Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Career adaptability is important, because workers who have career adaptability generally have more career options (Gunkel et al., 2010), more resource choices and adaptation strategies (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012;Soresi et al., 2014;Peng et al., 2016), more open to new experiences (Rusu et al., 2015), more stable in the face of change (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012;Buyukgoze-Kavas, 2014;Johnston, 2016;Ramos & Lopez, 2017 ), more aspirational (Balin & Hirschi, 2010), more responsive to change (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012;Fiori et al., 2015), more aware of career choices (Rosier et al., 2012;De Guzman & Choi, 2013 ), more stable in managing emotions and stress (Magiori et al, 2013;Zacher, 2014;Fiori et al., 2015;Rudolph et al., 2017), more optimistic when facing problems (Buyukgoze-Kavas, 2014), more effective in taking advantage of career opportunities (Tolentino et al., 2013), more resilient and flexible (Tolentino et al., 2014), more h is able to explore his potential (Guo et al., 2014;Negru-Subtirica et al., 2015;Rudolph et al., 2017), more balanced between career and personal life (Ceotzee & Stoltz, 2015), more proactive (Guan et al., 2015), more advanced in career (Chan & Mai, 2015), and easier to cope with career trauma (Rudolph et al., 2017). ...
... The belief in the influence of career adaptability in the formation of attitudes towards retirement is based on the findings which state that this variable has a positive and significant effect on the ability to build positive perceptions of work (Soresi et al. 2014), the ability to form positive and proactive attitudes towards various changes. (Savickas, 2005;Savickas & Porfeli, 2012;Buyukgoze-Kavas, 2014;Tian & Fan, 2014;Guan et al., 2015), the ability to explore one's potential (Negru-Subtirica et al., 2015;Rudolph et al., 2017), ability to manage stress (Rossier et al., 2012;Zacher, 2014;Fiori et al., 2015;Rudolph et al., 2017), openness to new experiences (Rusu et al., 2015), ability to take advantage of opportunities career (Tolentino et al., 2013), ability to face career competition (Guo et al., 2014), ability to overcome various obstacles and career trauma (Yousefi et al., 2013;Rusu et al., 2015;Rudolph et al., 2017), flexibility in dealing with career complexities, ( Savickas & Porfeli, 2012), the ability to build meaningful career experiences (Hesketh et al., 2011;Chan & Mai, 2015;Ramos & Lopez, 2017), responsiveness to change (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012;Fiori et al., 2015), ability to make effective adaptations (Savickas, 1997;Porfeli et al., 2008;SaVickas & Porfeli, 2012;Johnston, 2016 ;Nilforooshan & Salimi, 2016), ability to maintain a balance between career and personal life (Coetzee & Stoltz, 2015), tenacity (Tolentino et al., 2014), ability to increase adaptation resources (Peng et al., 2016), choice formation career choices (Gunkel et al., 2010), awareness of career choices (Rossier et al., 2012). Based on these findings, the researcher formulated a hypothesis regarding the effect of career adaptability on the formation of attitudes towards retirement as follows: ...
... The belief in the influence of career adaptability in the formation of attitudes towards retirement is based on the findings which state that this variable has a positive and significant effect on the ability to build positive perceptions of work (Soresi et al. 2014), the ability to form positive and proactive attitudes towards various changes. (Savickas, 2005;Savickas & Porfeli, 2012;Buyukgoze-Kavas, 2014;Tian & Fan, 2014;Guan et al., 2015), the ability to explore one's potential (Negru-Subtirica et al., 2015;Rudolph et al., 2017), ability to manage stress (Rossier et al., 2012;Zacher, 2014;Fiori et al., 2015;Rudolph et al., 2017), openness to new experiences (Rusu et al., 2015), ability to take advantage of opportunities career (Tolentino et al., 2013), ability to face career competition (Guo et al., 2014), ability to overcome various obstacles and career trauma (Yousefi et al., 2013;Rusu et al., 2015;Rudolph et al., 2017), flexibility in dealing with career complexities, ( Savickas & Porfeli, 2012), the ability to build meaningful career experiences (Hesketh et al., 2011;Chan & Mai, 2015;Ramos & Lopez, 2017), responsiveness to change (Savickas & Porfeli, 2012;Fiori et al., 2015), ability to make effective adaptations (Savickas, 1997;Porfeli et al., 2008;SaVickas & Porfeli, 2012;Johnston, 2016 ;Nilforooshan & Salimi, 2016), ability to maintain a balance between career and personal life (Coetzee & Stoltz, 2015), tenacity (Tolentino et al., 2014), ability to increase adaptation resources (Peng et al., 2016), choice formation career choices (Gunkel et al., 2010), awareness of career choices (Rossier et al., 2012). Based on these findings, the researcher formulated a hypothesis regarding the effect of career adaptability on the formation of attitudes towards retirement as follows: ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to measure the mediating role of the variable of career adaptability in the relationship between retirement planning and attitudes toward retirement in West Kalimantan Credit Union employees. This research is a population research involving 415 respondents aged 40 years. The data was collected using a Google Form which was distributed to the contact number or email of the respondents and processed using the Multivariate Statistical Method, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), WarpPLS6 Approach. The analysis proves that the four hypotheses proposed can be accepted well, so the researcher concludes that retirement planning has a positive and significant effect on career adaptability, retirement planning has a positive and significant effect on attitudes towards retirement, career adaptability has a positive and significant effect on attitudes towards retirement. , career adaptability is a positive and significant mediating variable in the relationship between the influence of retirement planning on attitudes towards retirement.
... Relationships between various variables related to personality and career adaptability were also investigated. Career adaptability was found to be related to personality traits such as self-esteem (Cai et al., 2015;Hui, Yuen & Chen, 2018;van Vianen, Klehe, Koen & Dries, 2012), self-efficacy (Bacanlı, 2018;Marcionetti & Rossier, 2019), ho e (Bacanlı, 2018;Büyükgöze-Kavas, 2016;Wilkins, Santilli, Ferrari, Nota, Tracey & Soresi, 2014), o timism (Karacan Özdemir& Yerin-Güneri 2017), roactive ersonality (Hou, Wu & Liu, 2014;Jiang, 2017;Öncel, 2014;Tolentino, Garcia, Restubog, Bordia & Plewa, 2014a) and erfectionism (Eryılmaz & Kara, 2017b) Similarly, the interrelation between career ada tability and five factor ersonality traits ( ktaş & Şahin, 2019;Eryılmaz & Kara, 2017a;Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, & Barrick, 1999;Rossier, Zecca, Stauffer, Maggiori & Dauwalder, 2012;Rusu, Măirean, Hojbotă, Gherasim & Gavriloaiei, 2015;Sartık, 2020;Sverko & Babarovic, 2016;Teixeira, Bardagi, Lassance, Magalhaes & Duarte, 2012;van Vianen et al., 2012) was examined. Negative interrelations were found between the neurotic ersonality structure and career ada tability (Nilforooshan & Salimi, 2016;Öncel, 2014;Rossier et al., 2012;Rusu et al., 2015). ...
... Career adaptability was found to be related to personality traits such as self-esteem (Cai et al., 2015;Hui, Yuen & Chen, 2018;van Vianen, Klehe, Koen & Dries, 2012), self-efficacy (Bacanlı, 2018;Marcionetti & Rossier, 2019), ho e (Bacanlı, 2018;Büyükgöze-Kavas, 2016;Wilkins, Santilli, Ferrari, Nota, Tracey & Soresi, 2014), o timism (Karacan Özdemir& Yerin-Güneri 2017), roactive ersonality (Hou, Wu & Liu, 2014;Jiang, 2017;Öncel, 2014;Tolentino, Garcia, Restubog, Bordia & Plewa, 2014a) and erfectionism (Eryılmaz & Kara, 2017b) Similarly, the interrelation between career ada tability and five factor ersonality traits ( ktaş & Şahin, 2019;Eryılmaz & Kara, 2017a;Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, & Barrick, 1999;Rossier, Zecca, Stauffer, Maggiori & Dauwalder, 2012;Rusu, Măirean, Hojbotă, Gherasim & Gavriloaiei, 2015;Sartık, 2020;Sverko & Babarovic, 2016;Teixeira, Bardagi, Lassance, Magalhaes & Duarte, 2012;van Vianen et al., 2012) was examined. Negative interrelations were found between the neurotic ersonality structure and career ada tability (Nilforooshan & Salimi, 2016;Öncel, 2014;Rossier et al., 2012;Rusu et al., 2015). This finding suggests that it is important to examine the interrelation between career adaptability and five factor personality traits. ...
