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Abstract

En este artículo, para la biomasa sólida, el biogás y la fracción orgánica de los residuos sólidos urbanos se analizan las aplicaciones y tecnologías de conversión a energía. Se presentan datos sobre la evolución y situación de dichas fuentes de energía a nivel mundial y a nivel de países de la OCDE, sobre la disponibilidad de recurso energético tanto a nivel mundial como a nivel de Unión Europea y sobre diferentes aspectos relacionados con los costes. Finalmente se hacen consideraciones acerca de la sostenibilidad de la biomasa y de emisiones que se generan, tanto de gases de efecto invernadero como de contaminantes locales.
 




Resumen
En este artículo, para la biomasa sólida, el biogás y la fracción orgánica de los residuos sólidos
urbanos se analizan las aplicaciones y tecnologías de conversión a energía. Se presentan datos sobre
la evolución y situación de dichas fuentes de energía a nivel mundial y a nivel de países de la OCDE,
sobre la disponibilidad de recurso energético tanto a nivel mundial como a nivel de Unión Europea y
sobre diferentes aspectos relacionados con los costes. Finalmente se hacen consideraciones acerca de
la sostenibilidad de la biomasa y de emisiones que se generan, tanto de gases de efecto invernadero
como de contaminantes locales.
Palabras clave: biomasa, biogás, bioenergía, costes de biomasa, sostenibilidad.
Clasicación JEL: Q42, Q53, Q59.
Abstract
In this paper, applications and conversion technologies from solid biomass, biogas and biogenic
fraction of waste to energy are analysed. Data about the evolution and situation of these renewable
resources, in the world and also in the OCDE countries, are presented, as well as the resource potential
at the world and UE levels. Different aspects related to costs are studied. Finally, sustainability and
emissions (both GHG and local pollutants) are also considered.
Keywords: biomass, biogas, bioenergy, costs of biomass, sustainability.
JEL classication: Q42, Q53, Q59.
1. Introducción
      

«Biomasa es la fracción biodegradable de productos, deshechos y residuos
de la agricultura (incluyendo substancias vegetales y animales), silvicultura
e industrias relacionadas, así como la fracción biodegradable de los residuos
municipales e industriales».


 


        






             










     

       



2. Tipos de biomasa

EurObserv’ER Barometer

         





Biomasa sólida:

 
 


   


paulownia.





Biogás: 
     









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
Fracción Orgánica de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (FORSU). 

             









          


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
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
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
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 
  
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 
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













Biocarburantes. 
      
   




          


  

 

3. Usos de la biomasa






 
3.1. Aplicaciones térmicas





(district
heating),       


        






EurObserv’ER



(district heating)







3.2. Aplicaciones eléctricas








 
 
        
       





     




      


Eurobserv’ER








3.3. Tecnologías de conversión de biomasa en calor o electricidad


Combustión de biomasa. 





Pirólisis. 




 
Gasicación de biomasa.       





syngas



Digestión anaerobia. 







            




4. Situación de la biomasa a nivel internacional
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
         
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 
 
    
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    
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 

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
 

    




          
 


  


 
   



           



 
5. Disposición de recurso


En el mundo




CUADRO 1
OFERTA DE ENERGÍA PRIMARIA TOTAL, DE ENERGÍA RENOVABLE Y
DE BIOENERGÍA EN LA OCDE, POR REGIONES Y TOTAL EN 1990 Y 2010
OCDE
Américas7
OCDE Asia-
Oceanía8
OCDE
Europa9OCDE total
1990
O.E.P. (en Mtep.)… 2.260 643 1.620 4.523
de la cual renovable... 148,21 (6,6%) 25,85 (4,0%) 93,49 (5,8%) 267,56 (5,9%)
de la cual bioenergía 77,57 (52,3%) 9,74 (37,7%) 50,09 (53,6%) 131,41 (51,4%)
% biom. sól./bioen. 96,3% 96,8% 93,7% 95,4%
% biocarb./bioen. ––––
% biogás/bioenergía 1% 1,1% 1,4% 1,1%
% re. mu. re.10/bioen. 2,8% 2,1% 4,9% 3,5%
2010 (estim.)
O.E.P. (en Mtep.)… 2.691 907 1814 5.413
de la cual renovable... 191,66 (7,1%) 31,40 (3,52%) 188,88 (10,4%) 411,94 (7,6%)
de la cual bioenergía 109,31 (57,03%) 12,45 (39,7%) 113,36 (60,0%) 235,12 (57,1%)
% biom. sól./bioen. 66,5% 81,6% 70,8% 69,4%
% biocarb./bioen. 24,8% 4,6% 13,2% 18,1%
% biogás/bioen. 5,1% 4,8% 8,5% 6,7%
% re. mu. re./bioen. 3,7% 9% 7,5% 5,8%
FUENTE:Renewables Information,
 
