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Documenting the fauna of a small temporary pond from Pune, Maharashtra, India

Abstract and Figures

Most of the limnological studies in India have focussed on a few taxa of large, permanent water bodies, and pond ecosystems, and related temporary water bodies are neglected. We present here a faunal inventory, with representative photographs, for a single, small temporary pond, reporting over 125 species of strictly aquatic fauna and 25 species of associated fauna, even though we did not identify some groups such as Protozoa, Diptera and nymphs of Odonata, etc. The identified species belong to seven taxa of vertebrates and invertebrates together. Arthropoda and Rotifera were the most species rich groups, observed with 83 and 45 representatives, respectively. Coleoptera were the most numerous in terms of species number. Such a small water body holds some endemics as well as otherwise very rare animals and so deserves better attention. We also highlight the potential and importance of such habitats for research and conservation.
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Abstract: Most of the limnological studies in India have focussed on a few taxa of large, permanent water bodies, and pond ecosystems,
   
   


Coleoptera were the most numerous in terms of species number. Such a small water body holds some endemics as well as otherwise
         

Keywords:


 1 2 3 4
 5 6 7 8
 9 10 11 12 &
 13
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









7196





:
 


. Journal of Threatened Taxa; 

 ©








   

  
    


an earlier version of the manuscript.
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7197


 
       

characterised by a recurrent dry phase and these occur
everywhere, with hydroperiod varying from about a
         

       
      
        

         
diversity of these ponds is related to the high diversity
     
       
      

         
      
 

a tendency to ignore and undervalue the biota of such

As is evident from the available published literature



      
fauna of ephemeral and seasonal water bodies are very
rare, as compared to those on permanent water bodies.
       


of a temporary pond situated within the campus of
      




       
        
      




    
        
       
      

  
  

also the changing room which was constructed later.

        


     
         


  
the area dries up, except the deepest parts, which dry
up by the end of April.

 Hydrilla sp., Ceratophyllum 
 Typha   Azolla sp., Lemna 
Ipomoea aquaca 
Spirogyra sp., Chara sp.,
;


A
C 
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7198
Hydrodictyon
      Dalbergia
sp., an introduced deciduous plant spread all over the
      
Gliricidia sp., Jatropha sp., Lantana camara are also
observed on the periphery.

 
     
       
     
       


      
collected from peripheral shallow margins of the pond.

for their occurrence and surveys in the dry season
were also carried out for a thorough search of sponges.
 
       
from the substrata with a scalpel and were preserved
dry. Spicules were isolated and permanent slides were
       


      
      
and polypide characters were studied and permanent
   
       
   
experts.

       


 
        

      
      
        
      
       


        
      



    
       
     

were preserved in absolute ethanol.
     
        
      
      

     
       
       

         

AzollaTypha
HydrillaIpomoea aquacaHydrilla
Chara
A
C
F
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7199
      
    
        
  
     
      


Spiders in the vicinity of the pond were collected by

the area around the pond. 
the following literature 
        



        


Anurans were collected by searching for them on
the margins of the pond and also located by their calls,


 


     

      
       
      
  



       
invertebrate and vertebrate taxa were observed at the




       Eunapius carteri
   Radiospongilla cerebellata
     
while Dosilia plumosa     

 Asajirella gelanosa   
previously reported from this site as Pecnatella
burmanica      
We have also observed this species sporadically in the


this pond.
       
    
  Ptygura pedunculata 

       






Crustacea

     and
       
     Bradleycypris viata
        
record for India, was also collected from this pond

      
two species of cyclopoid copepods were recorded.

Araneae

Hemiptera
Coleoptera

Copepoda



  
o




Range    

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7200



Dosilia plumosa 
Eunapius carteri 
Radiospongilla cerebellata 


Asajirella gelanosa 


Asplanchna brightwellii
Asplanchnopus hyalinus

Anuraeopsis ssa
Brachionus calyciorus
Brachionus caudatus
Brachionus quadridentatus
Keratella tropica
Plaonus patulus patulus
Platyias quadricornis quadricornis


Cyrtonia tuba
Epiphanes brachionus spinosa

Beauchampiella eudactylota
Euchlanis dilatata dilatata
Tripleuchlanis plicata

Ascomorpha sp.

Lecane arcula
Lecane bulla bulla
Lecane closterocerca
Lecane curvicornis
Lecane hamata
Lecane hornemanni
Lecane leonna
Lecane ludwigii
Lecane luna
Lecane lunaris
Lecane ohioensis
Lecane quadridentata
Lecane ungulata
Lecane unguitata

Colurella sp.
Lepadella (Lepadella) ovalis 
Lepadella (Heterolepadella) ehrenbergii

Squanella lamellaris

Mylina trigona
Mylina ventralis ventralis

Monomaa sp.