... Career adaptability was found to be related to personality traits determined in the five-factor personality theory (Judge et al., 1999;Rossie, et al., 2012;Rusu et al., 2015;Savickas & Porfeli, 2012;Sverko & Babarovic, 2016;Teixeira et al., 2012;van Vianen et al., 2012). Personality traits affect an individual's career development, adaptation to career transitions, career development tasks and coping with career crises. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to determine whether young adults' personality traits (conscientiousnes, agreeableness, openness to experience, extraversion, neuroticism) and career decision-making status together predict their career adaptability total score and its sub-dimensions; concern, control, curiosity, confidence. A total of 603 university students, 341 (56.6%) female and 261 (43.3%) male, participated in the study. The data of the study were collected by using the Career Adaptability Scale, the Adjective Based Personality Test, and the Personal Information Form. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis and Pearson Correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. The findings of the study showed that young adults' career decision making status and personality traits together predicted career adaptability total score (31%) and its sub-dimensions (Concern; 19%, Control; 29%, Curiosity; 19%, Confidence; 26%). The findings of the study have been discussed based on the relevant literature. The limitations of the study are stated. The implications of the study results for theory, future research and practice are presented.
... Therefore, it must be concluded that the correlations between implicit and explicit measures of extraversion/shyness on the one hand, and social desirability on the other hand, only add -to some extent -to the construct validity of implicit shyness measures, but not implicit extraversion measures. . Regarding the single association predictive pattern and the incremental validity pattern predicting self-reported extraversion-related behaviour and job performance rated by a manager, no significant results were observed (Rusu, Măirean, Hojbotă, Gherasim, & Gavriloaiei, 2015;Siers & Christiaensen, 2013;Steffens & Schulze-König, 2006). Two studies of Hofmann and colleagues (Hofmann, Gschwendner et al., 2009) confirmed that extraversion related behaviour was only predicted by implicit extraversion when the behaviour was rated by observers, but not when it was scored by the participants themselves. ...
... First, a single association predictive pattern was observed for several aspects of the neuroticism domain. In four studies, the single association prediction pattern of implicit neuroticism measures was investigated and perceived for (1) neuroticism GNAT scores in the prediction of the mean reaction time during the trials of the GNATs that were administered (Boldero et al., 2007, Study 2), for (2) neuroticism SMP scores in the prediction of self-reported career adaptabilities (Rusu et al., 2015), and for (3) (Glashouwer et al., 2011) observed that anxiety IAT scores predicted the onset of AD in a period of 2 years follow-up in the group with remitted AD, but not in the control group. Significant prediction of the onset of AD based on the anxiety IAT effects was also observed in the group with depressed participants with a history of AD, but not in the depressed group without a history of AD. ...
... In the prediction of reported outcome variables, no criterion was consistently predicted by an implicit measure from the conscientiousness domain in accordance with the single association or additive predictive pattern Rusu et al., 2015;Schmukle et al., 2008, Study 2;Siers & Christiaensen, 2013;Vianello et al., 2010, Study 1). The implicit measure with the best predictive results was the orderliness IAT that predicted a composite score of ten daily orderlinessrelated behaviours and the self-reported ability to initiate desirable behaviour, but not the selfreported ability to obstruct undesirable behaviour . ...
Article
This systematic review presents the current state of research investigating the implicit self-concept of personality. First, we present results on meta-analyses estimating internal consistency, reliability coefficients, the implicit–explicit consistency and the single association predictive effect of implicit self-concept of personality measures. To do this, studies were aggregated over personality domains. Second, for each of the Five Factor personality domains, different aspects of construct validity and predictive validity are reviewed in a narrative way. Results show that implicit self-concept of personality measures are reliable, and there is evidence for the construct and predictive validity of these implicit measures, especially in the extraversion and agreeableness domains of personality. However, it must be kept in mind that clear evidence for publication bias was found for studies examining the single association predictive pattern. Finally, this systematic review identifies some achievable improvements that are needed in future research. Large cross-lab efforts are important in this respect. Moreover, the implicit self-concept of personality field must move from an ‘ad hoc’ to a ‘validation’ approach in developing new indirect measurement tasks. By adopting these research objectives, the information processing account of personality will increase its potential to become integrated into mainstream personality theory and research. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology
... Jedna skupina výzkumů se zaměřuje na identifikaci vztahů mezi kariérovou adaptabilitou a osobnostními proměnnými (Nilforooshan & Salimi, 2016;Rossier et al., 2012;Rusu et al., 2015;Teixeira et al., 2012;Van Vianen et al., 2012). Pozitivní asociace byly prokázány mezi kariérovou adaptabilitou a charakteristikami osobnosti, jako jsou svědomitost, extraverze, přívětivost a otevřenost vůči zkušenosti. ...
... Naopak mezi kariérovou adaptabilitou a neuroticismem byl identifikován negativní vztah. Rossier et al. (2012), Rusu et al. (2015), Teixeira et al. (2012), Van Vianen et al. (2012) a další zaměřili pozornost i na vztah jednotlivých dimenzí kariérové adaptability s osobnostními proměnnými pětifaktorového modelu osobnosti (Big Five;McCare & Costa, 2008). Například Teixeira et al. (2012) u brazilských dospělých identifikovali stejné vztahy, které byly zjištěny pro celkovou kariérovou adaptabilitu, rovněž u dimenzí kariérového zájmu, kontroly, zvídavosti a sebedůvěry. ...
... Například Teixeira et al. (2012) u brazilských dospělých identifikovali stejné vztahy, které byly zjištěny pro celkovou kariérovou adaptabilitu, rovněž u dimenzí kariérového zájmu, kontroly, zvídavosti a sebedůvěry. K podobnému zjištění dospěli Rusu et al. (2015) u rumunských vysokoškolských studentů psychologie. V případě výzkumu Rossiera et al. (2012) u dospělé populace složené především ze švýcarských občanů však byly prokázány pozitivní vztahy kariérového zájmu, kontroly a sebedůvěry pouze s extraverzí a svědomitostí a negativní vztahy s neuroticismem. ...
Book
Full-text available
ENGLISH: Living in today’s rushed time full of various changes increases the demands on the individual’s ability to adapt to these changes. Career adaptability plays an important role in coping with changing demands in the field of work. What is career adaptability? Why is it important, and what does it affect? The answers to these questions and many others are provided in the monograph, entitled “Career adaptability: Its Forms, Changes, Contexts, and Roles in the Lives of Young Adults Undergoing Upper-Secondary Vocational Education,” which is the first publication written on this topic in the Czech language. In the book, a team of authors presents the construct of career adaptability and the results of unique research carried out in the Czech Republic. In the first part, the reader may find an analytical overview of various concepts of career adaptability and related concepts. The central part of the publication is devoted to the results of quantitatively conducted longitudinal research, which aimed to identify career adaptability and its relationships to several demographic, school, relational, and personality variables in the case of students and later graduates of upper-secondary vocational education—those who are in the crucial stages of their career construction. Many empirical findings concentrated in this book are beneficial not only for the career counseling theories and research on career adaptability but also for vocational education or career counseling practitioners. ČEŠTINA: Život v dnešní uspěchané době plné nejrůznějších změn zvyšuje nároky na schopnosti jedince přizpůsobovat se těmto změnám. Významnou roli při zvládání měnících se nároků v pracovní oblasti hraje kariérová adaptabilita. Co to je kariérová adaptabilita? Proč je důležitá a co ovlivňuje? Odpovědi na tyto otázky i řadu dalších přináší monografie s názvem „Kariérová adaptabilita: její podoby, proměny, souvislosti a role v životě mladých dospělých procházejících středním odborným vzděláváním“. Autorský tým v knize, která je první česky psanou publikací na toto téma, představuje konstrukt kariérové adaptability a výsledky ojedinělého výzkumu realizovaného v České republice. V první části čtenář najde analytický přehled různých pojetí kariérové adaptability a příbuzných konceptů. Hlavní část publikace je věnována výsledkům kvantitativně vedeného longitudinálního výzkumu, jehož cílem bylo poznat kariérovou adaptabilitu a její vztahy k řadě vybraných demografických, školních, sociálních a osobnostních proměnných u žáků a později absolventů středního odborného vzdělávání – tedy těch, kteří se nacházejí v klíčové fázi konstruování své kariéry. Mnohá empirická zjištění koncentrovaná právě v této knize jsou přínosná nejen pro rozvoj teorií kariérového poradenství a výzkum kariérové adaptability, ale i pro odborné vzdělávání či praxi kariérového poradenství.
