ArticleLiterature Review

Essential oils in the treatment of respiratory tract diseases highlighting their role in bacterial infections and their anti-inflammatory action: A review

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The appearance of multidrug resistant bacteria and growing antibiotic resistance is leading to a continuous need for discovering new drugs and alternative treatments against infections. The investigation of the antibacterial effect of essential oils (EOs), which are commonly used nowadays in cosmetics, health care, traditional medicine and food industry, could be one of the promising solutions for this worldwide problem. EOs have a complex mode of action due to their multiple composition. Respiratory tract diseases (RTDs) associated with bacterial infection and inflammation affect a large number of people from every age group worldwide. Because of volatility, EOs can easily reach the upper and lower parts of the respiratory tract via inhalation. Moreover, due to their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potency, they offer an effective treatment in respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The purpose of this review is to describe the most frequently developing infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract and to show methods used for the determination of the antibacterial activity of EOs by gaseous contact. The mode of action of EOs on bacterial cells and their anti-inflammatory action are also discussed. Results coming from recently performed in vivo animal studies as well as human trials are also reported. Patents deal with the role of EOs and their volatile constituents in the treatment of RTIs are also introduced. On the whole, this review aimed at showing EOs as potential antimicrobials and as anti-inflammatory agents to alleviate symptoms and signs of RTDs including RTIs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... A secondary aim is to discourage the spread of misinformation by providing an evidence-based dissertation on the topic. Due to their frequent use for the symptomatic management of acute respiratory ailments of infectious origin (Horváth and Ács, 2015), a special focus on eucalyptol and menthol, as individual compounds and in branded products, was included as they are both major essential oils components. Therefore, a brief explanation of possible mechanisms of action of eucalyptol and menthol, together with a description of their toxicological profile, was provided to better understand the rationale behind their potential uses in clinical practice. ...
... Various essential oils have been studied for the symptomatic treatment of respiratory diseases (Horváth and Ács, 2015). In regard to their route of administration, essential oils, after selection and adequate dilution, can be administered orally, inhaled, or topically applied on the subject's skin as ointments (Valussi, 2013). ...
... In regard to their route of administration, essential oils, after selection and adequate dilution, can be administered orally, inhaled, or topically applied on the subject's skin as ointments (Valussi, 2013). Their effects on respiratory functions and symptoms have been reported in several clinical studies (Horváth and Ács, 2015;Valussi, 2013;Wagner, 2015). The two components of essential oils most studied are eucalyptol and menthol: for this reason, these substances have been described individually (Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The involvement of the upper respiratory tract is common in COVID-19, and the majority of patients are treated at home with a mild-to-moderate form of the disease. Many approaches based on essential oils have been proposed for the symptomatic treatment of COVID-19. This work aims to outline the potential and safe evidence-based uses of essential oils and their major components for the clinical management of mild respiratory symptoms caused by uncomplicated coronavirus infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Due to their wide use, a focus on the constituents eucalyptol and menthol has been provided. Methods An overview of the scientific literature with a critical discussion of retrieved evidence and clinical recommendations. Results In general, eucalyptol and essential oils or blends whose content is rich in it, may be used as an integrative remedy for the symptomatic improvement of patients with mild and uncomplicated infections caused by coronaviruses. Menthol is not recommended in patients with COVID-19, due to a potential reduction of the self-perception of dyspnea, which can lead infected patients to underestimate the actual disease severity and to delay medical attention. Discussion Based on available evidence, symptomatic remedies for COVID-19, such as essential oils and their isolated compounds, can be useful, but are not an alternative to standard medical therapy and do not exempt patients from following precautionary measures issued by health authorities. Clinical recommendations on the appropriate use of essential oils for the management of upper airway symptoms of COVID-19 are provided. Further studies on the topic are advised.
... [7,38,[41][42][43][44][45] The essential oil most effective against this pathogen, was noted as Syzygium aromaticum with an MIC of 0.10 mg/ml. [81] Syzygium aromaticum, as with L. angustifolia and M. piperita is associated with the management of conditions of the lower respiratory tract and include, TB, asthma and bronchitis. [7,38,[41][42][43][44][45] Noteworthy antimicrobial effects were determined against the lower respiratory tract infection causing pathogen, S. pneumoniae, [64,81] with the essential oil Cinnamonum zeylanicum determined the most effective in antimicrobial activity with an MIC of 0.06 mg/ml. ...
... [81] Syzygium aromaticum, as with L. angustifolia and M. piperita is associated with the management of conditions of the lower respiratory tract and include, TB, asthma and bronchitis. [7,38,[41][42][43][44][45] Noteworthy antimicrobial effects were determined against the lower respiratory tract infection causing pathogen, S. pneumoniae, [64,81] with the essential oil Cinnamonum zeylanicum determined the most effective in antimicrobial activity with an MIC of 0.06 mg/ml. [81] Cinnamonum zeylanicum is indicated within aroma-therapeutic texts for the management of infections associated to the common cold and influenza. ...
... [7,38,[41][42][43][44][45] Noteworthy antimicrobial effects were determined against the lower respiratory tract infection causing pathogen, S. pneumoniae, [64,81] with the essential oil Cinnamonum zeylanicum determined the most effective in antimicrobial activity with an MIC of 0.06 mg/ml. [81] Cinnamonum zeylanicum is indicated within aroma-therapeutic texts for the management of infections associated to the common cold and influenza. [7,38,[41][42][43][44][45] Gram-negative bacteria Gram-negative bacteria possess a more complex cell wall when compared with Grampositive bacteria, making them more resistant to the antimicrobial effects of essential oils. ...
Article
This review explores the body of scientific information on the antimicrobial properties of essential oils against pathogens responsible for respiratory infections and critically compares this to what is recommended in the layman’s aroma‐therapeutic literature. Essential oils are predominantly indicated for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by bacteria or viruses, the efficacy of which has not been confirmed through clinical trials. When used in combination, they are often blended for presumed holistic synergistic effects. Of the essential oils recommended, all show some degree of anti‐oxidant activity, 50.0% demonstrate anti‐inflammatory effects and 83.3% of the essential oils showed antihistamin activity. Of the essential oils reviewed, 43.8% are considered non‐toxic while the remaining essential oils are considered slightly to moderately toxic (43.7%) or the toxicity is unknown (12.5%). Recommendations are made for further research into essential oil combinations.
... In addition, various essential oils have been studied for the treatment of respiratory disease symptoms. [4]. Its effects on respiratory function and symptoms have been reported in several clinical studies. ...
... Application on the face, nose, children, and infants is not allowed. The use of EO in pregnant and lactating women must be under the supervision of a doctor [4]. ...
... The composition of Eucalyptus globulus is ± 70% 1,8-cineol. Minor components of EO are -pinene 2-8% and camphor less than 1%[4].Eucalyptus is a plant native to Australia, which Aboriginal people have long used. Aboriginal tribes eat the roots of Eucalyptus plants because these plant roots contain much water. ...
Article
Full-text available
AbstractAromatherapy helps COVID-19 patients to prevent, increase immunity, and relieve symptoms of COVID-19 so that it can be used as adjuvant COVID-19 therapy. This study aims to determine the level of public knowledge about aromatherapy that can be used as a complementary therapy for COVID-19 and refute the myth that aromatherapy functions as the primary therapy for COVID-19. This research design is descriptive-analytic, which is carried out in three stages, namely pre-test, presentation of material, and post-test. The pre-test was given together before the presentation of the material. The first material introduces aromatherapy, its benefits and refutes the myth circulating in the community, namely aromatherapy as the primary therapy for COVID-19. The last stage is to give a post-test after delivering the material. The participants for this service are 52 people, carried out online through the zoom application. This activity demonstrated an increase in participants' knowledge about the use of aromatherapy as a complement to COVID-19 therapy.Keywords: Aromatherapy, Covid-19, complementary therapy
... Essential oils possess ample disease curing potential against various pathogens. Few plant essential oils and its chemical constituents were found active against influenza; they reduce influenza infections and its spread [5]. These essential oils can be used to develop aromatic therapies for treatment of influenza virus infection. ...
... These essential oils can be used to develop aromatic therapies for treatment of influenza virus infection. Essential oils are also used in inhalation therapy for treatment of respiratory diseases [5]. These are also provided in oral doses to treat gastrointestinal and acute respiratory infections caused by viruses. ...
... Myrtol ® capsule is prescribed for the treatment of virus generated acute bronchitis in humans. Both capsules are available in the market, are well tested, tolerated to patients, and show mild to moderate side-effects [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Present review article explains antiviral potential of essential oils more especially as an alternative treatment of coronavirus infection. This article emphasizes biological activity of major essential oil constituents and their future prospects for development of low toxic highly effective broad spectrum drugs. These could specifically inhibit virus entry into cells and target virus replication and show virucidal effect rather than they inhibit their development. More appropriate solution is to find protease inhibitors of COVID-19 that will be more appropriate drug molecule. Essential oils could serve as potential inhibitors of viral replication. There is a need of in silico studies of toxin molecules to find most appropriate target molecules to prepare more potent novel antiviral drugs to combat COVID-19 and future pandemics that may be caused by viruses. Hence, there is a need to explore and investigate plant origin active antiviral agents and use them for making highly effective drug formulations. Till the development of a vaccine natural plant products become available for treatment mainly immunity boosting for general public.
... There is a comprehensive data on human trials demonstrating the beneficial effects of 1,8cineole in various respiratory conditions in the Handbook of Essential Oils edited by Can Baser and Buchbauer reported in the review paper on Essential oils in the treatment of respiratory tract diseases by Horvath and Kamilla [27]. As discussed in the paper 1,8-cineole or eucalyptus EO (Essential oil) can be effectively applied in the treatment of asthma, acute or chronic bronchitis, COPD, common cold, and sinusitis. ...
... peppermint oil) and trans-dermal (e.g. rosemary oil) [27,28]. Oils with a high phenol content, such as thyme and clove, have antiseptic properties. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The review paper presents the works carried out by different researchers for identifying the SARS-CoV-2 virus structure, and its background with the present medication being addressed to the COVID-19 patients. The paper discusses three candidates for possible defense and cure of humans against the virus along with the regular medication. The first is the resonant frequency therapy, which has proven its efficacy for treating different types of viral infection and cancer cells as the capsid of Rubella measles virus, Satellite Tobacco necrosis Virus, Cancer cells and many more are neutralized on the application of frequency equal to the resonance frequency of the protein shell of the virus. It is expected that there must be a resonance frequency corresponding to the capsid of the SARS-CoV-2, on the application of which might result in the disintegration of the protein shell. As treating a huge number of people in hospitals is becoming increasingly difficult and large number of population is under quarantine, a resonance audio frequency of this sort embedded in a soothing music can be melodius, and the same if played in public spaces and homes might help a great deal. The frequencies (approximate values) are 171.160 Hz, 174.989 Hz, 1185.131 Hz the complete details regarding administration and calculation of the frequencies are discussed in this manuscript. This treatment along with the presently administered treatment to COVID-19 patients might aid in their quick recovery from illness. Further the audio frequency/ resonance frequency therapy, and the strategy discussed in this manuscript might be useful in future from any kind of Virus attacks/ Biological warfares either intentionally or naturally. Also, the medicinal properties of ethnomedical plants such as Piper nigrum, and Ocimum tenuiflorum L and essential oils such as Eucalyptus oil are discussed. The last one being the antiviral activities of copper in the form of copper oxide nanoparticles in medicine which has proven its efficacy for viral prevention, replication, and RNA degradation are also discussed.
... There is a comprehensive data on human trials demonstrating the beneficial effects of 1,8cineole in various respiratory conditions in the Handbook of Essential Oils edited by Can Baser and Buchbauer reported in the review paper on Essential oils in the treatment of respiratory tract diseases by Horvath and Kamilla [27]. As discussed in the paper 1,8-cineole or eucalyptus EO Please Note: (a) The idea of COVID-19 treatment with resonance frequency therapy was first conceived and shared by me publicly via Facebook post on 14-Feb-2020. ...