Polyarthra vulgaris

Trichocerca similis similis
Trichocerca raus

Macrochaetus sericus
Trichotria tetracs

Ptygura tacita
Ptygura pedunculata

Hexarthra mira

Testudinella pana

Chaetonotus cf. similis 


Leptestheria nobilis 

Diaphanosoma sarsi 
Latonopsis australis s. lat. 

Ceriodaphnia quadrangula 

Simocephalus mixtus 

Macrothrix spinosa 

Moina micrura s. lat. 

Chydorus parvus 
Dunhevedia crassa 
Karualona cf. karua 
Leberis punctatus 


Heliodiaptomus cinctus

Thermocyclops sp.
Mesocyclops sp.
Ostracoda

Bradleycypris viata 
Chrissia formosa 
Cyprea fonnalis 
Cypris sp.
Hemicypris pyxidata 
Plesiocypridopsis dispar 
Pseudocyprea maculata 
Pseudostrandesia calapanensis 
Stenocypris derupta 
Stenocypris major 

Physocypria furfuracea 

Ilyocypris denfera 


Copelatus mysorensis 
Herophydrus musicus 
Hyphydrus intermixtus 
Laccophilus exuosus 
Laccophilus ineciens 
Laccophilus parvulus parvulus 
Hydacus fabricii fabricii 
Hydrovatus sp.

Dineutus indicus 

Haliplus arrowi 

Amphiops sp.
Berosus indicus 
Berosus pulchellus 
Hydrobiomorpha spinicollis andromorpha

Sternolophus sp.

Canthydrus laetabilis 
Canthydrus luctuosus 


Diplonychus ruscus 

Agrataptacorixa hyalinipennis 

Micronecta scutellaris

Laccotrephes griseus 

Ranatra liformis 

Anisops barbatus 
Anisops cavifrons 
Anisops sardeus 
Enithares ciliata 

Paraplea frontalis

Tenagogonus uviorum 

Hydrometra greeni 

Microvelia douglasi 


Anax guatus 

Agriocnemis pygmea 
Ischnura senegalensis 

Icnogomphus rapax 

Acisoma panorpoides 
Brachythemis contaminata 
Bradinopyga geminata 
Crocothemis servilia 
Diplacodes trivialis 
Orthetrum Sabina 
Tramea limbata 
Trithemis fesva 


Araneus micus 
Cyclosa hexatuberculata , 
Eriovixia sp.
Neoscona mukerjei, 
Neoscona nauca 
Neoscona theisi 

Hippasa sp.

Oxyopes bharatae

Nilus albocinctus 

Plexippus sp.

Leucauge decorata 
Tetragnatha sp.

Runcinia roonwali 

Zosis geniculata 

Indoplanorbis sp.
Lymnaea luteola 
 

Duaphrynus melanosctus 

Euphlycs cyanophlycs 
Hoplobatrachus gerinus 
Zakerana sp.

Microhyla ornata 

Xenochrophis piscator 


Alcedo ahis 
Ceryle rudis 
Halcyon smyrnensis 

Anas poecilorhyncha 

Ardeola grayii 
Egrea garzea 

Vanellus indicus 

Motacilla cinerea

Phalacrocorax niger 

Tachybaptus rucollis 

Amaurornis phoenicurus 
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7201
A
I
F
C
H
M
  Asplanchna brightwelli; Brachionus calyciorus; Polyarthra 
Lecane bulla bulla; Lecane curvicornis; Lecane leonna; Lecane luna; H: Lecane lunaris; Lecane ungulata; Mylina trigona;
Mylina ventralis ventralis; Plaonus patulus patulus; Platyias quadricornis quadricornis; Hexarthra Testudinella pana;
Trichotria tetracs.
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7202
  Heliodiaptomus cinctus  

   Thermocyclops sp. has

 Leptestheria nobilis  
     
        
     

Latonopsis australis Sars,
    Moina micrura   
    
        
Karualona cf. karua   may also represent a
separate species but further detailed taxonomic study is

Insecta

      

   
    

Radiospongilla cerebellata
Dosilia plumosa
MesocyclopsHeliodiaptomus cinctus
Chaetonotussimilis
IndoplanorbisLymnaea luteola


F
H
A
C
 


 

 

 
 


  Cypris    Pseudostrandesia calapanensis;   Ilyocypris
denfera;  Hemicypris pyxidata;  Stenocypris major; Chrissia
formosa;  Cyprea fonnalis;  Plesiocypridopsis dispar.

© 
A
C
F
H
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7203
       

     
    

   Canthydrus     
water beetles and Laccophilus   
       


   Indoplanorbis sp.
and Lymnaea luteola    
  

: 
  Six common species of anurans
       
     

Microhyla
ornata       
     Gambusia, released

 
the dry phase.
     