... Behavioral antecedents were found in the literature on adaptability and identity skills in challenging career circumstances; a study by Brown et al. (2012) examined the role of career adaptabilities in midcareer changes based on the career adaptabilities framework of the CCT. x Konstam et al. (2015) x Praskova et al. (2015) x Rusu et al. (2015) x Behaviors such as learning through meaningful interactions at work allow adaptability to be subject to training. Moreover, Brown et al. (2012) found that self-directedness and self-reflection can enable an individual to learn to adapt. ...
... A study by Coetzee and Harry (2015) examined the relationship of sex and hardiness as predictors of career adaptability among Black call-center agents and found gender-related differences: Female sex significantly predicted career adaptability, and a high level of hardiness also predicted higher adaptability. Moreover, Rusu et al. (2015) revealed self-esteem as a predictor for career adaptability in their examination of the relationships between implicit and explicit self-concepts in a young population in a crisis economy with high unemployment rates. ...
Article
The current labor market has produced manifold crises with high unemployment rates and increasing worklife dynamics. Adaptability and identity are metaskills that enable the learning process necessary to overcome obstacles on the career path. The contribution of this review lies in its focus on the question of whether the metaskills of career adaptability and identity can serve to bridge troubled times for everyone in the working population. This review provides a conceptual model of a “decent career” that acknowledges challenging circumstances based on demographic differences (e. g., age, ethnicity, sex) or structural conditions (e. g., economic crisis) and the antecedents necessary to foster individual skills that serve various beneficial outcomes.
... also showed meaningful associations to the personality dimensions as defined in the alternative five factor model of personality.Second, career adaptability resources are correlated to other factors closely related to the self. They are negatively correlated to anxiety(Pouyaud, Vignoli, Dosnon, & Lallemand, 2012), and positively correlated to self-esteem(Rusu et al., 2015;, meaningfulness(Harry & Coetzee, 2013), and individual global adaptability(Hamtiaux, Houssemand, & Vrignaud, 2013).Third, career adaptability resources are positively correlated to constructs related to goal pursuit and those that result in positive adjustment and coping. Here positive correlates include motivation(Pouyaud et al., 2012), promotion regulatory focus, a better response to adversity(Tian & Fan, 2014), hope and optimism (Buyukgoze-Kavas, 2014), and tenacious goal pursuit and flexible goal adjustment(Tolentino et al., 2013). ...
Article
Researchers in the career domain have embraced the concept of career adaptability as denoted by a rapid growth in the number of published articles in recent years. Career adaptability is a psychosocial construct including both readiness and resources for successfully facing vocational tasks, occupational transitions, and unexpected challenges. To synthesize the research in this field and to suggest directions for future development, this article systematically reviews the studies on career adaptability. The 116 published pieces covered in the review include book chapters and articles, including cross-sectional, longitudinal, and qualitative papers, along with intervention studies, and theoretical contributions. First, the different instruments available to measure career adaptability are presented, after which the research is reviewed in the categories of adaptability resources and adapting responses. Both resources and responses contribute to positive transitions and personal functioning in teenagers through to adults. The article concludes by offering several suggestions for future research, highlighting the theoretical, practical, empirical, and methodological contributions that future work in this domain could make.
... La SMP è stata utilizzata per la misurazione delle dimensioni della personalità (Magurean, Vîrgb & Sava, 2014;Maricuwoiu, Rusua, Delia, Macsinga & Sava, 2012;Rusu, Cornelia, Hojbot, Ruxandra & Irina, 2015;Sava, Maricuwoiu, Rusu, Macsinga, Vîrgb, Cheng & Payne, 2012). Sava e coll. ...
Article
The Semantic Misattribution Procedure (SMP; Imhoff et al., 2011) is a tool for the measurement of implicit associations. Although it is relatively new, the SMP has been proven as an effective method, combining adequate psychometrics properties with simplicity of construction and administration. This paper is the result of an in depth analysis of previous studies carried out using the SMP. The entire procedure, fields of application, psychometric properties and underlying cognitive processes, as well as suggestion for its optimal construction, are described in this essay.
... Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS; Savickas & Porfeli, 2012; Romanian version by Rusu, Măirean, Hojbotă, Gherasim, & Gavriloaiei, 2015) is a 24 item instrument designed to measure four career adaptability dimensions: concern, control, curiosity and confidence. Participants indicated using a 5-point Likert scale how strongly they have developed each ability (ranging from 1-Not strong to 5-Strongest). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to assess the associations between career adaptabilities and personal defense styles. A sample of 147 Psychology undergraduate students filled in a questionnaire that included the Romanian form of Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) and Defense Style Questionnaire 60 (DSQ-60). We adopted a canonical correlation approach in order to explore the pattern of relationships between the CAAS dimensions and the three defensive styles. Results showed that higher scores on career adaptability (especially control, curiosity, and confidence) are linearly associated with higher scores on adaptive defense style. These results are in concordance with career construction theory.
... However, each predictor contributes uniquely to the prediction of career adaptability components. Overall career adaptability is predicted by cognitive ability, the Big Five personality traits (Rudolph et al., 2017), future temporal focus (Zacher, 2014), a proactive personality (Guan et al., 2017;Jiang, 2017), positive emotional disposition (Hirschi, 2009), motivation (Pouyaud, Vignoli, Dosnon, & Lallemand, 2012), explicit and implicit self-esteem (Hui, Yuen, & Chen, 2018;Negru-Subtirica & Pop, 2016;Cai et al., 2015;Rusu, Măirean, Hojbotă, Gherasima, & Gavriloaiei, 2015), core self-evaluation (Guan et al., 2017;Neureiter & Traut-Mattausch, 2017;Zacher, 2014), career self-efficacy, personal goal orientation, and career future concern (Ebenehi, Rashid, & Bakar, 2016;Wang & Fu, 2015), and learning goal orientation (Guan et al., 2017;Yousefi, Abedi, Baghban, Eatemadi, & Abedi, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
An important point on a career pathway is the completion of vocational education and training (VET) and the subsequent school-to-work transition. School-to-work transition is a long-term process with unclear boundaries involving a number of potentially difficult aspects. Psychological resources for successful school-to-work transitions are reflected in the multidimensional psychosocial construct of career adaptability. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of selected demographic and school-related variables in predicting career adaptability and four components of career adaptability (concern, control, curiosity, and confidence) among VET graduates. Participants in this study were 3,028 Czech students approximately 1–2 months before graduation of vocational education and training, aged from 18 to 26 years (M = 18.97, SD = 1.09). To measure career adaptability was used 24-item Career Adapt-Abilities Scale. Results from multiple linear regression analyses found that five out the ten predictor variables positively predicted the career adaptability or career adaptability components. These variables were the gained paid work experience in the field of study, one-off or multiple use of career counselling services, male gender, tertiary education of the father and the field of study completed with a school-leaving examination. The variables that did not statistically predict career adaptability were family structure, maternal education, grades (GPA), repetition of a grade and change of the field of study. Implications for career counselling are discussed.
