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Determinants of social media adoption by B2B organizations

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Abstract

This study contributes to the current dearth of knowledge on the potential of social media as a marketing tool in industrial settings, by focusing on factors that determine social media adoption by B2B organizations. A conceptual model, which draws on the technology acceptance model and resource-based theory, is developed and tested using quantitative data from B2B organizations in the UK. Findings suggest that perceived usefulness of social media within B2B organizational contexts is determined by image, perceived ease of use and perceived barriers. Additionally, the results show that adoption of social media is significantly affected by organizational innovativeness and perceived usefulness. The moderating role of organizational innovativeness is also tested but no support is found. The findings of the study are further validated via nine qualitative interviews with B2B senior managers, yielding additional interesting and in-depth insights into the drivers of social media adoption by B2B organizations.

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... Regarding SM adoption, an extensive body of extant research exists at the individual level from a technological view (Fosso et al., 2017;Lacka and Chong, 2016). Although a few studies have focused on organizational SM adoption (Guesalaga, 2016;Siamagka et al., 2015), little is known about the factors that affect SM adoption from a contextual lens of construction projects (Hasan et al., 2019b). In specific, CPTs are normally built by construction organizations to perform project activities and may become major users of SM, thereby entailing a team-level investigation to figure out the contextual antecedents of SM adoption. ...
... To this end, this study employs the technology-organization-environment (TOE) model as an overarching theoretical framework, which has been commonly applied by scholars to reveal the underlying process of organizational-level adoption of information technology (IT) from the three aspects (Ahmad et al., 2019;Gangwar et al., 2015). Notably, other existing theories like the technology acceptance model (TAM) and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), which have been drawn upon in previous literature related to IT adoption (Fosso et al., 2017;Siamagka et al., 2015), emphasize more on the individual level and ignore the possible power from organizational and environmental dimensions. Hence, the TOE model is more consistent with the purpose of the current research to identify factors that affect team-level SM adoption by CPTs. ...
... acceptance) before taking the usage behavior. This study further validates that such intention can be integrated and extended to a team level in the form of a shared attitude of CPT members toward a technology adoption behavior (Siamagka et al., 2015), enriching the generalization of this team mechanism to the context of construction projects. Different from common structured organizations, CPTs are always temporarily organized and designed with flattened department distribution. ...
Article
Purpose A lack of reliable and effective communication tools poses major barriers impeding the performance of construction projects consisting of diverse participants. Although some construction project teams (CPTs) begin to apply social media (SM) as an available approach for project management the entire mechanism of SM adoption in this specific context remains understudied. Therefore, this study aims to adopt a CPT's lens to investigate the critical antecedents and associated effects underlying SM adoption in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach Based on the technology–organization–environment (TOE) theory, a conceptual model was proposed and tested by empirical data collected from 159 CPTs in China. Structural equation modeling technique was employed for data analysis. Findings The results demonstrate that all the five extracted TOE-based antecedents including two technological factors (i.e. compatibility and expected cost), one organizational factor (i.e. top management support) and two environmental factors (i.e. project partner collaboration and project fit) are crucial to the adoption of SM in CPTs. Besides, SM acceptance is found to mediate the relationships between organizational and environmental factors and SM use. Moreover, SM use significantly predicts the communication effectiveness of CPTs. Research limitations/implications A questionnaire study based on cross-sectional data from China may only unveil the logic of SM adoption in the context of Chinese construction industry within a shorter time interval. It is recommended that future research could develop longitudinal studies among various construction practitioners in different countries to further specify and generalize the current findings. Originality/value This paper provides a comprehensive understanding of SM adoption in the construction industry by exploring the preadoption antecedents and postadoption effects from the perspective of project teams. The empirical findings advance the current web-based project management literature and afford new insights for construction practitioners into better managing SM application to reap its full capabilities in projects.
... The wearable device, such as a smartwatch, is one of the applied technologies worn as accessories or embedded in clothing. Since the smartwatch is becoming more popular due to its features such as health and fitness monitoring, location detection, and phone alert notification, [1] predicted that 5 million smartwatches sold globally in 2014, 91.6 million in 2018, and by 2020. ...
... A person tends to show that he has used a technology or will communicate the difficulties he experiences (if any) when using the technology. The use of a social media tool can increase investment in social media tools in many B2B [1]. Therefore, the result demonstrability can affect the ease of users in conveying perceived usefulness. ...
... The use of technology can build the user's image or status, and this will affect the perception of others regarding the use of smartwatches in achieving these objectives [1]. Thus, the formulated hypothesis for H5: Image has a positive impact on perceived usefulness. ...
... In this paper, taking a market-as-networks approach (Håkansson & Snehota, 1989), we identify the micro-processes through which entrepreneurial firms, together with business-to-business (B2B) network actors, exploit social media (SM) as a multi-faceted resource. SM, largely confined to benefits associated with its use as a communications platform (Siamagka, Christodoulides, Michaelidou, & Valvi, 2015), has more recently, from a network perspective, been defined as a resource. In these studies, SM has been defined as a strategic resource to; develop B2B sales relationships (Bocconcelli, Cioppi, & Pagano, 2017;Enyinda, Opute, Fadahunsi, & Mbah, 2020), improve customer engagement (Cartwright, Davies, & Archer-Brown, 2021), and enhance network coordination and collaboration (Drummond, McGrath, & O'Toole, 2018). ...
... Our interest reflects a shift away from viewing SM solely as a market or communications platform, to that of a resource developed and fine-tuned in interaction with business actors. Taking SM as the focal resource in the study has great practical appeal given its ease of access and use for entrepreneurial firms (Broekemier, Chau, & Seshadri, 2015;Georgescu & Popescul, 2015;Siamagka et al., 2015). Our micro-processes can be used by entrepreneurial firm owners to purposefully mobilise SM as a resource for collaborative B2B network activity. ...
... SM can be defined as a group of "internet-based applications that build on the…foundations of Web 2.0" which allows for "the creation and exchange of User Generated Content" (UGC) (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010: 61). Within the B2B marketing literature, SM has been primarily investigated as a market platform or communications tool (Lacoste, 2016;Siamagka et al., 2015), in a large firm context (Agnihotri, Dingus, Hu, & Krush, 2016;Chahine & Malhotra, 2018). This view of SM is limiting given its noted adaptability when compared to traditional communications channels (Valos, Polonsky, Mavondo, & Lipscomb, 2014) while the emphasis on the larger firm context does not meaningfully translate to smaller firms or entrepreneurial ventures. ...
Article
Research addressing how social media (SM) is mobilised in interaction with other network actors is rare. The aim of this paper is to identify the micro-processes of SM resource mobilisation at resource interfaces in a collaborative entrepreneurial network. Using a sample of three entrepreneurial firms and their connected networks, the authors inductively analysed 12,491 B2B SM related interactions and 66 h of interview data to identify six foundational micro-processes that underpin SM resource mobilisation: (i) connecting, (ii) matching, (iii) sorting, (iv) managing, (v) divergence, and (vi) contraction. The study contributes to process studies in network-based research by focusing on how SM resources are mobilised at the boundary between firms in a network. In practice, the six micro-processes identified can be used by entrepreneurial firms to purposefully mobilise SM as a resource for collaborative business-to-business network activity.
... Furthermore, extant scholarly arguments revealed that the core variables of UTAUT and TAM may not be potent to predict the acceptance of novel technology (Kim and Garrison, 2009). This, therefore, suggests that synthesizing other variables such as organizational context and environment context (based on TOE model) (Tornatzky and Fleischer, 1990) that have been verified by other scholars (Ahmad et al., 2015;Awa et al., 2015;Eze et al., 2021;Maroufkhani et al., 2020) with selected constructs of TAM 3 and UTAUT 2 will be appropriate to predict MCA, especially in the context of an emerging country, such as Malaysia as equally justified by other recent studies (Alalwan et al., 2016;Celik, 2016;Chau et al., 2020;Chau and Deng, 2018;Shaw and Sergueeva, 2019;Siamagka et al., 2015). Therefore, this study integrates TAM 3 (Venkatesh and Bala, 2008), UTAUT 2 (Venkatesh et al., 2012) and TOE model to explain the adoption of m-commerce among SMEs in Malaysia. ...
... RD is one of the constructs of TAM 3 that is less tested by IS/IT adoption studies (Wu et al., 2016). It is defined as the extent to which users of innovation believe that the benefits to be gained from using the innovation will be tangible, observable and communicable (Siamagka et al., 2015;Venkatesh and Bala, 2008). Cakirli Akyüz and Theuvsen (2020) assert that when an individual perceives that a technology invention has some benefits that can be shown to others, they will be favorably disposed to use the system. ...