... peppermint oil) and trans-dermal (e.g. rosemary oil) [27,28]. Oils with a high phenol content, such as thyme and clove, have antiseptic properties. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The review paper presents the works carried out by different researchers for identifying the SARS-CoV-2 virus structure, and its background with the present medication being addressed to the COVID-19 patients. The paper discusses, three candidates for possible defense and cure of humans against the virus along with the regular medication, the first one being the resonant frequency therapy, which has proven its efficacies for treating different types of viral infection and cancer cells. As the capsid of Rubella measles virus, Satellite Tobacco necrosis Virus, Cancer cells and many more are compromised on the application of frequency equal to the resonance frequency of the protein shell of the virus. It is expected that there must be a resonance frequency corresponding to the capsid of the SARS-CoV-2, on the application of which might result in the disintegration of the protein shell of the same. As treating a huge number of people in hospitals is becoming increasingly difficult and large number of population is under quarantine, a resonance audio frequency of this sort, if placed in public spaces and homes might help a great deal. Also, the medicinal properties of ethnomedical plants such as Piper nigrum and Essential oils such as Eucalyptus oil are discussed. The last one being the antiviral activities of copper in the form of copper oxide nanoparticles in medicine which has proven its efficacy for viral prevention, replication, RNA degradation are also discussed.
... There is a comprehensive data on human trials demonstrating the beneficial effects of 1,8cineole in various respiratory conditions in the Handbook of Essential Oils edited by Can Baser and Buchbauer reported in the review paper on Essential oils in the treatment of respiratory tract diseases by Horvath and Kamilla [27]. As discussed in the paper 1,8-cineole or eucalyptus EO (Essential oil) can be effectively applied in the treatment of asthma, acute or chronic bronchitis, Please Note: (a) The idea of COVID-19 treatment with resonance frequency therapy was first conceived and shared by me publicly via Facebook post on 14-Feb-2020. ...
... peppermint oil) and trans-dermal (e.g. rosemary oil) [27,28]. Oils with a high phenol content, such as thyme and clove, have antiseptic properties. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
During, the present novel Coronavirus pandemic the hospitals are working at their maximum capacity and dedication. A large number of persons are quarantined in their homes/ Govt. facilities with the whole world in lockdown mode. While surveying and going across through the literatures, I came across the resonance frequency therapy which has been tested upto some extent on diseases like lung tumor, Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen responsible for lyme disease, Rubella measles virus, Eschericia Coli pathogen etc. The therapeutic approach is based upon sound and any audio device (i.e. frequency emitting device) with the sound at particular frequency being played will be helpful in debilitation of the virus by restriction in proliferation/ destruction of the associated virus with which the resonance frequency matches. This is a fairly cheap technique and of worth trying, since low frequency noise will have no side effects on patients. A resonance audio frequency of this sort, if placed in public spaces such as hospitals, quarantine facilitated places and homes might help a great deal by debilitating the proliferation of the virus. The frequency as stated needs to be verified for its efficacy in treating COVID-19 patients, and I hope the resonance frequency therapy will work, or at least the frequencies will be helpful in releasing stress in general. The frequencies are 171.160 Hz, 174.989 Hz, 1185.131 Hz the complete details regarding administration and calculation of the frequencies are discussed in this manuscript. This treatment along with the presently administered treatment to COVID-19 patients might aid in their quick recovery from illness.
... There is a comprehensive data on human trials demonstrating the beneficial effects of 1,8cineole in various respiratory conditions in the Handbook of Essential Oils edited by Can Baser and Buchbauer reported in the review paper on Essential oils in the treatment of respiratory tract diseases by Horvath and Kamilla [27]. As discussed in the paper 1,8-cineole or eucalyptus EO (Essential oil) can be effectively applied in the treatment of asthma, acute or chronic bronchitis, COPD, common cold, and sinusitis. ...
... peppermint oil) and trans-dermal (e.g. rosemary oil) [27,28]. Oils with a high phenol content, such as thyme and clove, have antiseptic properties. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
During, the present novel Coronavirus pandemic the hospitals are working at their maximum capacity and dedication. A large number of persons are quarantined in their homes/ Govt. facilities with the whole world in lockdown mode. While surveying and going across through the literatures, I came across the resonance frequency therapy which has been tested upto some extent on diseases like lung tumor, Borrelia burgdorferi pathogen responsible for lyme disease, Rubella measles virus, Eschericia Coli pathogen etc. The therapeutic approach is based upon sound and any audio device (i.e. frequency emitting device) with the sound at particular frequency being played will be helpful in debilitation of the virus by restriction in proliferation/ destruction of the associated virus with which the resonance frequency matches. This is a fairly cheap technique and of worth trying, since low frequency noise will have no side effects on patients. A resonance audio frequency of this sort, if placed in public spaces such as hospitals, quarantine facilitated places and homes might help a great deal by debilitating the proliferation of the virus. The frequency as stated needs to be verified for its efficacy in treating COVID-19 patients, and I hope the resonance frequency therapy will work, or at least the frequencies will be helpful in releasing stress in general. The frequencies are 171.160 Hz, 174.989 Hz, 1185.131 Hz the complete details regarding administration and calculation of the frequencies are discussed in this manuscript. This treatment along with the presently administered treatment to COVID-19 patients might aid in their quick recovery from illness.
... This organic oil contains phytochemical compounds with IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 914 (2021) 012072 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1755-1315/914/1/012072 2 specific aromas that promote anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory properties, as well as boost the immune system, improve blood circulation and affect emotions with a calming effect [3][4][5].Various local wisdoms in Indonesia have also utilized this important compound for various remedies and relaxation for the body and mind [6]. Recent findings show that essential oils are able to boost the immune system, thereby helping to prevent and combat diseases that attack the human respiratory system [4,7]. ...
... Series: Earth and Environmental Science 914 (2021) 012072 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1755-1315/914/1/012072 2 specific aromas that promote anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory properties, as well as boost the immune system, improve blood circulation and affect emotions with a calming effect [3][4][5].Various local wisdoms in Indonesia have also utilized this important compound for various remedies and relaxation for the body and mind [6]. Recent findings show that essential oils are able to boost the immune system, thereby helping to prevent and combat diseases that attack the human respiratory system [4,7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Unhealthy lifestyles such as low physical activity, unbalanced nutrition consumption, high workloads, and low emotional management make a person vulnerable to stress. The large-scale lockdowns to reduce COVID-19 transmission also exacerbate the stress level. Regarding organic and complementary therapeutic schemes, both increased relaxation and decreased hypertension are carried out using aromatherapy that involves essential oil formulations. This study aims to identify the characteristics and effects of aromatherapy formulations, including benzoin, nutmeg, and citronella essential oils on relaxation and human blood pressure. The study began by identifying local applications of essential oils through interviews with 20 local people who apply essential oil in their remedies. The method included initial and final measurements of blood pressure in aromatherapy application for three consecutive days. To evaluate aromatherapy profiles, forty respondents were selected purposively and asked about their expression after inhalation. The results showed that application of the aromatherapy formulation reduced systolic pressure by 8.5 mmHg and diastolic pressure by 1.2 mmHg. Most of the respondents considered that the aroma of formulated essential oils has a refreshing and calming effect on their mind. These antidepressant effects are obtained from combination of benzyl cinnamate, geraniol, linalool, myristicin, p-cymene etc in formulated essential oils. This research concluded that inhalation of essential oils formulation provided a relaxing effect and reduced hypertension, significantly.
... In the end, this suggests that EOCs, and by implication EOs are promising (sources of) new drugs and deserve more attention in the future. EOCs also have unique properties that might be useful for some therapeutic applications, e.g. for lung or airway diseases 23,171,382,442 , for transdermal administration 443,444 and diseases of the central nervous system [445][446][447] . ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The increasing level of antimicrobial resistance poses the threat that no suitable antimicrobials will be available for systematic treatment of common diseases. More and more Candida infections are caused by intrinsically and multi-resistant Candida isolates. There is clearly renewed scientific interest in discovering drugs from natural sources, although natural product-based drug discovery is considered intrinsically complex and requires a highly integrated interdisciplinary approach. Medicinal plants that are used to treat infectious diseases appear to be an abundant source of new bioactive secondary metabolites. One such class of plant-based molecules are essential oils which have been used therapeutically for millennia as they have a broad range of biological activities.
... In the end, this suggests that EOCs, are promising (sources of) new drugs and deserve more attention in the future. EOCs also have unique properties that might be useful for some therapeutic applications, e.g. for lung or airway diseases [71][72][73][74] , for transdermal administration 75,76 and diseases of the central nervous system [77][78][79] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) have been used therapeutically for centuries. In recent decades, randomized controlled (clinical) trials have supported efficacy in specific therapeutic indications for a few of them. Some EOs, their components or derivatives thereof have been approved as drugs. Nevertheless, they are still considered products that are mainly used in complementary and alternative medicine. EO components occupy a special niche in chemical space, that offers unique opportunities based on their unusual physicochemical properties, because they are typically volatile and hydrophobic. Here we evaluate selected physicochemical parameters, used in conventional drug discovery, of EO components present in a range of commercially available EOs. We show that, contrary to generally held belief, most EO components meet current-day requirements of medicinal chemistry for good drug candidates.
... A myriad of reports has proved the potential of essential oils as a possible source or as a drug against pathogens causing respiratory infection. Essential oils from Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Melaleuca alternifolia, and Thymus vulgaris were reviewed by Horvath and Acs from European Pharmacopeia [66] and had an effect in vitro, in vivo, and on a human. Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees., Batch, Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris L., Pinus sylvestris, and Mentha piperita have been reported for their inhibitory effect on bacteria that cause lower and upper respiratory infections [67]. ...
... Aromatherapy is a field of complementary medicine that uses EOs to treat and prevent diseases via several routes of administration: Usually topical, massage, inhalation, or oral [13]. Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, anxiolytic, antidepressant, analgesic, and antidiabetic activities of EOs have been studied and reported recently [14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. Scientific evidence on the immunostimulatory effects of EOs is rather fragmentary, but there seems to be a potential for certain EOs to be able to enhance some immune functions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The augmenting acceptance and application of herbal medicine in prevention and treatment of diseases also involve the use of plant essential oils (EOs) through different routes of administration (aromatherapy). Scientific data supporting the efficacy of certain herbal products are continuously growing; however, the cumulative evidence is not always sufficient. The anti-inflammatory properties of EOs have been investigated more extensively and also reviewed in different settings, but so far, our review is the first to summarize the immune-supporting properties of EOs. Our aim here is to synthesize the currently available data on the immune function enhancing effects of EOs. An online search was conducted in the PubMed database, which was terminated at the end of July 2019. Other articles were found in the reference lists of the preselected papers. Studies that applied whole EOs with known components, or single EO constituents under in vitro or in vivo laboratory conditions, or in human studies, and de facto measured parameters related to immune function as outcome measures were included. Two specific fields, EO dietary supplementation for livestock and fish, and forest bathing are also explored. Some EOs, particularly eucalyptus and ginger, seem to have immune function enhancing properties in multiple studies.
... In addition to the aforementioned antimicrobial activities, there are plants that have significant antiviral properties, for example: Origanum vulgare anti-viral inactivation of enteric virus [34]; Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus oil) activity against respiratory viruses [35]; Salvia fruticosa, antiviral activities [36], among other. It is believed that the inhibition of viral replication is attributed to the presence of the monoterpene, sesquiterpene and phenylpropanoid components of the EOs [37]. ...
... The main products obtained from Eucalyptus are essential oils (Small, 2013), mainly used for its antimicrobial (Bachir & Benali, 2012;Mulyaningsih, Sporer, Reichling, & Wink, 2011), antifungal (Gakuubi, Maina, & Wagacha, 2017), antiseptic, astringent (Marzoug et al., 2011), anti-inflammatory (J. Silva et al., 2003), wound healing, disinfectant (Valeriano et al., 2012) and expectorant properties (Horváth & Ács, 2015). Other products obtained from eucalyptus are gum, cellulose and wood, while the essential oil extracted from the leaves is widely employed for medicinal, cosmetic and food industries (S. ...