... Adaptive readiness, the first dimension of the model, was measured with self-esteem. Previous research has shown that there is a relation between self-esteem and career adaptability, and that self-esteem positively predicts career adaptability (Cai et al., 2015;Rusu et al., 2015). It is stated that self-esteem becomes an important focus in career interventions and should therefore be taken into consideration, among other counseling strategies (Hui et al., 2018). ...
Article
This study evaluates the empirical applicability of the career construction model of adaptation (CCMA) by collecting evidence about the validity of the Student Career Construction Inventory (SCCI) from a sample of Turkish high school students and examining the relations between adaptive readiness, adaptability resources, adapting responses, and adaptation results. To test the model, we conducted two studies with samples of high school students in Ankara, Turkey ( n 1 = 251; n 2 = 694). In the first study, the SCCI was translated into Turkish and psychometric properties of the inventory were assessed. To validate the four-factor structure of the SCCI Turkish High School Form, two different levels of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to 251 participants. The results of CFA demonstrated that the data for the SCCI Turkish high school sample fit the theoretical model very well. The internal consistency of the SCCI was determined as 0.72 for crystallizing, 0.75 for exploring, 0.85 for deciding, 0.73 for preparing, and 0.90 for the total. In the second study, the CCMA, consisting of four dimensions (adaptive readiness, adaptability resources, adapting responses, and adaptation results), was empirically tested by using the SCCI, which had been tested for validity in the first study. The results of serial mediation analysis supported the CCMA, indicating that adaptive readiness indirectly influenced adaptability resources, adapting responses, and adaptation results.
... Când un instrument este tradus într-o altă limbă decât limba în care a fost dezvoltat, se va descrie metoda specifică de traducere (de exemplu, traducere inversă, în care un text este tradus în altă limbă și apoi înapoi în prima limbă pentru a asigura că este suficient de echivalent încât rezultatele să poată fi comparate). În studiile cantitative care nu implică manipulări experimentale şi aparate complexe de măsurare, secţiunea referitoare la "Participanţi" şi cea care vizează "Procedura" pot fi contopite, ca în exemplul următor (Rusu et al., 2015): ...
Chapter
Procesul de recenzie a unui articol ştiinţific implică evaluarea nivelului calitativ al redactării acestuia. Dezvoltarea abilităţii de redactare adecvată a unui articol ştiinţific, impusă de standardele calitative înalte ale revistelor cu factor mare de impact, este esenţială pentru un cercetător ştiinţific şi se formează în timp, prin exerciţiu. În acest capitol prezentăm structura de bază a unui astfel de raport științific redactat ca urmare a derulării unei cercetări de tip cantitativ, menţionând cerinţele redactării, precum şi erorile de evitat în cadrul fiecărei secţiuni. Problema plagiatului este extrem de importantă şi gravă. Există în rândul cercetătorilor începători un nivel ridicat de ambiguitate privind înţelegerea modalităţii adecvate de citare a rezultatelor anterioare în vederea evitării plagiatului. Sperăm că informaţiile prezentate în acest capitol vor fi utile masteranzilor, doctoranzilor, şi, în general, studenţilor interesaţi de cariera de cercetător.
Article
This study examined the operation of resources as a mechanism underlying the relationship between career adaptability and career satisfaction. Based on career construction theory and conservation of resources theory, we examined the interactive effects of career adaptability, career satisfaction, person–job fit, and job uncertainty. The results of two-wave data collection from 234 full-time workers revealed that employees with stronger career adaptability were more likely to report career satisfaction. The full mediating effect was found of person–job fit. Specifically, we found that career adaptability enhances person–job fit, which results in greater career satisfaction. Additional analysis revealed that job uncertainty interferes with the mediation model. We identified a new antecedent of career satisfaction (i.e., person–job fit) and revealed the functional mechanism underlying the effect of this antecedent. This study provides novel insights valuable to the field of career management.
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents and students are faced with the developmental task of becoming prepared for a career and master future career transitions. Existing research has investigated a range of concepts relating to career preparedness, including predictors and outcomes. However, this body of work is fragmented as a number of different conceptualizations and measurements related to career preparedness exist. Thus, the goal of this review is to provide an overview of the different concepts that have been used to describe and measure career preparedness. Based on a comprehensive review of empirical articles on maturity, readiness, adaptability, preparedness, and preparation, we propose an organizing framework of the diverse attitudes, knowledge and competencies, and behaviors required for career preparedness. We also review the empirical research on predictors and outcomes of career preparedness. We close by identifying issues in the conceptualization and measurement of different constructs and provide suggestions for future research, and implications for theory and practice.
Article
Purpose This study sought to determine the contribution of personal factors towards career adaptability among fresh graduates who had been employed for less than two years. This cohort is considered as entry-level employees in organisations. Several dimensions of personal factors focused on the study were self-esteem, conscientiousness, spiritual intelligence and social support. Design/methodology/approach This study used a quantitative approach using a cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised fresh graduate employees (n=423) from four Malaysian public universities. Findings The regression model fitted the data; the personal factors significantly predicted fresh graduates’ career adaptability, F (4, 418) = 31.982, p < 0.001. Conscientiousness showed highest contribution compared to other variables, with social support being the lowest. Research limitations/implications Owing to challenges faced by fresh graduates as entry-level employees, continuous career adaptation in the working environment is crucial to achieving satisfaction and success in life. All stakeholders, especially in higher education institutions, play an important role in inculcating the requisite personal traits in undergraduates to enhance their career adaptability upon joining the job market. Originality/value This study was conducted with fresh graduates as entry-level employees in Malaysia. It is hoped that the findings of the study would provide a better understanding of the impact of personal factors on career adaptability of fresh graduates in Malaysia, so that the stakeholders involved could act accordingly to help fresh graduates enter the job market with the confidence to adapt to changes at the workplace.
Article
Full-text available
As the work environment becomes more dynamic, adaptability is becoming increasingly important. Career adaptability refers to a set of psychosocial resources that help individuals successfully manage career-related tasks and transitions. The number of publications on career adaptability has increased rapidly over the past five years. Grounded in career construction theory, the current study provides a dimension-level meta-analysis of 76 career adaptability studies, examining relationships among four career adaptability dimensions (i.e., concern, control, curiosity, and confidence), as well as relationships between these dimensions and several adaptation results (e.g., job performance, job satisfaction, turnover intentions). A meta-analytic confirmatory factor analysis supported the underlying structure of career adaptability. In addition, meta-analytic relative weights analysis was conducted to test hypotheses about the unique and relative contributions of each career adaptability dimension to the prediction of adaptation results. Findings suggest that researchers should begin to refocus research questions and modify methodologies to better accommodate variations in dimension-level career adaptability relationships.
Article
Full-text available
The key challenges in sustainable elite sports concern young athletes´ holistic development. Consequently, preparation for dual careers has been recommended to enhance athletes’ well-being and equip them for life after sports. The aim of this study was to examine the developmental associations between self-esteem and career adaptability among adolescent athletes across the high school years and investigate the role of gender in these developmental trajectories. A total of 391 student-athletes were followed up four times from the beginning of high school (T1) to its end (T4) using the Dual Career Form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale and the Self-Esteem Questionnaire. The results indicated that individual differences in student-athletes’ self-esteem and career adaptability were relatively stable across the high school years and were thus modeled via the between-persons factors capturing differences between individuals across time. The results further showed that the overall levels of self-esteem and career adaptability were positively associated. Males showed higher overall levels of career adaptability and self-esteem than females. This study suggests that it is important to facilitate youth athletes’ self-regulation resources by involving them in vocational developmental tasks. Further, gender differences should be considered when supporting student-athletes’ development.
