especially if profits are not part of the objective and
currently aquaculture is a high-risk venture for the
majority of fish farmers with a high risk of failure?
There are no specific strategies to address these
challenges thus attract investment of the private sector
and civil society who are not obliged to implement
governments policies (or rather have a wide choice of
what they can choose to invest in).
6. The policy should therefore refocus on the targeted
groups and strategically target those groups likely to
have a positive impact on the achievement of the
policy’s objectives for aquaculture be they from
different sectors. Therefore, targeted groups in the
policy for aquaculture should be multi-sectoral and all
Selected Policy Measures,
Instruments and Interventions
A summary of the specific policy measures
mentioned in the policy’s strategy are to:
1. encourage investment, research
2. support farmer associations, access to
technical support for farmers as well as of basic
inputs and credit.
3. More affirmative mention is made with
respect to setting standards
4. Ensuring effective participation of Non-
Governmental Organisations and Community
1. The Aquaculture Rules (2003) are the legal
set of instruments specifically developed from
the National Fisheries Policy to manage
aquaculture in line with the policies objectives.
In addition, other government policies or
agencies are inadvertently applied as means of
achieving the policies goals, notably:
a. National Agricultural Advisory Services
(National Agricultural Advisory Services)
whose key role is to disseminate technical
information to farmers and assist them access
markets and inputs.
b. National Agricultural Research Policy
(NARS) whose overall responsibility is to
undertake agricultural research that is market-
responsive, client oriented and demand driven
comprising both the public and private sectors
so as to generate and disseminate appropriate,
safe, cost-effective technologies that result in
increased incomes as well as food security.
Scientific Basis Policy Measure Taken.
Currently no field data is analysed and
incorporated into policy formulation for
aquaculture. Much of it is based on
assumptions, the major assumption being that
once government sets its production targets, the
rest of Uganda shall comply to achieve
governments goals. Therefore for example:
1. While central government put in place a set
of legal instruments, the key issue at hand is
how these rules can be interpreted and applied
in a manner that does not discourage private
investment, entrepreneurship, impede the
smooth flow of aquaculture goods and services
with farmers business interests given the
perish-ability of the farmed product, and
ensures aquaculture goods and services remain
competitive vis-à-vis other agricultural goods
2. National Agricultural Advisory Services
and NARS offer services on a competitive
basis based on the market opportunity of
products and likelihood of technologies
adopted to generate income. Because of
aquaculture’s poor productive and economic
performance at farm-level, the amount of
It is not realistic that results can be guaranteed from
these general specific policy measures because/unless:
1. the major driving force for private investment are
2. government funded research should initially focus and
improving the viability of aquaculture if the sector is to
attract private or other finances.
3. supporting farmer associations, access to technical
support, inputs and credit does not necessarily translate
into increased production. The issue is profitable fish
farming for farmers which means marketing, the correct
technical advice for viable production options, access to
the right quality of inputs, credit inclusive at a
favourable cost that allows the product be competitive
on the market. Therefore, what sort of associations
should be formed and supported? What dimensions
should this support take in order that the associations are
effective and become self-sustaining and sustainable?
What support do the input and credit supplies require?
What about the players, facilities and technology
required to produce the appropriate inputs? etc.
4. Setting standards is essential but does not guarantee
success. Is it justifiable that it is the only aspect of the
policy strategy set in affirmative given the status of the
sub-sector and the challenges it is facing?
5. How does government ensure the effective
participation of Non-Governmental Organisations and
Community Based Organisations yet it does not set their
agenda nor provide financing. Rather would the focus
not be attracting their participation and helping them be
effective? – the best way of doing so would be the
viability of aquaculture.
The legal instruments can only work if everything in the
chain is following smoothly, communication and
response of persons responsible for certain activities is
quick, efficient, effective and all parties (public and
private sector ) are trustworthy and work in each other’s
interest based on the designated functions mandated to
the respective institutions. However, the current fear by
most farmers is that they shall be taken unfair advantage
of by government officials. While they accept
governments functions, they do not trust that
government officials necessarily work in the best
interest of the farmer or the aquaculture sector but rather
their own personal interests.
An open atmosphere of mutual trust would extremely be
beneficial to the growth of the sector.
Zoning and Stakeholder Interests
1. Other than the FAO country report, no other data has
been obtained with regard to these, and even where
available in other sectors or local reports, this
information has not been applied. Hence, the situation
in National Agricultural Advisory Services for example
where aquaculture cannot effectively compete with other
agricultural enterprises yet the fact that it is in its infancy
requires that more effort be placed in appropriate
technology testing and dissemination, inputs as well as
in training of advisors.