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The implications of diet on health sustainability have assumed a major importance, supported by considerable epidemiological evidences, and is well recognized by the scientific community and general public, on developed countries. Microalgae are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional food and feed preparation and hence to positively affect humans and animal health due to their original chemical composition, namely high protein content, with balanced amino acids pattern, carotenoids, fatty acids, vitamins, polysaccharides, sterols, phycobilins and other biologically active compounds, more efficiently than traditional crops. The aim of this chapter is to review the most important features of microalgae in animal and human nutrition, particularly in the development of novel design-foods rich in carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids with antioxidant effect and other beneficial health properties.
Content may be subject to copyright.
In: Food Chemistry Research Developments ISBN 978-1-60456-262-0
Editor: Konstantinos N. Papadopoulos, pp. © 2008 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
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0LFURDOJDHLQ1RYHO)RRG3URGXFWV
L. Gouveia
1
. A. P. Batista
2
, I. Sousa
3
, A. Raymundo
2
and
N. M. Bandarra
4
1
Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação - INETI-DER - Unidade
Biomassa, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Núcleo de Investigação de Engenharia Alimentar e Biotecnologia. Instituto Piaget -
ISEIT de Almada. Quinta da Arreinela de Cima, 2800-305 Almada, Portugal
3
DAIAT – Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Technical University of Lisbon
Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
4
Departamento de Inovação Tecnológica e Valorização dos Produtos da Pesca
Instituto de Investigação das Pescas e do Mar - IPIMAR. Av. Brasília,
1449-006, Lisboa, Portugal
$EVWUDFW
The implications of diet on health sustainability have assumed a major importance,
supported by considerable epidemiological evidences, and is well recognized by the
scientific community and general public, on developed countries. Microalgae are able to
enhance the nutritional content of conventional food and feed preparation and hence to
positively affect humans and animal health due to their original chemical composition,
namely high protein content, with balanced amino acids pattern, carotenoids, fatty acids,
vitamins, polysaccharides, sterols, phycobilins and other biologically active compounds,
more efficiently than traditional crops. The aim of this chapter is to review the most
important features of microalgae in animal and human nutrition, particularly in the
development of novel design-foods rich in carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids
with antioxidant effect and other beneficial health properties.
,QWURGXFWLRQ
E-mail: luisa.gouveia@ineti.pt
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 2
Modern food industry leads to an increase of cheaper, healthier and more convenient
products. The use of natural ingredients, like polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) and
antioxidant pigments, exhibiting high impact on functional properties is important to reduce
chronic diseases incidence, which are strongly considered of capital importance in Europe,
where aging population and welfare costs are fatal for public resources management. The
impact of natural substances introduced in the diet via "usual” foods is proved to be efficient
at long term and do not present the drawbacks of traditional therapeutic actions based on
medicines of short term impact.
Microalgae are an enormous biological resource, representing one of the most promising
sources for new products and applications (Pulz and Gross, 2004). They can be used to
enhance the nutritional value of food and animal feed, due to their well balanced chemical
composition. Moreover, they are cultivated as a source of highly valuable molecules such as
polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments, antioxidants, pharmaceuticals and other biologically
active compounds. The application of microalgal biomass and/or metabolites is an interesting
and innovative approach for the development of healthier food products.
Microalgal biotechnology is similar to conventional agriculture, but has received quite a
lot of attention over the last decades, because they can reach substantially higher
productivities than traditional crops and can be extended into areas and climates unsuitable
for agricultural purposes (e.g. desert and seashore lands). Microalgae production is an
important natural mechanism to reduce the excess of atmospheric CO
2
by biofixation and
recycling of fixed C in products, ensuring a lower greenhouse effect, reducing the global
environmental heating and climate changes. Microalgae cultivation also presents less or no
seasonality, are important as feed to aquaculture and life-support systems, and can effectively
remove nutrients (or pollutants) (e.g nitrogen and phosphorus) from water. Microalgal
systems for sunlight driven environmental and production applications can clearly contribute
to sustainable development and improved management of natural resources. Lately,
microalgae have been seen with a great potential as a sustainable feedstock for biodiesel
production, in substitution for oil from vegetable crops (Campbell, 1997), and also for
hydrogen production (Dutta et al., 2005).
This chapter reviews the main applications of microalgae in feed and food products
focusing the authors’ work on this subject, for the last years.
0LFURDOJDH
Microalgae use by indigenous populations has occurred for centuries. However, the
cultivation of microalgae is only a few decades old (Borowitzka, 1999) and among the 30000
species that are believed to exist (Chaumont, 1993, Radmer and Parker, 1994), only a few
thousands strains are kept in collections, a few hundred are investigated for chemical content
and just a handful are cultivated in industrial quantities (Olaizola, 2003).
Some of the most biotechnologically relevant microalgae are the green algae
(Chlorophycea) Chlorella vulgaris, Haematococcus pluvialis, Dunaliella salina and the
Cyanobacteria Spirulina maxima which are already widely commercialized and used, mainly
as nutritional supplements for humans and as animal feed additives.
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 3
Chlorella vulgaris has been used as an alternative medicine in the Far East since ancient
times and it is known as a traditional food in the Orient. It is widely produced and marketed
as a food supplement in many countries, including China, Japan, Europe and the US, despite
not possessing GRAS status. Chlorella is being considered as a potential source of a wide
spectrum of nutrients (e.g. carotenoids, vitamins, minerals) being widely used in the healthy
food market as well as for animal feed and aquaculture. Chlorella is important as a health
promoting factor on many kinds of disorders such as gastric ulcers, wounds, constipation,
anemia, hypertension, diabetes infant malnutrition and neurosis (Yamaguchi, 1997). It is also
attributed a preventive action against atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia by glycolipids
and phospholipids, and antitumor actions by glicoproteins, peptides and nucleotides
(Yamaguchi, 1997). However the most important substance in Chlorella seems to be a beta-
1,3-glucan, which is an active immunostimulator, a free-radical scavenger and a reducer of
blood lipids (Spolaore et al., 2006).
Haematococcus pluvialis has been identified as the organism which can accumulate the
highest level of astaxanthin in nature (1.5-3.0% dry weight). This carotenoid pigment is a
potent radical scavenger and singlet oxygen quencher, with increasing amount of evidence
suggesting that surpasses the antioxidant benefits of β-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E.
Haematococcus is currently the prime natural source of this pigment for commercial
exploitation, particularly in aquaculture salmon and trout farming (Lorenz and Cysewski,
2000). Another natural source, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) yeast
requires a large amount of feed for sufficient pigmentation (Dufossé et al., 2005).
Dunaliella salina is an halotolerant microalga, naturally occurring in salted lakes, that is
able to accumulate very large amounts of β-carotene, a valuable chemical mainly used as
natural food colouring and provitamin A (retinol). The D. salina community in Pink Lake,
Victoria (Australia) was estimated to contain up to 14% of this carotenoid in their dry weight
(Aasen et al., 1969), and in culture some Dunaliella strains may also contain up to 10% and
more β-carotene, under nutrient-stressed, high salt and high light conditions (Ben-Amotz and
Avron, 1980; Oren, 2005). Apart from β-carotene Dunaliella produces another valuable
chemical, glycerol.