Article
This study investigated the moderating role of self-esteem on young emerging adults’ in their school-to-work transition phase of graduateness skills and career adaptability. A non-probability convenience sample (n=332) of undergraduate black (98.5%) and female (62%) young emerging adults (18–29 years) at a Further Education and Training (FET) college in South Africa participated in the study. Participants completed the Culture Free Self-esteem Inventory for Adults (CFSEI 2-AD, Battle, 1992 Battle, J. (1992). Culture-free self-esteem inventories for children and adults. Texas: Pro-Ed. [Google Scholar]), the Graduateness Skills and Attributes Scale (GSAS, Coetzee, 2010 Coetzee, M. (2010). Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Graduateness Scale and the Employability Attributes Scale. Pretoria: Unpublished research report. University of South Africa. [Google Scholar]) and the Career Adapt-abilities Scale (CAAS, Savickas & Porfeli, 2012 Savickas, M. L., & Porfeli, E. J. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, reliability and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(3), 674–679. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2012.01.011[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]). Hierarchical moderated regression analysis indicated significant interaction effects between self-esteem and overall graduateness, lifelong learning and global/moral citizenship skills and attributes in moderating overall career adaptability. The relationship between the participants’ graduateness skills and attributes (overall graduateness, global/moral citizenship, and lifelong learning) and their career adaptability was significantly stronger when their self-esteem was high than when their self-esteem was low. The finding suggests self-esteem to influence self-perceived graduateness skills and career adaptability in emerging adults.
Article
Full-text available
Career adaptability, a psychosocial resource for managing career-related tasks, transitions, and traumas, is a central construct in career construction theory and the field of vocational psychology. Based on the career construction model of adaptation, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine relationships of career adaptability with measures of adaptivity, adapting responses, adaptation results, and demographic covariates. Results based on a total of 90 studies show that career adaptability is significantly associated with measures of adaptivity (i.e., cognitive ability, big five traits, self-esteem, core self-evaluations, proactive personality, future orientation, hope, and optimism), adapting responses (i.e., career planning, career exploration, occupational self-efficacy, and career decision-making self-efficacy), adaptation results (i.e., career identity, calling, career/job/school satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, job stress, employability, promotability, turnover intentions, income, engagement, self-reported work performance, entrepreneurial outcomes, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect), as well as certain demographic characteristics (i.e., age, education). Multiple regression analyses based on meta-analytic correlations demonstrated the incremental predictive validity of career adaptability, above and beyond other individual difference characteristics, for a variety of career, work, and subjective well-being outcomes. Overall, the findings from this meta-analysis support the career construction model of adaptation.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we examine the role of Conscientiousness and Extraversion at implicit and explicit level, in the context of personnel selection. Personality was assessed using the NEO-FFI, for the explicit level (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the Semantic Misattribution Procedure (Sava et al. 2012), for the implicit level, as part of the selection process in a multinational corporation. Twenty eight candidates were hired, and their in-role job performance was assessed by their supervisors six months later, based on a performance assessment scale (Williams & Anderson, 1991). Results suggest that explicit personality traits did not predict in-role job performance, whereas implicit Extraversion showed a positive association with the job performance assessed by the supervisor. The absence of correlations between implicit/explicit Conscientiousness and job performance could be explained by the subjective nature of the instrument used to measure in-role performance. Future research on the predictive role of implicit and explicit personality measures for job performance should consider objective indicators of job performance, as well as evaluations from peers and supervisors.
Article
Full-text available
International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) is a project aiming to develop measures of individual differences as part of the public domain. This project emerged as an alternative to personality assessment instruments, which are protected by copyright. IPIP-50 is an instrument developed through the IPIP project, which measures the five dimensions of personality: Openness, Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. The aim of the present study is to test the validity of IPIP-50 on a Romanian sample of students. The factor analysis revealed that the model with five correlated factors is the best suited to describe the structure of IPIP-50. The convergent validity was assessed through the correlations between IPIP-50, DECAS (Sava, 2008) and NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992/2008); except for Agreeability, all the other factors registered high correlations (ranging from .73 to .84). The predictive validity of IPIP-50 was assessed through its correlations with behavioral indicators identified in the literature as being relevant to the five dimensions. Using the Marlowe-Crown Social Desirability scale, we developed a social desirability indicator composed of 10 IPIP-50 items. The esults reported in this study suggest that IPIP-50 can be used successfully in research on Romanian samples, being an authentic support for the psychological community in Romania.
Article
Full-text available
Career adaptability is a psychosocial construct that reflects individuals’ resources for managing career tasks and challenges. This study investigated the effects of demographic characteristics and three sets of individual difference variables (Big Five personality traits, core self-evaluations, and temporal focus) on changes over time in career adaptability and its dimensions (concern, control, curiosity, and confidence). Data came from 659 full-time employees in Australia who participated in two measurement waves six months apart. Results showed that age and future temporal focus predicted change in overall career adaptability. In addition, age, education, extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, core self-evaluations, and future temporal focus differentially predicted change over time in one or more of the four career adaptability dimensions. While the lagged effects found in this study were generally small, the findings suggest that certain individual difference characteristics predispose employees to experience change in career adaptability over time.
Article
Full-text available
Misattributions people make about their own reaction to ambiguous stimuli can be used to measure personality self-concepts implicitly. On the basis of a semantic misattribution priming paradigm [semantic misattribution procedure (SMP)], we assessed the implicit personality self-concept related to three dimensions included in the Big-Five model: conscientiousness, neuroticism, and extraversion. Across three studies (N1 = 98, N2= 140, and N3 = 135), the SMP was robustly related, in the expected direction, to individual differences in self-reported personality questionnaires and managed to predict both self-reported and objectively measured behaviours. The main advantage of SMP over classical explicit measures of personality is its higher resistance to social desirability tendencies, although its psychometric properties are somewhat lower than those pertaining to explicit measures of personality. Finally, comparisons of our results with studies that used other implicit measures of personality selfconcept indicate that the SMP has higher criterion validity.
Article
Full-text available
Consistent with recent research on initials-preferences, we assumed that people's preferences for their initials reflect an implicit form of self-esteem that buffers them against challenges to their self-worth. Accordingly, we proposed that high self-esteem persons who demonstrated weak initials-preferences would be particularly likely to engage in compensatory self-enhancement activities. Results of two studies revealed converging support for this prediction: Among people high in explicit self-esteem, those with weaker initials-preferences displayed more unrealistic optimism, stronger preferences for an excessively positive personality profile, and smaller actual-ideal self-discrepancies. Findings are discussed in terms of the distinction between secure high self-esteem—which is generally linked with psychological health—and fragile high self-esteem—which is generally associated with personal and interpersonal difficulties.
Article
Full-text available
The authors adapted the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in order to assess the implicit self-concept of personality. In two studies (N = 106 and N = 92), confirmatory factor analyses validated the five-factor model for the implicit personality self-concept. Internal consistencies of the IAT proved satisfactory for all Big Five personality dimensions. Correlations between the personality IAT and different self-report measures of personality were generally small, and significant only for Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Patterns of means and factor intercorrelations were, however, highly similar for implicit and explicit personality measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The commentary to this special issue discusses how current research on implicit and automatic processes in personality is related to previous attempts to conceptualise and measure automatic or implicit aspects of personality that are difficult to assess using standard self-report measures. The six original contributions of this issue are discussed in the light of earlier works and with respect to interesting research questions emerging from them. We point to a range of new implicit measures of personality, discuss current trends in implicit personality research and conclude with suggestions how future research could use implicit personality measures to improve our understanding of self-regulatory and problem behaviour.
Article
Full-text available
This review describes advances over the past decade in what is known about the individual experience of unemployment, predictors of reemployment, and interventions to speed employment. Research on the impact of unemployment has increased in sophistication, strengthening the causal conclusion that unemployment leads to declines in psychological and physical health and an increased incidence of suicide. This work has elucidated the risk factors and mechanisms associated with experiencing poor psychological health during unemployment; less so for physical health and suicide. Psychologists have begun to contribute to the study of factors associated with reemployment speed and quality. The past decade has especially illuminated the role of social networks and job search intensity in facilitating reemployment. Evidence suggests some individuals, especially members of minority groups, may face discrimination during their job search. Although more work in this arena is needed, several intervention-based programs have been shown to help individuals get back to work sooner.