... The first section asked a question about the demographic profile of respondents, the second section is about organization profile, the third is about the adoption of mcommerce, while the last section is about the determinants of the adoption of m-commerce. The measurement items for all the constructs were adapted from previous studies: MCA items from Khoi et al. (2018) and Ghazali et al. (2018), CSE, CA and RD items were adapted from Celik (2016), Alalwan et al. (2016) and Siamagka et al. (2015). MCK, PTP and PC's items were adapted from Ghobakhloo et al. (2011) and HM from Venkatesh et al. (2012) and Salimon et al. (2017). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to adopt mobile commerce (m-commerce) by integrating the constructs of Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM 3), Universal Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 and Technology-Organization-Environment model. Though numerous m-commerce adoption (MCA) studies have been conducted, lesser attention is paid to how hedonic motivation (HM) can influence organizational users such as SMEs. This study bridges the gap by integrating the three models to provide a new lens to guide SMEs. Design/methodology/approach To examine the factors that influence the adoption of m-commerce, the researchers collected data from SMEs in Malaysia using an online survey. The sample size of the participants was determined through the available list provided by SME Corp Malaysia. The researchers also used Krejcie and Morgan’s sample size and G * Power techniques to determine that the sample size was appropriate. The data collected were analyzed using partial least square-structural equation modeling. Findings The findings of this study reveal that technological factors (computer self-efficacy [ CSE ], result demonstrability [ RD ] and computer anxiety [ CA ]) positively and significantly influence MCA . Likewise, the organizational/environmental factors (m-commerce knowledge, pressure from trading partners and pressure from competitors) positively and significantly influence MCA . The moderating influence of HM was also achieved on the relationship between CSE and RD . However, the proposed hedonic moderating relationship between CA and the adoption of m-commerce is not significant. Research limitations/implications This study integrates three models to explain the adoption of m-commerce among SMEs in Malaysia and tested the moderating influence of HM. The results obtained better explain the decision by the SMEs to use m-commerce. Originality/value The study critically considered how m-commerce can be adopted by SMEs in Malaysia, which previous studies have largely ignored. Considering this, the study, therefore, advances a new relationship by integrating Technology-organization-environment model with TAM 3 and the moderating influence of HM to explain MCA among SMEs. This paper is one of the few research studies to test the moderating influence of HM in this regard.
... Media sosial dalam konteks indutri organisasi, berbagai macam bentuk misalnya blog, photo sharing, saluran video dan yang lainnya, telah menjadi subyek untuk meningkatkan ketertarikan. Secara umum, media sosial menawarkan banyak keuntungan dan kesempatan bagi industri untuk menarik pelanggan baru dan tetap menjalin relasi dengan pelanggan yang sudah ada (Kho, 2008;Siamangka et al., 2015). Media sosial juga bisa meningkatkan kolaborasi dengan pelanggan dan menciptakan inovasi (Wang et al., 2016). ...
... Pelaksanaan kegiatan pengabdian masyarakat ini telah berlangsung cukup baik karena kerjasama antar pelaksana baik dosen dan mahasiswa serta didukung oleh keterlibatan aktif UMKM. Secara umum, media sosial menawarkan banyak keuntungan dan kesempatan bagi industri untuk menarik pelanggan baru dan tetap menjalin relasi dengan pelanggan yang sudah ada (Kho, 2008;Siamangka et al., 2015). Media sosial juga bisa meningkatkan kolaborasi dengan pelanggan dan menciptakan inovasi (Wang et al., 2016). ...
Article
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This community service activity is carried out as a follow-up to the Digital Marketing and Marketing Management course. There are several problems faced by partners that have been collected by students by mapping the partner's marketing strategy in the several semesters that have been undertaken. The first problem is from product management related to packaging, branding, the second problem is the limited capital for promotion, the third problem is the limited knowledge of marketing strategies and the lack of knowledge about how to make attractive promotional content through product photos and videos, the fourth problem is the ability to manage and create media social including Instagram, Facebook, website, and YouTube. Social media in the context of industrial organizations, various forms such as blogs, photo sharing, video channels and others, have become the subject of increasing interest. Therefore, from the four problems, this community service is made to help partners overcome the problems at hand. This activity is also a follow-up and application of Digital Marketing and Marketing Management courses. It is hoped that with this activity, students can apply the knowledge they have obtained to help partners improve competitiveness in terms of digital marketing. A B S T R A C T Kegiatan pengabdian masyarakat ini dilakukan sebagai tindak lanjut dari mata kuliah Digital Marketing dan Manajemen Pemasaran. Ada beberapa kendala yang dihadapi mitra kerja yang berhasil dihimpun mahasiswa dengan memetakan strategi pemasaran mitra pada beberapa semester yang telah dijalani. Masalah pertama dari manajemen produk terkait pengemasan, branding, masalah kedua adalah keterbatasan modal untuk promosi, masalah ketiga adalah keterbatasan pengetahuan tentang strategi pemasaran dan kurangnya pengetahuan tentang cara membuat konten promosi yang menarik melalui foto dan video produk. Masalah keempat adalah kemampuan mengelola dan membuat media sosial termasuk Instagram, Facebook, website, dan YouTube. Media sosial dalam konteks organisasi industri, berbagai bentuk seperti blog, berbagi foto, saluran video dan lain-lain, menjadi bahan pembicaraan yang semakin diminati. Oleh karena itu, dari keempat permasalahan tersebut,
... The function of SMEs in Malaysia is critical for the country's growth of the economy. Most importantly, these firms contribute significantly to economic development, job creation, and labor productivity (Siamagka et al., 2015). Indeed, it is undeniable that SMEs make a significant contribution to a country's economic health as they enhance both inventions and creativity (Stieglitz et al., 2018). ...
... This was primarily done with an aim to bring a more holistic understanding of the determinants and drivers of social media adoption in Malaysia. Thirdly, some previous studies on social media adoption that applied structural equation modeling (SEM) (Ahmad et al., 2019;Ainin et al., 2015b;Chatterjee & Kar, 2020;He, Wang et al., 2017;Qalati et al., 2021;Siamagka et al., 2015) could only investigate the compensatory and the linear associations among the constructs, which is considered inadequate. It is lacking in terms of the ability to estimate the intricacies affecting multifaceted decisionmaking procedure of SMEs. ...
Article
Full-text available
In light of the growing role of social media marketing in the success of businesses and its low adoption rate among small and medium enterprises (SMEs), this study aims to identify determinants of SMEs’ social media marketing adoption by considering the competitive industry as a moderator. Data were collected from 214 SMEs in Malaysia. Unlike extant literature, this study proposed a dual-stage analysis involving partial least squares (PLS) technique and artificial intelligence named deep artificial neural network (ANN). The application of deep ANN architecture is used to predict 91% of accuracy for the proposed model. The results showed that perceived relative advantage, perceived cost, top management support, perceived competitor pressure, and perceived vendor pressure have a significant impact on social media marketing adoption. Furthermore, the competitive industry moderates the effects of competitive pressure and customer pressure on social media marketing adoption. The results of the study extend the literature on social media marketing by illustrating the influence of technological, organizational, and environmental (TOE) factors on social media marketing adoption among SMEs concerning the extent of industry competition. The results of the study enable policymakers and managers of SMEs to understand the factors that influence social media marketing adoption in both competitive and non-competitive industries and invest effectively in digital marketing.
... As a result, more channels are being used by businesses (Kietzmann et al., 2011). Companies are increasingly turning to social media because it allows them to communicate with their customers in a way that goes further than a one-on-one exchange (Siamagka et al., 2015). Analytics, automatic posting, content marketing, marketing automation and consumer targeting may all be done cheaply using social media features. ...
... Studies have focused on social media use in business-to-consumer scenarios, but this is no longer the case. According to a study by Pookulangara and Koesler (2011), the influence of social media on consumer buying behavior has been explored, as well as the ways it can be used to enhance brand awareness or gain information from consumers (Siamagka et al., 2015) or how it can be used to start generating word-of-mouth suggestions (Rapp et al., 2013;Chang et al., 2016). Few researchers have examined at how SMEs utilize or select social media platforms regardless of the fact that it is becoming increasingly relevant and valued by them (Durkin et al., 2013). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of social media adoption on the performance of construction small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach Construction SMEs owners and managers in Nigeria were surveyed using questionnaires to gather data. Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was employed to assess measurement reliability and validity, as well as the hypothesized paths provided in the conceptual model that formed part of the final conclusions. Findings The empirical finding showed that social media usage increased knowledge accessibility, reduced costs and improved customer relations and service for organizations. Overall, social media adoption was significantly and positively related to SMEs business performance. Also, the paper revealed that learning capability mediates the relationship between social media and SMEs performance. Research limitations/implications Data for the study came from only one industry and one related line of business; thus, including more companies from different sectors or industries could be more interesting. The study's findings contributed to the growing body of knowledge about the impact of social media on the efficiency of businesses. Small and medium-sized businesses also need to understand and recognize the impact of social media on the organization's performance in order to achieve a long-term competitive edge from the adoption of social media. Practical implications According to the findings, small construction firms can benefit from marketing the brands through social media channels and improved learning capability. In terms of accessibility, cost savings and improved relationships with customers, research shows that social media promotion can be beneficial to businesses. A study like this has the potential to show how social media can help striving small businesses interact cost-effectively with customers all over the world, opening new doors for sales and continuous improvement. Originality/value The relationship between SME performance in Nigeria and the use of social media has received very little attention despite social media's promising potentials, particularly for small businesses. The authors hoped that this study will fill a gap in the authors' understanding of how social media affects the performance of small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) in the construction industry.
