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Development of a computer program demonstrating the surface anatomy of the equine' thoracic limb

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In the present project, we used multimedia technology to develop a computer program demonstrating the surface anatomy of equine ' thoracic limb. Microsoft Power Point 2013 © was the container for the multimedia assets of the program. It involves explanatory text, images, video clips and audio narrations, in addition to questions and answers for student self-evaluation. The program interface presents a button for each region of the thoracic limb. Prominent and palpable superficial structures within each region were categorized into superficial muscles, veins, arteries, nerves and others. Addressing the clinical relevance to such structures when applicable, made the program more useful to promote knowledge, enhance and facilitate teaching and learning of surface anatomy for both veterinary students, practitioners and horse owners as well.
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Veterinary Medical Journal Giza (VMJG), Vol. 60 (2), 51 -60, December 2014
http://www.vetmedjcu.com/
ISSN 1110-1423
51
Development of a computer program demonstrating the surface
anatomy of the equine' thoracic limb
Elnady, F. 1, Rezk, H. M. 2 and, Yara S.Abou Elela3
1,2,3 Anatomy and Embryology Department at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo
University, Egypt.
Email: felnady@staff.cu.edu.eg
Abstract
In the present project, we used multimedia technology to develop a computer program
demonstrating the surface anatomy of equine' thoracic limb. Microsoft Power Point 2013©
was the container for the multimedia assets of the program. It involves explanatory text,
images, video clips and audio narrations, in addition to questions and answers for student
self-evaluation. The program interface presents a button for each region of the thoracic limb.
Prominent and palpable superficial structures within each region were categorized into
superficial muscles, veins, arteries, nerves and others. Addressing the clinical relevance to
such structures when applicable, made the program more useful to promote knowledge,
enhance and facilitate teaching and learning of surface anatomy for both veterinary students,
practitioners and horse owners as well.
Keywords: computer program, equine thoracic limb, forelimb, surface anatomy, multimedia
Introduction
Use of cadavers in anatomical studies decreased in the last few years; hence,
alternative interactive teaching methods appeared. Use of computer-based programs
is one of the successful alternatives. Surface anatomy allows students, surgeons and
veterinarians to know the different structures of the body on live animal without
dissection. Determining the accurate site for joint injection or nerve block saves time
and gives better results. Use of computer programs compared to traditional anatomy
teaching methodsis recommended to enhance and facilitate learning (Codd and
Choudhury, 2011; Turney, 2007; Galland, Oberst, Lorenz and Mosier, 1995).
Material and Methods
The current project was divided into two different phases. Phase I aimed at
surveying and collecting the available data about the surface anatomy of thoracic
limbs in equine. Phase II embraced development of a dedicated multimedia
computer program addressed to learning surface anatomy of equine thoracic limb.
Production of the multimedia computer program:
Most of the obtained results of our work are encased in the developed
computer program. The integrated multimedia assets of the program included
images, text, video and audio narration.
Elnady, F. Development of a computer program for the equine' thoracic limb
52
The Hardware used for developing the program involved a PC (personal computer)
running Windows 8 Pro 2012 Microsoft corporation. Samsung digital camera
WB2100, with a resolution of 3072 x 2304 (16 MB) was used to shoot the images
and record the video clips. Microphone, Logitech®, was used to record the audio
narrations. All the original digital data were collected, sorted in folders and stored on
the hard disc and another two backups were kept on My Passport™ WD external
hard discs.
The software used comprised Microsoft Windows 8 Professional (operating
system), Microsoft office 2013, Adobe Photoshop® Cs6, iMindMap 7.0 and
iSpring® Pro 7 which provided tools for manipulating, management and editing
images.
Developing the computer program:
All the scientific information incorporated in the developed program were
obtained from our results and based on evidence in the review of literature that were
collected and refined precisely.
Animal and Image Acquisition: thoracic limbs from horses, donkeys and mules
were used in this study.