 
 
    
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   
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 
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En la Unión Europea

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et al.,
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
  
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        
      
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            
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




6. Costes

        

       




 
Costes de las materias primas
      



    
             





CUADRO 2
RENDIMIENTOS Y COSTES DE PRODUCCIÓN Y RECOLECCIÓN DE
DIFERENTES MATERIAS PRIMAS DE BIOMASA EN EL MUNDO
Materia prima Región Rendimiento
GJ/ha/año Coste
US$2005/GJ

Miscanthus   
Paricum virgatum
   
Paricum virgatum
   
Árboles rotación corta   
Eucaliptus   
Sauce (rotación corta)   
Astillas madera   
Astillas madera   

Paja de trigo   
Paja de trigo   
Paja de azúcar de caña   
Cañote de maíz   
Cañote de maíz   
Rastrojo de sorgo   
Residuos forestales   
FUENTE: .
 


Logística y cadenas de suministro


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
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
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
    
 
 

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
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           
  
  
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

    

 


    


          







Costes de las plantas de transformación a energía

    



 
CUADRO 3
NIVELES DE EFICIENCIA Y COSTES DE INVERSIÓN Y DE OPERACIÓN Y MANTENIMIENTO DE PLANTAS
DE CONVERSIÓN DE BIOMASA A ENERGÍA
Tipo de
biomasa Especicación
de planta Costes de
inversión
[€/kWel]
Costes de
O&M
[€/kWel/año]
Eciencia
(electricidad)
[1]
Eciencia
(calor)
[1]
Tiempo de vida
(media)
[años]
Tamaño típico
planta
[MWel]

     
    
      
     

     
      
     
      
     
      
Fracción orgánica
de RSU
Incin. RSU 5.500-7.125 145-249 0,18-0,22 30 2-50
In RSU co-ge 5.800-7.425 172-258 0,14-0,16 0,64-0,66 30 2-50
FUENTE:  et al. 
 

         


 

 


 

Coste normalizado de energía)











   

et al., 
 
      
et al., 
 
   
    


 

 
 



CUADRO 4
COSTE NORMALIZADO DE ENERGÍA (LCOE)
Tecnología cUS$2005/kWh
Electricidad (combustión directa, BFB), 25-100 MW 6,9-15
Electricidad (combustión directa, BFB14), 25-100 MW 6,7-15
Electricidad. Cocombustión (coalimentación), 20-100 MW 2,2-6,2
Electricidad. Cocombustión (alimentación separada), 20-100 MW 2,6-6,7
Cogeneración calor y electricidad (Stoker), 25-100 MW 6,3-15
Cogeneración calor y electricidad (ORC15), 0,65-1,6 MW 12-32
Cogeneración calor y electricidad (turbina de vapor), 2,5-10 MW 8,3-22
Cogeneración calor y electricidad (gasicación, motor de comb. int.), 2,2-13 MW 3-13
Calor. Calefacción doméstica por pellets, 5-100 kW 5,2-26,8
Cogeneración calor y electricidad (residuos sólidos urbanos), 1-10 MW 0,6-13,2
Cogeneración calor y electricidad (turbina de vapor), 12-14 MW 3,8-24,4
Cogeneración calor y electricidad (digestión anaerobia), 0,5-5 MW 3,5-10,5
FUENTE: 

           


   





 





 
 
 

      




7. Emisiones y sostenibilidad





7.1. Emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero

    



 
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      
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
     




7.2. Combustión de biomasa y contaminación local




  



          

       

     





et al.

 


        



            









7.3. Sostenibilidad



          




 


 



    



 


 
 





 




         

    





8. Conclusiones







  







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 
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
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

         
           

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        
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      
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
Referencias bibliográcas
 Annual Statistical Report on the contribution of Biomass to the Ener-
gy System in the EU 27. 
 Análisis Sectorial. Área de la Biomasa. 
 Inventario de plantas de biomasa, biogás y Pellets de APPA 2011. 