... Thus far, no direct relationship has been found between social media and sales performance, as social media alone do not ensure outcomes such as customer satisfaction (Agnihotri et al., 2016;Itani et al., 2017). Concerning costs, they are mainly not perceived as the main barrier to adoption, as social media usually do not demand significant initial investments compared to other technologies (Siamagka et al., 2015). Moreover, social media content is usually jointly created by organizations and external stakeholders, as social media platforms are not owned by companies and are not completely under companies' control (Christodoulides, 2009). ...
... Moreover, as multiple case studies usually yield more robust, generalizable and testable theory than single-case research (Eisenhardt and Graebner, 2007), 11 companies operating in the PPE sector in Italy are analyzed. Multiple case studies have also been adopted by previous studies investigating digital communications and social media use in B2B, for instance Karjaluoto et al. (2015), Siamagka et al. (2015), Pagani and Pardo (2017) and Lashgari et al. (2018). As in the exploratory study by Andersson and Wikström (2017), who investigate the use of social media by B2B firms, purposeful sampling was used to identify cases that fit the research aim and questions (Miles et al., 2014). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the personal protective equipment (PPE) industry managed supply chain and business relationships disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the adoption of digital and social media during the period of crisis management. Design/methodology/approach The methodology used is qualitative based on 14 interviews with 11 PPE firms operating in Italy, the first Western country that implemented a national lockdown during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. Findings Findings suggest that although most PPE companies in Italy have been slow in implementing digital transformation, digital technologies and communication enhanced existing assets and capabilities creating new customer value during the COVID-19 outbreak. The pandemic has increased the relevance of social media as an effective tool in the business-to-business (B2B) context to provide updated information and training, as well as to reinforce and personalize business relationships, weakened by the lack of physical contacts during the lockdown. Moreover, highly interdependent buyer–supplier relations can increase supply chain resilience to disruptions in mutually dependent relationships/partnerships. Research limitations/implications By analyzing the main issues encountered during the pandemic and the digital strategies adopted by PPE companies, this study seeks to extend B2B literature on supply chain disruption management and digitalization. The limitations refer to the study’s generalizability as a limited number of firms are analyzed. Practical implications Implications for B2B companies and policymakers are provided with the extent of managing supply chain disruptions during emergency situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, when the collaboration between different actors involved becomes essential. Originality/value No previous studies have analyzed how PPE firms used digital and social media in managing disruption in supply chain and business relationships. Therefore, the present study contributes to extend the B2B literature by analyzing the related effects during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Furthermore, social media strengthens external interaction too, it is a competitive advantage that will certainly develop online networking among firms, customers, and suppliers (Aichner & Jacob, 2015) and enables them to make enjoyable and influential communications beyond geographical and cultural boundaries. Networking activities by social media usage creates great connectivity combining innovative solutions and creating added value for companies and customers (Siamagka et al., 2015). The combination of network and organizational skills represents a competitive advantage because it reveals as an impressive and superior performance that will lead to high future incomes (Naudé et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
The objective of this study is to describe and analyze Human Governance analytics to face the Digital Economy. Based on the purpose of this study, the following research questions were formulated: Which are the main Human Governance analytics for Public Organizations to face the Digital Economy? The main findings are based on bibliometric analysis and two case studies applied to Public Organizations, the analytics regarding talent search and acquisition, talent development, and talent performance appraisal were identified by the bibliometric analysis and tested in the case studies. The goal is to help organizations to transform their processes and contribute to higher efficiency and effectiveness, based on digital technologies.
... The concept of information technology in the 21 st century has fueled the embrace of many features of computing and technology, and the thought is more identifiable than ever (Pal, 2008). A review of the literature on social media studies in SMEs shows that only a few studies have looked at the use and adoption of social media (Siamagka et al., 2015;Dekker et al., 2020). So, the study is expected to play a significant role in analyzing the role of social media in SMEs in Bangladesh. ...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the challenges, Benefits, and various determinants which play an important role in adopting social media among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Bangladesh, based on the (Technology-Organization-Environment) TOE Model. The TOE framework seeks to understand the significant factors influencing the decision to adopt social media in SMEs in Bangladesh. Research methodology: In the study, a random sampling method was used to select a representative sample from the existing active SMEs in different regions of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was designed to measure constructs such as relative advantage. Preliminary data were collected from 365 small and medium enterprises through field studies. Then the survey data were analyzed using logistic regression (L.R.) of the independent variables included in the TOE framework Results: The outcomes of the study found that only 5 variables: relative advantage, complexity, consistency, top management's assistance, and innovative management factors significantly influence SMEs' decisions to adopt social media. Limitations: The busy schedules of the respondents are key limitations for the study along with the study area. If the study could explore more districts besides Dhaka city, then the study outcomes would be more extensive. Contribution: The results from this study will help SME foundations, research institutes, and government policymakers to formulate strategies for optimal use of social media in SMEs.
... Larosiliere, Meske, and Carter [76]; Siamagka et al. [57]; Tajudeen et al. [58] relationships (a and b). Online communities present a range of interaction influences that may strongly influence OCR. ...
Chapter
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Nonprofit organisations use social networking platforms to interact, engage, and build productive relationships with target audiences for co-created outcomes. This chapter pursues two interrelated objectives: First, it identifies key stages in the growth of organisation-community relationships on co-creative social networking platforms. Second, it discusses the multi-levelled factors influencing these relationships at the respective stages. To achieve these objectives, we make a general review of scholarship on nonprofit use of social media, social networking platforms for co-creation, and organisation-public relationships on social media. We used the ecological systems perspective to identify the internal and external environmental influences on organisational relationships in social networking platforms. This chapter presents three abstract stages of organisation-community relationships: emergence, growth, and collapse, based on existing empirical observations and theoretical perspectives. We reveal four levels of ecological-based factors that influence different stages of organisation-community relationships on co-creative social networking platforms. We indicate the potentially strong and weaker influences on organisational relationships.
... Considering the large user base of Facebook -2.6 billion monthly active users (Statista, 2020), it is no wonder salespeople recognize its value in the sales process. Considering its professional usage solely, LinkedIn is a leading social network for B2B organizations (Siamagka et al., 2015). These two social networks are mostly used to identify decision-makers and gather detailed background data on potential clients and maintain relationships with customers (Agnihotri et al., 2012;Itani et al., 2017;Marshall et al., 2012;Safko, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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Salespeople operating in today's competitive landscape, reaching global audiences and more informed consumers, recognize the opportunity social media holds for the sales process. This research explores how salespeople operating on both B2B and B2C markets use social media in the sales process and their attitudes towards it. The research also identifies differences in the social media usage by salespeople demographics, including age, gender, education level, and organization size. Data is collected using an online questionnaire submitted by salespeople employed in various companies, and Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences. Research results confirmed salespeople are aligned with consumers' preferred channels as instant messaging was the dominant social media category. The research also confirmed that social media is used in all stages of the sales 1075 INTERDISCIPLINARY MANAGEMENT RESEARCH XVII process, with it dominant in the presentation stage. The only significant difference in B2B and B2C salespeople was found for the prospecting and initial contact stages. In terms of demographics, the research confirmed that salespeople up to 50 years use social media, with women being more active on this medium. The main limitation lies in the sample-its size and structure. Thus, future studies should expand the geographic scope and target a larger sample and address how social media usage and demographics differ among customer segments being served by salespeople. This research contributes to the sales and marketing literature, and its findings are crucial for practitioners, especially sales directors and consultants, when defining sales strategy, training, or hiring plans.
... The fourth finding evidenced the significant effect of SMA on CRMC, which suggests that SMA improves the relationship with customers, increasing their knowledge about the firm and its products and services. This finding is in line with prior research (Siamagka et al., 2015;Trainor et al., 2014) highlighting the importance of social media in relation to CRMC. ...