 Xenocrophis piscator   
noted occasionally.
 Diaphanosoma sarsi;  Latonopsis australis Ceriodaphnia quadrangula 
Simocephalus mixtusMacrothrix spinosaKarualona karuaLeberis punctatusDunhevedia crassa Chydorus parvus.

C
F
A
H I
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7204
 
in the middle of the pond but were never caught and

Aves
     
Anas poecilorhyncha    
Tachybaptus rucollis 
Phalacrocorax niger 
Amaurornis
phoenicurus 



         
temporary pond fauna in India. In fact, such water
bodies are neglected, in recent years, by biologists and

 

       

 
      

studied taxa. In spite of excluding some other species
         
 
 
considerably large number.
       
been neglected for decades in our area. For example
freshwater sponges, in spite of a small number of
species found in India, have not been studied in detail

Acisoma panorpoides; Brachythemis contaminata;
Bradinopyga geminata; Icnogomphus rapax; 
Crocothemis servilia. 

Laccophilus exosusCanthydrus luctuosus
Haliplus arrowiSternolophus

A
C
A
C
F
H
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7205
        
even morphological data using scanning electron
microscopy, at least for some species, became available
       
     
but we found hardly any detailed studies from India in



        

       
      
  
         
   Cyclosa hexatuberculata and
Runcinia roonwali

      
unstudied for a long period.
     
       
         
    
  

Diplonychus ruscus; Agraptacorixa hyalinipennis;
 Anisops barbatus;  Enithares ciliata; anatra liformis;
Tenagogonus uviorum
A
C
F

Neoscona mukerjei; Neoscona nauca; Zosis geniculata;
TetragnathaRuncinia roonwali. 
A
c

  Duaphrynus melanosctus      
Euphlycs cyanophlycs; C: Zakerana   Microhyla ornata; E
Hoplobatrachus gerinus
A
C
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
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   Streptocephalus sahyadriensis Rogers
Moina heman




     



  




varying ecological roles ranging from primary producers
      
   

      
        

from Maharashtra. It is evident that the habitat has a
     
       

   
      

Moina

Egrea garzea; Vanellus indicus; Halcyon smyrnensis; Anas poecilorhyncha; Tachybaptus rucollis; Motacilla cinerea;
Ardeola grayii; Alcedo ahis; Ceryle rudis. 
A
H
C
F
I
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
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micrura, Thermocyclops     
 

        
chemical parameters also change during this phase.

   

       
     
Some studies have been carried out in India, but they
are mostly focussed on a single group of organisms,
     
      
   


Studies on pond ecosystems have been used



analyses for this pond in future.
     
        
    
      
      
Gambusia pose a serious

to predate on Microhyla tadpoles in the same habitat


        
be used in teaching the basic principles of ecology
and biodiversity and hence must be protected and
         
       
  
        
becomes more regular so that the habitat will be well

      
water bodies is now being revealed and de Meester
         
model systems for studies on various aspects of ecology,
     

We did these surveys for fauna because proper
     
water bodies may help in developing strategies for
      




      Morphological and

 Zoological Journal of Linnean Society 

      
The
Raes Bullen of Zoology
   The Fauna of Brish India, including Ceylon
and Burma. Freshwater Sponges, Hydroids and Polyzoa.

. Standard Methods for the Examinaon of Water
and Wastewater    

      
in the Ceriodaphnia cornuta   
Verhandlungen der Internaonalen Vereinigung fuer Theoresche
und Angewandte Limnologie

         
Aquac Conservaon:
Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems
   A revision of the genus Hyphydrus Illiger
Acta Zoologica Fennica 
 Why study ecology in temporary
pools? Israel Journal of Zoology 
 
   
Wetlands
        
orientales et australiennes du genre Laccophilus 
 Entomologische Arbeiten aus dem Museum G. Frey



freshwater. Hydrobiologia
          
pond invertebrate diversity. Aquac Conservaon: Marine and
Freshwater Ecosystems
       Anisops 
 University of Kansas Science Bullen 
           
        
freshwater habitat. Hydrobiologia
         

Zootaxa
     Micronecta   
    Journal of
the Kansas Entomological Society
        

The Raes Bullen of Zoology
  

Oriental Insects 
            
Cobra 
            
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7208
Cobra
            
Cobra
      
          
      
biology. Aquac Conservaon: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems


  Zoos‘ Print Journal   

 Karualona

Hydrobiologia
          
Guides to the Idencaon of Microinvertebrates
of the Connental Waters of the World - 2nd Edion. 

  The Fauna of Brish India including Ceylon and
Burma. Odonata Vol. I. 
  The Fauna of Brish India including Ceylon and
Burma. Odonata Vol. II.
  The Fauna of Brish India including Ceylon and
Burma. Odonata Vol. III.
 Fauna of India and the Adjacent Countries: Spiders
(Arachnida: Araneae: Oxyopidae)    

   
      
Ramsagar reservoir, India. Internaonal Journal of Biodiversity and
Conservaon
       Microhyla tadpoles
by Gambusia. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society


Transacons of the American Philosophical Society
Pocket Guide to the Birds
of the Indian Subconnent
Pictorial Guide to Frogs and Toads of the Western
Ghats


. Guides to the Idencaon of Microinvertebrates of
the Connental Waters of the World.