 Biopower Thecnical
Assessment: State of the Industry and Technology. 

 La biomasa en España: Una fuente de energía renovable con gran
futuro. 
 
Ekonomiaz, er
 
 Model-based
Analysis of the 2008 EU Policy Package on Climate Change and Renewables. 

 
Econo-
mics of Energy & Environmental Policy, 
 et al.Financing Renewable Energy in the European Energy Market.

Biomass 2020: Opportunities, challenges and solutions. 

Biomass for heat and power. Oppor-
tunity and economics.
On sustainability requirements for the use of so-
lid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity, heating and cooling. 

Energía de la biomasa. 
Biomasa. Digestores anaerobios. 
Programa Biomcasa. 
Renewables Information 2011 with 2010
data, OECD/IEA, 
Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Miti-
gation. 

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 

et al.UEwoob. Real potential for changes in growth and use of
EU forests. 

Particulate Emissions from Biomass Combustion in IEA Countries. Survey on
Measurements and Emission Factors. 

Energy Policy, 
... Fracción de masa quemada La trascendencia que tiene la investigación en la combustión de biomasa o derivados se evidencia cuando se enfrenta el calentamiento global y las crisis energéticas asociadas a la escasez de combustibles fósiles [1,2]. De forma proporcional al aumento en la demanda mundial de energía y la preocupación por el medio ambiente, los gases derivados de biomasa son considerados una alternativa de solución importante en el futuro, en aplicaciones como la generación combinada de energía y calor (CHP) por medio de motores de combustión interna (MCI) [3,4,5]. ...
... La eficiencia térmica indicada ( ℎ ), por su parte, es un parámetro cuantitativo que expone directamente el rendimiento del motor, ya que dicta la fracción de la energía suministrada en el combustible que efectivamente es transmitida por los gases de combustión al pistón [38,39,40], esto se puede observar en la ecuación (2). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The main objective of this research is the computational optimization of a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, powered by a synthesis gas produced by biomass gasification. To achieve this, KIVA is used as simulation platform and a three-dimensional domain model is developed, considering the admission and escape processes in the computationally performed tests. In this process, the model is subjected to a mesh convergence study to choose the appropriate spatial discretization. In order to evaluate the veracity of the results obtained in the simulations, a comparison is made with respect to experimental data reported from the literature. In computational optimization, a subroutine is used that couples KIVA to the genetic algorithm NSGA II. The optimization process is performed at 2500 [RPM] and 4500 [RPM], seeking to maximize the indicated thermal efficiency and minimize NO emissions, varying the equivalence ratio in the combustion chamber. From the results, it is deduced that the performance of the engine presents its optimal values for mixtures close to the stoichiometry. In this same zone, CO emissions are minimal, but high CO2 concentrations and higher NO emissions are also present. It is observed that it is permissible to obtain NO concentrations, indicated thermal efficiencies and CO emissions similar to or better than those achieved in the conventional operation of the engine, ie when it is fueling with gasoline.
... La energía biomásica o bioenergía es considerada en todo el mundo como una fuente renovable no convencional sostenible, que puede almacenarse en todas las fracciones biodegradables de productos y desechos domésticos, de la agricultura, de la silvicultura o de la industria que no contenga o haya estado en contacto con elementos que confieran algún grado de peligrosidad, a esta biomasa se denominada biomasa residual (Cerdá, 2012;Ley N° 1715Ley N° , 2014 Abdulrahman & Huisingh, 2018). En el sector rural las principales fuentes de biomasa aprovechable son los residuos agrícolas, los residuos animales, los residuos de sólidos municipales (incluidos los residuos orgánicos originados en la actividad doméstica) y lodos de depuración (Said et al., 2013;Baul et al., 2018). ...
... En la tabla 11, se presenta la biomasa residual ordenada con base a la cantidad de generación de residuo en la vereda de estudio (Kg residuo/año) y al mayor potencial de metano teórico de cada residuo, para ser utilizado mediante digestión anaeróbica en la producción de biogás en la vereda Quebradas. De la tabla 11 se seleccionaron el estiércol bovino, el estiércol equino y la ectodermis o cáscara de papa por su disponibilidad, tasa de generación y potencial de metano como sustratos primordiales para la alimentación, montaje y adaptación de biodigestores domésticos en los hogares que cuenten con la disponibilidad de dicha biomasa residual, representando un gran beneficio para la comunidad rural al proporcionar combustible limpio (Cerdá, 2012;Joselin &, 2016). Mientras que, el resto de biomasa residual animal de la tabla 11 podrían emplearse en mezclas con los sustratos base para aumentar la producción de metano en procesos de co-digestión, debido a su excesivo contenido de carbono y nitrógeno que permite obtener una relación C/N óptima, a la estimulación de enzimas y a la presencia de nuevos microorganismos (Montenegro et al., 2016a(Montenegro et al., , 2016b. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The persistent energy inequality in Colombian rurality has been promoted research with non-conventional renewable energy sources for the sustainable development. The present research work was to focus on the environmental, cultural, social and economic considerations necessary for the domestic use of biomass energy by anaerobic digestion in peasant homes located at more than 3000 meters above sea level; in addition to recognize its current reality by the predominant use of firewood as fuel. For this reason, the study area were the Quebradas village and public institutions of the municipality of Pasca, Cundinamarca from a mixed approach to use qualitative and quantitative tools. The information was analysed using triangulation, statistical analysis and the hermeneutic method. It was found that the Quebradas village presents daily firewood consumption of 164.11 kg/day, it was found in 88% of native species that inhabit high mountain within the Sumapaz Complex and per capita energy consumption per housing of 6.69 Kgce; the consumption of firewood is influenced by 37.2% by the number of people, the idiosyncmatic construction of each subject and by the economic income of the peasant population. With reference to residual biomass, 95.7% of the potential for methane comes from cow manure and 3.68% from equine manure and potato ectodermis. At the socio-cultural level, 59% of farmers distinguish the functioning and benefits of using biogas by allowing 82% of the rural community to consider incorporating fuels from anaerobic digestion; even so, only 47% are willing to pay for access to low-cost tubular biodigestors in PVC, low-density plastic bag or LLPDE polyethylene bag.
... Si bien pareciera que el costo de utilizar carbón vegetal para generar energía eléctrica es menor que el asociado al uso de pellets, esto sólo es posible en generadoras de electricidad de alta eficiencia; además, el uso del carbón conlleva a un mayor costo ambiental, ya que se generan 960-1,050 g CO2/kWh por la quema de carbón, frente a 14-41 g CO2/kWh de la quema de diferentes formas de biomasa (Cerdá Tena, 2012). Por ello, considerando todos estos aspectos, el costo de la generación de electricidad a partir de pellets es considerablemente más bajo que con el uso de carbón, como se observa en la Tabla 1. Los datos presentados en la Tabla 1 fueron reportados por el Panel Intergubernamental sobre el Cambio Climático (2011). ...
... Emilio Cerdá (2012). "Energía obtenida a partir de biomasa". ...
Book
Full-text available
After the approval of the Policy for the Promotion and Development of Renewable Energy Sources (FRE) and energy efficiency in 2014, the national project "Strategic monitoring of renewable energy sources" begins to be implemented, with the objective of develop and implement a methodology to carry out the strategic surveillance that can give a permanent response to the information needs of the decision makers during the execution of the policy implementation actions, and for the updating of the strategic development plans of the sources renewable, in the medium and long term, mainly with the incorporation of emerging technologies. For that reason, over two years several specialists and researchers prepared reports on different energy sources, as well as the associated technologies, also assessing the target market, market niches, elements of the commercial environment of products and services; innovations, internationally prioritized research lines, major scientific research, publications and new projects. We then put these reports to your consideration, so that they serve as a reference in the study and knowledge about the different renewable sources of energy, of their possibilities to contribute to mitigate the effects of climate change and the contribution they can provide to sustainable development.
... El aprovechamiento térmico de la biomasa, es posible en el ámbito mundial [21,22], por ejemplo en Europa, las aplicaciones térmicas con producción de calor y agua caliente son las más comunes en el sector de la biomasa [23,24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN El aprovechamiento de residuos generados en procesos agroindustriales, es de interés en el ámbito mundial. En la actualidad se investiga en biomasa lignocelu-lósica para obtener energía, combustibles, biomateriales y productos químicos, mediante tecnologías limpias y sistemas cerrados que permitan conservar el medio ambiente. En esta investigación, a partir de características de residuos agroindustriales típicos del Departamento del Cauca, bagacillo de caña, polvillo de fique, afrecho de yuca y sus mezclas, se evalúo el aprovechamiento como biorefinería. Se determinaron las propiedades térmicas, físicas químicas y mor-fológicas en siete muestras de residuos, se realizaron ensayos exploratorios de pre-tratamientos y posibles usos. Se concluye que la muestra M6 con el 9,93% de humedad, 4,12% de ceniza, 43,97% de carbono, 5,86% de hidrogeno, 0,43% ni-trógeno, poder calorífico inferior de 15MJ/kg y con 22,25% de celulosa, 9,30% de hemicelulosa y 4,56% de lignina, presenta características apropiadas para ser uti-lizada en hornos y calderas de menor potencia para el sector rural por la cantidad de ceniza, la cual mantiene estable el poder calorífico inferior y reduce la emisión Recibido para evaluación: 13 noviembre de 2013. Aprobado para publicación: 25 mayo de 2014
