Nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid use: Prevalence, attitudes, and social perception

Thesis (PDF Available) · May 2015with 499 Reads
Thesis for: PhD, Advisor: Ståle Pallesen, Torbjørn Torsheim, Helge Molde, Cecilie Schou Andreassen
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    A survey was administered to approximately 2,200 junior and senior high school students in the Salt Lake City, Utah metropolitan area to determine the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use. The survey also determined gender, sports participation, and other illicit drug use. The number of surveys that were returned was 1,907 or approximately 87 percent of those surveyed. The proportion of steroid users in the total sample population was 3.3 percent. Steroid use was greater for boys (4.0 percent) than for girls (1.4 percent) and for participants in strength training activities (5.0 percent) than for non-participants (1.6 percent). Current or former AAS users were more likely to have smoked marijuana, used cocaine, or consumed alcohol than non-steroid users. In general, all students performed poorly, <70 percent, on a knowledge test regarding the physiological and psychological effects of AAS use. However, users were less knowledgeable (M=60 percent) than non-users (M=67.9 percent). Steroid users were more accepting of steroid use in sport and were less concerned about the health risks associated with taking steroids than non-users.
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    Although anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are perceived primarily as doping agents for athletes, these substances are also used by adolescents for aesthetical purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge about AAS, the extent, main reasons and consequences of its use among adolescents in Katowice, Poland. An anonymous questionnaire were answered by 1175 students, both sexes, attending three types of schools: grammar, secondary school preparing for university and vocational school. The results suggest that most adolescents, especially from grammar schools, know nothing or hardly anything about AAS and health consequences of using them. Moreover, 9.38% males and 2.08% females were abusing AAS or had abused them at some time of their life. Students from vocational schools had a higher usage rate of AAS than pupils from the other two types of schools. For most of the users the main reasons for using AAS are connected with the will to change their bodies so as to improve appearance by gaining muscle mass, reduce body fat and/or improve muscle cut. Over a half of the users had suffered from some side effects of AAS: acne, hair-loss, sexual disturbances, irritability, voice deepening, depression etc. The results of this study suggest that there is an urgent need to include AAS issues into drug education programs.
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    Introduction: The aim of this study was to give general overview of using the anabolic steroids among the recre-ational sportsmen and at the same time to analyze other drugs used for immediate help to increase their individual fi tness level. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire has been used to investigate the potential abuse of anabolic steroids among the recreational sportsmen, practicing non–competitive fi tness training at the intermediate level 3 to 4 times per week. Randomly selected 80 men (21.6±3.4 years) from various fi tness centers were asked to fulfi ll the questionnaires anonymously. 80% (64) of question-naires were returned. Results: The most signifi cant fi nding of our study: use of anabolic steroids has been determined by 21% of all respondents; any of anabolic users use the drugs without any professional medical supervision; 36% of present anabolic users are decided to use drugs again in case of harder physical activity or fatigue; 36% of present non-users are decided to use the anabolics in case of physical performance; majority of information on anabolics effects is reached from professional athletes and "unoffi cial distributor" and common use of anabolics and stimulation drugs without any medical supervision. Discussion: The results of this study should alert to solve the dynamic expansion of anabolics abuse and evaluate the well-known use of anabolics and stimulation drugs to improve physical. Comenius University, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports -L.Svobodu 9 -814 69 Bratislava -Slovakia Kyselovicova O, Antala B, Michalak K. The use of Anabolic Steroids in men's recreational Fitness Training. Fit Perf J. 2008 Mar-Apr;7(2):65-8. 65-68 66 Fit Perf J, Rio de Janeiro, 7, 2, 66, Mar/Apr 2008 RESUMEN El uso de esteroides anabolizantes en deportistas recreativos Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio es hacer una evaluación general sobre el uso de esteroides anabolizantes entre los deportistas recreativos y, a la vez, analizar otras drogas usadas para aumentar rápidamente el nivel de aptitud individual de los usuarios. Materiales y Métodos: Fue usado un cuestionario para investigar lo potencial de abuso de esteroides anabolizantes entre los deportistas recreativos, que practican ejercicios sin competir, entrenando en el nivel intermediario de tres la cuatro veces a la semana. Habían sido elegidos aleatoriamente 80 hombres (21,6±3,4 años) de diversas academias, los cuales habían sido solicitados a responder un cuestionario anónimamente. 80% (64) de los cuestionarios habían sido devueltos. Resultados: Las descubiertas más importantes de nuestro estudio, fueron: el uso de esteroides anabolizantes fue confirmado por 21% de todos los que respondieron; todos los usuarios de anabolizantes usan las drogas sin cualquier supervisión médica profesional; 36% de los usuarios de anabolizantes están decididos a usar drogas nuevamente, en caso de actividad física más pesada o fatiga; 36% de los actuales usuarios de anabolizantes están decididos a usar los anabolizantes en caso de desempeño físico; la mayoría de las informaciones sobre los efectos de los anabolizantes es conseguida a través de atletas profesionales y "distribuidores no-oficiales"; y es común el uso de anabolizantes y drogas estimulantes sin cualquier supervisión médica. Discusión: Los resultados de este estudio servirán para alertar sobre la expansión dinámica del abuso de anabolizantes y evaluar el conocido uso de anabolizantes y drogas estimulantes para mejorar el desempeño físico.
