choice. This work presents and analyses the building material from design modelling to model information extraction, virtual construction, and an imported virtual simulation engine. A simulation system has been built to understand the force and material collision detection of buildings, and a three‐dimensional (3D) simulation platform is developed based on the Unity3D engine. A 3D display of building model and simulation data is realized in this work based on the simulation software platform. The results show that the building 3D simulation images constructed by the designed system are high definition, take little time, and have excellent performance. The outcomes are realized in terms of the engineering cost ratio and have energy consumption and efficiency values of 20% and 40%, respectively, which are much better than the traditional method. Efficiency has also improved to 76% from the traditional method using the proposed method, which makes it a robust platform for construction prediction and management in industries. The virtual simulation technology is applied to solve problems of building design and damage assessment. The influence of this technology on the overall design of the building is discussed, followed by future development directions for industrial automation.
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BIM application in the construction industry is still low in China, mainly due to the lack of effective measures for BIM application evaluation. Therefore, this study takes BIM application as the research object to propose a three-stage network DEA approach for performance evaluation. The BIM application performance evaluation indicators are determined based on the balanced scorecard method and Delphi method, and a three-stage network DEA model is established to optimize the BIM application performance. The three-stage network DEA model established in this study can solve the problem that the traditional DEA model treats the internal structure as a “black box”. The model is then applied to the actual case of 9 construction projects, including relaxation value analysis and path optimization, to identify the critical path for the reallocation of resources. This paper studies the performance evaluation of BIM application, which is conducive to the further improvement of the theory of BIM management, and also can effectively improve the performance of construction projects and bring practical benefits to construction enterprises.
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Purpose The construction industry is a primary contributor to the development of emerging economies such as the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. However, the sector is underperforming, and products are not meeting expectations. A lack of collaboration is considered a significant contributor to these issues. Various researchers have identified factors to improve collaborative approaches. However, there is still a lack of clear frameworks to help implement collaboration in the construction industry, especially in emerging economies. Therefore, this study aims to develop a framework to implement collaboration in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach This article utilises a review of literature, questionnaire and interviews with experts in the construction industry in order to develop a framework to achieve collaboration in construction projects. Findings The research presents a framework that distributes the factors of collaboration over the project lifecycle stages in accordance with the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Plan of Work 2007. Each factor is divided into a set of enabling conditions which must be satisfied to ensure that the given specific factors are delivered. Additionally, the framework suggests appointing a collaboration champion at the beginning of the project to manage the process. Originality/value The research contributes to scarce literature about collaboration practices in the Kurdistan Region and in emerging economies in general.
Article
Highly energy efficient (HEE) buildings require a whole-system approach to building design. Scholars have suggested many tools, techniques, and processes to address the cross-disciplinary complexities of such an approach, but how these elements might be best combined to lead to better project outcomes is yet unknown. To address this, we surveyed architects associated with 33 AIA-COTE award-winning projects on the social, organizational, and technological elements of whole-system design (WSD) practices. We then used fuzzy sets-qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to analyze the interdependencies among those elements. We found three distinct pathways for the design and construction of HEE buildings: information-driven, process-driven, or organization-driven. We also found that HEE buildings share some conditions for success, including having shared goals, owners engagement in the design process, and frequent and participatory interorganizational meetings. Our findings can help practitioners strategize and make decisions on incorporating WSD elements associated with their project types. Moreover, these results provide a launchpad for scholars to investigate complementarities among elements facilitating the design and construction process of HEE projects.
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Justification for researchThe construction companies are facing barriers and challenges in BIM adoption as there is no clear guidance or best practice studies from which they can learn and build up their capacity for BIM use in order to increase productivity, efficiency, quality, and to attain competitive advantages in the global market and to achieve the targets in environmental sustainability.PurposeThis paper aims to explain a comprehensive and systemic evaluation and assessment of the relevant BIM technologies as part of the BIM adoption and implementation to demonstrate how efficiency gains have been achieved towards a lean architectural practice.Design/methodology/approachThe research is undertaken through a KTP (Knowledge Transfer Partnership) project between the University of Salford and the John McCall Architects based in Liverpool, which is an SME (Small Medium Enterprise). The overall aim of KTP is to develop a lean design practice through the BIM adoption and implementation. The overall BIM implementation approach uses a socio-technical view in which it does not only consider the implementation of technology but also considers the socio-cultural environment that provides the context for its implementation. The technology adoption methodology within the BIM implementation approach is the action research oriented qualitative and quantitative research for discovery, comparison, and experimentation as the KTP project with JMA provides an environment for “learning by doing”.FindingsResearch has proved that BIM technology adoption should be undertaken with a bottom-up approach rather than top-down approach for successful change management and dealing with the resistance to change. As a result of the BIM technology adoption, efficiency gains are achieved through the piloting projects and the design process is improved through the elimination of wastes and value generation.Originality/valueSuccessful BIM adoption needs an implementation strategy. However, at operational level, it is imperative that professional guidelines are required as part of the implementation strategy. This paper introduces a systematic approach for BIM technology adoption based on a case study implementation and it demonstrates a guideline at the operational level for other architectural companies of architectural practices.Research Highlights► BIM Technology adoption and implementation should have a socio-technical view as it is as much about people and process as it is about technology. ► Bottom-up approach with "learning by doing" is more practical for change management and dealing with resistance to change rather than top-down approach. ► Paper demonstrates a systematic approach and strategies for successful BIM implementation. ► The Process of architectural practice can be leaner when lean principles are considered in line with BIM adoption as it enables lean efficiency gains and effectiveness. ► Exploring in Knowledge Management and BIM together for lean architectural enterprises.
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This article analyses the reasons and consequences of the fact that open source software has become a portion of the technology used by proprietary companies. It focuses on problems arising from the use of what is designated here as the ‘hybrid’ protection model by commercial companies. The term ‘hybrid’ model refers to a situation where companies incorporate both open source and proprietary code into the final software they release to the market. The coexistence of both the proprietary and the open source software model is essential to promote innovation in the software field. Due to the different and allegedly conflicting principles under which they are based, however, the relationship within the two systems might not always be peaceful. By combining legal theory and empirical research, this paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the 'core' legal challenges surrounding the implementation of the ‘hybrid’ model in the context of commercial software,, and sheds light on the coping mechanisms companies implement in order to navigate such risks.
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There has been a considerable time lag between the emergence of visionary expectations of BIM's (Building Information Models) transformative potential in the architecture, engineering and construction industry, and the deployment of the technology in the industry's daily practice. By viewing adoption and use of BIM as the inter-linkage of actors forming a building and construction project, the aim of the paper is to uncover mechanisms facilitating and constraining the creation of actor networks in which BIM is adopted and used. The aim is pursued by a case study in a major Swedish construction company. It is concluded that the possibility of incremental implementation of BIM applications is well aligned with the character of the industrial context. But the context can also constrain the use of applications requiring more long term thinking. However, because of the disruptive nature of building and construction projects, the challenge is to maintain and re-establish the network in which BIM is used in consecutive projects. When clients and regulating bodies recognize benefits from BIM usage, the main obstacle created by these characteristics of the industry will diminish.
A framework for implementing a BIM business transformation Available at http://staticdc.autodesk.net/content/dam/autodesk/www/solutions/building-information-modeling/get-started/autodesk-project-transformerwhitepaper .pdf
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