... Several studies suggest that the use of forest biomass is an available strategy to help compensate for greenhouse gas emissions (GGE) [9][10][11][12][13][14]. If biomass comes from agricultural or forest residues, the reduction in the emissions of CO 2 exceeds 80% in comparison to fossil fuel [15]. The energy use of the residues generated by forest mass is, at the very least, an interesting alternative, especially in Biscay, a province belonging to the ACBC, where more than 60% of the surface is forest. ...
Article
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The substitution of energy based on fossil fuel by bioenergy could be an effective solution to reduce external energy dependency, thereby promoting sustainable development. This article details a study of the use of biomass residues produced in the forestry sector as a consequence of field operations of the two predominant forest species (Pinus radiata D. Don and Ecualyptus globulus Labill) of Biscay (Spain). The potential of forest residues is estimated to be 66,600 dry Mg year − 1 . These residues would provide 1307 TJ year − 1 . Energy parameters, ultimate and proximate analyses, and the level of emissions of the forest residues are performed in order to estimate their characteristics as fuel. The research done has shown very similar values in terms of the net calorific value of the residues of P. radiata (19.45 MJ kg − 1 ) and E. globulus (19.48 MJ kg − 1 ). The determined emission factors indicate a reduction in gas emissions: CO (23–25%), CO 2 (22–25%), SO 2 (87–91%) and dust (11–38%) and an increase of 11–37% in NO x compared to hard coal. Estimation of the emission factors of the residual biomass allows the environmental impacts, that are potentially produced by biofuel, to be estimated.
Article
Health and environmental problems arise in the world due to gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels. This problem has focused on researching the production of renewable fuels from biomass. One type of biomass is the waste produced during banana cultivation. In this industry, for every ton of banana harvested, there are on average four tons of waste that also pollute the environment. This paper aims to evaluate the economic and exergetic viability of a banana waste pyrolysis plant in Colombia. The plant processes were simulated in Aspen Plus®, which resolved the material and energy balance. The yield of products was validated with experimental results from literature, where differences could be attributed to biomass composition and reactor type. The results obtained revealed yields of 40.20%, 24.75% and 35.07% from bio-oil, char and gas respectively. Additionally, economic and exergy data were combined for an exergy costing method to carry out the exergoeconomic analysis. The overall exergy efficiency of the plant was 61.76%. The highest exergy destruction is located in the dryer and the pyrolysis reactor, which accounts for 35.84% and 32.96%. The combustion chamber has the highest exergy destruction cost (180.19 $/h) and a low value of the exergoeconomic factor (5.96%), indicating that an improvement of the equipment is required, even if it means an increase in investment cost. The study reveals that the analysis made demonstrates the potential of bio-oil production from banana waste, and the possibility of using gaseous products in a combined heat and power plant. The novelty of this paper is the methodology that can be applied to design of energy generation projects, supported by process simulators, combining economic and exergetic analysis, which are useful in developing countries.
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Inventario de plantas de biomasa, biogás y Pellets de APPA 2011
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Biomass 2020: Opportunities, challenges and solutions
EURELECTRIC (2011): Biomass 2020: Opportunities, challenges and solutions. bruselas.
Biomass for heat and power. Opportunity and economics
  • European Climate Foundation
EUROpEan CLIMaTE FOUnDaTIOn (2010): Biomass for heat and power. Opportunity and economics.
On sustainability requirements for the use of solid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity
  • European Commission
EUROpEan COMMIssIOn (2010): On sustainability requirements for the use of solid and gaseous biomass sources in electricity, heating and cooling. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European parliament.