Article
Full-text available
The authors present a behavioral process model of personality that specifies explicit and implicit aspects of the self-concept of personality as predictors of actual behavior. An extensive behavioral study (N = 130) including a variety of relevant social situations was conducted. This approach allowed reliable measurement of more than 50 behavioral indicators. A priori assignment of indicators to the Big Five dimensions was conducted on the basis of theory and expert ratings. In line with the authors' model, 3 main findings were revealed: First, direct measures (questionnaires) of personality predicted actual behavior for all Big Five dimensions. Second, indirect measures (implicit association tests) of neuroticism and extraversion also predicted actual behavior. Third, the predictive validity of these indirect measures was incremental. The authors were additionally able to show that controlling for valence did not affect any of these results. Implications and future prospects for the study of personality and actual behavior are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This review of 122 research reports (184 independent samples, 14,900 subjects) found average r = .274 for prediction of behavioral, judgment, and physiological measures by Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures. Parallel explicit (i.e., self-report) measures, available in 156 of these samples (13,068 subjects), also predicted effectively (average r = .361), but with much greater variability of effect size. Predictive validity of self-report was impaired for socially sensitive topics, for which impression management may distort self-report responses. For 32 samples with criterion measures involving Black-White interracial behavior, predictive validity of IAT measures significantly exceeded that of self-report measures. Both IAT and self-report measures displayed incremental validity, with each measure predicting criterion variance beyond that predicted by the other. The more highly IAT and self-report measures were intercorrelated, the greater was the predictive validity of each.
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies on self-esteem have focused exclusively on its psychosocial determinants. The goal of the present study is to clarify genetic v. environmental determinants of self-esteem. Participants were Caucasian women sampled from the Virginia Twin Register: 363 pairs of MZ and 238 pairs of DZ twins were available from the first wave of the study, and 430 pairs of MZ and 308 pairs of DZ twins from the second. Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Using univariate twin analyses of self-esteem and a repeated measurement twin model, we found that self-esteem is a moderately heritable trait (heritability = 52% in the repeated measurement model); environmental influences are also very important, and are probably mostly not shared by members of a twin pair. Aetiological models of self-esteem which examine only psychosocial factors are incomplete; genetic factors need to be integrated.
Article
Full-text available
Using the trait of shyness as an example, the authors showed that (a) it is possible to reliably assess individual differences in the implicitly measured self-concept of personality that (b) are not accessible through traditional explicit self-ratings and (c) increase significantly the prediction of spontaneous behavior in realistic social situations. A total of 139 participants were observed in a shyness-inducing laboratory situation, and they completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit self-ratings of shyness. The IAT correlated moderately with the explicit self-ratings and uniquely predicted spontaneous (but not controlled) shy behavior, whereas the explicit ratings uniquely predicted controlled (but not spontaneous) shy behavior (double dissociation). The distinction between spontaneous and controlled behavior was validated in a 2nd study.
Article
This study examined the convergent validity of scores from the four subscales in the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale. The differential relation of each subscale to theoretically-related constructs was examined in a sample of 332 graduating university students. The results were as predicted. Career concern related highest to future time perspective; career control related highest to both locus of control and core self-evaluations as well as inversely to neuroticism; career curiosity related highest to proactive personality; and career confidence related highest to generalized self-efficacy. The only relation that was not as predicted involved self-esteem, which was predicted to relate highest to confidence. It related higher to career control (r =.42) and career concern (r =.41).
Article
The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale—Brazilian Form (CAASBrazil) consists of four scales which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The factor structure was quite similar to the one computed for combined data from 13 countries. CAASBrazil is similar to the International Form, with the exception of two items that were not included in Brazilian version. Concurrent validity evidence was collected relative to personality factors from the Five-Factor Model of Personality. The relationships between career adaptability and personality factors were as predicted.
Article
The CAAS-France Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from moderate to good. The factor structure was quite similar to the one computed for combined data from 13 countries. The CAAS France Form is identical to the International Form 2.0. Concurrent validity evidence was collected relative to motivation and anxiety given that adaptability has been identified as a meta-competency for career construction in information societies. Relations between career adaptability and motivation measures were as predicted. However, they provide partial support to the relations between career adaptability and general or career anxiety.
Article
Researchers from 13 countries collaborated in constructing a psychometric scale to measure career adaptability. Based on four pilot tests, a research version of the proposed scale consisting of 55 items was field tested in 13 countries. The resulting Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items. The four scales measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The CAAS demonstrated metric invariance across all the countries, but did not exhibit residual/strict invariance or scalar invariance. The reliabilities of the CAAS subscales and the combined adaptability scale range from acceptable to excellent when computed with the combined data. As expected, the reliability estimates varied across countries. Nevertheless, the internal consistency estimates for the four subscales of concern, control, curiosity, and confidence were generally acceptable to excellent. The internal consistency estimates for the CAAS total score were excellent across all countries. Separate articles in this special issue report the psychometric characteristics of the CAAS, including initial validity evidence, for each of the 13 countries that collaborated in constructing the Scale.
Article
The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) — Korea Form consists of four subscales, each with six items. The subscales measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The factor structure was quite similar to the one computed for combined data from 13 countries. The CAAS Korea Form is identical to the International Form 2.0.
Article
This study presents the validation of a French version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in four Francophone countries. The aim was to re-analyze the item selection and then compare this newly developed French-language form with the international form 2.0. Exploratory factor analysis was used as a tool for item selection, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) verified the structure of the CAAS French-language form. Measurement equivalence across the four countries was tested using multi-group CFA. Adults and adolescents (N = 1707) participated from Switzerland, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. Items chosen for the final version of the CAAS French-language form are different to those in the CAAS international form 2.0 and provide an improvement in terms of reliability. The factor structure is replicable across country, age, and gender. Strong evidence for metric invariance and partial evidence for scalar invariance of the CAAS French-language form across countries is given. The CAAS French-language and CAAS international form 2.0 can be used in a combined form of 31 items. The CAAS French-language form will certainly be interesting for practitioners using interventions based on the life design paradigm or aiming at increasing career adapt-ability.
Article
This study investigated the combined and unique contributions of occupational congruence, work-related ability, and personality to predicting two measures of work performance (peer ratings and superior ratings), using data collected for 359 military officers. The results indicate that personality and congruence relate to performance as rated by both superiors and peers (i.e., the introversion-extroversion personality factor correlated r = -0.15, p < .01 with peer ratings; one congruence measure correlated r = 0.19, p < .01 with superior ratings; and three congruence measures correlated r = 0.60, r = 0.43, and r = 0.45, p < .01 with peer ratings). The ramifications of the results are discussed in the context of the combined theoretical framework suggested by Tziner and Meir.
Article
Recent research has provided increasing evidence that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem (SE) are related to defensiveness. However, only one pattern, called fragile SE (a combination of high explicit and low implicit SE), has been the focus of research so far. Relatively little attention has been paid to the second possible SE discrepancy (low explicit/high implicit). We propose that both types of discrepancies are maladaptive, because they indicate a lack of integration in self-representation. We conducted two studies on the correlates of discrepant SE in the sphere of defensiveness. We hypothesized that persons with discrepant SE exhibit more defensive behaviour than individuals with congruent SE. In two student samples, explicit SE was measured by means of the Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale. Implicit SE was measured with the Name Letter Technique (Study 1) and an Implicit Association Test (Study 2). In Study 1 (N=102) we examined effects of implicit and explicit SE on defensive reactions to ambiguous statements. For this purpose, we adapted the Ambiguous Statements Task (AST, Tafarodi, 1998), a procedure that measures participants' tendency to interpret ambiguous expressions in a positive vs negative manner. We found that the combination of low explicit SE and high implicit SE was associated with a more positive interpretation of the ambiguous statements. Study 2 (N=87) investigated the effects of discrepant SE on reactions to SE threat in an experimental setting. The time participants spent reading positive or negative social feedback was used as an unobtrusive measure of defensiveness. We found that people with discrepant SE went through the negative feedback faster than people with congruent SE. In sum, the studies provide converging evidence that both kinds of discrepancies between implicit and explicit SE are related to defensive behaviour.
