Conference Paper

Potential of Dynamically Adaptable Simulation Models for Virtual Commissioning

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Virtual commissioning (VC) is used to test control code deployed on Programmable Logical Controllers. Simulation models of a plant are the core of any VC approach. Simulation models should represent the plant in a way so that the correct process execution can be tested under customers’ conditions. Simulation models of a plant are usually not built monolithically, but by many partial simulation models that represent the modules or components of the investigated plant. To ensure that the VC is efficient and provides helpful results, these partial simulation models can be implemented at different levels of detail, depending on the current test scenario. Usually, the definition of the modules’ and components’ level of detail is fixed. However, situations exist where more than one level of detail can be adequate. A dynamically adaptable level of detail seems beneficial to e. g. keep computing time at a reasonable level and to ensure meaningful results of the plants simulation model. However, no method or approach exists so far to handle a dynamically adaptable level of detail. This paper discusses potentials and challenges of a dynamically adaptable level of detail and shows possible solution contributions that could yield benefits for a VC approach.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... [8]. In order to simplify the generation of the simulation model, an approach originally developed for the generation of simulation models in plant engineering [9] is transferred to building automation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to several challenges such as faster development cycles or growing customer demands, the engineering of machines and plants is becoming increasingly complex. Methods such as model-based development and virtual commissioning (i.e. an early commissioning of plant control by means of virtual machine models) are known in theory, academia and industry. These methods can significantly contribute to face time, quality and cost challenges within the development of machines and plants. However, the application and implementation of these methods and related tools are a major task. One challenge is the integration of several models in various description languages. In addition, the usage often fails because of a lack of willingness and knowledge. In addition, innovative methods also require new work- and data flows in the respective enterprises. Therefore, the challenge is to cope with historically grown structures. For this reason, this paper proposes an approach to address the challenge of introducing model-based development and virtual commissioning in enterprises in the field of machinery and plant engineering. After presenting a novel three-step methodology to introduce these methods, the theoretical implementation of virtual commissioning is described in detail. Afterwards, an industrial application example with explanation of the realization of virtual commissioning is presented and critically discussed. Finally, a summary with results and benefits and an insight to future research aspects with regard to the design of cyber-physical system and related topics is given.
Conference Paper
Virtual commissioning (VC) as a method can be applied in many industries. The target of VC is to test control code as early as possible and enable thereby a smoother and faster execution of real commissioning. A crucial point in conducting simulation particularly within VC is that used simulation models must be sufficiently meaningful regarding the appropriate use case. An appropriate level of detail of used simulation models is therefore essential. A systematic classification of which parts of an automated plant should be simulated at what respective level of detail is, however, not available at present time. The following article follows the hypothesis that interactions between (production) processes and resources, emerged during the engineering process, allow for the identification of influence factors that play a key role in identifying the appropriate level of detail of simulation models. The Domain-Mapping-Matrix (DMM) and a rule-based approach can be used to analyse these interactions.
Conference Paper
Virtual commissioning (VC) as a method can be applied in many industries. The target of VC is to test control code as early as possible and enable thereby a smoother and faster execution of real commissioning. A crucial point in conducting simulation particularly within VC is that used simulation models must be sufficiently meaningful regarding the appropriate use case. An appropriate level of detail of used simulation models is therefore essential. A systematic classification of which parts of an automated plant should be simulated at what respective level of detail is, however, not available at present time. The following article follows the hypothesis that interactions between (production) processes and resources, emerged during the engineering process, allow for the identification of influence factors that play a key role in identifying the appropriate level of detail of simulation models. The Domain-Mapping-Matrix (DMM) and a rule-based approach can be used to analyse these interactions.
Conference Paper
Virtual commissioning is used to test control code deployed on Programmable Logical Controllers. Simulation models of a plant are the basis for simulation approaches covering virtual commissioning. However, it is often unclear what granularity these simulation models should have and how standardized levels of detail and particular model types should be defined. The approach presented herein identifies appropriate levels of detail and model types based on a hierarchical perception of automated manufacturing plants. The aim of this contribution is to systematize modelling approaches, especially the automatic generation of manufacturing plants’ models.
Article
Zusammenfassung Der Simulation kommt im Rahmen einer durchgehenden digitalen Fabrikplanung immer größere Bedeutung zu. Eine Möglichkeit, die Qualität sowie Termintreue bei der Erstellung von automatisierten fertigungstechnischen Anlagen sicherzustellen, stellt die virtuelle Inbetriebnahme (VIBN) dar. Der dafür notwendige Modellbildungsprozess ist jedoch oftmals mit hohen Aufwänden verbunden. Der Beitrag zeigt, wie sich dieser Aufwand durch eine automatische Simulationsmodellgenerierung minimieren lässt.