The original digital images were taken from the prepared specimens in
addition to the valuable transparent horse located in the department of anatomy and
embryology at faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo university. The images were
saved without any editing into separate folders. Next, the best images were selected
to be presented in the computer program. Some of the images were edited using
Adobe Photoshop® CS6. The editing process involved removal of the background,
adjusting brightness and contrast using various facilities in the Adobe program like
levels, brightness and contrast, color balance, and curves. Color cast in some images
was removed by going to image, adjustments and variations. The processed images
were saved in a PSD format (Photoshop Documents), where all layers are present.
Another copy for each image was saved in JPEG format. Labels and legends were
added to the JPEG files using Microsoft Word 2013. Arrows and labels were
grouped with their respective images to prevent any displacements. The labeled
images were finally inserted into Microsoft Power Point® 2013.
Some video clips were recorded on the live animal demonstrating the main
prominent and palpable features in the thoracic limbs. Videos were transferred to the
computer, saved as Windows Media Video (WMV) files to be embedded into the
developed program. Narration of text presented in the program was added, saved as
mp3 audio files and inserted into the Power Point program. The developed program
using Microsoft Power Point® 2013 was instructionally designed. To facilitate
navigation, the main menu of the program was designed using the master slide and
action buttons that were built in Power Point; like home, back and next….etc. Other
links to various parts of the program were made through inserting hyperlink option
within Power Point. Some mindmaps were developed using iMindMap 7.0 to
display the organization of each section in the program. iSpring® pro7 was used to
convert Power Point program into a flash file.
Veterinary Medical Journal Giza (VMJG), Vol. 60 (2), 51 -60, December 2014
http://www.vetmedjcu.com/
ISSN 1110-1423
53
Results
User interface. A screenshot of the program interface is shown in Fig. 1,
displaying the various buttons used for the program navigation. A home button is
always available to get back to this main menu at any time.
Clicking the thoracic limb button will display the various regions of the
limb. Superficial structures within each region are sectioned into superficial
muscles, if any, veins, arteries, nerves, and others like lymph nodes, bursae,
ligaments …..etc.
Mind maps summarized a huge data in one screen for fast and easy
reviewing.Fig. 2 summarizing different structures in carpal region was incorporated
into the program for better understanding. Some video clips explaining the surface
anatomy on the live horse were inserted into the program.
The program is rich in digital images Fig. 3from fresh equine cadavers or
fixed specimens and from live animals. Audio narration of some didactic text and
comments were added to the program. Drawing of the most prominent and palpable
structures was done on the intact limb Fig. 4 to imagine position of such structures
in the live animal. Detailed anatomical structures were presented from dissected
fresh cadavers Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. The developed program involved the various
approaches used to inject joints and bursae of thoracic limb Fig.7. The program also
incorporated precise description of sites used for various nerve blocks.
Quizzes were included into the program Fig. 8. The quizzes involved
multiple choice, matching and true or false question formats. In all instances, each
question requires the user to think before he puts his input. In all question formats,
feedback is provided immediately after the student response.
Fig. (1). A print screen of the program interface displaying the main menu buttons used
in navigation.
Elnady, F. Development of a computer program for the equine' thoracic limb
54
Fig. (2). A print screen from the program displaying a mind map of the carpus.
Figure (3). A print screen of the program showing lateral view of right forearm region
of a horse (A. fresh B. dry C. colored specimens) showing:
1. Biceps brachii muscle 2. Extensor carpi radialis muscle 3. Common digital extensor
muscle 4. Ulnaris lateralis muscle 5. Lateral digital extensor muscle 6. Tendon of
common digital extensor muscle 7. Extensor carpi obliquus muscle
A
C
B
Veterinary Medical Journal Giza (VMJG), Vol. 60 (2), 51 -60, December 2014
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ISSN 1110-1423
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Figure (4). A print screen from the program showing lateral view of right thoracic limb
of an embalmed horse. Drawing with acrylic colors to show position of most prominent
and palpable features.