        Asajirella
gelanosa Ela Journal

     
India. Journal of Threatened Taxa   

 First record
of Thalassius albocinctus    
India. Entomon

      Zoos’
Print Journal

  
       
Water Beetles of China, Vol. III.

Coleopterologenvcrein.
       
     Guides to the idencaon of the
Microinvertebrates of the Connental Waters of the World  

Rotatoria. 


     
Pacic Insects
      Fauna of India and adjacent
countries. Indian Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera).

         
 The Status and Distribuon of Freshwater Biodiversity in the
Western Ghats, India. 

        

     Annales de Limnologie 

        
      
      Acta Botanica
Malacitana
. 
The Raes Bullen of Zoology

 
       Raes
Bullen of Zoology
   Laccotrephes Stål,
    L. griseus group
   Annalen des Naturhistorischen
Museums in Wien, B 
 Simocephalus.
    Guides to the Idencaon of the
Microinvertebrates of the Connental Waters of the World 

    
        

        First faunal inventory
      
   
Zootaxa
      Moina heman n. sp., a new
species of the genus Moina    
Zootaxa
     . Species richness of Cladocera

 Journal of Limnology

          
sensu lato
A Accademia roveretana Agia,  

      Comprehensive revision of a



Moina micrura
cosmopolitan cladoceran. Hydrobiologia
         
       
     The Raes
Bullen of Zoology
   Handbook of Freshwater Molluscs of India.

 Copepods: Calanoida: Diaptomidae

 A new species of Streptocephalus

 Zootaxa
         
        
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7209
 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

        
      
          
Hydrobiologia

      
Zootaxa
       Berosus  
      
 Koleopterologische Rundshau-Wien

        
Journal of Natural
History 

     Zootaxa

         .
  
India. Advances in Applied Science Research
       
       

          
  Alona diaphana   
Alona davidi       Leberis
   Arthropoda Selecta

   Chydoridae fauny mira. Fauna USSR.

     
 Guides to the Idencaon of the Microinvertebrates of
the Connental Waters of the World

       
        Guides to the
Idencaon of the Microinvertebrates of the Connental Waters of
the World,
 Fauna of Brish India including Ceylon and Burma.
Repla and Amphibia, Vol. III Serpentes   

  Damselies and Dragonies of Peninsular
India - A Field Guide.      

         
Journal of
Threatened Taxa
Eriovixia
Acta Arachnologica, Tokyo 
         

     
India. Academic Journal of Entomology
   
    Records of
the Zoological Survey of India
     Fauna of
India (Araneae),
      
orbweavers. Fauna of India (Araneae). Zoological Survey of India

       
     Pecnatella burmanica Annandale.
Current Science

Journal of Bombay Natural History Society


   Journal of the Bombay Natural History
Society 
        
 

  
with record of Ptygura pedunculata  
Turkish Journal of Zoology 


Applied Ecology
and Environmental Research
        
         
      
from India. Oriental Insects 


Oriental Insects
     
       
Oriental Insects
 The fauna of India: Coleoptera. Family Gyrinidae
and Family Haliplidae
  
Records of Zoological Survey of India  

         
      
      Water Beetles of China Vol. II. - Wien:
Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellscha in Österreich and Wiener
Coleopterologenvcrein.
    Annotated catalogue of the Haliplidae of

ZooKeys
         
ecological strategies of animals in annual temporary pools. Archiv
fuer Hydrobiologie Supplement
   The Biology of Temporary Waters 

 

     Biological
Conservaon
   

Freshwater Biology
         
    The Raes
Bullen of Zoology
      
The Spiders of Japan with Keys
to the Families and Genera and Illustraons of the Species 

Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 May 2015 | 7(6): 7196–7210
Fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune Kulkarni et al.
7210

 
 




Cladocera








Copepoda







Mollusca 
Coleoptera









Hemiptera
















Arachnida







Amphibia 

 
Aves 
            

 
        
Coimbatore. He studies the taxonomy and ecology of branchiopod crustaceans
          
         

   
 
           


      


  
      
Maharashtra.       
spiders. He is a country coordinator for the World Spider Catalog. 
           
         
behavioural ecology of frogs and their tadpoles.    
    