Arthrosphira (Spirulina) grows profusely in certain alkaline lakes in Mexico and Africa
and has been used as food by local populations since ancient times (Yamaguchi, 1997). It is
extensively produced around the world (3000 tons/year) and broadly used in food and feed
supplements, due of its high protein content and its excellent nutritive value, such as high γ-
linolenic acid level (Ötles and Pire, 2001, Shimamatsu, 2004). In addition, this microalga has
various possible health promoting effects: the alleviation of hyperlipidemia, suppression of
hypertension, protection against renal failure, growth promotion of intestinal Lactobacillus,
suppression of elevated serum glucose level (Spolaore et al., 2006), anticarcinogenic effect
and have hypocholesterolemic properties (Reinehr and Costa, 2006). Spirulina is also the
main source of natural phycocyanin, used as a natural food and cosmetic colouring (blue
colour extract) and as biochemical tracer in immunoassays, among other uses (Ötles and Pire,
2001, Kato 1994, Shimamatsu, 2004).
Recently, attention has been drawn on the marine microalgae Isochrysis galbana and
Diacronema vlkianum (Haptophyceae) due to their ability to produce long chain
polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3) and
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 4
also docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), that are accumulated as oil droplets in prominent
lipid bodies in the cell (Liu and Lin, 2001). These microalgae have been used as a feed
species for commercial rearing of many aquatic animals, particularly larval and juvenile
molluscs, crustacean and fish species (Fidalgo et al., 1998). For example, in a relative ranking
of microalgal diets for clam Mercenaria mercenaria, the microalga I. galbana was shown as
the most suitable source of nutritional for rapid growth (Wikfors et al., 1992), while D.
vlkianum resulted in high growth rates and low mortality for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea
gigas larvae (Ponis et al., 2006). These microalgae are also potentially promising for the food
industry as a valuable source of LC-PUFA’s, in alternative to fish oils, supplying also sterols,
tocopherols, colouring pigments and other nutraceuticals (Bandarra et al., 2003; Donato et
al., 2003).
%LRDFWLYH0ROHFXOHV
As with any higher plant, the chemical composition of algae is not an intrinsic constant
factor but varies over a wide range. Environmental factors, such as temperature, illumination,
pH-value, mineral contents, CO
2
supply, or population density, growth phase and algae
physiology, can greatly modified chemical composition. Table 1 presents indicative values of
a gross chemical composition of different algae and compared with the composition of
selected conventional foodstuffs.
Microalgae can biosynthesize, metabolize, accumulate and secrete a great diversity of
primary and secondary metabolites, many of which are valuable substances with potential
applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries (Yamaguchi, 1997).
3LJPHQWV
One of the most obvious and arresting characteristic of the algae is their colour. In
general, each phylum has its own particular combination of pigments and an individual
colour. Aside chlorophylls, as the primary photosynthetic pigment, microalgae also form
various accessory or secondary pigments, such as phycobiliproteins and a wide range of
carotenoids. These natural pigments are able to improve the efficiency of light energy
utilization of the algae and protect them against solar radiation and related effects. Their
function as antioxidants in the plant shows interesting parallels with their potential role as
antioxidants in foods and humans (Van den Berg et al., 2000). Therefore, microalgae are
recognized as an excellent source of natural colorants and nutraceuticals and it is expected
they will surpass synthetics as well as other natural sources due to their sustainability of
production and renewable nature (Dufossé et al., 2005).
Table 1. General composition of different human sources and microalgae (% dry
matter) (adapted from Becker, 1994, Spolaore et al., 2006 and Natrah et al., 2007)
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 5
Commodity Protein Carbohydrate Lipid
Baker’s yeast
Meat
Egg
Milk
Rice
Soya
Anabaena cylindrical
Chaetoceros calcitrans
Chlamydomonas rheinhardii
Chlorella pyrenoidosa
Chlorella vulgaris
Chlorella vulgaris*
Chlorella vulgaris
(carotenogenic)*
Diacronema vlkianum*
Dunaliella salina
Euglena gracilis
Haematococcus pluvialis
(carotenogenic)*
Isochrysis galbana
Porphyridium cruentum
Scenedesmus obiquus
Scenedesmus dimorphus
Spirogyra sp.
Spirulina maxima
Spirulina maxima*
Spirulina platensis
Synechococcus sp.
Tetraselmis maculate
39
43
47
26
8
37
43-56
36
48
57
51-58
38
12
38
57
39-61
10
48
28-39
50-56
8-18
6-20
60-71
45
46-63
63
52
38
1
4
38
77
30
25-30
27
17
26
12-17
33
25
25
32
14-18
40
27
40-57
10-17
21-52
33-64
13-16
21
8-14
15
15
1
34
41
28
2
20
4-7
15
21
2
14-22
5
28
18
6
14-20
41
15
9-14
12-14
16-40
11-21
6-7
4
4-9
11
3
*Values experimentally determined by the authors (Batista et al., 2007a).
&KORURSK\OOV
All algae contain one or more type of chlorophyll: chlorophyll-a is the primary
photosynthetic pigment in all algae (Figure 1) and is the only chlorophyll in cyanobacteria
(blue-green algae) and rhodophyta. Like all higher plants, chlorophyta and euglenophyta
contain chlorophyll-b as well; chlorophylls -c
,
-d and –e can be found in several marine algae
and fresh-water diatoms. Chlorophylls amounts are usually about 0.5-1.5% of dry weight
(Becker, 1994).
Apart from their use as food and pharmaceutical colorants, chlorophyll derivatives can
exhibit health promoting activities. These compounds have been traditionally used in
medicine due to its wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties as well as control of
calcium oxalate crystals and internal deodorization (Ferruzi and Blakeslee, 2007). Recent
epidemiological studies from The Netherlands Cohort Study (Balder et al., 2006) has
provided evidence linking chlorophyll consumption to a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 6
NN
Mg
NN
CH
2
CH
3
CH
3
H
3
C
H
3
C
HH
H
R
2
O
OR
1
O
OCH
3
O
R
1
=
R
2
= CH
3
, chlorophyll "a"
= CHO , chlorophyll "b"
2
Figure 1. Chemical structures of chlorophyll a and b.
&DURWHQRLGV
Carotenoids are naturally occurring pigments that are responsible for the different colours
of fruits, vegetables and other plants (Ben-Amotz and Fishler, 1998). Carotenoids are usually
yellow to red, isoprenoid polyene pigments derived from lycopene (Figure 2). They are
synthesized de novo by photosynthetic organisms and some other microorganisms
(Borowitzka, 1988). In animals the carotenoids ingested in the diet are accumulated and/or
metabolized by the organism, being present in meat, eggs, fish skin (trout, salmon), in the
carapace of Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, Antartic krill, crawfish), and in the subcutaneous fat,
the skin, the egg yolks, the liver, the integuments, and in the feathers of birds (poultry)
(Breithaupt, 2007).