Figure (5).A print screen from the program showing detailed anatomical dissection of
fresh cadavers.
Elnady, F. Development of a computer program for the equine' thoracic limb
56
Figure (6).A print screen from the program showing detailed anatomical dissection of
fresh cadavers.
Figure (7).A print screen from the program showing site of injection of the coffin joint.
Veterinary Medical Journal Giza (VMJG), Vol. 60 (2), 51 -60, December 2014
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Fig. (8). A print screen showing the program feedback for one of the true or false
questions, and the quiz summary showing the score for that particular user.
Discussion
In the last few decades several attempts were made to minimize use of
cadavers in teaching veterinary anatomy. This was attributed to the harmful effect of
formalin on the health of instructors, students and workers. Moreover, organizations
of animal rights and welfare highly restrict the use of animals unless they are
obtained from some ethical sources. Also, the risk of transmission of zoonotic
diseases from animals to human is another factor in addition to the will to lower the
economic cost. Hence, alternative interactive teaching methods such as computer
based programs and anatomical modules have been evolved and successfully used.
Surface anatomy is defined as part of living anatomy with special reference for its
clinical importance (Finn, 2010). Since anatomy to the body is like geography to the
world, and dissection of dead animals is made specifically for the sake of live
animals, hence the surface anatomy must be in focus for its great clinical
importance. Thisis in agreement with Ganguly and Chan(2008) and McLachlan and
Patten(2006), who assured that surface andliving anatomy is more effective than
cadaveric anatomy in medical education. Moreover, observation revealed that most
students were unable to locate or identify the surface anatomical structures on the
live animals, despite the fact that many of them have taken the veterinary gross
anatomy undergraduate course. In a trial to solve this problem, we developed our
program as a forward step in the digital-age learning.
Based on our experience and feedback of previously made questionnaires in
the department of anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University, where
previously developed computer programs, including CDs for anatomy, surgery and
quizzes for self-assessment, were used by veterinary students, the students preferred
studying anatomy using the developed software in combination with traditional
dissection methods(Rezk, 2010), (Shaker, 2010), (Tolba, 2010) and (Shaker, 2013).
Elnady, F. Development of a computer program for the equine' thoracic limb
58
Also the present study revealed that use of multimedia interactive computer program
to teach and learn equine surface anatomy of the thoracic limb enhanced the student
professional skills by learn the structure of the limb over the skin and detect any site
for injection more accurate, this was in harmony with (El-Nady, 1999), (EL-Nady,
2002), (Shokery, Elnady and Gadallah, 2002) and (Tolba, 2010).
PowerPoint was selected as a shell enveloping the elements of the computer
program. This has a double benefit; it facilitates the development of the program and
since most of students know how to use PowerPoint, it was easy for them to use the
program. The presented program, being rich in digital images attracted the visual
students to study and become more familiar with anatomy through interaction. This
is in agreement with Boonchieng (2008), Yeung, Fung and Wilson (2010)and
Keedy, Durack, Sandhu, Chen, O'Sullivan and Breiman(2011)who cited that
computer-based text documents containing images and text with animation or
interactive features are more applicable for students now. By selection and using
PowerPoint there was no need for code typing, or programming of any kind. Use of
actions and master slides features within Power Point allowed for ease of navigation
and getting back at any time to the main menu.
Pedagogically, there are many learning styles and multiple intelligences, our
developed interactive multimedia program tried to cover most of them. For the
visual learners we offered high quality digital images, video clips and mind maps.
For audio learners, we provided audio narration. For kinesthesia mind maps
summarized a huge data in 3 D form. In addition to its different branching colors
proved to be attractive and flexible for viewers which are in agreement to what was
mentioned by (Buzan, 1986).