        
          
         
          
     
         
          

        


... Pseudostrandesia calapanensis (junior synonym: Strandesia uenoi Klie, 1938) is the most widely distributed species in the genus, ranging from India, and Southeast Asia to northeast China (see Discussion for details). The original description of P. calapanensis was brief, and subse- quent reports have shown a rather varied carapace morphology, with a dorsal margin either distinctly curved or almost straight, a smoothly rounded or quite angular posterior margin, a pitted or smooth carapace, and with some specimens noticeably more elongate than others (height-length ratio varying from 0.44 to 0.50) (Tressler, 1937;Klie, 1938;Victor and Fernando, 1981;Yu et al., 2005;Savatenalinton and Martens, 2010;Kulkarni et al., 2015;Ma and Yu, 2020). Valves of Thai specimens were reported to be covered with micro-ornamentation, similar to that of Pseudostrandesia tenebrarum sp. ...
... Of the 10 other species of Pseudostrandesia known, nine have a distribution in Southeast Asia (Fig. 6). One of these, Pseudostrandesia mamarilorum (Victor and Fernando, 1981), is also found in Hainan Province, south China (Ma and Yu, 2020), while another, P. calapanensis, is also found in India (Kulkarni et al., 2015), Taiwan (Klie, 1938), Hainan, and scattered localities in the eastern part of mainland China, as far north as Heilongjiang Province (Yu et al., 2005) (Fig. 6) (an African record of P. calapanensis is questionable; see Savatenalinton and Martens, 2010). An additional species is currently only known from its type locality in Turkey (Külköylüoğlu et al., 2020). ...
... Map of records of the genus Pseudostrandesia in the eastern part of Asia. Data from Klie (1932Klie ( , 1938, Kulkarni et al. (2015), Ma and Yu (2020), Savatenalinton (2014Savatenalinton ( , 2015Savatenalinton ( , 2017aSavatenalinton ( , 2017bSavatenalinton ( , 2017cSavatenalinton ( , 2018Savatenalinton ( , 2020Savatenalinton ( , 2021, Martens (2009, 2010); Savatenalinton and Suttajit (2016), Tressler (1937), Victor and Fernando (1981), Yu et al. (2005Yu et al. ( , 2009), Zhang and Qin (2017), and this study. Positions of some localities are approximate. ...
Article
An undescribed species of freshwater ostracod belonging to the genus Pseudostrandesia Savatenalinton and Martens, 2009 was collected from two pet shops in the Kanto region of central Japan. This species, herein named Pseudostrandesia tenebrarum sp. nov., is similar to four species previously reported from Southeast Asia, but can be distinguished by carapace and appendage features. It is the second species of the genus for which males are known. Of the nine previously described species in the genus, one is exclusively known from Turkey, and the others are found in Southeast Asia and the vicinity, one of which is also recorded in India and east China. There are two scenarios to explain the existence of Pseudostrandesia tenebrarum sp. nov. in pet shops in Japan: it is either native to Japan but has yet to be discovered in its natural habitat, or it is an alien species, perhaps unwittingly imported with plants or fish for the pet trade. We review the likelihood of both scenarios, and conclude that although there is insufficient evidence to be sure, it is potentially an alien species in Japan. The most likely origin is Southeast Asia, as evidenced by its close morphological resemblance to particular Southeast Asian species. Juveniles as well as adults were recovered, indicating that this species is reproducing in the pet trade, supporting the notion that it has invasive potential to areas outside of its natural range. The description and report of this species highlights a possible introduction of an alien species to Japan, and facilitates further monitoring.
... The macroinvertebrates play important roles in the aquatic ecosystem and as a functional group, they may serve as grazers, shredders, gatherers, filterers, and predators [5] . The account of aquatic insect species associated with freshwater habitats of Maharashtra is available from different localities: Nathsagar wetland [6,7] , Ujani wetland [8,9,10] , Vidarbha region [11,12,13,14,15,16] , Pune district [17,18,19,20,21,22] . India has about 487 species of odonates [23] which includes 134 species from Maharashtra state [24,25]. ...
... This region is drained by many rivers such as the Bhima, Ghod, Kukadi, Mula, Mutha, and Nira, and has a substantial number of minor, medium, and major irrigation projects. Although there are some sporadic studies on macroinvertebrate fauna of few selected freshwater bodies of Pune district [17,18,19,32,21,22] , a large number of water bodies have yet not been studied with respect to their faunal resources. Except for a few selected water bodies, macroinvertebrate fauna of most of the water bodies from Solapur and Ahmednagar districts are still not reported. ...
... The analysis of the results obtained shows that the insects of the order Hemiptera, Diptera, Odonata and Coleoptera are the most common and dominant groups among aquatic insects studied. A similar pattern of dominance was also recorded by Sivaramkrishnan et al. [45] and Kulkarni et al. [22] . The family Libellulidae dominated the collections with the maximum number of species. ...
... These patterns in diversity and levels of endemicity are known in taxa such as amphibians, birds, butterflies, fishes and reptiles (Gunawardene et al. 2007); however, many microinvertebrate groups are often neglected. The freshwater habitats in Western Ghats are rich in zooplanktons (for example Kulkarni et al. 2015). In the present study, though the number of tardigrade species is low (species belonging to only six genera) compared to temperate region, it at least showed prevalence and a certain diversity of freshwater tardigrades in Northern Western Ghats of India, a region which was never explored before for freshwater tardigrades. ...