Article
Background: Eucalyptus genus members have received a great interest worldwide for their antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and insect-repellent properties for cosmetic, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and furniture purposes. Indeed, the application of Eucalyptus essential oil in cosmetic and personal hygiene products is gradually increasing. Also, it has been widely used in the traditional medicine for centuries, in the treatment of respiratory diseases, common cold, influenza, and sinus congestion. Scope and approach: This review addressed botanical and ethnopharmacological aspects of Eucalyptus plants, as also its in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, and current insights with regards to clinical efficacy and safety. Key findings and conclusions: Eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) is the main component present in Eucalyptus oils. According to the previously reported uses of Eucalyptus oils and extracts, there is urgently required further in vivo studies with the distinct Eucalyptus constituents to reveal the secrets beyond the traditional uses for treatment of a wide spectrum of ailments. A great attention has also been given for its nanotechnological applications by food and pharmaceutical industries. Nanoemulsions containing Eucalyptus globulus oil have been recognized for its antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against gram-negative bacteria and the major microorganism responsible for causing fungal infections worldwide (Candida albicans). Moreover, eucalyptol does not present genotoxicity or carcinogenicity. Subacute hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects in animal models have been stated after application of high doses, higher than the estimated LD50 (2400 mg/kg b.w. In rats). However, an in-deep risk assessment on further exposure and toxicity data is highly needed.
... It could be expected that application of inhalable EO encapsulated products will increase in the future because of already developed systems for pulmonary drug delivery, including nanoparticles, microparticles (microspheres), solid lipid nanoparticles, and lipid vesicles, such as liposomes (Mehta et al., 2020). It is well-postulated that EOs and their constituents have strong effects on mitigation and healing of many respiratory diseases and disorders (e.g., Horváth and Ács, 2015), so it could be expected that encapsulated inhalable EOs will be favorized over non-encapsulated drugs, because of enhanced bioavailability, better stability, adjustment of dose and optimization of particle size and morphology, and release and lung deposition characteristics. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) and their main constituents, the terpenes, are widely studied, mostly relating to their antioxidant ability and bioactivity, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and range of other actions in the living systems. However, there is limited information on their bioavailability, especially upon clinical studies. Having in mind both strong biological effects and health benefits of EOs and their specific physicochemical properties (volatility, lipophilic character, low water solubility or insolubility, viscosity, expressed odor, concentration-dependent toxicity, etc.), there is a need for their encapsulation for target delivery. Encapsulation of EOs and their constituents is the prerequisite for enhancing their oxidative stability, thermostability, photostability, shelf life, and biological activity. We considered various carrier types such a (1) monophase and polyphase polysaccharide hydrogel carriers, (2) polysaccharide–protein carriers, and (3) lipid carriers in the context of physicochemical and engineering factors. Physicochemical factors are encapsulation efficiency, chemical stability under gastric conditions, mechanical stability, and thermal stability of carrier matrices. Choice of carrier material also determines the encapsulation technique. Consequently, the engineering factors are related to the advantage and disadvantage of various encapsulation techniques frequently used in the literature. In addition, it was intended to address the interactions between (1) main carrier components, such as polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids themselves (in order to form chemically and mechanically stable structure); (2) main carrier components with pepsin under gastric conditions (in order to form resistant material under gastric conditions); and (3) main carrier components with EOs (in order to enhance encapsulation efficiency), as a necessary precondition for whole process optimization. Finally, different sources for obtaining natural carrier macromolecules are surveyed, especially the agro-waste materials and agricultural and food by-products. This review article highlights the bioavailability aspects of encapsulated EOs and physicochemical and engineering factors concerning natural macromolecule carriers for their target delivery and application.
... The advantages of EOs are that they can easily reach the respiratory tract via inhalation due to their volatility, and because of their complex composition they can exert multiple actions through the modification of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase function as well as the inhibition of the inflammatory mediator production [2,3]. Recent studies have proved the antiinflammatory effects of eucalyptus and lavender EOs, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), and menthol [2,[4][5][6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Thyme (TO), cinnamon (CO), and Ceylon type lemongrass (LO) essential oils (EOs) are commonly used for inhalation. However, their effects and mechanisms on inflammatory processes are not well-documented, and the number of in vivo data that would be important to determine their potential benefits or risks is low. Therefore, we analyzed the chemical composition and investigated the activity of TO, CO, and LO on airway functions and inflammatory parameters in an acute pneumonitis mouse model. The components of commercially available EOs were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Airway inflammation was induced by intratracheal endotoxin administration in mice. EOs were inhaled during the experiments. Airway function and hyperresponsiveness were determined by unrestrained whole-body plethysmography on conscious animals. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured by spectrophotometry from lung tissue homogenates, from which semiquantitative histopathological scores were assessed. The main components of TO, CO, and LO were thymol, cinnamaldehyde, and citronellal, respectively. We provide here the first evidence that TO and CO reduce inflammatory airway hyperresponsiveness and certain cellular inflammatory parameters, so they can potentially be considered as adjuvant treatments in respiratory inflammatory conditions. In contrast, Ceylon type LO inhalation might have an irritant effect (e.g., increased airway hyperresponsiveness and MPO activity) on the inflamed airways, and therefore should be avoided.
... They have also demonstrated efficacy against drug-resistant microbial pathogens [79]. They have been shown to have wound healing properties [81], anti-inflammatory properties and suppression of infection in lung macrophages [82] and have been found to be active against viral and bacterial infections responsible for respiratory illness [83]. EOs have been shown to possess antiviral properties against influenza and SAR-CoV [84,85]. ...
Article
The World Health Organisation (WHO) announced on the 11th March 2020, a pandemic caused by a novel beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, designated COVID-19. The virus emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China has spread across the world to be classed as a global pandemic. The traditional use of medicines from plants can be traced back to 60,000 years. Global interest in development of drugs from natural products has increased greatly during the last few decades. Essential oils (EOs) have been studied through the centuries and are known to possess various pharmaceutical properties. In the present review, we have highlighted the current biology, epidemiology, various clinical aspects, different diagnostic techniques, clinical symptoms, and management of COVID-19. An overview of the antiviral action of EOs along with their proposed mechanism of action and in silico studies conducted, are described. The reported studies of EOs antiviral activity highlight the baseline data about the additive, and/or synergistic effects among primary or secondary phytoconstituents found in individual oils, combinations or blends of oils and between EOs and antiviral drugs. It is hoped that further research will provide better insights of EOs potential to limit viral infection and aids in providing a solutions through natural, therapeutically active agents. lupus erythematosus; SKP2, s-phase kinase-associated protein 2; TNF-, tumour necrosis factor alpha; TPA, Tetradecanoyl-phorbol acetate; WHO, The World Health Organisation.
... Oxygenated monoterpenes such as camphor and terpinen-4ol, which are representative components in the investigated oil, were reported to exhibit many biological activities, comprising anti-leishmania, insecticidal and repellency activity, as well as antimicrobial, anti-infammatory and anti-respiratory tract infections [32][33][34]. Among the minor components, γ-terpinene, camphene, p-cymene, gernanyl p-cymene and α-pinene are of an amount over 2%. ...
... Plants protect themselves from microbial infections by the production of different types of antimicrobial molecules, including essential oils (EOs) and essential oil components. A large number of studies have been published where such compounds were tested for their antimicrobial or antibiofilm activity against either bacterial or fungal species [115][116][117][118]. More recently, several such molecules have also been tested in mixed fungalbacterial settings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fungal and bacterial species interact with each other within polymicrobial biofilm communities in various niches of the human body. Interactions between these species can greatly affect human health and disease. Diseases caused by polymicrobial biofilms pose a major challenge in clinical settings because of their enhanced virulence and increased drug tolerance. Therefore, different approaches are being explored to treat fungal–bacterial biofilm infections. This review focuses on the main mechanisms involved in polymicrobial drug tolerance and the implications of the polymicrobial nature for the therapeutic treatment by highlighting clinically relevant fungal–bacterial interactions. Furthermore, innovative treatment strategies which specifically target polymicrobial biofilms are discussed.
... Essential oils are known as potential antimicrobials and as anti-inflammatory agents to alleviate symptoms and signs of respiratory tract diseases including respiratory tract infections [45], such as flu, cold, sinus congestion and fever [46]. Based on the current knowledge, essential oils and the inhalation aromatherapy could be effective against pandemic SARs-CoV-2 virus and its inflammatory complications [47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the aromatherapy, a branch of phytotherapy, utilizing essential oils for the health maintenance. Essential oils are mainly applied through inhalation (through the respiratory system or olfactory nerves), through topical absorption (through skin) or through ingestion (digestive system). The essential oils are mixtures of many organic compounds, and their biological activity and fragrance are conditioned by their chemical composition. According to the aroma they can be classified into several groups: citrus, herbaceous, camphorous, floral, woody, earthy, minty and spicy. This paper reports a literature relating to the use of essential oils in inhalation aromatherapy. However, this type of aromatherapy does not cure major illnesses but it is effective at relaxation and stress relief, mood enhancement, balance and well-being, relief of minor discomforts and boosting the immune, respiratory and circulatory systems.
... (eucalyptus) belonging to the Myrtaceae family, are Australian endemic species. The leaves of both these plants are a source of EOs used for millenia as antiseptics and with antimicrobial activity against several respiratory tract pathogens, among others [14][15][16][17]. Interestingly, it was observed that bergamot, Chinese star anise, TTO and eucalyptus EOs inhibit influenza type A (H1N1) virus, and they have also been reported to be complementary and alternative treatment options for influenza infections [16]. ...
Article
Influenza viruses are transmitted from human to human via airborne droplets and can be transferred through contaminated environmental surfaces. Some works have demonstrated the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) as antimicrobial and antiviral agents, but most of them examined the liquid phases, which are generally toxic for oral applications. In our study, we describe the antiviral activity of Citrus bergamia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Illicium verum and Eucalyptus globulus vapor EOs against influenza virus type A. In the vapor phase, C. bergamia and M. alternifolia strongly reduced viral cytopathic effect without exerting any cytotoxicity. The E. globulus vapor EO reduced viral infection by 78% with no cytotoxicity, while I. verum was not effective. Furthermore, we characterized the EOs and their vapor phase by the head-space gas chromatography–mass spectrometry technique, observing that the major component found in each liquid EO is the same one of the corresponding vapor phases, with the exception of M. alternifolia. To deepen the mechanism of action, the morphological integrity of virus particles was checked by negative staining transmission electron microscopy, showing that they interfere with the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope, leading to the decomposition of membranes. We speculated that the most abundant components of the vapor EOs might directly interfere with influenza virus envelope structures or mask viral structures important for early steps of viral infection.
... Essential oils from plants have been widely used to treat human respiratory tract infections (Horvath and Acs 2015). In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of an array of essential oils against major swine respiratory pathogens and the potential synergy between nisin and the most active essential oils. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial respiratory infections affecting pigs such as pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pleurisy, are a major health concern in the swine industry and are associated with important economic losses. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial activities of essential oils against major swine respiratory pathogens with a view to developing a potential alternative to antibiotics. Their synergistic interactions with the bacteriocin nisin was also examined. Lastly, we assessed the in vitro biocompatibility of the most efficient essential oils using a pig tracheal epithelial cell line. Of the nine essential oils tested, those from cinnamon, thyme, and winter savory were the most active against Streptococcus suis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus suis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis, and Pasteurella multocida, with minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.156% (v/v). The main component found in cinnamon, thyme, and winter savory oils were cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol, respectively. Treating pre-formed S. suis and A. pleuropneumoniae biofilms with thyme or winter savory oils significantly decreased biofilm viability. We also observed a synergistic growth inhibition of S. suis with mixtures of nisin and essential oils from thyme and winter savory. Concentrations of nisin and cinnamon, thyme and winter savory essential oils that were effective against bacterial pathogens had no effect on the viability of pig tracheal epithelial cells. The present study brought evidence that essential oils are potential antimicrobial agents against bacteria associated with porcine respiratory infections.