Article
Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the conditional relations is often a tedious and error-prone task. This article provides an overview of methods used to probe interaction effects and describes a unified collection of freely available online resources that researchers can use to obtain significance tests for simple slopes, compute regions of significance, and obtain confidence bands for simple slopes across the range of the moderator in the MLR, HLM, and LCA contexts. Plotting capabilities are also provided.
Article
Replicability of findings is at the heart of any empirical science. The aim of this article is to move the current replicability debate in psychology towards concrete recommendations for improvement. We focus on research practices but also offer guidelines for reviewers, editors, journal management, teachers, granting institutions, and university promotion committees, highlighting some of the emerging and existing practical solutions that can facilitate implementation of these recommendations. The challenges for improving replicability in psychological science are systemic. Improvement can occur only if changes are made at many levels of practice, evaluation, and reward.
Article
To satisfy the need in personality research for factorially univocal measures of each of the 5 domains that subsume most English-language terms for personality traits, new sets of Big-Five factor markers were investigated. In studies of adjective-anchored bipolar rating scales, a transparent format was found to produce factor markers that were more univocal than the same scales administered in the traditional format. Nonetheless, even the transparent bipolar scales proved less robust as factor markers than did parallel sets of adjectives administered in unipolar format. A set of 100 unipolar terms proved to be highly robust across quite diverse samples of self and peer descriptions. These new markers were compared with previously developed ones based on far larger sets of trait adjectives, as well as with the scales from the NEO and Hogan personality inventories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The hypothesis is tested that mere ownership of an object is a sufficient condition to enhance its likelihood to become one of the most attractive items of the entire set of similar objects. Evidence is presented that isolated visual letter stimuli belonging to one's own name are more often ranked among the six most preferred letters of the entire alphabet than identical not-own name letters. Across 12 different European languages, an (own) name letter effect was found for (initial and/or not-initial) letters belonging to own first and/or family name. The fundamental theoretical relevance of the effect is outlined as well as its heuristic value for research on individual versus collective ownership and on affective asymmetry. A cross-lingual analysis of the six least preferred letters-while also confirming the mere ownership hypothesis-calls for a critical reformulation of Zajonc's mere exposure theory.
Article
‘Mere belongingness to self’ is tested as a sufficient condition for the enhancement of the attractiveness of visual letter stimuli. Experimental evidence is presented that, independent of visual, acoustical, aesthetic, semantic and frequency characteristics, letters belonging to own first and/or family name are preferred above not-own name letters. The effect is obtained in the absence of awareness of the Gestalt of any name, thus challenging current understanding of fundamental affective processes.
Article
Two studies investigated how discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem are related to mental and physical health. We found that, compared to congruent self-esteem, discrepant self-esteem was related to more anger suppression, a more depressive attributional style, more nervousness, and more days of impaired health. The result applies not only to fragile (high explicit, low implicit) self-esteem, but also to damaged (low explicit, high implicit) self-esteem. These findings show that high implicit self-esteem is not necessarily advantageous. In individuals with low explicit self-esteem having high implicit self-esteem was related to more health problems than having low implicit self-esteem. Taken together the results suggest that discrepancies between implicit and explicit SE are detrimental to mental and physical health. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Article
Japanese studies have repeatedly failed to obtain any explicit tendency to enhance self-esteem. In two studies, the authors attempted an implicit assessment of positive feelings attached to Japanese selves and found evidence for such feelings. Study 1 examined preference for Japanese alphabetical letters and found that letters included in one's own name were significantly better liked than the remaining ones. Further, an especially strong preference was expressed by male respondents for the first letters of their family names, and by female respondents for the first letters of their first names. Study 2 assessed preference for numerics and showed that the numbers corresponding to both the month and the day of one's birthday were significantly better liked than the remaining numbers. Implications are discussed for theories of Japanese selves.
Article
The present study investigated the relationship of traits from the 5-factor model of personality (often termed the “Big Five”) and general mental ability with career success. Career success was argued to be comprised of intrinsic success (job satisfaction) and extrinsic success (income and occupational status) dimensions. Data were obtained from the Intergenerational Studies, a set of 3 studies that followed participants from early childhood to retirement. The most general findings were that conscientiousness positively predicted intrinsic and extrinsic career success, neuroticism negatively predicted extrinsic success, and general mental ability positively predicted extrinsic career success. Personality was related to career success controlling for general mental ability and, though adulthood measures of the Big Five traits were more strongly related to career success than were childhood measures, both contributed unique variance in explaining career success.
Article
Although the name-letter task (NLT) has become an increasingly popular technique to measure implicit self-esteem (ISE), researchers have relied on different algorithms to compute NLT scores and the psychometric properties of these differently computed scores have never been thoroughly investigated. Based on 18 independent samples, including 2690 participants, the current research examined the optimality of five scoring algorithms based on the following criteria: reliability; variability in reliability estimates across samples; types of systematic error variance controlled for; systematic production of outliers and shape of the distribution of scores. Overall, an ipsatized version of the original algorithm exhibited the most optimal psychometric properties, which is recommended for future research using the NLT. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Using the contest- and sponsored-mobility perspectives as theoretical guides, this meta-analysis reviewed 4 categories of predictors of objective and subjective career success: human capital, organizational sponsorship, sociodemographic status, and stable individual differences. Salary level and promotion served as dependent measures of objective career success, and subjective career success was represented by career satisfaction. Results demonstrated that both objective and subjective career success were related to a wide range of predictors. As a group, human capital and sociodemographic predictors generally displayed stronger relationships with objective career success, and organizational sponsorship and stable individual differences were generally more strongly related to subjective career success. Gender and time (date of the study) moderated several of the relationships examined.
Chapter
College students in 31 nations (N = 13,118) completed measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and satisfaction with specific domains (friends, family, and finances). The authors assessed whether cross-cultural variations in the strength of associations were related to societal dimensions including income and individualism. At the national level, individualism correlated −0.24 (ns) with heterogeneity and 0.71 (p<0.001) with wealth. At the individual level, self-esteem and life satisfaction were correlated 0.47 for the entire sample. This relation, however, was moderated by the individualism of the society. The associations of financial, friend, and family satisfactions with life satisfaction and with self-esteem also varied across nations. Financial satisfaction was a stronger correlate of life satisfaction in poorer countries. It was found that life satisfaction and self-esteem were clearly discriminable constructs. Satisfaction ratings, except for financial satisfaction, varied between slightly positive and fairly positive.
Article
Explicit measures of moral personality are not very successful in predicting specific moral actions. Recent theoretical developments suggest that measures based on associative processes may provide an alternative to improve prediction. In this contribution we have developed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measure of the Moral vs. Immoral self-concept and used it alongside a direct self-rating of moral personality. In Study 1 this IAT measure uniquely predicted whether participants faithfully reported an outcome implying negative consequences. In Study 2 the IAT moral self-concept predicted an actual moral behavior, while a self-rating explicit personality measure predicted responses to hypothetical moral scenarios. Results are discussed in light of the role played by individual differences in associative structures representing personality and the self-concept.
Article
The present research was conducted to assess the relationship between personality and appraisal of stressful events as threats or as challenges. Appraisals are thought to arise from an evaluation of resources available to cope with events. Evaluation of resources as being relatively more inadequate or adequate should lead to relatively greater threat or challenge appraisals, respectively. Because high neurotic individuals' resources are taxed by negative cognitions, they should evaluate available resources to be inadequate, leading to a positive relationship between Neuroticism (N) and threat. Stable individuals should appraise stressors as challenges. Moreover, thinking of N as sensitivity to punishment and Extraversion (E) as sensitivity to reward suggests that Extraverts should appraise stressful events as challenges because these individuals should see situations as opportunities for reward, not for punishment. Thus, N should be positively related to threat appraisals and negatively related to challenge appraisals, while E should be positively related to challenge appraisals, but not related to threat appraisals. The hypotheses were supported. Future research should consider the process underlying the observed relationships.