Article
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We investigated the freshwater habitats of Northern Western Ghats of India to study the diversity and distribution of tardigrades. There has been no report, till date, on the freshwater tardigrade fauna of Western Ghats. In the six-year study period, we found species belonging to only six genera. The report presents details of abiotic factors and habitats in which tardigrade species were found. Freshwater tardigrades are known to occur in permanent and temporary habitats; however, in the present study, 83.3% of tardigrade positive samples were found to occur in temporary habitats only. Out of 211 samples from different habitats only 12 samples were tardigrade positive. Dactylobiotus and Thulinius were the most commonly occurring genera. Tardigrades were found to co-occur with other taxa in 91.6% of tardigrade positive samples, predominated by rotifers followed by nematodes. The occurrence of Doryphoribius in a limestone cave having unique geological feature of stalactites and stalagmites, gives new insights on Tardigrada and their microhabitat preferences. Their distribution in such unique habitats highlights the importance of these habitats in harbouring the unique fauna.
... Tumanov considered the information on the freshwater Tardigrade of India is completely absent [51] . However, Kulkarni and co-workers included a photograph of Tardigrade while studying the fauna of a small temporary pond in Pune, Maharashtra state [28] . But no addition information about this animal was mentioned in the tables or descriptions of the report. ...
Article
Full-text available
A freshwater perennial pond of Jorhat district of Assam was investigated for nine months during the year 2019 to gather preliminary information on the assemblage pattern of phyto and zooplankton. A total of 99 plankton species was recorded during the study of which 58 were phytoplankton and 41 belonged to zooplankton. Phytoplankton community was composed with 41.38% Chlorophyceae, 37.93% Bacillariophyceae, 10.34% Euglenophyceae, 8.62% Cyanophyceae and 1.72% or single species of Dinophyceae. Diatom genus Navicula was the speciose one. Zooplankton community dominance was Protozoa (31.71%) > Rotifera (29.27%) > Cladocera (17.07%)> Copepoda (14.63%). Three arthropod zooplankton, not belonging to these categories were grouped as Insecta which contributed 7.23%. One of the significant findings during the investigation was the presence of Freshwater Tardigrade in the pond, in the situation where global information on freshwater Tardigrade is scanty and in Indian context, it is close to zero. This report provides the first photographic documentation of Tardigrade from Northeast India.
... Further, anthropogenic ponds are small landscape elements, created as a result of quarrying and mining activities (Chester and Robson, 2013;Williams, 2006). Several studies on anthropogenic water bodies across Europe and North America, revealed their potential as biodiversity refuges, however, such ecosystems are less studied from tropics and south Asia (Chester and Robson, 2013;Kulkarni et al., 2015). Hortal et al. (2015) defined seven biodiversity shortfalls based on information gaps. ...
Article
We investigated trait-environment relationships of co-occurring aquatic Coleoptera specifically true water beetles in anthropogenic ponds from the Western Ghats, India for the first time. Our objectives were to: (1) identify species assemblages; (2) study species traits; (3) study trait-environment relationships of co-occurring species. We analysed 132 samples collected using standardised quantitative method during the years 2016 and 2017. We found 16 significant assemblages using Fager's index, where most of the pairs have body size ratio of 1.3 or more. For example, Laccophilus parvulus and Hydaticus satoi pair has body size ratio of 3.98, and both are predators, indicating that body size is a function of food size. Moreover, factor analysis revealed three major swimming categories of studied beetles, namely fast swimmers, maneuverers and poor swimmers. Further, the RLQ analysis, and combined approach of RLQ and fourth-corner analysis showed that environmental variables affected species traits. For instance, odonate nymphs and submerged vegetation were positively associated with fast swimmers like Laccophilus inefficiens and Hydaticus satoi . The assemblage of congeners Hydroglyphus inconstans and H. flammulatus can be predator-mediated as these beetles showed negative association with odonate nymphs as well as competitive to obtain resource by showing positive association with chironomid larvae. Therefore, the traits studied were important for ecological performances of species in ponds. This study has also highlighted the importance of anthropogenic ponds in the Western Ghats as biodiversity refuges of ecologically unique and evolutionary old major extant lineages of water beetles.
... Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis tadpoles detect and respond to the chemical cues released by predators Gramapurohit, 2017, 2018). These tadpoles have a long larval period (Phuge and Gramapurohit, 2015) and co-occur with the larvae of many dragonfly species (Kulkarni et al., 2015). In contrast, the tadpoles of M. nilphamariensis have a short larval period (Dash and Dei, 1996) and stay away from most co-occurring predators, including dragonfly larvae and the tadpoles of Hoplobatrachus species (Phuge and Phuge, 2019). ...
Article