Article
Social media adoption (SMA) can enable small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) to build strong relationships with customers at low cost, addressing the global challenge of SME's growth and sustainability. In the under‐examined developing‐country context, this study aims to explore the mediating role of SMA and customer relationship management capabilities (CRMC) and the moderating role of innovation capabilities (IC) and SMA. Grounded on the resource‐based view, 431 randomly selected closed‐ended‐questionnaire responses were analyzed. Findings reveal the positive and significant effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO), SMA, CRMC, and IC on SME performance (SMEP), as well as the partially mediating role of SMA and CRMC and the moderating role of IC on the SMA–SMEP relationship.
... The most significant technological development in the last 30 years has been the Internet, which makes it possible for individuals to collaborate and share knowledge instantly. Technological developments have introduced significant changes in how organisations interact with their partners and customers (Siamagka et al., 2015). Social media equips organisations with collaborative tools that transform the means of cooperation (Evert et al., 2016;Galati et al., 2019;Jalonen, 2014). ...
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate how family businesses utilise social media tools, to determine what the purposes, benefits and challenges are, and to discover competencies that are important in social networking and cooperation. A multiple case study method was employed based on semi-structured interviews with six wineries located in the Balaton region, Hungary. The interviewees and the wineries they represented were selected among the 55 wineries applying the non-probability sampling purposive technique and the interviews were analysed using a case study method and qualitative content analysis. The results show that Facebook is the most popular social media tool that wineries use to increase brand awareness and reach new potential customers. This study also presents a “Social media roadmap” framework for good practice and proposes practical steps family businesses may take to help them succeed in their marketing activities. Keywords: Family business, SME, social media, marketing, networking, winery
... Organizational performance is an evaluation of the efficacy of the company in achieving its particular goals and objectives (Oyewobi et al., 2020a). Siamagka et al. (2015) pointed out that the use of social media by businesses creates a vast network of opportunities between firms, customers and suppliers. This allows companies to benefit from social networking for a sustained competitiveness and to perform optimally in their business (Naudé et al., 2014). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the mediating effect of learning capacity in the relationship between the social media usage by the construction of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and their business performance in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative survey technique was used to collect data from the owner/manager of construction SMEs in Nigeria. The partial least square structural equation modeling was used in the assessment of the measurement model and structural model to assess the validity and reliability of the measures and to evaluate the hypotheses proposed in the conceptual model. Findings Empirical findings indicated a significant positive relationship between learning capacity and performance of SMEs. Similarly, the use of social media is significantly and positively associated to the business performance of SMEs. It has also been shown that learning capacity is a mediator of the relationship between social media and SME performance. Research limitations/implications The data for the study is are all from a single industry and a related line of business, so it could be more interesting to include more companies across sectors or industries. The finding contributes to the ongoing debate on the effect of social media on business performance. It also defined the need for the owner/manager of SMEs to understand and appreciate the effect of social media through the organization's learning potential to gain a sustainable competitive advantage. Practical implications There are a number of theoretical and practical implications for academics and practitioners who are interested in further studies of organizational social media. The research presents a quantitative study on the effect of social media adoption on the organizational performance of the construction industry. This study confirms the mediating role of learning capability in the relationship between the use of social media and performance of SMEs operating in the construction industry. Originality/value This study empirically examined the relationship between social media adoption and the SMEs learning capability and business performance by evaluating a hypothesized conceptual framework to establish the relationships.
... The TAM conceptualizes that perceived ease of use of technology and perceived usefulness predict the attention and the adoption of new technology (Siamagka, Christodoulides, Michaelidou & Valvi, 2015). Ease of use is defined as "as the degree to which a person believes that using the system will be free of mental effort" While perceived usefulness is defined as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance" Davis (1989, p. 320). ...
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Many small-medium size enterprises (SMEs) are adopting social media platforms to contact their potential customers and provide their services. The impact of this adoption on the SME's performance has been roughly examined by researchers in the Middle East region particularly Palestine. Constructs and variables of three models (TOE, TAM, TPB) were used as potential predictors of social media adoption including technological, organizational, environmental context, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude toward technology, and capability to control technology. Furthermore, the influence of this adoption on SMEs performance was also tested. A closed question questionnaire was used to gather the data, and simple regression analysis was used to examine the hypotheses. Findings revealed that all of the seven independent construct/variables except the technological context positively influence SME's adoption of social media, and social media adoption in turn positively influence SME's performance. The findings may be beneficial to SMEs's managers and the authorities as well to facilitate the use of social media by SMEs.
... Furthermore, social media strengthens external interaction too, it is a competitive advantage that will certainly develop online networking among firms, customers, and suppliers (Aichner & Jacob, 2015) and enables them to make enjoyable and influential communications beyond geographical and cultural boundaries. Networking activities by social media usage creates great connectivity combining innovative solutions and creating added value for companies and customers (Siamagka et al., 2015). The combination of network and organizational skills represents a competitive advantage because it reveals as an impressive and superior performance that will lead to high future incomes (Naudé et al., 2014). ...
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The objective of this study is to describe and analyze Human Governance analytics to face the Digital Economy. Based on the purpose of this study, the following research questions were formulated: Which are the main Human Governance analytics for Public Organizations to face the Digital Economy? The main findings are based on bibliometric analysis and two case studies applied to Public Organizations, the analytics regarding talent search and acquisition, talent development, and talent performance appraisal were identified by the bibliometric analysis and tested in the case studies. The goal is to help organizations to transform their processes and contribute to higher efficiency and effectiveness, based on digital technologie
... Fourth, while the focus of this chapter is social media marketing strategies in the business-to-consumer (B2C) sector, the lessons learned from the applications can be extended to the context of business-to-business (B2B), especially on how interactive online technologies can be used for information sharing, relationship building, and market sensing (Chae et al., 2020). However, the emphasis is different in the B2B area, where social media plays an important role as an enabler for interacting with partners in the company's upstream supply chain and sharing important information with partners to increase operational efficiency (Chae et al., 2020;Chan et al., 2017;Siamagka et al., 2015). ...
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High social media penetration in Indonesia (60% of its population) and Malaysia (81% of population) has compelled businesses to adopt social media marketing strategies for many purposes. The real-time, interactive, and borderless features of social media enable businesses to engage and connect with customers, share information, build brand image and retain customers. This chapter aims to draw relevant and important insights from social media consumption in Indonesia and Malaysia by consumers and businesses and develop/propose a typology of social media marketing strategies for the B2C sector. The typology is based on two dimensions (engagement and commerce) and results in four social media marketing strategies (Social Media Optimization Strategy, Social Media Engagement-Focused Strategy, Social Media Commercial-Focused Strategy and Social Media Early Extension Strategy). The chapter commences with a background to social media usage among Indonesians and Malaysians, followed by a brief comparison of the usage before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the analyses of social media marketing strategies utilized by B2C firms, a typology of social media strategies is presented. The chapter concludes with social media marketing implications and addresses future challenges.
... This paper examines the impact of social media on company performance. Scholars include those who believe that (Siamagka et al., 2015). This has to be clarified further. ...
... The level of acceptance towards the adoption of new technology is itself influenced by many factors, as illustrated by Davis (1989) in his well-known model, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Thus, although TAM is not a key theory underpinning this research, elements of this model are considered to provide a holistic view for generating an understanding on the suitability of the next generation platform implementation as TAM has been widely used and updated to evaluate technology use (Chuttur, 2009;Chan, Yee-Loong Chong and Zhou, 2012;Amaro and Duarte, 2015;Siamagka et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
The advancement of technology has revolutionised the tourism industry. However, Destination Management Organisations (DMOs), in general, have yet to undertake holistic technological solutions in addressing their expected roles and responsibilities, particularly with regards to its role in supporting online collaborations. Greater understanding is required on the functional capabilities needed by both business stakeholders and visitors to provide holistically integrated applications for digital collaborations. Therefore, this research aims to critically discuss the roles and mechanisms in which DMOs become points of consolidation and collaboration for tourism businesses through digital platforms and the functionalities for end-user experience creation. Hence, identifying the characteristics and operational capabilities that enhanced digital platforms of DMOs need to have as part of their functions. A design-based research approach with three phases was used for the research. Phase 1 explored the understanding and usage of current digital offerings as well as existing collaboration practices. Findings from Phase 1 were used to guide the development of a digital trial platform in Phase 2. The subsequent platform testing in Phase 3 was conducted to further strengthen the understanding of digital collaborations and to establish the needed functionalities for enhanced digital platforms. Data were collected primarily through qualitative methods (interviews and focus groups) with the support of quantitative and visual methods using an eye-tracker device. Findings demonstrate the need for DMOs to provide distinct value propositions of experience creation on their digital platform for business stakeholders and visitors. Therefore, an enhanced digital platform must be equipped with the functionalities for knowledge exchange, networking and marketing for business stakeholders, and personalisation of itineraries and travel information for visitors. The functional capabilities of digital collaboration are underpinned by the concepts of trust, control, leadership, and the willingness to collaborate. As such, the research contributes to the existing knowledge on technology influenced DMO management.