Article
The present study extended prior career success models by incorporating traits from the five-factor model of personality (often termed the “Big Five”) and several dimensions of extrinsic (remuneration, ascendancy, job level, employability) and intrinsic (job, life, and career satisfaction) career success. The model examined both direct effects and the mediating effects of an array of human capital and motivation variables derived from prior research. Data were collected from two large samples of American and European executives. Some results supported prior research: Extroversion related positively, and neuroticism negatively, to intrinsic career success across both the U.S. and the European samples. Some results differed from expectations: Conscientiousness was mostly unrelated to extrinsic success and negatively related to intrinsic success in both samples, and agreeableness was negatively related to extrinsic success in both samples. Differences emerged between the European and U.S. samples, in that neuroticism associated with lower levels of extrinsic success for the U.S. executives but not the Europeans, and extroversion associated with higher levels of extrinsic success for the European executives but not the U.S. executives. For both samples, human capital and motivational variables associated predictably with career success, but seldom mediated the relationship between personality and career success.
Article
Four experiments examined the relative influence of three causal processes in the above-average effect (AAE) and related comparative biases: (a) egocentrism, (b) focalism, and (c) referent group diffuseness. By manipulating the inclusion or exclusion of the self from the referent group (Experiments 1–3) or target group (Experiment 4), the relative contributions of each influence were assessed. In direct comparisons, single peers were systematically judged more favorably relative to groups including the self, suggesting that egocentrism plays a lesser role than focalism or group diffuseness. Thus, in response to the question such as “How friendly is Nancy compared to the rest of us?” the answer tends to be “More friendly.”
Article
Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) recognises the importance of individual differences and contextual influences in the career decision-making process. In extending the SCCT choice model, this study tested the role of personality, social supports, and the SCCT variables of self-efficacy, outcome expectations and goals in explaining the career readiness actions of career planning and exploration. The authors surveyed 414 Australian high school students in Years 10, 11 and 12. Career exploration was associated with goals and social supports, whereas career planning was associated with self-efficacy, goals, personality and an interaction term for goals and social support that indicated that levels of planning were highest when social support and goals were highest. Implications for parents, teachers and guidance counsellors as well as recommendations for future research directions are discussed.
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
Self-esteem has become a household word. Teachers, parents, therapists, and others have focused efforts on boosting self-esteem, on the assumption that high self-esteem will cause many positive outcomes and benefits—an assumption that is critically evaluated in this review. Appraisal of the effects of self-esteem is complicated by several factors. Because many people with high self-esteem exaggerate their successes and good traits, we emphasize objective measures of outcomes. High self-esteem is also a heterogeneous category, encompassing people who frankly accept their good qualities along with narcissistic, defensive, and conceited individuals. The modest correlations between self-esteem and school performance do not indicate that high self-esteem leads to good performance. Instead, high self-esteem is partly the result of good school performance. Efforts to boost the self-esteem of pupils have not been shown to improve academic performance and may sometimes be counterproductive. Job performance in adults is sometimes related to self-esteem, although the correlations vary widely, and the direction of causality has not been established. Occupational success may boost self-esteem rather than the reverse. Alternatively, self-esteem may be helpful only in some job contexts. Laboratory studies have generally failed to find that self-esteem causes good task performance, with the important exception that high self-esteem facilitates persistence after failure. People high in self-esteem claim to be more likable and attractive, to have better relationships, and to make better impressions on others than people with low self-esteem, but objective measures disconfirm most of these beliefs. Narcissists are charming at first but tend to alienate others eventually. Self-esteem has not been shown to predict the quality or duration of relationships. High self-esteem makes people more willing to speak up in groups and to criticize the group's approach. Leadership does not stem directly from self-esteem, but self-esteem may have indirect effects. Relative to people with low self-esteem, those with high self-esteem show stronger in-group favoritism, which may increase prejudice and discrimination. Neither high nor low self-esteem is a direct cause of violence. Narcissism leads to increased aggression in retaliation for wounded pride. Low self-esteem may contribute to externalizing behavior and delinquency, although some studies have found that there are no effects or that the effect of self-esteem vanishes when other variables are controlled. The highest and lowest rates of cheating and bullying are found in different subcategories of high self-esteem. Self-esteem has a strong relation to happiness. Although the research has not clearly established causation, we are persuaded that high self-esteem does lead to greater happiness. Low self-esteem is more likely than high to lead to depression under some circumstances. Some studies support the buffer hypothesis, which is that high self-esteem mitigates the effects of stress, but other studies come to the opposite conclusion, indicating that the negative effects of low self-esteem are mainly felt in good times. Still others find that high self-esteem leads to happier outcomes regardless of stress or other circumstances. High self-esteem does not prevent children from smoking, drinking, taking drugs, or engaging in early sex. If anything, high self-esteem fosters experimentation, which may increase early sexual activity or drinking, but in general effects of self-esteem are negligible. One important exception is that high self-esteem reduces the chances of bulimia in females. Overall, the benefits of high self-esteem fall into two categories: enhanced initiative and pleasant feelings. We have not found evidence that boosting self-esteem (by therapeutic interventions or school programs) causes benefits. Our findings do not support continued widespread efforts to boost self-esteem in the hope that it will by itself foster improved outcomes. In view of the heterogeneity of high self-esteem, indiscriminate praise might just as easily promote narcissism, with its less desirable consequences. Instead, we recommend using praise to boost self-esteem as a reward for socially desirable behavior and self-improvement.
Article
College students in 31 nations (N = 13,118) completed measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and satisfaction with specific domains (friends, family, and finances). The authors assessed whether cross-cultural variations in the strength of associations were related to societal dimensions including income and individualism. At the national level, individualism correlated -.24 (ns) with heterogeneity and .71 (p < .001) with wealth. At the individual level, self-esteem and life satisfaction were correlated .47 for the entire sample. This relation, however, was moderated by the individualism of the society. The associations of financial, friend, and family satisfactions with life satisfaction and with self-esteem also varied across nations. Financial satisfaction was a stronger correlate of life satisfaction in poorer countries. It was found that life satisfaction and self-esteem were clearly discriminable constructs. Satisfaction ratings, except for financial satisfaction, varied between slightly positive and fairly positive.
Article
An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2-choice task (2-choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names), and the attribute in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions oblige highly associated categories (e.g., flower + pleasant) to share a response key, performance is faster than when less associated categories (e.g., insect & pleasant) share a key. This performance difference implicitly measures differential association of the 2 concepts with the attribute. In 3 experiments, the IAT was sensitive to (a) near-universal evaluative differences (e.g., flower vs. insect), (b) expected individual differences in evaluative associations (Japanese + pleasant vs. Korean + pleasant for Japanese vs. Korean subjects), and (c) consciously disavowed evaluative differences (Black + pleasant vs. White + pleasant for self-described unprejudiced White subjects).
Article
The study examined the social, personality, and cognitive correlates of self-reported future planning and the relationship of future planning to perceived control and life satisfaction. Using 2 probability samples of adults ages 25-74 (n = 2,971, n2 = 300) findings suggest, for Study 1, that education, income, social support, predictability, Conscientiousness. and Openness to Experience were positively related to future planning, whereas Neuroticism and Agreeableness were negatively related. Men were more future oriented; as age increased, future planning decreased. Study 2 replicated the findings with the exception of age, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. For both studies, results supported a model in which the effects of future planning on life satisfaction were mediated by sense of control. A Planning x Age interaction for Study I indicated that although self-reported future planning decreased with age, the positive effects of future-oriented planning strategies on life satisfaction were most pronounced for the older adults, and this relationship was also mediated by control beliefs.