In the algae the carotenoids seem to function primarily as photoprotective agents and as
accessory light harvesting pigment, thereby protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against
photo damage (Ben-Amotz et al., 1987). They also play a role in phototropism and phototaxis
(Borowitzka, 1988). Some microalgae can undergo a carotenogenesis process, in response to
various environmental and cultural stresses (e.g. light, temperature, salts, nutrients), where the
alga stops growth and changes dramatically its carotenoid metabolism, accumulating
secondary carotenoids as an adaptation to severe environments (Bhosale, 2004).
The consumption of a diet rich in carotenoids has been epidemiologically correlated with
a lower risk for several diseases particularly those in which free radicals are thought to play a
role in initiation, such as arteriosclerosis, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration,
multiple sclerosis and cancer (Stahl and Sies, 2005; Tapiero et al., 2004). However,
unexpected results from intervention studies (ATBC, 1994; Omenn et al., 1996) with β-
carotene suggest that the threshold between the beneficial and adverse effects of some
carotenoids is low and provides a strong stimulus to further understanding the functional
effects of specific carotenoids (Van den Berg et al., 2000).
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 7
Figure 2. Chemical structures of some carotenoids. a) lycopene, b) -carotene, c) astaxhanthin, d)
lutein, e) canthaxanthin.
More than 600 known carotenoids were reported in nature and about 50 have provitamin-
A activity, which includes α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin (Faure et al., 1999).
However, only very few carotenoids are used commercially: β-carotene and astaxanthin and,
of lesser importance, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and bixin which are used in animal feeds,
pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food colourings.
The main carotenoids produced by microalgae are β-carotene from Dunaliella salina and
astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis.
β-carotene serves as an essential nutrient and has high demand in the market as a natural
food colouring agent, as an additive to cosmetics and also as a health food (Raja et al., 2007).
β-carotene is routinely used in soft-drinks, cheeses and butter or margarines. Is well regarded
as being safe and indeed positive health effects are also ascribed to this carotenoids due to a
pro-vitamin A activity (Baker and Gunther, 2004).
The benefits of astaxanthin are said to be numerous, and include enhancing eye health,
improving muscle strength and endurance and protecting the skin from premature ageing,
inflammation and UVA damage, is a strong coloring agent and has many functions in animals
such as growth, vision, reproduction, immune function, and regeneration (Blomhoff et al.
1992, Tsuchiya et al. 1992, Beckett and Petrovich, 1999). Some reports support the
assumption that daily ingestion of astaxanthin may protect body tissues from oxidative
damage as this might be a practical and beneficial strategy in health management. It has also
been suggested that astaxanthin has a free radical fighting capacity worth 500 times that of
vitamin E (Dufossé et al., 2005).
3K\FRELOLSURWHLQV
Besides chlorophyll and carotenoid lipophilic pigments, Cyanobacteria (blue-green
algae), Rhodophyta (red algae) and Cryptomonads algae contain phycobiliproteins, deep
colored water-soluble fluorescent pigments, which are major components of a complex
assemblage of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna pigments - the phycobilisomes (Glazer,
1994). Phycobiliproteins are formed by a protein backbone covalently linked to tetrapyrrole
chromophoric prosthetic groups, named phycobilins (Figure 3). The main natural resources of
phycobiliproteins are the cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira) for phycocyanin (blue) and
the rhodophyte Porphyridium for phycoerythrin (red).
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 8
N
O
N
O
H
!N!
N
!
!
COOHHOOC
N
H
C
H
C
O
CH
2
S
H
Figure 3. Chemical structure of a phycocyanobilin attached by thioether linkage to the apoprotein.
This group of pigments possesses a large spectrum of applications, which is evidenced by
the recent work of Sekar and Chandramohan (2007) that screened 297 patents on
phycobiliproteins from global patent databases. They are extensively used for fluorescence
applications, as highly sensitive fluorescence markers in clinical diagnosis and for labeling
antibodies used in multicolour immunofluorescence or fluorescence-activated cell-sorter
analysis (Becker, 1994).
Phycocyanin is currently used in Japan and China as a natural colouring, in food products
like chewing gums, candies, dairy products, jellies, ice creams, soft drinks (e.g. Pepsi
®
blue)
and also in cosmetics such as lipsticks, eyeliners and eye shadows (Sekar and Chandramohan,
2007). In a recent study, phycocyanin was considered a more versatile blue colorant than
gardenia and indigo, providing a bright blue color in jelly gum and coated soft candy, despite
its lower stability towards heat and light (Jespersen et al., 2005). A rising number of
investigations revealed several pharmacological properties attributed to phycocyanin
including, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and hepatoprotective effects
(Romay et al. 2003; Benedetti et al., 2004; Bhat and Madyastha, 2000).
)DWW\$FLGV
Some microalgae synthesize fatty acids with particular interest (Figure 4), namely γ-
linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3ω6) (Arthrospira), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4ω6) (Porphyridium),
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3) (Nannochloropsis, Phaeodactylum, Nitzschia,
Isochrysis, Diacronema) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3) (Crypthecodinium,
Schizochytrim) (Bandarra et al., 2003, Donato et al., 2003, Chini Zittelli et al., 1999, Molina
Grima et al., 2003; Spolaore et al., 2006). These long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (more
than 18 carbons) can not be synthesized by higher plants and animals, only by microalgae
which supply whole food chains with (Pulz and Gross, 2004). Is estimated that only healthy
human adults are able to elongate 18:3ω3 to EPA in an extend lower than 5% and convert
EPA to DHA in a rate inferior to 0.05%, being inhibit in childhood and elderly life (Burdge
and Calder, 2005, Wang et al., 2006) . This statement confirms the importance of the
inclusion of these long chain fatty acids in daily diet.
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 9
C
O
O
H
COOH
COOH
COOH
DHA (22:6ω3)
EPA (20:3)
AA (20:6)
GLA (18:6)
Figure 4. Chemical structure of polyunsaturated fatty acids of high pharmaceutical and nutritional
value.
Fish and fish oils are the main sources of LC-PUFA’s, still global fish stocks are
declining due to general fishing methods and over-fishing and the derived oils are sometimes
contaminated with a range of pollutants, heavy metals, toxins and typical fishy smell,
unpleasant taste and poor oxidative stability (Certik and Shimizu, 1999, Luiten et al., 2003).
The production of LC-PUFA from microalgae biotechnology is an alternative approach, and
currently microalgal DHA from Crypthecodinium and Ulkenia is commercially available by
the Martek (USA) and Nutrinova (Germany) companies (respectively), for application in
infant formulas, nutritional supplements and functional foods (Pulz and Gross, 2004,
Spolaore et al., 2006).
PUFA’s ω-3, especially DHA, are essential in infant nutrition, being important building
blocks in brain development, retinal development and ongoing visual, cognitive, as well as
important fatty acids in human breast milk (Ghys et al., 2002, Wroble et al., 2002, Arteburn
et al., 2007, Crawford, 2000). Long chain n-3 fatty acids consumption has been associated
with the regulation of eicosanoid production (prostaglandins, prostacyclins, tromboxanes and
leucotrienes) which are biologically active substances that influence various functions in cells
and tissues (e.g. inflammatory processes) being important in the prophylaxis and therapy of
chronic and degenerative diseases including reduction of blood cholesterol, protection against
cardiovascular, coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, rheumatoid
arthritis, rheumatism, skin diseases, digestive and metabolic diseases as well as cancer
(Simopoulos, 2002, Bønaa et al., 1990, Sidhu, 2003, Thies et al., 2003). Other important role
is attributed to gene expression regulation, as well as cholesterol and fasting triacylglycerol
(TAG) decreases (Calder, 2004).
