Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach

Book · January 2015with 14,686 Reads
Publisher: 4th Canadian edition
Publisher: Nelson Education
Abstract
Balancing biological, psychological, social, and cultural approaches, the Fourth Canadian Edition of Abnormal Psychology?s groundbreaking integrative approach is the most modern, scientifically valid method for studying abnormal psychology. The author team?now including Dr. Martin Lalumière?continues to blend sophisticated research and an accessible writing style with the most widely recognized method of discussing psychopathology. Going beyond simply describing different schools of thought on psychological disorders, the authors explore the interactions of the various forces that contribute to psychopathology. A conversational writing style, consistent pedagogical elements, integrated case studies, and superior coverage of the DSM-5 (with insights from author David Barlow, an Advisor to the DSM-5 task force) help lead students to an unparalleled appreciation for the current state of what is a multidimensional and compelling clinical science.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Borderline personality disorder is one of the most prevalent disorders of axis II in psychiatry in which problems in interpersonal relationships is one of the most important problems of the patients. Linehan suggested that the patients problems are due to emotion dysregulations & emotion dysregulations are consequence of biological factors especially frontal lobe function & abnormal personality dimensions. Therefore, 130 patients with BPD completed TCI & PAI-BPF inventories & computerized emotion discrimination task. Also, the cortical activities of participants were recorded by EEG & analyzed by QEEG. Results indicated that absolute power of alpha band in frontal lobe & temperament character dimensions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependency & cooperation) could predict emotional discrimination & interpersonal problems of BPD patients. Also, emotion discrimination could predict interpersonal problems. These results suggest that emotion discrimination ability could mediate relationships among alpha absolute power & temperament character dimensions with interpersonal problems f BPD patients.
  • ... Stress, which may occur acutely or chronically, is a frequent phenom- enon in society. 1 Both forms are related to stressors that affect people at all times, for example, in traffic, at work, or in their family life. 2 Therefore, it has been observed that the number of people under stress is large, varying from 18 to 65% depending on the country or demographics. 3,4 Epidemiological data show that stress in its chronic form signifi- cantly alters behavior and may lead to mood disorders and, especially, depression. 2 In fact, stress can deregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis; increase the recapture and degradation of serotonin; increase degradation of tryptophan; and reduce production of Brain- DerivedNeurotrophic Factor (BDNF). ...
    ... 3,4 Epidemiological data show that stress in its chronic form signifi- cantly alters behavior and may lead to mood disorders and, especially, depression. 2 In fact, stress can deregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis; increase the recapture and degradation of serotonin; increase degradation of tryptophan; and reduce production of Brain- DerivedNeurotrophic Factor (BDNF). [5][6][7] In addition, chronic stress can promote immunosuppression, affecting cells and lymphoid organs, altering the production of antibodies and cytokines, as a result of an imbalance in the activation ofTh1/Th2 cells. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The literature presents several instances of interaction between the nervous system (NS) and the immune system (IS). These interactions are promoted by several molecules, such as cytokines and hormones, with modulating action for both the NS and IS. In this sense, the two systems may influence each other: changes in behavior may be accompanied by alterations in the IS (e.g., immunosuppression) and immunological disorders, such as infections, may modulate behavior (e.g., anxiety and depression). Considering that chronic stress, in addition to affecting behavior, also modulates the IS and that there is evidence that moderate intensity physical exercise (PE) protects physical and mental health, the objective of this review is to explore the influence of moderate-intensity PE on behavior and immunity. Level of Evidence V; Expert opinion.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Before modern medicine, psychological disorders were unidentified and people were hesitant towards people who had those. Even during the middle ages, psychological problems were associated with witchcraft and demon possession. Disturbed people were tortured, exorcized, drowned and burned due to their abnormal thoughts and behaviors. Yet after the evolution in medicine, the actual reasons behind these conditions became known. Although there are many types of psychological diseases, many of which cause troubles in social life, they usually occur through Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. In this paper, we looked into diagnosis, possible treatments and related conditions to understand OCD and other psychological disorders.
  • ... It can manifest in the inability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, do mathematical calculations or perform certain motor skills (Cheatum & Hammond, 2000;Winnick, 2005). The prevalence of learning-related problems among school-aged learners in the world is currently estimated between 4% and 15% (Cheatum & Hammond, 2000;Barlow & Durand, 2002;Shokane et al., 2004). However, the prevalence among South African learners is believed to be approximately 10% to 30% (Vermoter, 2015). ...
    Article
    Proficiency in visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination plays an important role in academic skills of learners during the early school years. The purpose of this study was to determine the difference between the visual-motor integration status of typically developed learners and learners with learning-related problems between 7 and 8 years of age through a cross-sectional satudy design. Sixty-eight learners (boys=45; girls=23) were divided into a group with learning-related problems (LP; n=31) with a mean age of 7.58±0.43 years, and typically developed learners (TP; n=37) with a mean age of 7.54±0.31 years. The VMI-4 evaluated the learners' visual-motor integration, visual perception and motor coordination skills. The results indicated that the TP performed statistically and practically significantly better with regard to visual-motor integration (p≤0.001; d=0.81) and visual perception (p≤0.001; d=1.21) compared to the LP group. The highest percentage of learners in both the groups was in the average category in terms of visual-motor integration (LP: 74.19%; TP: 70.27%). More learners from the LP group were in the below ‘average category’ (25.58%) and the ‘well-below average’ category (3.23%). The results confirmed that learners with learning-related problems experience more visual-related difficulties than typically developed children. Typical group.