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    Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has been identified as a serious public health problem. Objectives: This study investigates the prevalence and correlates of AAS use among Norwegian adolescents. Methods: In 2012, a nationally representative sample of 2,055 17-year-old adolescents (963 males and 1,088 females) participated in a survey. The response rate was 70.4%. In addition to questions about AAS use, participants completed the Parental Monitoring Scale, the Family Relations/Cohesion Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test C, the Mini-International Personality Item Pool-Five-Factor Model, the Eysenck Narrow Impulsiveness Subscale, the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking, the Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. They also answered questions about demography, gambling, smoking, snus, and narcotic use. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The lifetime prevalence of AAS use was 0.30% (0.52% in males and 0.09% in females), while current prevalence was 0.25%. Moreover, 19.39% of the sample reported having an acquaintance who used or had used AAS. Having an acquaintance who used or had used AAS was significantly related to snus use, depression, aggression, extraversion, and conscientiousness in both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Conclusions/Importance: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of AAS use among Norwegian adolescents and denote the significance of social, personality, and health factors in adolescents' exposure to AAS milieu.
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    The use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (AAS) is increasing among practitioners of recreational physical activity. The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of AAS in practitioners of recreational physical activity in Brazil. After systematic review of four databases, 14 articles were included. The results indicate that the prevalence of AAS varied between 2.1% and 31.6%, according to the region analyzed and the sample characteristics. The study's limitations are noted.
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    Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with adverse physical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. This study was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency among gym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework. Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panel study to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statistical analysis. Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about side effects of AAS (P<0.001), attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally after intervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group. Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and ado-lescences would be effective to improve adolescents' healthy behaviors and intend them not to use AAS.
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    Purpose: To estimate the global lifetime prevalence rate of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and investigate moderators of the prevalence rate. Methods: A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis was performed using studies gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar among others. Included were 187 studies that provided original data on 271 lifetime prevalence rates. Studies were coded for publication year, region, sample type, age range, sample size, assessment method, and sampling method. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I(2) index and the Q-statistic. Random effect-size modeling was used. Subgroup comparisons were conducted using Bonferroni correction. Results: The global lifetime prevalence rate obtained was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-3.8; I(2) = 99.7, P < .001). The prevalence rate for males, 6.4% (95% CI, 5.3-7.7, I(2) = 99.2, P < .001), was significantly higher (Qbet = 100.1, P < .001) than the rate for females, 1.6% (95% CI, 1.3-1.9, I(2) = 96.8, P < .001). Sample type (athletes), assessment method (interviews only and interviews and questionnaires), sampling method, and male sample percentage were significant predictors of AAS use prevalence. There was no indication of publication bias. Conclusion: Nonmedical AAS use is a serious widespread public health problem.
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    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of doping and performance enhancing drug use in athletes in Sivas, Turkey, and to analyze the main reasons for the use. This was a cross-sectional study based on a self-report questionnaire. The subjects filled the questionnaires under the supervision of the investigators during interviews. This questionnaire included 24 items describing the population in terms of demographics, sport practice, doping in sport and substance use. Moreover, we assessed the frequency of doping drug use. The number of respondents was 883, of which 433 athletes and 450 healthy non-athletes (control group). The mean age of the total volunteers was 21.8 ± 3.7 yrs. The male and female ratios were 78.2% and 21.8% respectively. Doping and performance enhancing drug usage rate was 8.0% (71cases in 883 subjects). Doping drug use among the athletes was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (14.5%) compared with the non-athletes (1.8%). The agents used were anabolic steroids in 60.5%, l-carnitene in 12.7%, erythropoietin in 5.4%, Na-bicarbonate in 11.3% and creatinine in 14.1% of 71 cases. The reasons for doping use were to have a better body condition in 34 cases (47.9%) and to solve weight (gaining or loosing) problems in 8 (11.3%) cases. Since the potential side effects of doping drugs are not satisfactorily familiar to the most users, the education of athletes on the matter must be a top priority. Key PointsDoping and performance enhancing drug use was 71 (8.0%) in 883 subjects, and it was significantly higher (14.5%) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes (1.8%) in Sivas, Turkey.The rate of athletes who experienced such drugs at least once in their life was 29.0%.The 52.4% of doping and performance enhancing drug users accepted that they were unaware of the drugs full and/or potential side effects.