The evidence of a dietary deficiency in long-chain omega3 fatty acids is firmly linked to
increased morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease.
7RFRSKHUROVDQG6WHUROV
Tocopherols have a widespread occurrence in nature being present in both photosynthetic
(e.g. leaves) and non-photosynthetic (e.g. seedlings) tissues of higher plants and algae.
However Euglena microalga has the highest tocopherols content among the several genera of
yeast, molds and algae tested (Kusmic et al., 1999).
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 10
Studies covering a wide range of phytoplankton have suggested that the growth rates of
bivalves are related to the kind and amount of sterols present in the diet phytoplankton
(Wikfors et al., 1991). On the other hand, it has been found that many polyhydroxysterols
from marine organisms have anticancer, cytotoxic and other biological activity (Cui et al.,
2000, Tang et al., 2002, Han et al., 2003, Volkman, 2003).
3URWHLQV
The high protein content of various microalgae species is one of the main reasons to
consider them as an unconventional source of protein (Soletto et al., 2005), well illustrated by
the great interest in microalgae as single cell protein (SCP) during the 1950s. In addition, the
amino acid pattern of almost all algae compares favorably with that of other food proteins.
Since the cells are capable of synthesize all amino acids, they can provide the essential ones
to humans and animals (Guil-Guerrero et al., 2004). As other bioactive compounds
synthesized by microalgae, amino acids composition, especially the free amino acids, varies
greatly between species as well as with growth conditions and growth phase (Borowitzka,
1988). Protein or amino acids may therefore be by-products of an algal process for the
production of other fine chemicals, or with appropriate genetic enhancement, microalgae
could produce desirable amino acids in sufficiently high concentrations (Borowitzka, 1988).
3RO\VDFFKDULGHV
Polysaccharides are widely used in the food industry primarily as gelling and/or
thickening agents. Many commercially used polysaccharides like agar, alginates and
carrageenans are extracted from macroalgae (e.g. Laminaria, Gracilaria, Macrocystis)
(Borowitzka, 1988). Nevertheless, most microalgae produce polysaccharides and some of
them could have industrial and commercial applications, considering the fast growth rates and
the possibility to control the environmental conditions regulating its growth. The most
promising microalga for commercially purposes is the unicelular red alga Porphyridium
cruentum, which produces a sulphated galactan exopolysaccharide that can replace
carrageenans in many applications. Another example is Chlamydomonas mexicana, which
releases up to 25% of its total organic production as extracellular polysaccharides and which
as found application as a soil conditioner in the USA (Borowitzka, 1988). Certain highly
sulphated algal polysaccharides also present pharmacological properties acting on the
stimulation of the human immune system (Pulz and Gross, 2004).
9LWDPLQVDQG0LQHUDOV
Microalgae biomass represents a valuable source of nearly all essential vitamins (e.g. A,
B
1
, B
2
, B
6,
B
12
, C, E, nicotinate, biotin folic acid and pantothenic acid) and a balanced mineral
content (e.g. Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and trace minerals) (Becker, 2004). The high levels of
vitamin B
12
and Iron in some microalgae, like Spirulina, makes them them particularly
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 11
suitable as nutritional supplements for vegetarian individuals. The vitamin content of an alga
depends on the genotype, the stage in the growth cycle, the nutritional status of the alga, the
light intensity (photosynthetic rate). The vitamin content is therefore amenable to
manipulation by varying the culture conditions as well as by strain selection or genetic
engineering. However, vitamins cell content fluctuates with environmental factors, the
harvesting treatment and the biomass drying methods (Brown et al., 1999, Borowitzka, 1988).
$QWLR[LGDQWV
Microalgae are photoautotrophic organisms that are exposed to high oxygen and radical
stresses, and consequently have developed several efficient protective systems against
reactive oxygen species and free radicals (Pulz and Gross, 2004). Hence, there is increasing
interesting in using microalgae as natural antioxidants source for cosmetics (e.g. sun-
protecting) and functional food/nutraceuticals.
Natrah et al. (2007) reported a stronger antioxidant activity exhibited by methanolic
microalgal crude extracts (from e.g. Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis
oculata, Tetraselmis tetrathele, Chaetoceros calcitrans) when compared with α-tocopherol,
but lower than the synthetic antioxidant BHT. However BHT and BHA synthetic
antioxidants, are questionable in terms of their safe use, since they are believed to be
carcinogenic and tumorigenic if given in high doses (Schildermann et al., 1995, Aruoma,
2003).
3KDUPDFHXWLFDOVDQG2WKHU%LRORJLFDOO\$FWLYH&RPSRXQGV
The microalgae represent a very large, relatively unexploited reservoir of novel
compounds, many of which are likely to show biological activity, presenting unique and
interesting structures and functions (Yamaguchi, 1997). In the last decades marine
microorganisms, particularly Cyanobacteria, have been screened for new pharmaceuticals and
antibiotics. Published data until 1996 revealed 208 cyanobacterial compounds with biological
activity while in 2001 the number of compounds screened was raised to 424, including
lipoproteins (40%), alkaloids, amides and others (Burja et al., 2001). The reported biological
activities comprise cytotoxic, antitumor, antibiotic, antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal,
antiprotozoa), antiviral (e.g. anti-HIV) activities as well as biomodulatory effects like
immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory (Burja et al., 2001; Singh et al., 2003). The
cytotoxic activity, important for anticancer drugs development, is likely related to defense
strategies in the highly competitive marine environment, since usually only those organisms
lacking an immune system are prolific producers of secondary metabolites such as toxins
(Burja et al., 2001).
0LFURDOJDHLQ$QLPDO1XWULWLRQ
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 12
Several microalgae (e.g. Chlorella, Tetraselmis, Spirulina, Nannochloropsis, Nitzchia,
Navicula, Chaetoceros, Scenedesmus, Haematococcus, Crypthecodinium), macroalgae (e.g.
Laminaria, Gracilaria, Ulva, Padina, Pavonica) and fungi (Mortierella, Saccharomyces,
Phaffia, Vibrio marinus) can be used in both terrestrial and aquatic animal feed (Harel and
Clayton, 2004).
Feeds can be formulated by using vegetable protein sources, vegetable oil sources,
fishmeal, mineral and vitamin premixes in order to reach appropriate nutritional properties for
each animal group and promote health and welfare benefits (Harel and Clayton, 2004). Using
even very small amounts of microalgal biomass can positively affect the physiology of
animals by improved immune response, resulting in growth promotion, disease resistance,
antiviral and antibacterial action, improved gut function, probiotic colonization stimulation,
as well as by improved feed conversion, reproductive performance and weight control (Harel
and Clayton, 2004). The external appearance of the animals may also be improved, resulting
in healthy skin and a lustrous coat, for both farming animals (poultry, cows, breeding bulls)
and pets (cats, dogs, rabbits, ornamental fishes and birds) (Certik and Shimizu, 1999).