  • Chapter
    Personal connected health technologies are fast becoming integral in a person’s daily life to help improve their health and wellbeing. Aside from the ubiquitous personal fitness devices applications, there are numerous monitoring devices for personal healthcare, along with more proactive devices that enable users to engage in self-therapeutic techniques in order to improve their overall wellbeing. In this chapter, we provide a broad overview for a range of devices that allow people to monitor their own health and also those that provide self-therapeutic benefits using biofeedback or neurofeedback to learn to control their own physiologic functions. We discuss such devices within the context of the access to data and provide a taxonomy that covers the software for data integration, the type of connectivity and user interfaces for data collection, API authentication and authorization, and data access policies and formats.
  • Chapter
    This chapter focuses on mainly independent, community-dwelling adults who have fecal incontinence. Included in this chapter is a review of factors associated with fecal incontinence, considerations for assessment in this population, and recommendation for management. Management may involve lifestyle changes including diet modifications; behavioral interventions such as pelvic floor exercises, biofeedback therapy, and electrical stimulation; and extracorporeal magnetic innervation. The chapter also addresses using medications and containment with devices and absorbent products.
  • ... Self-control is both positively associated with healthy food consumption [44] and negatively associated with unhealthy food consumption [45]. Impulsiveness is char- acterized by displaying behavior with little or no fore- thought, reflection or consideration of the consequences [46]. Higher levels of impulsiveness are associated with higher energy intakes [47] and linked to unhealthy food choices [48], larger sensitivity to the selection of un- healthy foods in the contexts of unhealthy food environ- ments [49] and a tendency to overeat, in response to external stimuli like advertisements and promotions [50]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background: Food literacy refers to the capability to make healthy food choices in different contexts, settings and situations. The aim of this study is to develop and validate the self-perceived food literacy (SPFL) scale, to assess individuals' level of food literacy, including a knowledge, skills and behavior to plan, manage, select, prepare and eat food healthfully. Methods: An initial set of 50 items for the SPFL scale were generated based on expert insights and literature. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among a sample of Dutch adults (n = 755) in order to determine convergent, divergent and criterion validation against psychosocial variables that were expected to correlate with food literacy (self-control, impulsiveness) and against the expected outcome of high food literacy, namely healthy food consumption. Principal Component Analyses (PCA), Pearson correlation tests and linear regression analyses were conducted. The capacity to distinguish of the SPFL scale was determined by comparing SPFL scores of the general population with that of a sample of dieticians (n = 207). Results: The participants in the general sample had an average age of 44.8 (SD:16.1), the majority were women (90.7%), they had a healthy weight (61.4%) and were highly educated (59.1%). Of the initial 50 items, 29 items remained after PCA and reflected eight domains of food literacy. SPFL was positively correlated with self-control (r = 0.51, p = <.001) and negatively with impulsiveness (r = - 0.31, p = <.01). Participants with higher levels of food literacy reported a significantly higher frequency of fruit consumption (≥5 times/week), vegetable consumption (≥5times/week) and fish consumption (≥1times/week) and consumed larger portions of fruit (≥2pieces/day) and vegetables ≥200 g/day) in comparison with participants who had lower levels of food literacy. Dieticians had slightly higher scores on SPFL than general adults (B = 0.08, SE = 0.03, t = 2.83, 95%-CI = 0.03 to 0.14). Conclusions: The 29 item SPFL scale is a validated, expert-based and theory-driven tool for measuring self-perceived food literacy with respect to healthy eating among adults. Higher levels of food literacy were associated with more self-control, less impulsiveness and healthier food consumption. Additional research is needed to validate the SPFL scale in different populations (different age groups, socioeconomic groups, male populations) and in different contexts.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Mental health in childhood is characterized by the achievement of development and emotional milestones, healthy social development, and effective coping skills; such that mentally healthy children have a positive quality of life and can function well at home, in school, and in their communities. The current study aimed to examine the association between the disruptive behavior and anxiety among adolescents in a community sample of Bangladeshi youth. The sample consisted of 100 adolescents aged 12-17 years. Cross sectional survey method was used to describe the data. Our findings lead to a number of conclusions. First Results indicate that adolescent's disruptive behavior has a positive correlation with anxiety (r=.274, p<0.01). This result may suggest anxiety as a factor for disruptive behavior. Second the examination of analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that sex has a significant effect [F=2.729, df =1, 99, p<.05] on disruptive behavior as well. Third, in this study it is shown that adolescents who were female had less disruptive behavior (X =15.29, SD=6.77) than the male adolescents (X= 32.39, SD=11.94). Although future research is needed to examine the differences between male and female. A central conclusion of this study is that it is important to consider the sex, residence and other demographic data when assessing the factors associated with disruptive behavior.
This research doesn't cite any other publications.