... linearis, T. vulgaris, and T. serphyllum, etc.) are known for their traditional us in the treatment of respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, pertussis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, and cough caused by common colds (Begrow et al., 2010;Alamgeer et al., 2018). The essential oil of various thyme species were reported to be active against airways disorders (Horváth and Ács, 2015). The essential oil obtained from T. serrulatus collected from different Ethiopian localities reported the presence of active ingredients such as thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, γ-terpenene, and rosmarinic acid (Asfaw et al., 2000;Damtie et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Thymus is traditionally used for the treatment of hyperactive airways complaints. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the potential tracheal relaxant effect and possible mechanism(s) of the essential oil of Thymus serrulatus (TS Oil) in isolated guinea pig tracheal tissues. The essential oil was obtained from the fresh erial parts of Thymus serrulatus, and its phyto-components were identified by GC-MS analysis. Guinea pig tracheal preparations were used for testing the tracheal relaxant effect of TS Oil with the determination of the mechanism(s) involved in this relaxation. GC-MS findings reveal that terpenes, fragrance constituents, saponins, and higher fatty acids are present in TS Oil. In isolated guinea pig trachea, TS Oil inhibited carbachol (CCh, 1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in a pattern similar to that of dicyclomine. TS Oil, at 0.3 mg/ml, shifted parallel CCh-curves towards the right, followed by a non-parallel shift at higher concentration (1 mg/ml), thus suppressing maximum response in the same manner as produced by dicyclomine. Pretreatment of tissues with TS Oil (1 and 3 mg/ml) also produced a rightward shift of Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) in the same manner as caused by verapamil. Further, TS Oil at low concentrations (0.3 and 1 mg/ml) shifted isoprenaline-induced inhibitory CRCs towards the left and increased cAMP levels in isolated tracheal homogenates similar to papaverine, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor. In the antimicrobial assay performed by the agar well diffusion method, TS Oil was found most active against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus where the zone of inhibition measured was 28 mm. Additionally, there was little difference between standard strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. However, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) showed a small zone of inhibition as compared to standard strains (22 mm). From these results, it can be concluded that the essential oil of T. serrulatus has the potential to produce antimicrobial effects while causing tracheal relaxation mediated possibly by anticholinergic effects, Ca++ channel blockade, and PDE inhibition whereas additional mechanism(s) cannot be ruled out.
... It has been proposed that many EO compounds reach the respiratory tract by inhalation, mainly due to their volatility and successful use in treating other respiratory tract infections. Consequently, EOs can contribute positively to symptoms such as cough, mucus, nasal congestion, runny nose, or sore throat [14,70]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) and their compounds have attracted particular attention for their reported beneficial properties, especially their antiviral potential. However, data regarding their anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential are scarce in the literature. Thus, this study aimed to identify the most promising EO compounds against SARS-CoV-2 based on their physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and toxicity properties. A systematic literature search retrieved 1669 articles; 40 met the eligibility criteria, and 35 were eligible for analysis. These studies resulted in 465 EO compounds evaluated against 11 human and/or SARS-CoV-2 target proteins. Ninety-four EO compounds and seven reference drugs were clustered by the highest predicted binding affinity. Furthermore, 41 EO compounds showed suitable drug-likeness and bioactivity score indices (≥0.67). Among these EO compounds, 15 were considered the most promising against SARS-CoV-2 with the ADME/T index ranging from 0.86 to 0.81. Some plant species were identified as EO potential sources with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, such as Melissa officinalis Arcang, Zataria multiflora Boiss, Eugenia brasiliensis Cambess, Zingiber zerumbet Triboun & K.Larsen, Cedrus libani A.Rich, and Vetiveria zizanoides Nash. Our work can help fill the gap in the literature and guide further in vitro and in vivo studies, intending to optimize the finding of effective EOs against COVID-19.
... (1982) have already presented improvements of spirometric parameters after inhalation of an eucalyptus EO (9%), camphor (35%) and menthol (56%) mix by adults suffering from cold-inhaled air. Eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) is a component already wellstudied and known to have not only anti-microbial and antiinflammatory but also bronchodilator properties (Horváth and Ács. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Allergic diseases are an increasing global burden. Epidemiological and in vivo studies showed that farming environments could protect from allergic asthma. Studies explaining this protective effect mainly focused on the influence of chemical compounds in the molecular size range of proteins and endotoxins. Our study aimed at deciphering the possible role of small-sized semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) of farming aerosols in immunomodulation processes. Bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to aerosol extracts of particulate matter (PM2.5) from farming environments. These cell exposures revealed a decisive effect of the smaller sized fraction (< 3 kDa) compared to extracts including the larger sized fraction. We demonstrated that smaller compounds can induce regulations of inflammatory and allergy-related genes including interleukin-8, xanthine dehydrogenase and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Additionally, we performed a comprehensive chemical investigation of two typical farming aerosols (cow vs. sheep) by applying comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We were able to identify several SVOCs characteristic for the protective cow sheds environment including four key components. Cell exposure with the two farming extracts showed a distinct regulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase PELI2 gene and TLR2 by cow shed extracts. Finally, the regulation of TLR2 corresponded to the regulation that was observed after exposing cells to an artificial mixture of the four key components identified in the cow sheds. In summary, we were able to demonstrate the importance of smaller particle-bound SVOCs found in farming environments concerning their possible contribution to a protective farm effect.
... A plethora of studies are available where essential oils have been studies for antimicrobial purposes as well as for inhalation in traditional practices and in maintaining basic health conditions [6][7][8][9][10][11]. Although there has been a surge in interest and encouraged direction in the field of essential oil research, much of the research published focuses on identifying the potential of a single essential oil [12]. Within aroma therapeutic use, however, essential oils are predominantly used in multiple combinations, as aromatherapy is based on the practice of combining multiple essential oils to achieve an enhanced therapeutic effect [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the potential efficacy of 369 commercial essential oil combinations for antimicrobial, anti-toxic and anti-inflammatory activity with the aim of identifying synergy among essential oils commonly used in combination by aromatherapists for respiratory purposes. Essential oil combinations were assessed for their antimicrobial activities using a panel of Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and yeast strains associated with respiratory tract infections. The antimicrobial activity was measured by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of microbial growth. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (ΣFIC) was calculated to determine the antimicrobial interactions between the essential oils in the combination. The toxicity of the essential oil combinations was tested in vitro using the brine shrimp lethality assay, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells and A549 lung cancer cell lines. In addition, an inflammatory response was evaluated measuring nitric oxide production. The essential oils, when in combination, demonstrated an increased antimicrobial effect, a reduction in toxicity and provided improved anti-inflammatory outcomes. Five distinct combinations [Cupressus sempervirens (cypress) in combination with Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop) in combination with Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Origanum marjorana (marjoram) in combination with M. alternifolia, Myrtus communis (myrtle) in combination with M. alternifolia and Origanum vulgare (origanum) in combination with M. alternifolia] were found to be the most promising, demonstrating antimicrobial activity, reduced cytotoxicity and improved anti-inflammatory effects. With the increased prevalence of respiratory tract infections and the growing antimicrobial resistance development associated with antimicrobial treatments, this study provides a promising complementary alternative for the appropriate use of a selection of essential oil combinations for use in the respiratory tract.
... When used in diffusers and inhalers, the carminative and muscle relaxant properties help relieve cold and flu symptoms. The oil is used for fragrance in soap, cosmetics, and perfume manufacturing [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Star anise belongs to the Schisandraceae family. About 166 varieties exist, and 42 species are grown in the tropics of East Asia and Southeast Asia. Many beneficial effects of star anise have been established, including ameliorating the symptoms of rheumatism and joint pain, warding off insects (insect repellant), lessening cold and flu symptoms, and potentially acting as an antioxidant against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting apoptosis, preventing DNA damage, and expressing a DPPHH radical scavenging effect. Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, star anise has been used as a natural immune-booster and antiviral in teas and aerosol sprays. (Star anise oil is used for fragrance in soap, cosmetics, and perfume manufacturing.) However, more in-depth and extensive research needs to be conducted, investigating the efficacy of star anise's purported beneficial properties. This review discusses the distinctions between the varieties of anise, indications and beneficial effects, modes of application and administration, and contraindications and precautions.
... Immunosuppression by essential oils may contribute to their anti-tumour activities [16]. Inhalation of certain essential oils can attenuate respiratory tract inflammation [17,18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common Gram-negative bacterium associated with nosocomial respiratory infections. Lavender essential oil is mainly used in aromatherapy, but it has several pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Furthermore, it possesses antifungal and antibacterial activities. The anti-inflammatory activity of essential oils may depend on the composition and the ratio of the compounds. The constitution of the essential oils extracted from the different stages of flowering period varies, which makes it plausible that the collection time of the flowers influences the anti-inflammatory effects. Different types of essential oils reduce inflammation acting similarly by modulating the activity and action of the NFκB signalling pathway, which is the major regulator of the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Methods Lavender essential oils were distilled from lavender plant cultivated in Hungary and the flowers were harvested at the beginning and at the end of flowering period. The experiments were carried out on THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage cell line as in vitro cell culture model for monitoring the effects of lavender essential oils and the main compound linalool on P. aeruginosa LPS stimulated inflammation. The mRNA and protein levels of four pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα were determined by Real Time PCR and ELISA measurements. The effects of essential oils were compared to the response to two NFκB inhibitors, luteolin and ACHP. Results Linalool and lavender essential oil extracted from plants at the beginning of flowering period were successful in decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production following LPS pretreatment. In case of IL-8 and IL-1β lavender oil showed stronger effect compared to linalool and both of them acted similarly to NFκB inhibitors. Pretreatments with linalool and lavender essential oil/beginning of flowering period prevented pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to LPS treatment alone. Although lavender essential oil/end of flowering period decreased IL-6, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNA expression in case of LPS pretreatment, it was not capable to reduce cytokine secretion. Conclusion Based on our results it has been proven that lavender essential oil extracted at the beginning of flowering period is a potent inhibitor of the synthesis of four pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-β and TNFα of THP-1 cells. This supports the relevance of the collection of the lavender flowers from early blooming period for essential oil production and for the utilization as an anti-inflammatory treatment.
... Plants are known as a rich source of various bioactive natural compounds, which are widely used in various areas of human life. A cursory look at the literature cited in relation to plants' essential oils in recent years indicates that there is a growing interest in evaluation of the biological activities of various extracts of essential plants, their antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential (Blasiak et al. 2002;Mezzoug et al. 2007;Bakkali et al. 2008;Vicuña et al. 2010;Siddique et al. 2010;Arumugam et al. 2010;Leffa et al. 2012;Gokbulut et al. 2013;Madrigal-Santillán et al. 2013;Oyeyemia and Bakare 2013;Reddy and Devi 2014;Shohayeb et al. 2014;Laribi et al. 2015), and presuming their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases and other human ailments including cancer (Hajhashemi et al. 2002;Raut and Karuppayil 2014;Horváth and Ács 2015). The genus Rosa is one of the largest and most important aromatic and medicinal genera of the Rosaceae family. ...
... Essential oils have been used in traditional medicines, and systematic, scientific examination of the biological activities of essential oil from plants has been conducted for several decades (Borges et al., 2005;Mohammadhosseini et al., 2017). Traditional herbal medicines, including essential oils, have been used for treating infections and modulating various physiological functions (Horvath et al., 2015). Essential oils also have great potential as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer therapeutic agents (Bravo et al., 1980;Pagano et al., 1992;Elledge, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
Plant essential oils are used in products such as fragrances and cosmetics due to their individual aromatic characteristics. Currently, essential oils are not only used in cosmetics but also in pharmaceutical products with anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, anti-cancer, neuroprotective, psychophysiological, or anti-aging effects. Despite their pharmaceutical properties, some studies reported cytotoxic effects in high doses. Therefore, for pharmaceutical purposes, the margin of safety of essential oils needs to be examined. Herein, we evaluated the IC50 of 10 essential oil from Korean native plants: Juniperus chinensis L. var. sargentii Henry, Citrus natsudaidai Hayata, Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus unshiu (Yu. Tanaka ex Swingle) Marcow, Artemisia capillaris Thunb, Aster glehnii F. Schmidt, Juniperus chinensis L, Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold & Zucc, Zanthoxylum piperitum (L.) D, and Cinnamomum loureirii. In addition, gene regulation of the cell-cycle gene and apoptosis marker CASP3 was examined at the IC50 level. The purpose of this study was to describe the toxic concentrations of essential oils extracted from Korean native plants, thereby providing toxic concentration guidelines for inclusion in a toxicity database and in the application of plant essential oils in various fields. © 2021, Korean Society of Wood Science Technology. All rights reserved.