Since feed corresponds to the most important exogenous factor influencing animal health
and also the major expense in animal production, the use of alternative high quality protein
supplements replacing conventional protein sources is encouraged. Considering that animal
feed stands at the beginning of the food chain, increasing public and legislative interest is
evident, especially considering intensive breeding conditions and the recent trend to avoid
“chemicals” like antibiotics (Breithaupt, 2007). The large number of nutritional and
toxicological evaluations already conducted has demonstrated the suitability of algae biomass
as a valuable feed supplement (Becker, 1994). In fact, 30% of the current world algal
production is sold for animal feed applications (Becker, 2004).
3RXOWU\
The replacement of conventional protein in broilers rations was done by several feeding
trials and authors, using various microalgae species, namely Chlorella, Euglena, Oocystis,
Scenedesmus, Spirulina, with incorporation % depending on algae specie (usually up to 10%)
(Becker, 1994). In laying hens no differences were found in egg production rate and egg
quality (size, weight, shell thickness, solid content of the egg, albumin index, etc) and feed
conversion efficiency, between control and birds receiving 12% sewage-growth Chlorella
(Becker, 1988). Algae may serve as almost the sole source of protein in layers ration (Becker,
1988) and the yolk can have a distinct intense orange colour in layers feed the algal diet
(Becker, 2004).
For pigmentation purposes of broilers and/or egg yolks the diet must contain a
carotenoids source. Traditionally, dehydrated alfalfa meal and yellow corn were used
(Marusich et al., 1960, Becker, 2004). However, today, feed mills use low-cost raw material
to provide high energy diets and control the pigment content by appropriate supplementation.
Petals of Aztec marigold (Tagetes erecta), rich in lutein, have been reported to be very
effective as yolk pigmenting agent as well as synthetic canthaxanthin (Madiedo and Sunde,
1964). For laying hens feeds, canthaxanthin should not exceed 8 mg/kg since at extremely
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 13
high dosages minute crystals may be formed in the retina by a reversible deposition process
(Breithaupt, 2007).
In the last decades, microorganisms such as microalgae, have been tested for
pigmentation purposes in poultry. Dunalliella bardawil can be a source of vitamin A and a
yolk enhancing agent when administrated to laying hens (Avron et al., 1952). Gouveia et al.
(1996a) reported the effect of carotenoids present in Chlorella vulgaris microalga biomass
upon pigmentation of egg yolk comparable with commercially synthetic pigments used.
Haematococcus microalga can also be used as a natural feed colourant of broiler chickens
(Kenneth, 1989, Waldenstedt et al., 2003).
Studies with chickens fed red microalga Porphyridium sp. biomass (at 5% and 10% diet
incorporation), showed a reduced blood cholesterol level and a modified fatty acid
composition in egg yolk, in spite of no differences in body weight, egg number, and egg
weight (Ginzberg et al., 2000). Chickens fed with algal biomass consumed 10% less food for
both groups, and their serum cholesterol levels were significantly lower (by 11% and 28% for
the groups fed with 5% and 10% supplement, respectively) as compared with the respective
values of the control group. Egg yolk of chickens fed with algae tended to have reduced
cholesterol levels (by 10%) and increased linoleic acid and arachidonic acid levels (by 29%
and 24%, respectively). In addition, the color of the egg yolk was darker as a result of the
higher carotenoid levels (2.4 fold higher) for chickens that fed with 5% supplement (Ginzberg
et al., 2000).
Algae are, in general, officially approved in several countries as chicken feed and do not
require new testing or approval. However, it has to be decided from case to case how
restrictive the different algae species are regarded as feed supplements (Becker, 1994). In the
European Union the Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003 determines the use of additives in
animal nutrition and sets out rules for the authorization, marketing and labeling of feed
additives.
3LJV
Aside from poultry, pigs appear to be a potential group for which algae could be used as
feed supplement. Chlorella and Scenedesmus were used for substituting soybean meal and
cotton seed meal in concentrations up to 10%, without differences in feed conversion
efficiency (Hintz et al., 1966, Hintz and Heitmann, 1967). Microalgal biomass is a feed
ingredient of good nutritional quality and suited very well for rearing pigs. It can replace
conventional proteins like soybean meal or fishmeal and no difficulties in acceptability of
algae were reported for these animals (Becker, 1994).
Spirulina has also been tested as additive in short-term and long-term experiences
(Fevrier and Seve, 1975) and all parameters studied remained identical and no differences in
reproductive capacity were observed. The authors recommended 25% of microalgal biomass
incorporation, while Yap et al. (1982) assumed 33% incorporation, without negative
symptoms.
5XPLQDQWV
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 14
It should be expected that ruminants represent the group of animals most suitable for
feeding with algae, since these animals are able to digest even unprocessed algal material
(e.g. cell walls). However a limited number of trials have been done due the large amount of
algae required to perform appropriate feeding experiments with these animal species.
Sheep’s, lambs and cattle’s shows an inability to digest efficiently the carbohydrate fraction
of the algae (Chlorella, Scenedesmus obliquus and Scenedesmus quadricauda) (Hintz et al.,
1966, Davis et al., 1975). Better digestibility was obtained with Spirulina constituting 20% of
a complete sheep diet. Calves revealed a minor difference between control and untreated
fresh Scenedesmus alga feeding animals (Calderon et al., 1976).
$TXDFXOWXUH
Microalgae feeds are currently used mainly for the culture of larvae and juvenile shell-
and finfish, as well as for raising the zooplankton required for feeding of juvenile animals
(Benemann, 1992, Chen, 2003). They are required for larval nutrition during a brief period,
either for direct consumption in the case of molluscs and peneid shrimp or indirectly as food
for the live prey, mainly rotifers, copepods and Artemia nauplii, which in turn are used for
crustaceans and fish larvae feeding (Brown et al., 1997, Duerr et al., 1998, Muller-Feuga,
2000, Xu et al., 2007).
In 1999, the production of microalgae for aquaculture reached 1000 t (62% for mollusks,
21% for shrimps and 16% for fish) for a global world aquaculture production of 43×10
6
t of
plants and animals (Muller-Feuga, 2000). The most frequently used species in aquaculture are
Chlorella, Tetraselmis, Isochrysis, Pavlova, Phaeodactylum, Chaetoceros, Nannochloropsis,
Skeletonema and Thalassiosira (Yamaguchi, 1997, Borowitzka, 1997, Apt and Behrens,
1999, Muller-Feuga, 2000).
Microalgae contain essential nutrients which determine the quality, survival, growth and
resistance to disease of cultured species. These illustrate the importance of the control of
microalgal biochemical composition for the success of aquaculture feed chains, opening new
perspectives for the study of fish larval nutrition and the development of microalgae-based
feeds for aquaculture (Fábregas et al., 2001). To support a better balanced nutrition for
animal growth, it is often advised to use mixed microalgae cultures, in order to have a good
protein profile, adequate vitamin content and high polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly EPA,
AA and DHA, recognized as essential for survival and growth during the early stages of life
of many marine animals (Volkman et al., 1989). One of the beneficial effects attributed to
adding algae is an increase in ingestion rates of food by marine fish larvae which enhance
growth and survival as well as the quality of the fry (Naas et al. 1992). In addition, the
presence of algae in rearing tanks of European sea bass larvae has been shown to increase
digestive enzyme secretion (Cahu and Zambonino-Infante 1998).