Conference Paper
Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über wesentliche Aspekte der Modellierung und Simulation von Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) in der Modellierungssprache Modelica®. Es werden spezifische Probleme erläutert, die sich zum einen aus der hybriden Form der beschreibenden Modelle ergeben, zum anderen aus der Größe und Komplexität von CPSModellen, die eine modulare, komponentenbasierte Modellierung unumgängliche machen. Bekannte Modellierungsansätze werden erläutert sowie neue systematische Methoden gezeigt,um die rechnerische Effizienz und die Korrektheit von CPS-Simulationen sicherzustellen.
Conference Paper
Though systems with mixed discrete/continuous behaviors can be handled by proper hybrid simulation tools, the efficiency of simulation is often not satisfactory. The performance of simulation is affected by various system properties such as the frequency of events, the number of continuous state variables, etc. In an ordinary modeling and simulation approach, the hybrid sys- tem is considered as a whole thus every local event has global effects. I.e. An event triggered by any element of the system causes the numerical solver to detect the event and recalculate all state variables. This works well if the discrete event logic couples tightly with continuous behavior evo- lution. A tight coupling means that the discrete event sub-system governs the whole system and all its events necessarily trigger the switch of equation system or stop/restart of the numerical solver. However, in case of a loose coupling, i.e. not all the events from the discrete event sub-system are relevant to the continuous sub-system, this approach is excessively expensive. This paper gives a general approach to achieve more efficient simulations of hybrid systems with loose coupling, es- pecially for stiff systems such as the Networked Control/Automation Systems (NCS/NAS) in which different system components have strongly distinguished temporal characteristics. Advan- tages of this approach are demonstrated using the simulation tool Modelica/Dymola.
Conference Paper
Numerical simulation of stiff and hybrid systems is widely used in various engineering domains. Numerical solvers, originally designed for purely continuous problems, are not sufficient for these systems. Modern simulation environments provide necessary modifications and extensions to solve the problem. The implementation details of solvers and run time systems greatly affect the performance of simulations regarding accuracy, velocity of simulation, compactness of results, and efficiency. Since no all-powerful solver exists, we assess four popular solvers (DASSL, LSODAR, DOPRI5, RADAU IIA), included in the all-purpose simulator Dymola<sup>®</sup> for different problems with continuous, stiff, and hybrid behavior. Key traits, including the number of steps, accuracy, CPU time and the event handling capability, are examined and advice for solver selection is given.
FMI for Model Exchange 1.0 Spec- ification: https://svn.modelica.org /fmi/branches/public/specifications/FMI_for_ ModelExchange_v1
  • Modelisar
Modelisar, FMI for Model Exchange 1.0 Spec- ification: https://svn.modelica.org /fmi/branches/public/specifications/FMI_for_ ModelExchange_v1.0.pdf, 2010.
Standard for Modeling and Simulation (M&S) High Level Architecture (HLA) -Framework and Rules
IEEE 1516: Standard for Modeling and Simulation (M&S) High Level Architecture (HLA) -Framework and Rules. 2010.
  • P Puntel-Schmidt
  • A Fay
  • W Riediger
  • T Schulte
  • F Köslin
  • S Diehl
P. Puntel-Schmidt, A. Fay, W. Riediger, T. Schulte, F. Köslin, S. Diehl: Validierung von Steuerungscode mit Hilfe automatisch generierter Simulationsmodelle. In: at – Automatisierungstechnik 2015; 63(2), S. 111–120.
Entwurf einer Modelica Simulationsbibliothek für die virtuelle Inbetriebnahme fertigungstechnischer Anlagen
  • F Köslin
  • P Schmidt
  • W Riediger
  • A Fay
F. Köslin, P. Puntel Schmidt, W. Riediger, A. Fay: Entwurf einer Modelica Simulationsbibliothek für die virtuelle Inbetriebnahme fertigungstechnischer Anlagen. In: 7th International Symposium on Automatic Control, AUTSYM 2014, 25.--26.09.2014, Wismar.
Systems Engineering. Grundlagen und Anwendungen
  • R Haberfellner
  • O De Weck
  • E Fricke
  • S Vössner
Haberfellner, R., de Weck, O., Fricke, E., Vössner, S.: Systems Engineering. Grundlagen und Anwendungen. Orell Füssli Verlag AG, Zürich, 2012.