... (Ryu et al. 2014). The primary bioactive components in cardamom, such as alpha terpineol (Horváth and Ács 2015) and 1,8-cineole (Worth et al. 2009), have been attributed to these therapeutic properties, particularly in respiratory disorders like asthma and COPD. According to reports, 1,8-cineole has an inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory molecules such as cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) (Am et al. 2017) and lipoxygenase, which further supports cardamom's antiinflammatory properties (Sengupta et al. 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Molecular diagnostics using RT-PCR has now emerged as the new diagnostic method for clinicians with the dawn of SARS-CoV-2. In India, the popularity and awareness of RT-PCR and particularly the increased availability of testing machines across hospitals has now opened up possibilities of diagnostic tests with RT-PCR. In view of the cytokine storm which is the significant reason for morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients, we proposed to test the usefulness of a multiplex RT-PCR test kit that simultaneously measured inflammatory markers namely, IL-6, TNF– α and IL-10 (IFM) all in one tube. The study included a group of patients who were equally allotted to two treatment arms one of which received standard of care along with a food supplement capsule as a natural anti-inflammatory (RECOVEREEZ FORTE™), and the other group received standard of care that included oral Prednisolone tablets in tapered dosage. RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ consists of potent biomolecules from cardamom extract. A natural product with substantial anti-inflammatory action when consumed early at the onset of symptoms is hereby proven by comparing gene expression profile of inflammatory markers with routinely tested inflammatory parameters such as serum IL-6, CRP and LDH. In addition to predicting worse disease outcomes beforehand, RT-PCR assay tests provides an opportunity for identifying therapeutic window aiding in practicing effective treatment strategy for COVID-19. RT-PCR analysis of IFM together being used in a single multiplex kit is being first reported and such a test as a prognosticator for disease progression does seem promising and worthy of clinicians adopting novel testing modalities in clinical practice. Aim of the study To study the anti-inflammatory response of RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ using RT-PCR based multiplex gene profiling of inflammatory markers in disease prognosis and show its predictability of worsening outcomes and its role in identifying therapeutic window for RECOVEREEZ FORTE™. To show the potentiality of RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ in reducing COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Ct values of the treatment group. Materials and methods This was a short study of a 10-day period where the end point was the negativity of COVID-19 on RT-PCR test or the decline in cycle threshold (Ct) values of the test performed on day 10 when compared to day 0. During the course of the study, patients were given standard treatment and an oral dose of 500 mg of RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ thrice daily, or standard of care and oral Prednisolone in tapered dosage (control group). All essential interventions were included in the standard of care as decided by the attending physician. The RT-PCR results of inflammatory markers were compared to routinely tested parameters such as IL-6, CRP and LDH. Time to clinical improvement was in terms of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test negativity or recovery of COVID-19 symptoms. We enrolled 64 patients, of which 32 were allocated to RECOVEREEZ FORTE ™ group and 32 to the control group. Results The RT-PCR analysis of elevated IFM on day 0 corresponded to above normal protein levels of routinely tested parameters such as serum IL-6, CRP and LDH on day 5. Similarly, elevated IFM on day 5 corresponded to above normal protein levels on day 10. Such an association was equally prevalent in both the control group and RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ group, stipulating that RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ may be used as an alternative to steroids. The obtained results indicate that the RT-PCR assessment predicts worse outcomes 5 days earlier. But, the RT-PCR analysis of elevated IFM on day 0 did not correspond to the above normal protein levels of other parameters on day 10. Hence, indicating that the IFM RT-PCR test cannot predict worse outcomes 10 days earlier. Also, RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ when consumed for a period of 10 days normalized LDH values, compared to the control group. Moreover, IFM RT-PCR test identified a 5-day therapeutic window for RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ against inflammation experienced by patients. In addition to the above findings, the authors also observed that majority of the patients belonging to the treatment group showed recovery from symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat and breathlessness compared to control group by day 5. 12 (37.5%) out of 32 patients and 6 (18.75%) out of 32 patients belonging to the treatment group and control group, respectively, became SARS-CoV-2 negative by day 5, indicating a probable anti-viral action of RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion The IFM RT-PCR test possess 5-day early prediction ability and lacks 10-day prediction ability. Treatment with RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ indicates good anti-inflammatory action which is equivalent to steroids. Intake of RECOVEREEZ FORTE ™ for a period of 5 days depicts persistent anti-inflammatory action, recovery of COVID-19 symptoms and a probable anti-viral action. Moreover, an effective normalization of LDH may be rendered by RECOVEREEZ FORTE™ when consumed for a period of 10 days.
... 1,8-cineole is well known for its mucolytic and spasmolytic action on the respiratory tract with proven clinical efficacy. The drug has also shown therapeutic benefits in inflammatory airway diseases in reducing excessive immune reactions in various preclinical investigations.[3][4][5][6][7][8] Therefore, Soledum ® Capsules Forte 200 mg may be a good potential drug candidate against COVID-19 with a higher incidence of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Soledum Capsules Forte 200 mg is a recipe-free drug in Germany due to its negligible side effects. It is a strong helper against the agonizing symptoms of bronchitis, common colds, and respiratory tract influenza. The gastric-resistant capsules have pure 1,8-cineole as their active ingredient. 1,8-cineole is well known for its mucolytic and spasmolytic action on the respiratory tract with proven clinical efficacy. The drug has also shown therapeutic benefits in inflammatory airway diseases in reducing excessive immune reactions in various preclinical investigations. Therefore, Soledum ® Capsules Forte 200 mg may be a good potential drug candidate against COVID-19 with a higher incidence of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion.
... Eucalyptus is widely used in traditional medicine for its versatile and excellent pharmacological properties. Because of its anti-septic and antispasmodic properties, it is mainly used to treat respiratory complications such as bronchitis, asthma, lower respiratory tract infections, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (Horváth and Ács, 2015). It also increases blood flow and skin temperature (Hayat et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gradual emergence of new bacterial strains, resistant to one or more antibiotics, necessitates development of new antibacterials to prevent us from newly evolved disease-causing, drug-resistant, pathogenic bacteria. Different inorganic and organic compounds have been synthesized as antibacterials, but with the problem of toxicity. Other alternatives of using green products, i.e., the medicinal plant extracts with biocompatible and potent antibacterial characteristics, also had limitation because of their low aqueous solubility and therefore less bioavailability. Use of nanotechnological strategy appears to be a savior, where phytochemicals are nanonized through encapsulation or entrapment within inorganic or organic hydrophilic capping agents. Nanonization of such products not only makes them water soluble but also helps to attain high surface to volume ratio and therefore high reaction area of the nanonized products with better therapeutic potential, over that of the equivalent amount of raw bulk products. Medicinal plant extracts, whose prime components are flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, polyphenolic compounds, and essential oils, are in one hand nanonized (capped and stabilized) by polymers, lipids, or clay materials for developing nanodrugs; on the other hand, high antioxidant activity of those plant extracts is also used to reduce various metal salts to produce metallic nanoparticles. In this review, five medicinal plants, viz ., tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum ), turmeric ( Curcuma longa ), aloe vera ( Aloe vera ), oregano ( Oregano vulgare ), and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus ), with promising antibacterial potential and the nanoformulations associated with the plants’ crude extracts and their respective major components (eugenol, curcumin, anthraquinone, carvacrol, eucalyptus oil) have been discussed with respect to their antibacterial potency.
... [3] and by regulation of NO (nitric oxide) synthesis. [1] These therapeutic effects especially in respiratory ailments like asthma and COPD have been accounted to the predominant bioactive compounds in cardamom such as alpha terpineol, [4] and 1,8-cineole. [5,6] Reports also show the inhibitory action of 1,8-cineole against pro-inflammatory agents such as cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) and lipoxygenase. ...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) provokes demanding immune and inflammatory events. Despite numerous reports on the use and testing of several potent therapeutic options against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), satisfactory treatment has not so far been determined. RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM , consisting of a standardized cardamom extract is a natural product with substantial indications of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory actions along with inhibitory capacity averse to viral targets. In this context, we speculated that RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM may ameliorate adverse effects in COVID-19 patients. Accordingly, in a multicenter prospective, open label, randomized trial, adult COVID-19 patients having mild to moderate symptoms were treated with RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM as an adjunct therapy. Patients were assigned to obtain standard of care along with a three times per day oral dose of 500 mg of RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM for ten days, or standard of care alone. Standard of care comprised all essential interventions, as per the discretion of the attending physician. Time to clinical improvement in terms of biochemical parameters such as IL6, CRP, DDIMER, LDH and an RTPCR COVID-19 test negativity in the treated patients was considered to be the primary end point. We enrolled 60 patients; of which 30 were allocated to RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM and 30 to the control group. The duration of COVID-19 positivity post-intervention was significantly shorter in RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM treated group than in the control group (p<0.001). RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM group also showed significant decrease in the levels of IL6, LDH, D-dimer along with increased lymphocytes confirming its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action. We conclude that RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM can reduce the impact of COVID-19 manifestations and could serve as an alternative to oral steroids. We also suggest that RECOVEREEZ FORTE TM may aid faster recovery mediated by its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in diseases other than COVID-19. The trial was registered in Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI - CTRI/2021/04/033143) in compliance with the International Council on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use – Good Clinical Practice (ICH–GCP) guidelines.
... Natural medicine has sparked a surge of interest in recent years, particularly those employed to combat microbial agents, as numerous strains have exhibited resistance to pharmacological chemicals [5,6]. Drug resistance is found in Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as Gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus [7][8][9][10]. Drug resistance has led researchers to design novel antimicrobial compounds to treat a variety of human infections [9,[11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The chemical composition and biological activity of Eucalyptus essential oils have been studied extensively (EOs). A few of them were tested for antibacterial effectiveness against otitis strains. The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the EOs of eight Tunisian Eucalyptus species were assessed in the present study. Methods Hydrodistillation was used to extract EOs from the dried leaves of eight Eucalyptus species: Eucalyptus accedens, Eucalyptus punctata, Eucalyptus robusta, Eucalyptus bosistoana, Eucalyptus cladocalyx, Eucalyptus lesouefii, Eucalyptus melliodora and Eucalyptus wandoo. They are assessed by GC/MS and GC/FID and evaluated for antibacterial activity using agar diffusion and broth microdilution techniques against three bacterial isolates (Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three reference bacteria strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ATTC 9027; Staphylococcus aureus, ATCC 6538; and Escherichia coli, ATCC 8739). Furthermore, the selected twenty-one major compounds and all values of the inhibition zone diameters were subjected to further statistical analysis using PCA and HCA. Results The EO yields of the studied Eucalyptus species range from 1.4 ± 0.4% to 5.2 ± 0.3%. Among all the species studied, E. lesouefii had the greatest mean percentage of EOs. The identification of 128 components by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed for 93.6% – 97.7% of the total oil to be identified. 1,8-cineole was the most abundant component found, followed by α-pinene, p-cymene, and globulol. The chemical components of the eight EOs, extracted from the leaves of Eucalyptus species, were clustered into seven groups using PCA and HCA analyses, with each group forming a chemotype. The PCA and HCA analyses of antibacterial activity, on the other hand, identified five groups. Conclusion The oils of E. melliodora, E. bosistoana, and E. robusta show promise as antibiotic alternatives in the treatment of otitis media.