Although learning Adobe Photoshop from the beginning was not an easy
task, and manipulating images for adjustment and corrections was time consuming,
the final, high quality detailed images worth the time and effort. Use of Adobe
photoshop facilitates editing of images as removing background and adjusting color
tone and other minor corrections. However, labels and arrows on the imageswere
added using Microsoft Word 2013© instead of Adobe Photoshop®, because
Microsoft word facilitates adding of arrows and transparent text boxes without the
hassle of layers in Photoshop. Also, it is much easier to re-edit legends in Microsoft
word. The recorded video clips were inserted in WMV format, because it is one of
the most suitable formats accepted by Power Point program.
According to our interviews with veterinary surgeons, in our faculty and
other veterinary faculties, anatomists and some veterinary students at final years,
positive comments were received about the benefits of the program, its user friendly
interface, and ease of its use. The aforementioned clients also confirmed the
importance of the work for the perfection of their profession.
Future. Users' comments involved also suggestions regarding further
development of similar programs to cover other parts of equine body. The program
can be utilized all over the world as adjunct tool for learning equine surface
anatomy.
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... In the last few years, the use of animals' cadavers in anatomy classes has been reduced; hence alternative interactive teaching methods appeared using computer-based programs which are one of the successful alternatives. Use of computer programs compared to traditional anatomy teaching methods is recommended to enhance and facilitate learning El-Nady et al., (2014); Codd and Choudhury (2011);Turney (2007); Galland et al., (1995). The aim of this article is to describe the way of creating chosen interactive and animated threedimensional anatomic virtual models of particular parts of birds' skeleton. ...
... Moreover, organizations of animal rights and welfare restrict the animals use from non-ethical sources. Hence, alternative interactive teaching methods such as computer based programs and anatomical modules have been evolved and successfully used El-Nady et al., (2014). Computer-generated models of the bones are not new, but only very recently has become possible to create bone model that provides realistic, interactive anatomic information with true visualization. ...
... Computer-generated models of the bones are not new, but only very recently has become possible to create bone model that provides realistic, interactive anatomic information with true visualization. This new teaching tool has far-reaching implications not only for students attempting to learn anatomy but also for their teachers and institutions Malinowski (2003), Tawfiek (2011) andEl-Nady et al., (2014). Although there will never be a true substitute for the real bones in the anatomy laboratory, we believe that this technology will aid the student to more quickly and easily conceptualize the complexities of bones anatomy. ...
... The resources available for students included the department notes prepared by staff members of the anatomy department and anatomy textbooks available in the school library. E-learning using computer-based learning programs has been introduced as a part of the practical veterinary anatomy course in some veterinary schools in Egypt as an effective learning tool in veterinary anatomy teaching (Elnady et al., 2014;El Sharaby et al., 2015;Saber et al., 2016;Elsaid et al., 2020). Student assessment is conducted according to each veterinary school internal bylaws at the end of each semester, in January and June. ...
... In this regard, few computer programs have been developed by anatomists in some Egyptian veterinary medical schools to enhance veterinary anatomy self-learning. These programs include the electronic atlas of veterinary comparative anatomy (Elnady, 2002), Equine Anatomedia (El Sharaby et al., 2015), and the e-learning modules of the surface anatomy of equine limbs (Elnady et al., 2014) and nasal cavity (Elsaid et al., 2020). Institutions should be ready for future lockdown situations by storing their own recorded practical session in their departmental repositories (Das & Al Mushaiqri, 2021). ...
Article
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The sudden shift of veterinary anatomy teaching from traditional to online mode during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown was a major challenge used for the first time in Egyptian veterinary medical schools. This study aimed to evaluate students’ perspectives regarding the shift of veterinary anatomy teaching to online mode during the lockdown in Egypt. A total of 502 students from all veterinary medical schools in Egypt (n = 17) answered the questionnaire. The results revealed that nearly two-thirds of students felt enthusiastic about studying anatomy online during the pandemic. Moreover, approximately 63% of students were satisfied with the provided learning materials, 66% were able to understand anatomy using the online learning system during the lockdown period, 67% were comfortable with technological skills during their online study, and 47% believed that online learning of anatomy could replace face-to-face teaching. Therefore, despite the problems associated with the emergency switch to remote teaching, it appears to be a suitable alternative in teaching veterinary anatomy in Egyptian universities during this pandemic crisis in Egyptian universities. Moreover, the study provided several measurements to overcome the common problems associated with this challenging method for future application, such as providing three-dimensional (3D) virtual tools and electronic devices with either free or low-priced internet packages, and measuring students’ understanding before and after each lecture. This is the first study to solicit the early students’ feedback regarding the emergency shift to online veterinary anatomy teaching which might help decision-makers in Egypt for future implementation of online learning of veterinary anatomy.