... Limitations of this study are researcher has considered only the papers from the journal of industrial marketing for the literature reviews. marketing are different from the B2C marketing (Gronroos, 1994(Gronroos, , 1996Gummesson, 1987), and automatically, there will be an assumption that users of social media channels will also be different from Siamagka et al., 2015). As the study is new to the researchers, they mostly focus on short-term applications rather than long-term applications of social media channels (Salo, 2017). ...
... LinkedIn is the most popular and valued social media platform for B2B marketers (Jackson, 2018;Keinänen & Kuivalainen, 2015;Siamagka et al., 2015), providing a way for firms to connect their corporate identity with their corporate audiences (Prodromou, 2015). Since its creation in 2003, LinkedIn has grown a population of about 750 million users with strong penetration in the United States, Europe, India, and Latin America (e.g., Ghekiere & Zinkevich, 2019;Prodromou, 2015). ...
Article
In business-to-business (B2B) settings, social media provide a novel context for investigating customer engagement. While B2B firms are increasingly investing in social media, there is limited understanding about the type of content to be published and how customers may react to their posts. The authors address these research gaps by developing a conceptual framework that relates posts’ brand personality dimensions (sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness) to customer engagement. Using data from a small-sized Chilean-Swiss consultancy firm accounting for 114 weeks of LinkedIn activity, the authors specify a VAR model with exogenous variables (VARX). Focusing on the cumulative elasticities, the study uncovers the engagement mechanisms of customers. The results show that an increase in impressions (exposure) leads to an increase in likes, clicks, and shares (perceptions), an increase in clicks leads to an increase in new followers (actions), and an increase in new followers leads to an increase in impressions. Furthermore, the results indicate that an increase in posts’ excitement leads to an increase in impressions and likes, an increase in posts’ competence leads to an increase in clicks, and an increase in posts’ ruggedness leads to an increase in new followers.
... The arrival of Web 2.0 technologies and related applications, such as social media (SM) tools, has sharply reshaped companies' business landscape and management processes, allowing more direct and interactive forms of communication in which users play an active role [6]. It also allows the creating and sharing of content related to brands and products [7]. ...
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Nowadays, we live in the age of Marketing 4.0. Historically, marketing has often depended on changing consumer habits and needs. Thus, it is necessary to understand the new habits and needs of the consumer to make companies more and more effective. Currently, social media marketing (SMM) is ubiquitous in organizations, and is seen as a tool to achieve strategic goals. Therefore, SMM is important for companies to adapt their approach to customer relationship management and advance new marketing competencies to enable customer satisfaction. To drive customer satisfaction and improve customer experience, managers are loading social media applications into their current customer relationship management (CRM) systems. This study seeks to understand the feasibility of implementing SMM in business to business (B2B) companies and how this affects CRM and customer knowledge management (CKM). For this study, data were collected from two Portuguese micro-companies. The methodology used was exploratory qualitative in nature through a multiple case study, wherein semi-structured interviews were applied. It was found that SMM cannot be used in the B2B companies under investigation because CRM needs are much more dependent on CKM than on the mass interactions and indirect communication with the customer that can potentially exist in SMM. In these companies, communication with the client can be adjusted on a case-by-case basis through SMM, without the need for mass communication with all clients. This paper provides implications for the management of micro-enterprises regarding social media marketing. It also contributes to the development of the literature on SMM, CRM and CKM.
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The rapid adoption of social media in business is becoming more evident over the years. Most businesses view social media as a chance to build two-way communication with customers and to create unique marketing communication tools. Nonetheless, research on social media adoption, particularly, in the case of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is still limited. In Brunei Darussalam, SMEs are regarded as a key player in industrial development. Thus, the objectives of this study are to investigate the factors that mainly drive social media adoption among the SMEs in Brunei, to determine the types of social media platforms that they used as well as to examine the potential benefits and challenges of adopting it. The researchers administered online questionnaires to 57 CEO or managers of local SMEs. Based on the empirical findings of this research, technological factors, ease of use and perceived benefits, are the prominent drivers for social media adoption among SMEs in Brunei.
Article
In B2B markets, vendor companies increasingly rely upon influential individuals in the digital environment to communicate information about their offerings to client organizations. Given the growing B2B digital engagement, cues that help to differentiate highly impactful digital influencers are crucial for vendor companies. Drawing from Stereotype Content Model, we analyze competence and warmth as relevant cues of digital influencers. Employing experimental studies, we examine how competence and warmth influence B2B purchasing managers' evaluation and selection of vendors' solutions. We find that the digital influencers' competence enhances purchasing managers' intention to buy the advocated vendor's offering. When compared with warmth, competence minimizes capability and relational concerns associated with the purchase decision. Further, we show that such effect of competence is prominent when manager-influencer identification is low. Our research advances knowledge on the characteristics of digital influencers that shape B2B purchasing managers' evaluation and selection of vendors. We identify concern-based psychological mechanisms underlying the effect of influencers' characteristics, and related boundary conditions. Our findings provide implications for digital influencers seeking to expand reach in B2B markets, and for vendor companies and marketing agencies in the selection of digital influencers.
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While many studies on social media from users' perspectives have been conducted, less attention has been paid to the effect of social media on organizations' performance, particularly among hotels. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of social media on hotels' business performance in the Lebanese hotel sector. In this study, a structural equation modelling method has been used for data analysis. The survey data was gathered from a sample of 146 hotels in Lebanon. Data analysis results demonstrate the positive and significant relationship between social media characteristics (visibility and association but not editability) on hotels' business performance. The findings present valuable implications for hotel managers to direct their social media strategy and to capitalize on the possible benefits of social media to increase the business performance of hotels. In addition, the findings could also provide useful insights into other business sectors that have an intention to invest in social media.
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Information plays an important role in the individual lives of people, and social media as an aspect of online information phenomenon is an exciting topic to explore in terms of its impact on social entrepreneurship. Many theoretical fields have contributed to the development of social entrepreneurship, looking in particular at the financial, political, and psychological impacts. This chapter is unique since it focuses on social enterprises and the impact of evolving technologies on social entrepreneurship. This chapter contributes to the literature on social media usage in social enterprises and offers a better understanding of the issues in the specific context of developing countries.
Article
As many of recent study showed that e-marketing activities lead into higher marketing performance such as sales, we believe that e-marketing should be evaluated in terms of its negative impact on marketing practices. This study aimed to evaluate e-marketing exposure and its impact on consumer behavior. Although we believed that marketing could lead a better purchase experience and sales, this study proposed that marketing could also lead into regretful experience to customers. In order to evaluate the regret model in online shopping activities, we proposed a behavioral model based on e-marketing exposure. In total, 400 participants were used in this study. Totally, 363 had regretful experience on online market and used in this study indicating 90.75% data used in this study. Data were collected through questionnaires given to online consumer. Data were analyzed through SEM-PLS as we employ 4-point forced likert scale, which lead to non-parametric analysis. As a result, we found that the excessive marketing exposure ultimately led to higher regret level to the customers. It is true that e-marketing exposure led to desirable behavior such as more rational at evaluating price and shaping a good image and perception toward the products; however, it also led to higher chance for impulsive buying behavior. This behavior led to purchasing regret. As we want to avoid regret as many as possible due to sustainable purchase and growth in the future, we must control e-marketing exposure so that it will not lead to regret on customers.
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Technological changes have transformed traditional marketing methods. Instagram is one of the social media platforms which enables companies to reach their target groups of customers by means of a visual approach. Instagram is a popular social media application among Malaysians. With the growing popularity of Instagram and its potential to help businesses, this study aims to investigate the Instagram adoption among Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SMEs). A survey method was used to collect data. The results of the study found that relative advantage and collaboration are the significant dimensions influencing the adoption of Instagram. The study also found technology strategy as a significant moderator between relative advantage, interactiveness, collaboration, and Instagram adoption among SMEs. This study enhances the current knowledge on social media especially highlights the importance of Instagram as an excellent tool for marketing.
Chapter
Several studies on social media from a users' perspective have been conducted. However, less attention has been paid to the effect of social media on organization performance, particularly among hotels. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of social media on hotels' business performance as well as assessing the moderating effect of the hotel classification. In this study, a structural equation modelling method has been used for data analysis. The survey data was gathered from a sample of 146 hotels in Lebanon. Data analysis results demonstrate a positive and significant relationship between social media characteristics (visibility and association but not editability) on hotel business performance. The findings present valuable implications for hotel managers to direct their social media strategy and to capitalize on the possible benefits of social media to increase the business performance of hotels. In addition, the findings could also provide useful insights into other business sectors that have the intention to invest in social media.
