Article

Content Analysis of Shikimic Acid in the Masson Pine Needles and Antiplatelet-aggregating Activity

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Abstract

Shikimic acid content was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the Masson pine needles as one potential source of shikimic acid. The antiplatelet-aggregating activity of shikimic acid was characterized by turbidimetry with an animal model. The shikimic acid level was compared with Oriental arborvitae leafytwigs and Star anise. The results showed that the shikimic acid content in Masson pine needles, Oriental arborvitae leafytwigs and Star anise was 5.71%, 1.74% and 8.95%, respectively. The yield of shikimic acid was the highest when the powder of Masson pine needles was ultrasonically-treated for 60 min in 3.5 mmol/L phosphoric acid. Shikimic acid, when separated by HPLC, exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate and collagen in rabbits. Because of the relative high content and good antiplatelet-aggregating activity of shikimic acid, the Masson pine needles can be used as a potential source of shikimic acid.

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... The studies carried out in available literature confirm that few pine species contain a good enough amount of a key precursor which is used in the production of Tamiflu®, an antiviral drug used in the treatment of H5N1 flu (Xie et al. 2012;Sui 2008). Chen et al. (2014) achieved about a 6% yield of shikimic acid from Masson pine needles, which is possibly the highest extracted yield from any pine species till now (Chen et al. 2014). Since pine needles are inexpensive and readily available in North Asia, North America, and Europe, there is a strong possibility to utilize them as a drug manufacturer against less available star anise species. ...
... The studies carried out in available literature confirm that few pine species contain a good enough amount of a key precursor which is used in the production of Tamiflu®, an antiviral drug used in the treatment of H5N1 flu (Xie et al. 2012;Sui 2008). Chen et al. (2014) achieved about a 6% yield of shikimic acid from Masson pine needles, which is possibly the highest extracted yield from any pine species till now (Chen et al. 2014). Since pine needles are inexpensive and readily available in North Asia, North America, and Europe, there is a strong possibility to utilize them as a drug manufacturer against less available star anise species. ...
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Essential oils from pine species have been utilized for numerous applications since centuries. This chapter discusses major aspects of pines’ essential oils, such as their composition, global availability, and medical as well as industrial applications. It has been observed that there are 40 major pine species with availability across the different continents/regions, which has been identified. Though there are a number of contributors in pine essential oils and their respective yields from different species, in the present chapter, 20 major contributors with their yields have been discussed. Further, in last few decades, several extraction techniques have been developed to intensify the extraction of essential oils from different pine species, which are discussed in brief. A few of the emerging techniques are based on ultra-sonication and microwave-assisted irradiations, which take very less time (almost less than 6–10 times) as compared to conventional extraction techniques. Also, major plant pathways dedicated to shikimate and terpenoids have been discussed which are readily found in pine species.
... According to the results of Chen et al. Shikimic acid content of Masson pine needle, Oriental arborvitae leafytwigs and star anise was found to be 5.71%, 8.95% and 1.74% respectively (16). The analysis conducted with the extracts prepared from the roots and aerial parts of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) ...
... The injection volume was 10 µL and each analyse was proceeded 20 minutes. The method used for the analysis was modified from the method of Chen et al. (16). Preparation of HPLC samples. ...
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Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.
  • Y Xu
  • Y Zhang
  • Y Li
  • G Li
  • D Liu
  • M Zhao
Xu Y., Zhang Y., Li Y., Li G., Liu D., Zhao M., and Cai N. www.seipub.org/ijast International Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology (IJAST) Volume 2 Issue 4, November 2014