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Different modalities such as lectures, dissections, 3D models, and online learning are used for teaching anatomy. To date, online learning has been considered a useful additional didactic tool. This study aimed to compare veterinary students’ performance in radiographic anatomy (radio-anatomy) after online or classroom-based teaching to assess the extent to which the two methods were interchangeable. Three strategies were compared in a cohort of 83 learners. Students were committed to online learning only, online learning with the use of specimen equine bones, or learning on conventional radiographs with specimen equine bones. At baseline (pre-test), scores from a mental rotation test and radio-anatomy knowledge test were similar between groups. After training (post-test), scores in mental rotation and radio-anatomy significantly increased by 6.7/40 units (95% CI: 5.2–8.2; p < .001) and 5.1/20 units (95% CI: 4.3–5.9; p < .001), respectively. There was no difference in scores for mental rotation and radio-anatomy knowledge between groups at post-test. Gender influenced the mental rotation, with men scoring significantly higher than women at pre-test ( M = 23.0, SD = 8.8 vs. M = 16.5, SD = 6.9; p = .001) and post-test ( M = 32.1, SD = 5.5 vs. M = 22.7, SD = 8.6; p < .001). However, radio-anatomy knowledge was not influenced by gender. These results suggest radio-anatomy teaching can be safely achieved with either conventional radiographs or online resources. This is of interest since, due to the COVID-19 outbreak, rapidly changing from on-site to online methods for teaching veterinary medical education proved necessary.
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AnatomyLab is an e-learning computer application. It helps students to study and become familiar with human anatomy by interacting with anatomical 3-Dimensional models, which represent subsystems in the human body. A new multilingual wikipedia lookup technique displays online information related to body parts or body sections in the language of the user choices. By adding custom contents, lectures for students can be created. As a result, anatomical contents can be exchanged by medical professionals and made available to patients.
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Living anatomy, defined as the anatomy revealed on living humans, is gaining importance in modern anatomy education, and has even been considered to replace cadaver-based anatomy study. We discussed the modalities through which living anatomy can be studied and explore the feasibility of using them to replace cadaver-based anatomy. We believe that the study of anatomy via the three main modalities of living anatomy, namely, surface anatomy, medical imaging and surgical procedures, rely on a foundation of sound knowledge of the three-dimensional anatomy. While a cadaver is still the best study material for the construction of a three-dimensional image of human anatomy, considering the pressure to reduce the hours geared towards anatomy education, education in anatomy in 21 st century must be revolutionized to utilize the state-of–the-art modalities to formulate a contemporary anatomy course. Such modalities allow students to carry on self –directed learning, leading to a positive outcome in anatomy education. The problem arises if we have to incorporate more living anatomy, the time necessary for dissection needs to be minimized or compromised. We sincerely believe that the time has come to address this issue in the anatomy curriculum.
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Anatomy in undergraduate education has been in decline for many years. Some suggest that it has fallen below a safe level. Balances between detail and safety, and assimilation and application of anatomy have yet to be established as the methods of teaching undergo another metamorphosis. For doctors, the human body is the focus of investigation and intervention on a daily basis; for this reason, the study of anatomy in some form will continue to be essential to safe medical practice. It is necessary for core knowledge of anatomy to be assimilated by all doctors in order to practice and communicate safely. It may be true that most doctors do not need to dissect a cadaver or study a prosection in order to practice, but if it can improve their understanding of what they do and why they do it, this surely has to be of benefit both for the safety of the patient and satisfaction of the doctor as a professional. Integration of newer teaching modalities and modern technology will encourage interest and retention of anatomical knowledge and its clinical relevance. Anatomy has a promising future in postgraduate specialist and surgical training. Detailed knowledge should be integrated into specialist training when it is clinically relevant allowing specialists of the future to practice safely and accurately and also to provide a strong base for future clinical developments.