... Plants are known as a rich source of various bioactive natural compounds, which are widely used in various areas of human life. A cursory look at the literature cited in relation to plants' essential oils in recent years indicates that there is a growing interest in evaluation of the biological activities of various extracts of essential plants, their antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential (Blasiak et al. 2002;Mezzoug et al. 2007;Bakkali et al. 2008;Vicuña et al. 2010;Siddique et al. 2010;Arumugam et al. 2010;Leffa et al. 2012;Gokbulut et al. 2013;Madrigal-Santillán et al. 2013;Oyeyemia and Bakare 2013;Reddy and Devi 2014;Shohayeb et al. 2014;Laribi et al. 2015), and presuming their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases and other human ailments including cancer (Hajhashemi et al. 2002;Raut and Karuppayil 2014;Horváth and Ács 2015). The genus Rosa is one of the largest and most important aromatic and medicinal genera of the Rosaceae family. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bulgarian Rosa alba L. essential oil is widely used in perfumery, cosmetics and pharmacy. The scarce data about its cytotoxic/genotoxic effect and anti-cytotoxic/anti-genotoxic potential gave us a reason to set our aim: i) to study its cytotoxic/genotoxic activities, iii) to explore its cytoprotective/genoprotective potential against the experimental mutagen N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in two experimental test-systems - barley and human lymphocytes using appropriate endpoints and iii) to assess its antioxidant properties. Findings about chemical composition of rose essential oil would help us to explain its activities. Chromatogaphic profile of rose essential oil was obtained by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and quantificaton of particular constituents was done with a Gas Chromatography-FID system. Superoxide anion radical scavenging, DPPH inhibition and iron ion chelating activity were used to study a possible antioxidant potential of the rose oil. Its defense potential was investigated by induction of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in both test-systems. Cytogenetic analysis showed a low cytotoxic effect in both test-systems and no high genotoxic effect in human lymphocytes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Rose oil possessed a well-expressed anti-cytotoxic/antigenotoxic potential against MNNG manifested by decreasing both of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei regardless of the experimental schemes used. A well expressed concentration-depended free radical scavenging activity of the essential oil was obtained. Current data suggest a promising ethnopharmacological potential of Bulgarian white rose essential oil.
... Anise oils are usually obtained from a distillation process of the fruits with a colorless liquid. The fruit of this oil contains almost 2% of essential oil-the oil of these plants is effectively used in respiratory problems [41]. Essential oils may find new applications in the treatment of RTDs as a result of technical solutions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The plant’s oil is most commonly used as helpful in respiratory disorders. To the local community, herbal medicines are standing for low case treatment. Documenting conventional uses are needed for additional investigation of the bioactive compounds in question. Crucial oils having phenol or aldehydes as main components illustrated the maximum antibacterial action, traced from essential oils having terpene alcohols. Further, essential oils comrising of terpene and ketone had much fragile action, along with inactivity was found in terpene hydrocarbon oils. Depended on these discoveries, cinnamon bark, thyme (Red, geranial, with wild forms), perilla, lemongrass, as well as peppermint oils were choosed for more estimation and their outcomes on the pulmonary tract contamination. In summary, many biological processes of essential oil plants, because of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, in addition to their physiochemical characteristics, potentially make that compound an important drug for the treatment of different respiratory diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Protective immunity is crucial for survival of any species, though the koala as a specialist feeder adapted to an exclusive diet of eucalypts that contain plant secondary metabolites of varying toxicity and of immunomodulatory property. Being constantly exposed to such dietary chemicals it raises the question of their immune effects in a specialist eucalypt feeder. This study demonstrates that natural levels of circulating eucalypt plant secondary metabolites have dose dependent in vitro effects on cytokine expression of koala peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting a potential trade-off of reduced function in multiple arms of the immune system associated with koala’s use of its specialized dietary niche.
Preprint
Full-text available
1,8-cineole is a licensed medicinal product formulated in gastric resistant capsules (200 mg/capsule) in Germany due to its negligible side effects. It is a strong helper against the agonizing symptoms of bronchitis, common colds, and respiratory tract influenza. Additionally, 1,8-cineole is well known for its mucolytic and spasmolytic action on the respiratory tract with proven clinical efficacy. The medicine has also shown therapeutic benefits in inflammatory airway diseases in reducing excessive immune reactions in various preclinical investigations. Therefore, 1,8-cineole can be a good medical candidate against COVID-19 variant omicron, which triggers milder illness with symptoms such as cough, fever, and fatigue in the majority of those it infects. The medicine can keep the airways of patients suffering from respiratory diseases free for breathing. 1,8-cineole can help the patients wining enough time to build antibodies against COVID-19 variant omicron through their immune systems.
Article
Scots pine (SO) and clove (CO) essential oils (EOs) are commonly used by inhalation, and their main components are shown to reduce inflammatory mediator production. The aim of our research was to investigate the chemical composition of commercially available SO and CO by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and study their effects on airway functions and inflammation in an acute pneumonitis mouse model. Inflammation was evoked by intratracheal endotoxin and EOs were inhaled three times during the 24 h experimental period. Respiratory function was analyzed by unrestrained whole-body plethysmography, lung inflammation by semiquantitative histopathological scoring, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and cytokine measurements. α-Pinene (39.4%) was the main component in SO, and eugenol (88.6%) in CO. Both SO and CO significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, and prevented peak expiratory flow, tidal volume increases and perivascular edema formation. Meanwhile, inflammatory cell infiltration was not remarkably affected. In contrast, MPO activity and several inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, KC, MCP-1, MIP-2, TNF-α) were aggravated by both EOs. This is the first evidence that SO and CO inhalation improve airway function, but enhance certain inflammatory parameters. These results suggest that these EOs should be used with caution in cases of inflammation-associated respiratory diseases.
Article
Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) is a wild aromatic plant that laboratorial works have demonstrated the insecticidal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of myrtle essential oils (EOs). The chemical composition may change according to several factors; nevertheless, it was constant in practically all EOs the presence of 1,8-cineole and α-pinene, as main components (>5%). The biological activities, generally low or moderate depended on the organism (insecticidal) and microorganism and on the chemical composition. Generally, the contribution of the components on the biological activities was not determined; nevertheless, they were generally attributed to the presence of the main components (1,8-cineole, α-pinene, eugenol, methyleugenol, myrtenyl acetate, among other components depending on the property). The antioxidant activity of myrtle oil was predominantly determined in cell-free methods, though very few works also used cell model methods. In all cases, the activities were also low to moderate due to the absence of phenol compounds.
Article
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) form two types of biofilms: Bottom biofilm and pellicle. The spatial distribution of cells between these types of biofilms and their dispersion into the liquid medium depends on the ratio of the nutrient components of the growth medium. The inhibition of biofilm formation by NTM can be achieved through the use of lipophilic compounds, such as essential oils (EOs). Method: The biofilm and pellicle formation of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium on four nutrient media under static conditions and in the vapors of six EOs was evaluated by conventional method. The antimycobacterial effect of EOs was also studied by the disc diffusion method. Results: The bottom biofilm and pellicle formation of NTM largely depended on the composition and availability of nutrients. Nutrient media in which NTM form powerful bottom biofilm or pellicle or both have been determined. The growth of studied NTM strains on agar was highly sensitive to the EOs of Scots pine, Atlas cedar, bergamot, and a mixture of EO of different plants. The cultivation of bacteria in the EO vapors also resulted in total suppression of the pellicle for all studied NTM strains. Conclusions: Our data clearly indicate that the carbon-nitrogen ratio is involved in the regulation of the spatial distribution of the biofilm. The preventing effect of EOs vapors, especially the synergistic action of mixture of EOs on the biofilm and pellicle formation by NTMs can be observed.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection among patients admitted in ICUs. It results in prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay, excess healthcare costs, and higher mortality. Objective: This study aims to assess the effect of nebulized eucalyptus (NE) on ventilator associated pneumonia in ventilated patients. Method: We performed a randomized clinical trial study in three intensive care units of educational hospital. Seventy intubated patients that likely required mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours were selected through purposive sampling and randomly divided into NE (n = 35) and Placebo (n = 35) groups. NE group received 4 ml (5%) eucalyptus in 6 ml normal saline (NS) every 8 h. Placebo group received only 10 ml NS in the same way. At the fifth, ninth day and before extubation VAP was diagnosed through modified clinical pulmonary infection score (MCPIS). Results: VAP was found in 11 (31.4%) patients receiving NE and in 23 (65.7%) patients in the control group (P = 0.004). The median of duration of intubation in study population was 9.4 ± 3.75 (3-14 day) (P = 0.13). Patients with pneumonia had longer intubation than non-infected patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion: NE can reduce ventilator associated pneumonia in ventilated patients.
Article
The antimicrobial effects of essential oils are commonly cited within aromatherapeutic texts for use in respiratory tract infections. These essential oils are inhaled or applied to the skin to treat infections and manage symptoms associated with these conditions. A limited number of these essential oils have been scientifically studied to support these claims, specifically, against respiratory pathogens. This study reports on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 49 commercial essential oils recommended for respiratory tract infections, and identifies putative biomarkers responsible for the determined antimicrobial effect following a biochemometric workflow. Essential oils were investigated against nine pathogens. Three essential oils, Amyris balsamifera (amyris), Coriandrum sativum (coriander) and Santalum austrocaledonicum (sandalwood) were identified as having greater activity (MIC = 0.03–0.13 mg/ml) compared to the other essential oils investigated. The essential oil composition of all 49 oils were determined using Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis and the GC-MS data analysed together with the antimicrobial data using chemometric tools. Eugenol was identified as the main biomarker responsible for antimicrobial activity in the majority of the essential oils. The ability of a chemometric model to accurately predict the active and inactive biomarkers of the investigated essential oils against pathogens of the respiratory tract was 80.33%.
Article
A undescribed phenolic glycoside, trochinenol A (1), was isolated from the flowers of Trollius chinensis Bunge and the structure was identified by spectroscopic methods. Its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects were investigated by broth microdilution and NF-κB reporter gene assays. Consequently, compound 1 exhibited an appreciable effect against Staphylococcus aureus with the MIC value of 6.25 µg/mL. Besides, it showed moderate effect against TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB pathway.
Chapter
Including edible oils in the diet has clear health benefits, mainly because they are good antioxidant sources. Among the wide variety of oil types, fish oil and olive oil have been reported as rich sources of long-chain ω-3 (LC ω-3) and ω-6 fatty acids, which play a crucial role in various cellular processes. Unsaturated oils have been used to treat, prevent, or ameliorate neurodegenerative diseases in experimental models and human patients. While several reports on the neuroprotective effect of LC ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids have been published, the mechanism of action underlying this effect has not been widely studied. In this chapter, we will focus on the use of synaptosomes as a valuable research tool. Synaptosomes loaded with quinolinic acid (agonist for N-methyl D-aspartate receptor) mimic some effects of Huntington’s disease, a hereditary neurodegenerative condition. This model provides information about synaptic transmission and the composition of the plasma membrane involved in neural communication. We also provide recent evidence on the neuroprotective effect of fatty acids from fish and olive oils, both in clinical studies and experimental models, highlighting the neuroprotective effect of fatty acids when incorporated into synaptosome’s membrane and by modifying the signaling pathways involving peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors.
Article
Full-text available
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) is a popular aromatic plant native to the Mediterranean basin and cultivated worldwide that is valued for the nutritional and health benefits of its fruits. Headspace solid-phase microextraction of 12 fennel accessions of cultivated (F. vulgare subsp. vulgare) and wild forms (F. vulgare subsp. piperitum) of different origins was carried out for assessing their volatile distribution. Fifty-four volatiles were identified, with ethers amounting for the major class at ca. 52− 99% attributed to the abundance of (E)-anethole and estragole. Several subsp. vulgare accessions proved to be excellent sources of the chief aroma (E)-anethole (95.9−98.4%), whereas high levels of estragole at ca. 72% were observed in subsp. piperitum from Minia and Khartoum and must be considered in the safety assessment of fennel. Other volatile classes were detected including ketones, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, and hydrocarbons (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes). Fenchone exceeded 15% of the total volatiles in some fennel specimens, linked to a conspicuous bitter aftertaste. The members of subsp. piperitum were more enriched in monoterpene hydrocarbons with sabinene found exclusively in these, while subsp. vulgare comprised a higher content of ethers. Principle component analysis determined isoterpinolene as a special component in subsp. piperitum. In all specimens from the same group, estragole was the most distinguished volatile compound according to the findings from orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis. The highest estimated estragole levels were detected in subsp. piperitum from Minia at 89.8 mg/g. This comparative study provides the first comprehensive insight into volatile profiling of 12 fennel fruit varieties.