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Digital marketing has become a new trend recently, which is not only applied by large-scale industries but also small industries. Similarly, melinjo chips home industries producer, some of whom have implemented digital marketing using their devices. This study aims to describe the marketing conditions of the melinjo chips and to determine the perceptions of melinjo chips producers towards the adoption of digital marketing. Data were collected through interviews with 63 producers of the melinjo chips selected using census method from all producers in Pandak District, Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta Special Region. Descriptive analysis and 5-point Likert Scale were used to determine the producers’ perception of the adoption of digital marketing in the marketing of melinjo chips. The results showed that in general, the marketing of melinjo chips was mostly using conventional marketing, although some producers have implemented digital marketing. Moreover, the adoption of digital marketing was perceived in neutral category. The neutral perception was due to the fact that although the adoption of digital marketing has positive view such as benefits, and marketing efficiency, there were also obstacles in using it, not providing innovation and low trust in digital marketing technology.
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Chapter
Digital economy has become a priority for companies and countries since consumer profile and consumption habits have greatly changed. Companies have begun to transfer the services they offer to the Internet. Also, a digital economy creates networks amongst individuals, communities, companies, and markets. With digitalization, not only have consumers' profiles changed, but marketing tools have changed as well. Social media marketing (SMM) is the product of this trend and is marketing through social media channels (SMCs). Therefore, this chapter examines social media use within business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) contexts. Moreover, the authors focus on the differences of SMCs adoption in B2C and B2B contexts.
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The study aims to examine the effects of social media activities on stock prices of the energy sector. In this respect, the sample covers the monthly period from 2015m6 to 2020m5 has been observed. Energy stocks as S&P 500 index (SP), stock market volatility index (VIX), trade-weighted USD index (USD), and Brent oil prices (OIL) have been used as independent variables. Accordingly, three different models have been created to analyze the link between returns, volatility and trading volume and Twitter sentiments by using Augmented Mean Group. As a result, we found that Twitter sentiment values have no significant impact on the returns and volatility of the companies. Tweets, on the other hand, appear to have a favorable impact on company trading volume values.
Article
Purpose: Overwhelmed by the huge rise in the number of social media (SM) platforms, B to B firms have been increasingly using multiple social media (SM) platforms to enhance their relationships with their customers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the competitive pressure to use SM on B to B firms use of multiple SM platforms, organization and individual SM competences and on relationship sales performance. Method: An online survey is implemented to collect data from B to B firms from different industries in an emerging market, i.e. Kuwait, to produce 152 usable questionnaires. Structural equation modeling is carried out using Smart PLS 3. Findings: The main findings show that competitive pressure to use SM fully influences relationship sales performance through individual social media competence. It also influences relationship sales performance through two mediations (1) organizational SM competence, (2) on a less important level, through the use of multiple SM platforms and organizational SM competence. Additionally, both organization and individual SM competence are found to significantly influence relationship sales performance. Implications: This study uncovers the complex mechanism through which competitive pressures to use social media influence both individual and organization social media competence and their relationship with their customers. It demonstrates that the use of multiple SM platforms significantly increases relationship sales performance, but this influence is weak. Therefore, top managers must choose the right number of SM platforms and design clear SM strategies. Originality: This study sheds light on the influence of competitive pressure to use SM on B to B firms’ relationships with their customers i.e. relationship sales performance. This coercive pressure could potentially spread B to B firms’ resources over a large number of SM and lead to poor SM presence. The study also emphasizes the role of top management in choosing the optimal combination of SM platforms and developing their organization SM competence.
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Social media has become an important channel for increasing firm value. The aim of this study is to explore the impacts of social media operation (i.e., microblog and short video platforms) on firm value in the context of China. The research adopts the multi-stage propensity score matching (PSM) and differences-in-differences (DID) design, and the reseach results indicating that the operation of short video platforms for social media marketing can significantly increase firm value. However, the operation of microblogs for social media marketing insignificantly affects firm value. This means that the company's operation of emerging social media platforms is of positive significance to firm value. Moreover, the conclusions of this study will guide the company's social media operations.
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Social media and its impact on business-to-business marketing have received significant attention from practitioners and researchers. Social media has also impacted the selling process, and our research examines the extant literature to derive a deeper understanding of the area and identify directions for future research. This study reviews 115 articles on social media in business-to-business markets to understand sales and social media research within the social media domain. Using a multimethod approach, this paper classifies social media research in business-to-business marketing into four subject clusters: adoption of social media; use of social media in business-to-business marketing; social media and the selling process; and social media and marketing strategy. This study then reviews 29 articles in sales and social media research and finds that the research can be classified into usage, performance, and framework. Due to the limited research on business-to-business sales and social media, we also report on a survey that examined directions for future research. We hope that this article serves as an impetus for future research in this area.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand how firms may be segmented with respect to their attitudes towards the use of mobile instant messaging (MIM) apps (e.g. WhatsApp, Messenger, WeChat, etc). in their marketing practices to identify the main approaches to the use of MIM in business. Moreover, this paper identifies the key factors which can motivate or hinder the adoption of these digital platforms. Design/methodology/approach Firms are segmented on the basis of their attitudes (perceived usefulness and perceived effectiveness of performance) towards the use of MIM apps in the business. Categories for size, age of the firm and the organization’s predisposition towards MIMs are explored using data from 311 firms and latent class analysis. Threats, triggers and their real usage are also identified to describe the different approaches towards the application of MIM apps in marketing practices. Findings Four clusters are identified – lukewarm, cold, believer and unaffected – along with significant covariates such as the importance of conversation with the client, the use of MIMs in the business, the threats and triggers that can foresee adherence. The results help to understand how to approach the client using social messenger applications. MIM apps can be used for strategic marketing and not only for operative marketing. Originality/value This paper offers a more nuanced understanding of how firms engage through MIM apps by focusing on the firms’ attitudes towards MIM apps. It extends the knowledge on the firms’ reactions to these disruptive technologies and profiles the firms according to their social innovation attitudes, something that has not yet been investigated in the extant marketing literature.
Chapter
Online banking services have become a new type of banking service and been used widely. However, there is limited knowledge about consumer behavior in Vietnam because it is a complicated socio-technical phenomenon and involves many factors. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the main factors affecting the intention to use online banking services in Vietnam. The proposed research model is based on the extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM) with new factors including perceived risk, brand image, user innovativeness, and government support. Based on valid collection from 356 online banking users, the data were processed using SPSS including descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and regression analysis. The results show that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, brand image, user innovativeness, and government support have a positive impact on customers’ intention to use online banking services, while perceived risk has a negative influence. These results can help online banking service providers implement their user development strategies as well as become references for related research in the future.
Chapter
This paper empirically examines the antecedents of social media adoption as a business platform by individual retailers in the two biggest cities of Vietnam: Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The conceptual framework for this study is based on the literature on information technology, e-commerce, technology acceptance model (TAM), and retailing. An online questionnaire survey of 512 individuals, who are currently selling products and services through social media sites, was administered in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The results of data analysis showed that perceived ease of use (PEU) has a higher impact than that of perceived usefulness (PU) on social media adoption of individual online retailers.
Book
You can reach my book, 'Digital Marketing' via the following link: https://www.morebooks.shop/store/gb/book/digital-marketing/isbn/978-613-8-96557-2
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The Information Technology (IT) revolution that led to the development of cloud computing services and systems has brought numerous benefits to end users handling business through the Internet, particularly in the field of accounting information systems (AIS). Cloud-based accounting information systems (CB-AIS) enable firms to substantially reduce their investment in IT and have flexible access to an enormous group of current and scalable resources. CB-AIS enables small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to undertake basic bookkeeping responsibilities themselves instead of paying external auditors for the same services. In Jordan, however, current businesses are still in the infancy stage when it comes to CB-AIS adoption. Therefore, this study applied the Technology, Organization, and Environment model to examine CB-AIS adoption among SMEs in Jordan. Data collection was achieved using a structured survey questionnaire collected from 156 owners/managers of SMEs in Jordan through online means. The proposed research framework comprises six factors that influence intention to adopt CB-AIS (IACB-AIS). Based on the findings, the proposed hypotheses were supported in that the factors positively and significantly affect the IACB-AIS of SMEs in Jordan. Through examining an actual IACB-AIS case and highlighting the importance of its application, the study and its findings are expected to contribute to decision-makers and practitioners in the IT field.