Aquatic species, such as salmonids (salmon and trout), shrimp, lobster, seabream,
goldfish and koi carp under intensive rearing conditions need a supplementation of
carotenoids pigments in their diet, to attain their characteristic muscle colour. In addition to
pigmenting effects, carotenoids, namely astaxanthin and canthaxanthin, exert benefits on
animal health and welfare, promote larval development and provide growth and performance
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 15
stimulatory effects in farmed fish and shrimp (Baker and Gunther, 2004). These effects were
proved by Torrissen (1984) during the early star-feeding of Atlantic salmon reared in fresh
water, by Christiansen et al. (1995) in Atlantic salmon parr and by Torrissen and Christiansen
(1995) that proposed a minimum of 10 mg astaxanthin or canthaxanthin per kg of diet for all
fish and crayfish; also for non-salmonid fish, authors have reported growth benefits with
carotenoids supplementation, for instance in carp and tilapia (Segner et al., 1989) and in
crustacean, such as prawn Panaeus japonicus (Chien and Jeng, 1992, Nègre-Sadargues et al.,
1993).
A positive metabolic role of carotenoids in the nutrition of larval fish and survival of
young fry was also discussed by Reitain et al. (1997), Shahidi et al. (1998), Planas and Cunha
(1999) and Lazo et al. (2000). However, the inclusion of 45 mg carotenoids in the diet (Rema
and Gouveia, 2005) besides this effectiveness on skin pigmentation, was not sufficient to
induce any differences in growth and survival of larvae and juvenile goldfish, independently
of the source (natural or synthetic).
Nevertheless, given carotenoids high costs, efforts have been deployed to evaluate the
potential of some natural pigments obtained from the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma (Bon et
al., 1997), the marine bacteria Agrobacterium aurantiacum (Yokoyama and Miki, 1995), the
green algae Haematococcus pluvialis (Harker et al., 1996, Yuang and Chen, 2000), Chlorella
zofingiensis (Bar et al., 1995) and Chlorella vulgaris (Gouveia et al., 1996b) as dietary
carotenoid sources. Numerous reports show that carotenogenic microalgae appear as suitable
source of carotenoids in fish feeds.
Haematococcus pluvialis was assayed in rainbow trout for colouring purposes (Sommer
et al., 1991, 1992, Choubert and Heinrich, 1993) in spite of less flesh pigmentation than by
synthetic astaxanthin, due the esterified form of astaxanthin and a low availability of the
pigment inside the alga spore. However, Gomes et al. (2002) proved their efficiency on skin
pigmentation of gilthead seabream and Gouveia et al. (2003, 2005) in ornamental goldfish
and koi carp.
Chlorella vulgaris biomass proved to be efficient, comparable with synthetic astaxanthin
and canthaxanthin, for pigmentation purposes, in rainbow trout (Gouveia et al., 1996c, 1997,
1998), gilthead seabream (Gouveia et al., 2002), ornamental goldfish and koi carp (Gouveia
et al. 2003, 2005) and shrimps (Passos et al., in preparation).
Spirulina (rich in β-carotene) is usually used in aquaculture feeds up to 5-20% as a fish
and shrimp feed (Benemann, 1992) and to enhances the red and yellow patterns in carp while
leaving a brilliant white colour (Gouveia et al., 2003, 2005, Spolaore et al., 2006) and in
ornamental goldfish (Gouveia et al., 2003, 2005).
Haslea ostrearia, a diatom, induces a blue-green colour on the gills and labial palps of
oysters, which increase market’s value by 40% (Spolaore et al., 2006).
0LFURDOJDHLQ+XPDQ1XWULWLRQ
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 16
In early 1950’s microalgae were considered to be a good supplement and/or fortification
in diets for malnourished children and adults, as a single cell protein but nowadays
microalgae for human nutrition is marketed in different forms of tablets, capsules and liquids
(Spolaore et al., 2006).
Some nutritional studies were done with humans and the authors suggest that the algae
daily consumption should be restricted to about 20 g, with no harmful side effects occur, even
after a prolonged period of intake (Becker, 1988). Gross et al. (1978) performed a study
feeding algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) to children (5 g/daily) and adults (10 g/daily),
incorporated into their normal diet, during four-week test period. Hematological data, urine,
serum protein, uric acid concentration and weight changes were measured, and no changes in
the analyzed parameters were found, except a slight increase in weight, especially important
for children. The same authors also carried out a study with a slightly (group I) and seriously
(group II) malnourished infant during three weeks. The four-years-old children of group I (10
g algae/daily) showed a significant increase in weight (27 g/day) compared with the other
children of the same group who received a normal diet, and no adverse symptoms were
recorded. The second group was nourished with a diet enriched with 0.87 g algae/kg body
weight, substituting only 8% of the total protein and the daily increase in weight was about
sevenfold (in spite on a low protein contribution) and all anthropogenic parameters were
normal. The authors concluded that the significant improvement in the state of the health was
attributed not only to the algal protein but also to therapeutic factors.
However, adults are very resistant in the acceptation of novel foods with microalgae
incorporation, which was demonstrated by Feldheim (1972) and Gross and Gross (1978)
because it often affects conservative ethnic factors, including religious and socio-economic
aspects (Becker, 1994) being much easier with children’s who are more willing to accept
uncommon preparations. This was demonstrated in Mexico, where a beverage formed by
50% of a suspension of Spirulina (“green milk”) was given, without problems, as bottle feed
to babies (Jacket, 1974).
1HZ7UHQGVLQ0LFURDOJDH)RRG$SSOLFDWLRQV
All over the world commercial production of microalgae for human nutrition is already a
reality. Numerous combinations of microalgae or mixtures with other health foods can be
found in the market in the form of tablets, powders, capsules, pastilles and liquids, as
nutritional supplements (Table 2). They can also be incorporated into food products (e.g.
pastas, biscuits, bread, snack foods, candies, yoghurts, soft drinks), providing the health-
promoting effects that are associated with microalgal biomass, probably related to a general
immune-modulating effect (Belay, 1993). In spite of some reluctance for novel foods in the
past, nowadays there is an increasing consumer demand for more natural food products,
presenting health benefits. Functional foods supplemented with microalgae biomass are
sensorily much more convenient and variable, thus combining health benefits with
attractiveness to consumers (Pulz and Gross, 2004). In some countries (Germany, France,
Japan, USA, China, Thailand), food production and distribution companies have already
started serious activities to market functional foods with microalgae and cyanobacteria (Pulz
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 17
and Gross, 2004). Food safety regulations for human consumption are the main constraint for
the biotechnological exploitation of microalgal resources, but successful cases such as the
approval (9 December 2002) of the marine diatom Odontella aurita by Innovalg (France) as a
novel food, following EC Regulation 258/97, broadens perspectives.