Article
Full-text available
A multiple robot control architecture including a plurality of robotic agricultural machines including a first and second robotic agricultural machine. Each robotic agricultural machine including at least one controller configured to implement a plurality of finite state machines Within an individual robot control architecture (IRCA) and a global information module (GIM) communicatively coupled to the IRCA. The GIMs of the first and second robotic agricultural machines being configured to cooperate to cause said first robotic agricultural machine and said second agricultural machine to perform at least one agricultural task.
Article
Full-text available
Thymol, a naturally occurring monocyclic phenolic compound derived from Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory property in vivo and vitro. However, the mechanism of thymol is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of thymol on allergic inflammation in OVA-induced mice asthma and explore its mechanism. The model of mouse asthma was established by the induction of OVA. Thymol was orally administered at a dose of 4, 8, 16mg/kg body weight 1h before OVA challenge. At 24h after the last challenge, mice were sacrificed, and the data were collected by various experimental methods. The results revealed that pretreatment with thymol reduced the level of OVA-specific IgE, inhibited recruitment of inflammatory cells into airway, decreased the levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in BALF. Moreover, the pathologic changes of lung tissues were obviously ameliorated and goblet cell hyperplasia was effectively inhibited by the pretreatment of thymol. In addition, thymol reduced the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and blocked the activation of NF-κB pathway. All data suggested that thymol ameliorated airway inflammation in OVA-induced mouse asthma, possibly through inhibiting NF-κB activation. These findings indicated that thymol may be used as an alternative agent for treating allergic asthma.
Article
Full-text available
S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide (NO) and thus is a key homeostatic regulator of airway smooth muscle tone and inflammation. Decreased levels of GSNO in the lungs of asthmatics have been attributed to increased GSNO catabolism via GSNO reductase (GSNOR) leading to loss of GSNO- and NO- mediated bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions. GSNOR inhibition with the novel small molecule, N6022, was explored as a therapeutic approach in an experimental model of asthma. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized and subsequently challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Efficacy was determined by measuring both airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) upon methacholine (MCh) challenge using whole body plethysmography and pulmonary eosinophilia by quantifying the numbers of these cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Several other potential biomarkers of GSNOR inhibition were measured including levels of nitrite, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and inflammatory cytokines, as well as DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). The dose response, onset of action, and duration of action of a single intravenous dose of N6022 given from 30 min to 48 h prior to MCh challenge were determined and compared to effects in mice not sensitized to OVA. The direct effect of N6022 on airway smooth muscle tone also was assessed in isolated rat tracheal rings. N6022 attenuated AHR (ED50 of 0.015 +/- 0.002 mg/kg; Mean +/- SEM) and eosinophilia. Effects were observed from 30 min to 48 h after treatment and were comparable to those achieved with three inhaled doses of ipratropium plus albuterol used as the positive control. N6022 increased BALF nitrite and plasma cGMP, while restoring BALF and plasma inflammatory markers toward baseline values. N6022 treatment also attenuated the OVA-induced increase in NFkappaB activation. In rat tracheal rings, N6022 decreased contractile responses to MCh. The significant bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions of N6022 in the airways are consistent with restoration of GSNO levels through GSNOR inhibition. GSNOR inhibition may offer a therapeutic approach for the treatment of asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases. N6022 is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory lung disease.
Article
Full-text available
The increasing resistance of microorganisms to conventional chemicals and drugs is a serious and evident worldwide problem that has prompted research into the identification of new biocides with broad activity. Plants and their derivatives, such as essential oils, are often used in folk medicine. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants. Essential oils contain a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are capable of inhibiting or slowing the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Essential oils and their components have activity against a variety of targets, particularly the membrane and cytoplasm, and in some cases, they completely change the morphology of the cells. This brief review describes the activity of essential oils against pathogenic bacteria.
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: GeloMyrtol® forte (Myrtol®) is a phytomedicine obtained by distillation from essential oils. The trial was conducted to confirm the efficacy of Myrtol® in the treatment of acute bronchitis. Methods: Patients with acute bronchitis and without confounding co-morbidity or co-medication were randomly assigned to treatment with either Myrtol® 300 mg 4 times daily or matched placebo in double-blind, parallel-group fashion. Signs and symptoms were evaluated by the investigator at baseline and after 7, 10 and 14 days of treatment; intake of medication, wellbeing and symptoms were recorded daily by the patient in the patients' diaries. Findings: 413 patients were enrolled and randomised (Myrtol®: 202; Placebo: 211); 398 had at least one on-treatment efficacy evaluation (Myrtol®: 196; Placebo: 202). The mean change in coughing fits from D01 (baseline) to D07-D09 (after about one week treatment) was 62.1% (95% CI: 57.6-66.6%) and 49.8% (95% CI: 44.6-55.0%) for treatment with Myrtol® and placebo, respectively (p<0.0001). With Myrtol®, the median time to 50% reduction in coughing fits was statistically significantly shorter and there were more patients without day-time coughing fits; there also were statistically significantly less day-time coughing fits, less difficulty coughing up, less sleep disturbance due to night-time coughing; with Myrtol® there was less symptomatic impairment (composite bronchitis severity score and subscores) and significant more patients had a clinically satisfying response to the investigational treatment.Both treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusions: Myrtol® is statistically significantly superior to placebo in treating acute bronchitis.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents are the mainstay of acute external otitis (AEO) treatment. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a combination herbal drop (Lamigex) composed of essential oils from Syzygium aromaticum, Lavandula angustifolia, and Geranium robertianum in the alleviation of AEO symptoms and compared its effects to those of ciprofloxacin 0.3% drop. Methods: Seventy patients were randomly assigned to receive ciprofloxacin 0.3% (n = 35) or Lamigex (n = 35) drop. Each group was administered with three drops every 12 hours for a week. Patients were examined for AEO symptoms and ear discharge cultures at baseline as well as at the end of trial. Pain severity was also recorded using a visual analogue scale at baseline, the 3(rd) day, and the 7(th) day of the trial. Results: All assessed symptoms (tenderness, itching, erythema, edema and discharge) were equally improved in the ciprofloxacin and Lamigex groups by the end of trial (p > 0.05). There were remarkable reductions in the visual analogue scale score by the end of trial in both groups (p < 0.001). However, the rate of pain improvement was not found to be significantly different between the groups, either at the 3(rd) or 7(th) day of trial (p > 0.05). The numbers of positive cultures for all tested microorganisms were clearly reduced by the end of the trial in both groups but were not significantly different between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The herbal combination drop that was investigated in the present study exhibited good efficacy in reducing the burden of infection as well as AEO symptoms.
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils derived from aromatic plants possess useful properties concerning human health, such as antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. They can be used as natural alternatives to synthetic preparations to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms. They are used successfully to treat respiratory tract, digestive system and skin infections. Many of them may be applied in anticancer therapy, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders, as well as to reduce the level of cholesterol and decrease and regulate the glucose level. Due to their ability to stimulate adrenal and estrogen hormone production and their antimicrobial properties, they are useful in the treatment of gynecological diseases. Oils are commonly used in the food and cosmetic industry. The present paper describes recent patents concerning potential uses of essential oils in human health and treatment of diseases.
Article
Full-text available
Among promising alternative methods to control food spoilage much attention is being paid to the use of essential oils (EOs), and lately also to their activity in vapor phase. Until now, no standard assay exists, and there are many methods used by different authors, but any of them is suitably adapted for fast screening of large quantities of samples. We have modified most commonly used disc volatilization method by using four-section Petri dish (PD, 90 mm diameter), large filter paper disc (85 mm diameter) evenly impregnated with EO and medium containing lid. In comparison to normal disc volatilization method, labor and material needed are several times reduced, while the composition of headspace is more uniform than in case of 6 mm disc, where different volatility of particular compounds could influence the results. Sixty nine EOs were tested for its antimicrobial activity against three bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium digitatum). Thirty nine EOs inhibited at least one microorganism, Armoracia rusticana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum being the most active, followed by EOs of Eugenia caryophyllata, Origanum compactum, Origanum vulgare, Pimenta racemosa, Thymus serpyllum and Thymus vulgaris inhibiting all six or five microorganisms, respectively. According to our opinion, this method is suitable for screening of large quantities of samples for antimicrobial activity in vapor phase.
Article
Full-text available
Bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics is a health problem. Essential oils (EOs) possess antibacterial properties and have been screened as potential sources of novel antimicrobial compounds. Terpenes and terpenoids are components derived from EOs. Some of these EOs show inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Carvacrol has specific effects on S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Perilla oil suppresses expression of α-toxin, Staphylococcus enterotoxin A and B and toxic shock syndrome toxin. Geraniol shows good activity in modulating drug resistance in several gram-negative species. EOs could act as biopreservatives, reducing or eliminating pathogenic bacteria and increasing the overall quality of animal and vegetable food products. Although clinical studies are scarce, the uses of EOs for topical administration and as penetration enhancers for antiseptics are promising. Little information exists for oral administration.
Article
Full-text available
Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Myrtaceae) is the principal source of eucalyptus oil in the world and has been used as an antiseptic and for relieving symptoms of cough, cold, sore throat, and other infections. The oil, well known as 'eucalyptus oil' commercially, has been produced from the leaves. Biological properties of the essential oil of fruits from E. globulus have not been investigated much. The present study was performed to examine the antimicrobial activity of the fruit oil of E. globulus (EGF) and the leaf oils of E. globulus (EGL), E. radiata Sieber ex DC (ERL) and E. citriodora Hook (ECL) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Furthermore, this study was attempted to characterize the oils as well as to establish a relationship between the chemical composition and the corresponding antimicrobial properties. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by GLC-MS. The oils and isolated major components of the oils were tested against MDR bacteria using the broth microdilution method. EGF exerted the most pronounced activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ~ 250 µg/ml). EGF mainly consisted of aromadendrene (31.17%), whereas ECL had citronellal (90.07%) and citronellol (4.32%) as the major compounds. 1,8-cineole was most abundant in EGL (86.51%) and ERL (82.66%). The activity of the oils can be ranked as EGF > ECL > ERL ~ EGL. However, all the oils and the components were hardly active against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Aromadendrene was found to be the most active, followed by citronellol, citronellal and 1,8-cineole.
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition of the essential oils of Eryngium campestre, E. thorifolium, and E. creticum (Apiaceae), growing in the Aegean region of Turkey (Mount Sandras, Denizli), was determined by direct thermal desorption (DTD)-GC/MS analyses. A total of 49 components were identified in the oils, α-pinene and hexanal being the major compounds. The three essential oils were also tested for their inhibitory activity of nine different methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by the agar disc diffusion method. The anti-MRSA activity of E. thorifolium oil, the most active of the three oils, was comparable with those of the reference antibiotic vancomycin and oregano oil, although somewhat lower.