Article
Advancements in technology and personal computing have allowed for the development of novel teaching modalities such as online web-based modules. These modules are currently being incorporated into medical curricula and, in some paradigms, have been shown to be superior to classroom instruction. We believe that these modules have the potential of significantly enriching anatomy education by helping students better appreciate spatial relationships, especially in areas of the body with greater anatomical complexity. Our objective was to develop an online module designed to teach the anatomy and function of the cranial nerves. A three-dimensional model of the skull, brainstem, and thalamus were reconstructed using data from the Visible Human Project and Amira®. The paths of the cranial nerves were overlaid onto this 3D reconstruction. Videos depicting these paths were then rendered using a "roller coaster-styled" camera approach. Interactive elements adding textual information and user control were inserted into the video using Adobe Creative Suite® 4, and finally, the module was exported as an Adobe Flash movie to be viewable on Internet browsers. Fourteen Flash-based modules were created in total. The primary user interface comprises a website encoded in HTML/CSS and contains links to each of the 14 Flash modules as well as a user tutorial.
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This study was designed to determine whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation of the same material. Forty-six medical students volunteered for participation in this study. Baseline demographic information, spatial ability, and knowledge of relevant anatomy were measured. Participants were randomized into two groups and presented with a computer-based interactive learning module comprised of animations and still images to highlight various anatomical structures (3D group), or a computer-based text document containing the same images and text without animation or interactive features (2D group). Following each teaching module, students completed a satisfaction survey and nine-item anatomic knowledge post-test. The 3D group scored higher on the post-test than the 2D group, with a mean score of 74% and 64%, respectively; however, when baseline differences in pretest scores were accounted for, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). Spatial ability did not statistically significantly correlate with post-test scores for the 3D group or the 2D group. In the post-test satisfaction survey the 3D group expressed a statistically significantly higher overall satisfaction rating compared to students in the 2D control group (4.5 versus 3.7 out of 5, P = 0.02). While the interactive 3D multimedia module received higher satisfaction ratings from students, it neither enhanced nor inhibited learning of complex hepatobiliary anatomy compared to an informationally equivalent traditional textbook style approach. .
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Introduction: Anatomy teaching has perhaps the longest history of any component of formalised medical education. In this article we briefly consider the history of dissection, but also review the neglected topic of the history of the use of living anatomy. Current debates: The current debates about the advantages and disadvantages of cadavers, prosection versus dissection, and the use of living anatomy and radiology instead of cadavers are discussed. The future: Future prospects are considered, along with some of the factors that might inhibit change.
The Electronic Atlas of Comparative Veterinary Anatomy, Osteology and Splanchnology
  • F El-Nady
El-Nady, F., 2002. The Electronic Atlas of Comparative Veterinary Anatomy, Osteology and Splanchnology. Vet. Med. J., giza., Vol 50, no 4, 523 -531.
Reconstituting of the Anatomy Museum by Bringing Various Teaching Materials Together to Facilitate Integrated Self-Directed Learning
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Tolba, A., 2010. Reconstituting of the Anatomy Museum by Bringing Various Teaching Materials Together to Facilitate Integrated Self-Directed Learning. Ph.D Thesis. Cairo University.
Some Anatomical Museum Preparations with Special Reference to Respiratory Organs in Some Domestic Animals
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Rezk, H.M. (2010). Some Anatomical Museum Preparations with Special Reference to Respiratory Organs in Some Domestic Animals. Ph. D Thesis, Cairo University.egypt.