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This research assesses the influence of social media usage (SMU) on the performance of the bed and breakfast (B&Bs) sector in terms of profitability during the COVID-19 Era. In addition, it tests the mediating role of owner-managers’ orientation toward social media policy implementation on the link between SMU and performance. A quantitative approach is implemented using an online questionnaire to gather the primary data from respondents in Southern Italy. The results illustrated that SMU has a positive and significant impact on top management orientation toward social media policy implementation and B&Bs performance. Moreover, it is revealed that top management orientation partially mediates the association between SMU and performance. The current study adds to knowledge within the tourism and hospitality domain by indicating the role of using social media in enhancing the performance of B&Bs sector. It also provides clear guidelines on how to benefit from social media networks in the operations of tourism and hospitality enterprises.
Article
Social networks have been extensively studied in business-to-consumer (B2C) studies, but their effects in a business-to-business (B2B) marketing context are under-theorized. The study develops an integrated social network marketing metric (SNMM) for B2B small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Using the framework, the study establishes a theoretical link between behavioral reasoning theory (BRT) and marketing accountability theory (MAT). Data was collected from 254 B2B SME marketers in India through a structured questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews. At first glance, the missing link between SME performance and SNMM appears to be time, knowledge, and financial resources. SMEs that embrace innovation, proactiveness, and risk-taking can benefit from social media technologies. Thus, social networking has a direct, positive effect on SME growth. The implications for B2B SMEs’ SNMM studies are also discussed. Furthermore, the rationality of B2B marketing metrics has a tremendous influence on business success. Although the study has found a positive impact of SNMM on B2B SMEs success, further research is needed.
Article
With the continuous increase in twitter datasets, effective opinion mining techniques are needed for mining these datasets. Subsequent application of results obtained using opinion mining can be applied in the electricity industry to improve its service delivery. This research develops a hybrid model for opinion mining of Abuja Electricity Distribution Company (AEDC) customers’ tweets using topic modeling and classification techniques. The Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling was used to generate dominant topics from Twitter API tweets. The topics were grouped into four categories: positive, negative, neutral, or vandalism. To further verify these topics generated by LDA, the opinion retrieved was split into train, test, and validate data using the k-fold cross-validation technique. This step is further classified into four categories using the logistic regression classification technique with a prediction accuracy of 94.8%. However, three more different classifiers: Naïve Bayes, k-nearest neighbors (K-NN), and Support Vector Machine with the resulting accuracies of 93.5%, 92.7%, and 61.6% respectively, are also used. Customer tweets dataset can provide great insight for various companies to understand the opinion of their customers. Electricity companies can apply this knowledge to enhance their service delivery.
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The widespread use of social media has created a huge market for digital marketing platforms. However, as people spend more time on social media daily, concerns about its impact on mental health have grown. Although several studies on the effects of social media on mental health have been conducted, the number of studies focusing on this issue, particularly in Malaysia, is still limited. As a result, little is known about the link between social media and purchasing behavior, as well as mental health. In order to fill this gap, the current study examines the relationships between social media use and purchase behavior, social media use and mental health, and purchase behavior and mental health. The data were collected using a quantitative method by distributing a questionnaire to social media users, particularly the X, Y, and Z generations. Data from 195 social media users were analyzed using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). There are significant associations between social media use and purchase behavior, as well as the impact of social media use on users’ mental health. There is no evidence, however, to support the significant association between purchase behavior and users’ mental health. The findings can help relevant agencies to better understand the impact of social media use on purchase behavior and mental health, and the impact of purchase behavior on mental health.
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The branding literature has long recognized the power of storytelling to provide meaning to the brand and practitioners have used storytelling to enhance consumers’ connections with brands. The premise of brand storytelling has been that the story and its content, production, and distribution are the brand owner’s realm and the consumer primarily a listener. The emergence of social media has changed the consumers’ role in storytelling from that of a passive listener to a more active participant. Our paper uses the metaphor of improvisation (improv) theater to show that in social media, brand owners do not tell brand stories alone but co-create brand performances in collaboration with the consumers. The first and foremost contribution of such a conceptualization is that it offers a semantic framework that resolves issues in storytelling , demonstrates the necessity of co-creation in storytelling, and identifies the core of an inspiring story. The improv theater metaphor also helps identify the following three propositions relevant for branding in social media: (i) the process of improvisation is more important than the output, (ii) managing brands is about keeping the brand performance alive, and (iii) understanding the audience and its roles is the prerequisite for a successful brand performance.
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While the technology acceptance model (TAM), introduced in 1986, continues to be the most widely applied theoretical model in the IS field, few previous efforts examined its accomplishments and limitations. This study traces TAM's history, investigates its findings, and cautiously predicts its future trajectory. One hundred and one articles published by leading IS journals and conferences in the past eighteen years are examined and summarized. An open- ended survey of thirty-two leading IS researchers assisted in critically examining TAM and specifying future directions.
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The internet and its related e-technologies have to a large extent upset the asymmetry of information that for so many years worked in favour of brand managers. Consumers are now empowered to interact with brands and other consumers but also to create their own content on user generated content sites leading to a more participative approach to branding. Internet brands adopt a more relaxed stance on brand management, which involves the consumer in fundamental stages of the brand building process. In this context, the brand manager is no longer a 'guardian' of the brand but becomes more of a brand 'host'. The question is to what extent can traditional companies follow suit? Are they comfortable to cede control to consumers? Do we need a new theory of branding in an e-space?
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The goals of this article are twofold: (a) briefly highlight the merits of residual centering for representing interaction and powered terms in standard regression contexts (e.g., Lance, 1988), and (b) extend the residual centering procedure to represent latent variable interactions. The proposed method for representing latent variable interactions has potential advantages over extant procedures. First, the latent variable interaction is derived from the observed covariation pattern among all possible indicators of the interaction. Second, no constraints on particular estimated parameters need to be placed. Third, no recalculations of parameters are required. Fourth, model estimates are stable and interpretable. In our view, the orthogonalizing approach is technically and conceptually straightforward, can be estimated using any structural equation modeling software package, and has direct practical interpretation of parameter estimates. Its behavior in terms of model fit and estimated standard errors is very reasonable, and it can be readily generalized to other types of latent variables where nonlinearity or collinearity are involved (e.g., powered variables).
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Purpose – Extant research has examined consumer acceptance of the internet in various contexts mainly as a dichotomy (adoption/non-adoption), thus ignoring the process underlying adoption. This paper aims to provide insights into factors determining the extent to which an innovation is adopted. Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews the literature on the technology acceptance model (TAM), and justifies the use of this model to explore the factors contributing to the extent to which consumers use the internet as a distribution channel for financial services (FS). Data are collected through telephone interviews with 300 UK consumers responding to a questionnaire. Findings – The application of the TAM model is helpful but additional links need to be included. The key drivers of extent of use are past experience with the internet as a purchasing channel (for non-FS) and attitudinal aspects, i.e. positive emotions towards the internet as a distribution channel for FS. Insecurity about this channel does not appear to be an obstacle and perceived usefulness is not directly linked to extent of use but fully mediated via attitude towards the channel. Consumers with computer access from home, those with an active interest in FS, as well as consumers who have general online purchasing experience tend to find this channel easy to use, which, jointly with perceived usefulness, leads to a positive attitude toward this distribution channel. Research limitations/implications – The findings are limited to the FS online retail context and may not be generalisable beyond this context. Future research should be considered using a longitudinal approach. Practical implications – FS retail providers should consider prior experience with the internet as a distribution channel and product category involvement as segmentation bases, and also provide more opportunities for consumers to try and observe the internet as a distribution channel. Originality/value – This research explores the determinants of consumer acceptance of online retailing from a process-based rather than a binary view of adoption of an innovation.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of the dimensions of organisational trust on organisational innovativeness in a relatively large survey sample of the information and communication technology (ICT) and paper and pulp industries in Finland. Design/methodology/approach Organisational trust is deemed to consist of both interpersonal and impersonal types of trust. The empirical part of the study shows the relationship between various types of trust and dimensions of organisational innovativeness. Quantitative empirical analysis is based on a survey of 40 organisational units and 214 respondents within the ICT and paper and pulp industries. Findings The impact of different types of organisational trust on dimensions of organisational innovativeness was analyzed. The results imply that the impersonal form in particular, namely institutional trust, has an important role in determining organisational innovativeness. Research implications This study contributes both to the literature on organisational innovativeness, as well as to the emerging theory on trust, in its approach to trust as not only an interpersonal issue, but also as something with impersonal aspects. Practical implications It is suggested that managers should pay special attention to impersonal forms of trust, i.e. to the institutional dimension of organisational trust. Above all, institutional trust and its development could be seen as a strategic question for companies. Originality/value This study makes a significant theoretical contribution by examining the linkages between various dimensions of organisational trust and organisational innovativeness, which have previously been studied only to a very minor extent. It thus provides a richer understanding of the relationship between organisational trust and innovativeness.