Predator-prey interactions are affected by environmental conditions. We examined the effect of changes in water level on the predator-prey interactions in a food web comprising of a top predator (dragonfly naiad), one mesopredator (backswimmer), and prey tadpoles of species that differ in microhabitat occupancy (neustonic and benthic). The results revealed that under high water level conditions (HWL), predators took longer to attack the neustonic tadpoles (Microhyla nilphamariensis) relative to the low-water-level condition (LWL). Dragonfly larvae mostly attacked the benthic tadpoles (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) when the water level was high. Nevertheless, under LWL, dragonfly larvae equally attacked both benthic and neustonic tadpoles. Interestingly, dragonfly larvae frequently attacked mesopredators (i.e., backswimmers) when they were presented together with neustonic tadpoles. These results demonstrated that changes in water level influence predator-prey interactions in the pond ecosystem where neustonic tadpoles faced lower risk under HWL. The reduction of water level favored the survival of benthic prey tadpoles. The presence of mesopredator (backswimmers) reduced the predation risk of neustonic tadpoles. These results help to understand how the differences in predation risks shape anti-predator responses in these prey tadpoles.
... The region was declared as a biodiversity hotspot based mainly on the knowledge about vertebrates, as most of its invertebrate diversity was not well known (Myers et al., 2000). The freshwater ecosystems of NWG are rich in faunal diversity as suggested by recent studies on the freshwater invertebrates (Kulkarni et al., 2015), including crustaceans (Shinde et al., 2014;Padhye and Dahanukar, 2015;Padhye and Dumont, 2015;Padhye and Victor, 2015;Kulkarni and Pai, 2016), rotifers Vanjare et al., 2017) and sponges (Jakhalekar and Ghate, 2013, and vertebrates such as freshwater fishes (Keskar et al., 2018). On the contrary, Thakare and Zade (2011) is the only available report on species richness of aquatic beetles from Melghat tiger reserve, Maharashtra. ...
Article
We studied faunistic and ecological factors influencing distributions of aquatic beetles in the Northern Western Ghats (NWG) of India. In the period 2013-2017, we collected 213 samples from 105 localities within the area and obtained 66 species, the majority of which belong to Dytiscidae. Relative occurrence based on incidence data revealed that dytiscid water beetle Laccophilus inefficiens as the most widespread species. Non-parametric richness estimators Chao2, Jackknife1 and Bootstrap showed that 70-80% of the fauna was covered in the sampling efforts from different types of freshwater habitats. Sample-based rarefaction suggested that more sampling efforts within the region can yield additional species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that altitude, salinity, hydroperiod and depth influenced the distribution of aquatic beetles. Further, CCA also revealed habitat preference and cooccurrence of various aquatic beetle species. For instance, while co-occurring species under Laccophilinae and Hydroporinae were eurytopic, other co-occurring species Clypeodytes hemani, Microdytes sabitae and Lacconectus lambai were restricted to temporary habitats. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) showed a strong association between altitudinal classes and species distribution where many species were restricted within a particular altitudinal gradient. For example, M. sabitae, C. hemani, Hygrotus nilghiricus, L. lambai and Rhantus taprobanicus with classes 900-1199 and 1200-1499 while Hyphydrus flavicans, Laccophilus ceylonicus, Lacconectus andrewesi, Sternolophus inconspicuus and Canthydrus laetabilis with the class 300-599. The present work on aquatic beetles is the first attempt to study the influence of environmental factors on species diversity and distribution in the Northern Western Ghats of India.
... As for Porifera from Southeast Asian inland waters, data are scarce and based mostly on a few old records and scattered papers; the last synopsis highlighted that 26 species inhabit this area, with most species (18) reported only once, and a few reaching a maximum of 5 records (Manconi et al. 2013). Knowledge of taxonomic richness, endemicity level, and biogeographic patterns of freshwater sponges is scarce, and biodiversity seems to be highly underestimated in the entire Oriental Region (Manconi et al. 2013;Van Soest et al. 2015) as indicated also by recent new records, e.g., from Pune and Singapore (Jakhalekar & Ghate 2013;Lim & Tan 2013;Kulkarni et al. 2015). Extensive field campaigns in Thailand and SEM investigations have also yielded the discovery of a notably rich sponge fauna (Ruengsawang et al. 2012;Manconi et al. 2013;Ruengsawang 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Umborotula bogorensis (Weber, 1890) is a freshwater sponge species that is recorded occasionally, mainly on islands and peninsulas of Australasia. Less than 10 records with morphological descriptions and illustrations have been published so far, and the most recent record is dated 1978. A list of the few voucher specimens from museum collections is provided here together with the rich unpublished Sasaki collection from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, recently deposited in a Japanese museum. The present new record from Northeast Thailand enlarges the geographic range of U. bogorensis to the Indochina mainland. A comparison of historical data vs present Thai records is performed by morpho-analysis (SEM) as well as biogeographic, ecological and climatic data. Results show low variability in shape and size of the diagnostic morphotraits in populations scattered over the wide geographic range. Here we also formally accept the new taxonomic status (rank elevation) of the previous suborder Spongillina as a new order Spongillida. The presence of this potentially threatened species in the Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, together with its possible long-term persistence in the Bogor Botanical Garden, may support its conservation. Only a census of the known, extremely scattered populations will define the status of this species.