In the last years, our research group in Portugal aims to develop a range of novel
attractive healthy foods, prepared from microalgae biomass, rich in carotenoids and
polyunsaturated fatty acids with antioxidant effect and other beneficial properties. At the
same time toxicological studies involving all the microalgae to be incorporated are also been
conducted. Traditional foods, like mayonnaises, gelled desserts, biscuits, pasta and breakfast
cereals, largely consumed on daily basis on different European diets, are be used as vehicles
to those nutraceuticals. This strategy avoids the hassled of changing food habits; considering
that Europeans are getting older and have strong cultural motivations, being highly resistant
to food innovations. The impact of natural substances introduced in the diet via "usual” foods
is proved to be efficient at long term and do not present the drawbacks of traditional
therapeutic actions based on medicines of short term impact.
Table 2. Major microalgae commercialized for human nutrition
(Adapted from Pulz and Gross, 2004, Spolaore et al., 2006 and Hallmann, 2007)
Microalga Major Producers Products World
production
(t/year)
Spirulina
(Arthrosphira)
Hainan Simai Pharmacy Co.
(China)
Earthrise Nutritionals
(California, USA)
Cyanotech Corp. (Hawaii, USA)
Myanmar Spirulina factory
(Myanmar)
powders, extracts
tablets, powders, extracts
tablets, powders, beverages,
extracts
tablets, chips, pasta and
liquid extract
3000
Chlorella Taiwan Chlorella
Manufacturing Co. (Taiwan)
Klötze (Germany)
tablets, powders, nectar,
noodles
powders
2000
Dunaliella salina Cognis Nutrition and Health
(Australia)
powders
β-carotene
1200
Aphanizomenon
flos-aquae
Blue Green Foods (USA)
Vision (USA)
capsules, crystals
powder, capsules, crystals
500
The viability of incorporating microalgal biomass in food systems is conditioned by the
applied processing type and intensity (e.g. thermal, mechanical), by the nature of the food
matrix (e.g. emulsion, gel, aerated dough systems) and to the interactions with other food
components (e.g. proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, sugars, salts). Besides colouring and
nutritional purposes, introducing microalgal ingredients in food systems, can also impart
significant changes in its microstructure and rheological properties (Batista et al., 2006a).
These aspects are particularly focused in our research.
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 18
2LOLQ:DWHU(PXOVLRQV
The development of coloured oil-in-water emulsions using natural sources, especially
from microalgal origin, is an interesting field to investigate. The attainment of appealing and
stable colourations is an important innovation for these types of products. Due to the
antioxidant properties that most natural pigments present it is also possible to improve the
resistance to oil oxidation, which is particularly advantageous in high fat products like
emulsions.
(PXOVLRQV&RORXUHGZLWK1DWXUDO3LJPHQWV
The addition of natural pigments, typically present in microalgae, to oil-in-water (o/w)
emulsions was studied by Batista et al. (2006a, 2006b). The emulsions were prepared with
3% (w/w) pea protein isolate and 65% (w/w) vegetable oil, according to previous studies that
successfully replaced egg yolk protein by leguminous proteins in o/w emulsions (Raymundo
et al., 2002). Commercial lutein oil dispersion (FloraGlo
®
, Kemin, USA) and phycocyanin
extracted from Sprirulina (Arthrospira) maxima laboratory cultures (INETI, Portugal) (Reis
et al., 1998) were used, at concentrations ranging from 0.25% to 1.25% (w/w). Emulsions
containing both pigments, in different proportions (total pigment concentration of 0.5% w/w)
were also prepared. Regarding carotenoids lipophilic character, lutein was added to the
emulsions dispersed oil phase while phycocyanin, being an hydrophilic proteinaceous
pigment, was added to the continuous aqueous phase, prior to the emulsification process.
Lutein (yellow) and Phycocyanin (blue) imparted appealing and innovative colourations
to food emulsions, as can be observed in Figure 5. However, the addition of these pigments
had significant implications on the emulsions structural and rheological properties. The
effects were markedly different for the two pigments used. Their distribution between the
continuous (aqueous) and dispersed (oil) phase and its interactions with the emulsifier
molecules at the interface seems to be of major importance (Batista et al., 2006b).
a) b) c) d)
Figure 5. Oil-in-water (o/w) pea protein-stabilized emulsions, a) without pigment addition (control), b)
with 0.50% (w/w) lutein, c) with 0.50% (w/w) phycocyanin, d) with both pigments in equal proportion
50L:50P (0.50% total piment).
The addition of lutein had a negative impact on the emulsion microstructure and
rheological characteristics (Figure 6), although there were no significant differences between
samples with different lutein concentrations. Adding lutein to the oil fraction could have
modified the nature of the emulsions’ dispersed phase, namely the strength of the attractive
interactions between molecules and the effectiveness of their packing in the condensed phase
(McClemments, 1999). Recent studies (Granger et al., 2003, Rampon et al., 2004) have
suggested that not only the surfactant molecules, i.e. emulsifiers and proteins, but also the fat
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 19
used in the emulsions formulation participates in the development of the interface
characteristics and rheological properties. Lutein molecules are mainly lipophylic molecules
but present polar hydroxyl groups in both ends of the conjugated polyisoprenoid chain, so it is
possible to interact with hydrophobic domains of the pea protein emulsifier, creating weaker
and disordered layers. Santipanichwong and Suphantarika (2007) also reported emulsion
destabilization by the addition of lutein in reduced-fat mayonnaises with spent brewers’ yeast
as fat replacer.
On the other hand, phycocianin addition resulted in a significant improvement of the
emulsions rheological properties (Figure 6) which increased linearly with phycocyanin
concentration (Batista et al., 2006a). The presence of phycocyanin protein molecules may
have contributed to a marked increase in the viscosity of the aqueous continuous phase, thus
retarding the oil droplet association movements and consequently enhancing emulsion
stability. It is also possible that phycocyanin protein molecules interact in the interfacial
protein adsorbed layer at the surface of oil droplets, reinforcing in this case the pea protein
emulsifier film and imparting stability to emulsions. In fact, previous studies (Chronakis et
al., 2000) have demonstrated that a protein isolate from blue-green algae (Spirulina platensis
strain Pacifica), containing phycocyanin, was capable of reducing the interfacial tension at the
aqueous/air interface at relatively lower bulk concentrations compared to common food
proteins.
Figure 6. Mechanical spectra of o/w emulsions without pigment addition (control), with 0. 50% lutein,
0.50% phycocyanin, and with both pigments in equal proportion 50L:50P (0.50% total pigment).
When using combinations of both pigments, an increase of the rheological and
parameters with phycocyanin proportion was apparent, and a synergetic effect was observed
when using small amounts (< 50% proportion) of lutein.
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 20
(PXOVLRQV&RORXUHGZLWK0LFURDOJDO%LRPDVV
The use of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis (carotenogenic) and Chlorella
vulgaris (before and after carotenogenesis) to colour oil-in-water pea protein-stabilized
emulsions was also investigated by the authors (Gouveia et al., 2006), obtaining a wide range
of attractive and stable tonalities (Figure 7). These microalgae were cultivated in the Biomass
Unit of the Department of Renewable Energies from INETI (Portugal).
Figure 7. Oil-in-water (o/w) pea protein-stabilized emulsion with 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75% (w/w)
(from left to right) of Haematococcus pluvialis (top) and Chlorella vulgaris biomass (carotenogenic)
(bottom).