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At present, the resource-based view of the firm is perhaps the most influential framework for understanding strategic management. In this editor’s introduction, we briefly describe the contributions to knowledge provided by the commentaries and articles contained in this issue. In addition, we outline some additional areas of research wherein the resource-based view can be gainfully deployed.
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Previous research has established the benefits of branding for business-to-business (B2B) organizations. Various tools can be used to support B2B brands, including the internet and other interactive technologies. Yet research on how organizations use Social Networking Sites (SNS) to achieve brand objectives remains limited. This study addresses the gap by focusing on B2B SMEs and their social networking practices, particularly, usage, perceived barriers, and the measurement of effectiveness of SNS as a marketing tool. Findings from a mail survey show that over a quarter of B2B SMEs in the UK are currently using SNS to achieve brand objectives, the most popular of which is to attract new customers. On the other hand, the most significant barrier is the lack of perceived relevance for particular sectors. Notably, the overwhelming majority of users do not adopt any metrics to assess SNS effectiveness. Almost half of the sample of SMEs that currently use SNS have indicated their intention to increase their marketing spending on this channel, highlighting the growing importance of SNS in a B2B context.
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To date, industrial marketing has built its conceptual frameworks upon the concept of a dyad—a relationship between one buyer and one seller. Thus, much of what has been researched in business-to-business marketing uses the buyer–seller relationship as the most appropriate unit of analysis. Yet, today, the most exciting development in business marketing is electronic commerce, which is a technology and a paradigm not of dyads but of networks. A great deal of the buyer–seller relationship between firms is being replaced or significantly transformed by electronic commerce systems. Networks pose a tremendous problem in measurement. Existing business metrics were designed for a world of concrete boundaries and fixed categories—a world that is slipping away day by day. Governments will have a keen interest in the development of metrics, as they struggle with regulation of these new entities. As boundaries between organizations blur, governments will have more trouble defining the entity that they are attempting to regulate. In the information economy, perhaps governments will recognize the essential role of “co-opetition” as an essential business strategy. For the dyad, we have the metaphor of marriage. For bureaucratic organizations, we have the metaphor of an army. What is the “similar” organization that will deliver insights about managing within a network? Perhaps the closest metaphor may be a migrating flock of birds. Thus, managers and researchers who want to understand the emerging face of technology-enabled business must come to grips with network concepts and their implications.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relative impact of brand communication on brand equity through social media as compared to traditional media. In a juxtaposition of different industries it aims at: investigating whether both communication instruments have an impact on consumer‐based brand equity; comparing the effect sizes of these two communication instruments; and separating the effects of firm‐created and user‐generated social media communication. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 393 data sets from three different industries, namely tourism, telecommunications, and pharmaceuticals, were generated using a standardized online‐survey. Structural equation modeling was used in the analysis of the data obtained to investigate the interplay of social media and traditional media in general, as well as in an examination of industry‐specific differences. Findings – The results of the empirical study show that both traditional communications and social media communications have a significant impact on brand equity. While traditional media has a stronger impact on brand awareness, social media communications strongly influence brand image. Firm‐created social media communication is shown to have an important impact on functional brand image, while user‐generated social media communication exerts a major influence on hedonic brand image. Furthermore, the present study highlights significant differences between the industries under investigation. Originality/value – The research described in this paper is pioneering in that it juxtaposes the impacts of social media and traditional media on brand equity – a topic of increasing interest to firms in the era of Facebook and Twitter but so far largely uninvestigated. Moreover, the differentiation between firm‐created and user‐generated social media communication, which is gaining increasingly in importance, as companies see their brand marketing power devolve to the consumer through social media platforms, offers valuable insights to marketing practitioners and academics.
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This paper investigates the relationship between mandatory adoption of mobile information technology and market performance in the business-to-business (B2B) setting. This study presents and tests the B2B technology satisfaction model (TSM), including perceived loss of control as the mandatory technology acceptance-specific variable. The results of this study reveal that integrating perceived loss of control with user satisfaction and the TAM (technology acceptance model) in a single model can better explain the B2B market performance model. The empirical results suggest that perceived loss of control has a negative effect on user satisfaction and perceived market performance is influenced by user satisfaction and perceived usefulness. Managerial implications of the study are discussed.
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Two conceptual approaches [Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13 (3), 319–340; DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (1992). Information systems success: The quest for the dependent variable. Information Systems Research, 3 (1), 60–95] are unified into a conceptual model that offers a comprehensive explanation of CRM acceptance antecedents and consequences in a sales force setting. Based upon responses from 240 salespersons that utilize a CRM system, the model is tested and explanations are offered for the system's acceptance. Specifically, the most prevailing influence on CRM acceptance comes from CRM perceived usefulness, followed by the setting of accurate expectations regarding system usage, the salesperson innovativeness towards new technological tools, the CRM perceived ease-of-use, and the supervisor encouragement and support. Surprisingly, the model does not adequately explicate salesperson performance. Sales managers are presented with a discussion and implications of the findings.
Book
Getting an innovation adopted is difficult; a common problem is increasing the rate of its diffusion. Diffusion is the communication of an innovation through certain channels over time among members of a social system. It is a communication whose messages are concerned with new ideas; it is a process where participants create and share information to achieve a mutual understanding. Initial chapters of the book discuss the history of diffusion research, some major criticisms of diffusion research, and the meta-research procedures used in the book. This text is the third edition of this well-respected work. The first edition was published in 1962, and the fifth edition in 2003. The book's theoretical framework relies on the concepts of information and uncertainty. Uncertainty is the degree to which alternatives are perceived with respect to an event and the relative probabilities of these alternatives; uncertainty implies a lack of predictability and motivates an individual to seek information. A technological innovation embodies information, thus reducing uncertainty. Information affects uncertainty in a situation where a choice exists among alternatives; information about a technological innovation can be software information or innovation-evaluation information. An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or an other unit of adoption; innovation presents an individual or organization with a new alternative(s) or new means of solving problems. Whether new alternatives are superior is not precisely known by problem solvers. Thus people seek new information. Information about new ideas is exchanged through a process of convergence involving interpersonal networks. Thus, diffusion of innovations is a social process that communicates perceived information about a new idea; it produces an alteration in the structure and function of a social system, producing social consequences. Diffusion has four elements: (1) an innovation that is perceived as new, (2) communication channels, (3) time, and (4) a social system (members jointly solving to accomplish a common goal). Diffusion systems can be centralized or decentralized. The innovation-development process has five steps passing from recognition of a need, through R&D, commercialization, diffusions and adoption, to consequences. Time enters the diffusion process in three ways: (1) innovation-decision process, (2) innovativeness, and (3) rate of the innovation's adoption. The innovation-decision process is an information-seeking and information-processing activity that motivates an individual to reduce uncertainty about the (dis)advantages of the innovation. There are five steps in the process: (1) knowledge for an adoption/rejection/implementation decision; (2) persuasion to form an attitude, (3) decision, (4) implementation, and (5) confirmation (reinforcement or rejection). Innovations can also be re-invented (changed or modified) by the user. The innovation-decision period is the time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. Rates of adoption of an innovation depend on (and can be predicted by) how its characteristics are perceived in terms of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. The diffusion effect is the increasing, cumulative pressure from interpersonal networks to adopt (or reject) an innovation. Overadoption is an innovation's adoption when experts suggest its rejection. Diffusion networks convey innovation-evaluation information to decrease uncertainty about an idea's use. The heart of the diffusion process is the modeling and imitation by potential adopters of their network partners who have adopted already. Change agents influence innovation decisions in a direction deemed desirable. Opinion leadership is the degree individuals influence others' attitudes
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the cross‐national application of an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) in online shopping across the USA and China. Specifically, the proposed model is tested for invariance, and used to investigate the effect of the TAM constructs on online purchase intentions and interrelationships among the constructs across the two samples. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 513 usable questionnaires were collected in the USA and China. Measurement and structural invariance of the proposed TAM model were assessed using multi‐group confirmatory factor analysis. Findings – The paper revealed that both perceived usefulness and perceived risk of online shopping have an invariant effect on consumers' online purchase intentions, while prior online shopping experience does not have an invariant effect. Perceived ease of use shows an equivalent, positive effect on perceived usefulness; prior online shopping experience has an equivalent, positive effect on perceived ease of use and an equivalent, negative effect on perceived risks. But prior online shopping experience has a quite different effect on perceived usefulness across the two countries. Originality/value – The paper not only tests the cross‐national application of the extended TAM, but also extends the TAM's use to examine key factors that influence online shoppers' purchase decision in the retail apparel sector.