Article
India has a long history of research on freshwater and marine Gastrotricha. In more than 110 years of study on Order Chaetonotida, two families consisting of 11 genera and 39 species have been described. Thirty of these species are taxa originally described from other continents, while only nine species (7 freshwater, 2 marine) are only known from India. The large percentage (77%) of so-called cosmopolitan species in India has contributed to the phenomenon known as the "meiofauna paradox". However, a careful review of the pertaining literature provides a different biogeographical picture of the chaetonotidan fauna of India. Herein we show that the high incidence of European and North American species reported from India is mainly due to a mixture of misidentification and species lumping. In fact, for only 12 species there are enough data that would make the Indian specimens morphological similar to taxa previously reported from Europe and/or North America. However, without the appropriate molecular sequence data for comparison, there is no way to rule out the possibility of cryptic speciation.We conclude that further sampling throughout India and the use of more powerful microscopical techniques (e.g., DIC optics) and molecular sequencing will reveal more species and improve the quality of re-descriptions of those (9 spp.) that so far appear to be endemic to the subcontinent. Here we recommend six species to be excluded from the fauna of India while another 11 species (non endemic to India) should be considered dubitatively present in the Indian fauna.
Article
Odonates are considered to be good ecological indicators, hence, they are used in biological assessment of habitat quality. However, species responses may vary spatiotemporally and therefore, it is useful to establish species-habitat relationships at a regional level. To test if tropical urban odonates respond to seasons, and to explore species-habitat relationships with an emphasis on water pollution, I studied six wetlands in the city of Pune for a year. I also investigated whether combining data on dragonflies and damselflies, as is often done in many studies, skews the results. I recorded seasons, water pollution and habitat attributes as predictors of the odonate diversity and assemblage. I analyzed the data on dragonflies, damselflies and odonates (dragonfly-damselfly combined) separately for seasonal variation, and species-habitat relationships. I used multiple regression and canonical correspondence analyses. Forty-four species were recorded during the study. No seasonal variation was detected, except for damselflies, which showed an increase in the diversity and species number post-monsoon. Multiple regression analysis showed that damselfly and dragonfly diversity varied as a function of season and water pollution, and monsoon respectively. In pre-monsoon, damselfly diversity marginally increased with pollution. Both the analyses suggest that combining data on dragonflies and damselflies may skew the end results. Therefore, I recommend further intensive and long-term research using accurately sampled habitat and pollution attributes, as well as habitat restoration through conserving urban green spaces and promoting gardens with streams and ponds.
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This is the second part of a series of guides to the aquatic Heteroptera of Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia published in the Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. The family Veliidae, with 15 genera and 33 recorded species, are the second commonest group of aquatic bugs in the region. We provide a list of known local species of Veliidae, a key to genera, and keys to species where applicable. We also include illustrations of representative members of each genus, some of the key characters used, and notes on biology and habitat.
Article
This is the first of a series of publications planned as guides to aquatic Heteroptera of Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia to be published in the Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. A key to families and a list of known genera with number of described species for each genus are given.
Article
This paper deals with 52 species, belonging to 9 genera of Colymbetinae from India. It contains descriptions of seven new species and redescriptions of several species based on the study of type specimens in Museum National Histoire Naturelle, Paris; British Museum (Natural History), London; Museo Cavico di Storia Naturale, Genoa and the Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. Study of the genitalic characters has revealed the following new synonymies: Copelatus crytarchoides Regimbart (=Copelatus nilgiricus Balfour-Browne) Agabus (Dichonectes) nitidus Fabricius (=Agabus indicas Regimbart) Agabus (Gaurodytes) debilipes Regimbart (=Agabus skarduensis Guignot) Agabus (Anagabus) vateiloides Regimbart [=Agabus (Anagabus) jucundus Guignot] On the basis of study of male genitalia and metacoxal lines, a new subgenus has been proposed within the genus Lacconectus. Similarly the genus Platynectus has been divided into three subgenera by the addition of two new subgenera. Lectotypes have been selected wherever necessary. Type localities of certain species have been clarified. Keys to genera and species are provided and male genitalia figured.