Article
Full-text available
Use of essential oils for controlling Candida albicans growth has gained significance due to the resistance acquired by pathogens towards a number of widely-used drugs. The aim of this study was to test the antifungal activity of selected essential oils against Candida albicans in liquid and vapour phase and to determine the chemical composition and mechanism of action of most potent essential oil. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different essential oils in liquid phase, assayed through agar plate dilution, broth dilution & 96-well micro plate dilution method and vapour phase activity evaluated through disc volatilization method. Reduction of C. albicans cells with vapour exposure was estimated by kill time assay. Morphological alteration in treated/untreated C. albicans cells was observed by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and chemical analysis of the strongest antifungal agent/essential oil has been done by GC, GC-MS. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal effect followed by mentha (Mentha piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) essential oil. The MIC of lemon grass essential oil in liquid phase (288 mg/l) was significantly higher than that in the vapour phase (32.7 mg/l) and a 4 h exposure was sufficient to cause 100% loss in viability of C. albicans cells. SEM/AFM of C. albicans cells treated with lemon grass essential oil at MIC level in liquid and vapour phase showed prominent shrinkage and partial degradation, respectively, confirming higher efficacy of vapour phase. GC-MS analysis revealed that lemon grass essential oil was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.2%); α-citral or geranial (36.2%) and β-citral or neral (26.5%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (7.9%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.8%). Lemon grass essential oil is highly effective in vapour phase against C. albicans, leading to deleterious morphological changes in cellular structures and cell surface alterations.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this investigation was to develop a fast and convenient method for the determination of (-)-linalool in human whole blood to facilitate pharmacokinetic studies. Analytical protocols were elaborated for three different GC/MS sampling techniques, i.e., static headspace (s-HS), headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME), and liquid-liquid partition. In principle, all tested methods were feasible, but s-HS had the greatest benefit because of the easy handling of the blood samples and its short analysis time. For s-HS two different incubation temperatures were tested (40 degrees C and 60 degrees C). The limit of detection was slightly lower when samples were incubated at 60 degrees C, but the same quantitative results were achieved using alpha-terpineol as internal standard. An accurate and sensitive method for the quantification of (-)-linalool in blood samples after either inhalation or percutaneous application, as well as pharmacokinetic data are presented.
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Inula graveolens and Santolina corsica essential oils on Staphylococcus aureus and investigate their effects at the cellular level. The mode of inhibition of both essential oils against S. aureus ATCC 6538P (CIP 53.156) was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The effects of time and treatment dose on cell viability were determined by time-kill and bacteriolysis assays. Marked structural changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A bactericidal mode of inhibition was established for both essential oils, which rapidly reduced the cell viability of S. aureus at their MIC (5 mg.ml(-1)). No lysis occurred after treatments with the MIC and eight times the MIC of each essential oil. Invaginations of the plasmic membrane with thickenings of the cell wall as well as an aggregation of the cytoplasmic contents were observed in S. aureus cells treated with the MIC of both essential oils. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic membrane and the cell wall are involved in the toxic action of Inula graveolens and Santolina corsica essential oils.
Article
Full-text available
Eucalyptus oil (EO) and its major component, 1,8-cineole, have antimicrobial effects against many bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), viruses, and fungi (including Candida). Surprisingly for an antimicrobial substance, there are also immune-stimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and spasmolytic effects. Of the white blood cells, monocytes and macrophages are most affected, especially with increased phagocytic activity. Application by either vapor inhalation or oral route provides benefit for both purulent and non-purulent respiratory problems, such as bronchitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a long history of folk usage with a good safety record. More recently, the biochemical details behind these effects have been clarified. Although other plant oils may be more microbiologically active, the safety of moderate doses of EO and its broad-spectrum antimicrobial action make it an attractive alternative to pharmaceuticals. EO has also been shown to offset the myelotoxicity of one chemotherapy agent. Whether this is a general attribute that does not decrease the benefit of chemotherapy remains to be determined. This article also provides instruction on how to assemble inexpensive devices for vapor inhalation.
Article
In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study the efficacy of Cineol was studied in 51 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases for 8 weeks. The objective lung function parameters airway resistance and specific airway resistance were reduced clinically relevant by 21% and 26%, which was statistically significant in comparison to the placebo group. According to the pathomechanisms of the bronchial obstruction the improvement of lung function is a result of the increase of mucociliary clearance and the anti-inflammatory effect of Cineol. Application of an effective secretolytic as Cineol with its additional benefits in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is a useful medication resulting a good tolerable recovery of symptoms. According to the results of this study, therapy with Cineol is a justified therapeutic attempt interrupting the visious circle of pathomechanisms in airway obstruction - especially under socio-economic aspects.
Article
In former controlled investigations Ambroxol and Cineol were shown to improve FEV1 and FVC in patients with COPD versus placebo. To compare the effects of oral therapy with Cineol (3 x 200 mg/day), a monoterpene of eucalyptus oil, and Ambroxol (3 x 30 mg/day) after a treatment over one week, a randomized double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over trial in 29 patients with COPD (which showed at least a 15% reversibility in FEV1 after 200 μg inhaled Fenoterol) was performed. The parameters of interest were lung function (including bodyplethysmography with Raw and sGaw), peak-flow protocol and a dyspnoe score. A constant co-therapy with inhaled steroids and with Theophyllin was allowed. Four patients had to be excluded from the study because of acute upper airway infections and one patient because of an allergic exanthem under therapy with Ambroxol. The lung function improved from day 1 (before therapy) to day 7 (2.5 hours after therapy) concerning VC (p < 0.05), Raw (p < 0.005) and sGaw (p < 0.005) statistically significant for both drugs - Cineol and Ambroxol. FEV1 also improved, but without significance. Only under therapy with Cineol ITGV was reduced from 4.41 to 4.20 (p < 0.05), without any change under Ambroxol. All parameters of lung- function, peak-flow (not significant) and the symptom-score (for dyspnoe at rest) showed better improvement under therapy with Cineol, but field to reach statistical significance in comparison with Ambroxol because of the small number of patients (for ITGV p-value 0.08). The cooperation-independant parameters of plethysmography showed higher p values than only VC and FEV1 indicating that plethysmography is a better instrument for studies comparing drugs. In summary, the expectorant Cineol seems to have an additional bronchodilator effect.
Chapter
Aromatic and medicinal plants, through their secondary metabolism, provide a complex mixture of volatile molecules known as essential oils. These volatile molecules exert antibacterial activity that has been used in folk medicine for centuries. During the last few decades, the emergence of antibacterial resistance has forced us to search for new and efficient antimicrobial agents. The significant number of studies on the use of essential oils and their components against multidrug-resistant bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa show the exceptional potential of these natural products to curb the development of antibacterial resistance. Moreover, the use of essential oils and their components in combination with antibiotics may increase bacterial susceptibility, thus limiting resistance.
Article
Background: Relentless chronic pulmonary inflammation is the major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While immunomodulating therapies such as prednisolone and ibuprofen may be beneficial, their use is limited by side effects. Macrolides have immunomodulatory properties and long term use dramatically improves prognosis in diffuse panbronchiolitis, a condition with features in common with the lung disease of CF. Methods: To determine if azithromycin (AZM) improves clinical parameters and reduces inflammation in patients with CF, a 3 month prospective randomised double blind, placebo controlled study of AZM (250 mg/day) was undertaken in adults with CF. Monthly assessment included lung function, weight, and quality of life (QOL). Blood and sputum collection assessed systemic inflammation and changes in bacterial flora. Respiratory exacerbations were treated according to the policy of the CF Unit. Results: Sixty patients were recruited (29 men) of mean (SD) age 27.9 (6.5) years and initial forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 56.6 (22.3)% predicted. FEV1% and forced vital capacity (FVC)% predicted were maintained in the AZM group while in the placebo group there was a mean (SE) decline of –3.62 (1.78)% (p=0.047) and –5.73 (1.66)% (p=0.001), respectively. Fewer courses of intravenous antibiotics were used in patients on AZM (0.37 v 1.13, p=0.016). Median C reactive protein (CRP) levels declined in the AZM group from 10 to 5.4 mg/ml but remained constant in the placebo group (p<0.001). QOL improved over time in patients on AZM and remained unchanged in those on placebo (p=0.035). Conclusion: AZM in adults with CF significantly improved QOL, reduced CRP levels and the number of respiratory exacerbations, and reduced the rate of decline in lung function. Long term AZM may have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality in patients with CF. Further studies are required to define frequency of dosing and duration of benefit.
Article
In bacteria, structural changes of outer membrane protein (OMP) composition may have an effect on the adhesive ability and pathogenic properties of the organisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop an intrinsic resistance to a wide range of biocides, which is associated with the nature of its outer membrane. The aim of our study was to examine how the essential oils of cinnamon bark and clove modify the OMP composition of the human pathogen P. aeruginosa strains and to identify the structure of proteins that are considerably changed after incubation with essential oils. Chemical composition of the oils was analysed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Eugenol (83.7%) was the main component of the clove oil, while trans-cinnamic aldehyde (73.2%) was the main constituent in cinnamon bark oil. Values for the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oils were determined by a modified tube dilution method. The oils were administered to the culture at concentrations of 0.5 × MIC and 2 × MIC and incubated for 60 min. After OMP preparation, the structure of proteins was analysed by MALDI-TOF/MS. Cinnamon and clove oil could influence the OMP composition of Pseudomonas strains. Proteins with molecular weights of 42.7 kDa and 79.4 kDa disappeared after treatment with cinnamon and clove oil, respectively. Quantitative changes in the protein profile may contribute to the explanation of the antibacterial effect of cinnamon bark and clove essential oils on pathogenic Pseudomonas strains. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Aims: Lavender essential oil (Lvn) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. Bronchial asthma is characterized by bronchial allergic inflammation with airway remodeling. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of Lvn on experimentally induced bronchial asthma in a murine model. Main methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized by an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) at days 0 and 14, and subsequently challenged with nebulized OVA on days 28-30 (Control-Asthma group). Mice in the treatment group inhaled Lvn on days 14-31 (Lvn-Asthma group). The allergic inflammatory response was determined on days 32 and 33. Key findings: An increase in airway resistance was inhibited in the Lvn-Asthma group than in the Control-Asthma group. The Lvn-Asthma group showed lower total cell numbers and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and peribronchial and perivascular tissues when compared with the Control-Asthma group. The Lvn-Asthma group also had less mucin hyperplasia than the Control-Asthma group. Furthermore, the Lvn-Asthma group showed lower interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 cytokine levels in BAL fluids, as well as reduced IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA expression in lung tissue, compared with the Control-Asthma group and determined by FlowCytomix and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. In addition, Lvn inhalation reduced Muc5b mRNA expression in the lungs without significantly changing the expression of Muc5ac mRNA. Significance: Lvn inhibits allergic inflammation and mucous cell hyperplasia with suppression of T-helper-2 cell cytokines and Muc5b expression in a murine model of asthma. Consequently, Lvn may be useful as an alternative medicine for bronchial asthma.
Article
The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and α-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), β-eudesmol (23), and τ-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cinnamomum species have been widely used in many traditional systems of medicine around the world. In the Malaysian traditional system of medicine, the leaves, stem bark and stem wood of Cinnamomum iners, Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum altissimum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum have been used to treat wound infections. To study the antibacterial effects of Cinnamomum iners, Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum altissimum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum against common bacteria found in wound infections with primary focus on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Materials and methods: The crude extracts from the leaves, stem-bark and stem-wood of Cinnamomum iners, Cinnamomum porrectum, Cinnamomum altissimum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum were obtained using sequential extraction with hexane, ethylacetate, methanol and water. The volatile oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. The antibacterial activities of extracts were investigated using disk diffusion assays and broth microdilution assays. Results: The volatile oils obtained from the stem-bark of Cinnamomum altissimum, Cinnamomum porrectum and Cinnamomum impressicostatum have shown significant antibacterial activity against a wide range of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including MRSA. A few test extracts have shown better activity against MRSA as compared to methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Amongst all the test extracts, Cinnamomum impressicostatum stem-bark water extract produced the largest inhibition zone of 21.0mm against MRSA while its inhibition zone against MSSA was only 8.5mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this extract against MRSA was 19.5 μg mL(-1) and the corresponding minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 39.0 μg mL(-1). Conclusions: This study has scientifically validated the traditional use of Cinnamomum species in treating wound infections. Of high scientific interest was the observation that the antibacterial effect of Cinnamomum impressicostatum stem-bark crude water extract against MRSA was significantly higher than its effect against MSSA, suggesting that the extract contains a compound(s) with higher specific neutralising activity against the drug resistance markers of MRSA.