The colour stability of the emulsions was evaluated, through the evolution of the L*a*b*
parameters (CIELAB system) along six weeks. The primary and secondary oxidation
products of the emulsions were also determined, and an enhanced resistance to oxidation was
evidenced by emulsions containing microalgae (Gouveia et al., 2006). The incorporation of
Haematococcus pluvialis provided higher oxidation stability over time, in comparison with
Chlorella vulgaris. It should be considered that during carotenogenesis Haematococcus
pluvialis accumulates mainly astaxanthin while canthaxanthin is the dominant carotenoid in
Chlorella vulgaris. The higher oxidation stability of astaxanthin as already been reported, and
is related to the fact that antioxidant effectiveness of carotenoids increases as the number of
the conjugated double bounds of carotenoids increased (Yen and Chen, 1995). However,
microalgal biomass may be considered as multi-component antioxidant systems, which are
generally more effective due to synergistic or additive interactions between the different
antioxidant components.
The addition of microalgal components improved the emulsion textural parameters which
should be related with a higher stability level. It can also be observed that 0.75% (w/w)
biomass seems to be an optimal concentration level, since the three emulsions presented
similar firmness values (2.3-2.5 N) (Figure 8). At higher concentrations the emulsions became
excessively firm, which could be related to an increase on the viscosity of the aqueous phase.
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 21
y = 2.9252 x + 0.2449
R2 = 0.9739
y = 2. 2137x + 0.7281
R2 = 0.75 51
y = 1.7851 x + 1.0379
R2 = 0.9088
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
% Microalgal biomass (w/w)
Firmness (N)
Haem atococcus
Chlorella g reen
Chlorella o rang e
Figure 8. Firmness values of oil-in-water pea protein-stabilized food emulsions coloured with different
concentrations of Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella vulgaris green and Chlorella vulgaris orange
biomass.
Figure 9. Mechanical spectra of pea protein-stabilized o/w emulsions with and without 2% w/w
Chlorella green and orange biomass, at different oil contents.
The capacity of the Chlorella vulgaris biomass as a fat mimetic, and its emulsifier ability,
has also been studied (Raymundo et al., 2005). Pea protein emulsions with Chlorella vulgaris
addition (both green and orange - carotenogenic) were prepared at different protein (2-5%
w/w) and oil (50-65% w/w) contents, characterized in terms of rheological behaviour. It was
observed that emulsions with 55% oil and 2% microalga were more structured than the
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 22
emulsions with 65% oil and no microalgal biomass addition (Figure 9). This behaviour can be
explained by the increase of the viscosity of the continuous phase of the emulsion, by the
microalgal material. This result supports the potential use of using microalgae material to act
as a fat mimetic, besides the possible advantages as colouring and antioxidant agent. The
development of the emulsion structure did not occur when microalgal biomass fully replaced
the vegetable protein as an emulsifier, and phase separation was instantaneous.
%LVFXLWV
Short dough cookies and biscuits are widely consumed food products, appreciated for
their taste, versatility, convenience, conservation, texture and appearance. The use of natural
ingredients, exhibiting functional properties and providing specific health benefits beyond
traditional nutrients, is a very attractive way to design new food products, with an important
market niche presently exhibiting pronounced growth.
%LVFXLWV&RORXUHGZLWK&KORUHOOD9XOJDULV%LRPDVV
A study was undertaken to determine the effects of adding Chlorella vulgaris biomass as
a colouring ingredient in traditional butter biscuits (Gouveia et al., 2007a). The cookies were
manufactured at a pilot scale, according to an optimized formulations from previous studies
(Piteira et al., 2004), and stored for three months at room temperature, protected from light
and air.
Chlorella vulgaris biscuits presented an accentuated green tonality (Figure 10), which
increased with the amount of added biomass. In general, colour parameters (CIELAB system)
remained very stable along the storage period. However, it seems not necessarily to use
biomass concentrations above 1% (w/w), since the green tonality (-a*) differences are no
longer significant (p<0.05), and higher algal concentrations are related with some colour
variations along time (Figure 11a).
a) b)
Figure 10. Biscuits with Chlorella vulgaris biomass, a) at various concentration levels (0.0-3.0%), b)
and in comparison with Haematococcus pluvialis (pink) and Chlorella vulgaris (orange) carotenogenic
biomass addition.
The texture profile of the biscuits was also evaluated, and a significant increase of their
firmness was evidenced with an increase of added microalgal biomass (Figure 11b). These
0
0
2
3
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 23
results evidence the positive effect of the alga in the biscuit structure, reinforcing the short
dough system. Biscuit are considered solid emulsions of sucrose, lipids and non-gelatinized
starch (Hoseney et al., 1988), being this morphology is responsible for the biscuits structure
and texture. The main factor affecting these properties is the moisture content and water
mobility, which are highly affected by the interaction with hydroxyl groups present in the
matrix (Hoseney et al., 1988). The replacement of a small amount of flour by microalgae
biomass, resulted in the inclusion of a complex biomaterial, rich in different proteins and
polysaccharides. These molecules have an important role on the water absorption process,
which promote the increase of biscuits firmness, resulting in more compact structures.
-12.0
-8.0
-4.0
0.0
4.0
8.0
12.0
0.0% 0.5% 1.0% 2.0% 3.0%
% Chlorella vulgaris (w/w)
a*
week 1
month 3
a)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0.0% 0.5% 1.0% 2.0% 3.0%
% Chlorella vulgaris (w/w)
Firmness (N)
week 1
month 3
b)
Figure 11. Green chromaticity a* (a) and firmness values (b) of biscuits with different concentrations of
Chlorella vulgaris biomass, after one week and three months storage.
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 24
%LVFXLWVZLWK,VRFKU\VLV*DOEDQD%LRPDVV5LFKLQ3RO\XQVDWXUDWHG
)DWW\$FLGV
A similar study was performed, this time using Isochrysis galbana biomass (Gouveia et
al., 2007b), that was cultivated in the Department of Aquaculture of IPIMAR (Portugal). An
enhancement of the biscuits texture properties and high stability of colour and texture along
three months storage was observed, as previously reported for Chlorella biscuits (Gouveia et
al., 2007a). The biscuits presented quite different tonalities, turning from green to a brownish
and duller tonality when increasing the biomass concentration from 1.0% to 3.0% (Figure 12).
Figure 12. Biscuits with different incorporation levels (0.0%, 1.0%, 3.0%) of Isochrysis galbana
biomass.
The main interest in using Isochrysis galbana biomass is due to its high levels of long
chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA (Bandarra et al., 2003).
The biscuits fatty acids profile is clearly related to butter (Özkanli and Kaya, 2007), with
predominance of saturated (~60%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (~30%), mainly palmitic
acid (30-40%) and oleic acid (18:1ω9) (20-25%), respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids
corresponded to 6-9% (4-5% linoleic acid; 18:2ω6), the highest levels being for 3% Ig
biscuits (55% linoleic acid, 15% EPA, 6% -linolenic acid and 3% DHA).
87.0
13.9
52.4
not detected
257.8
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0% 1% 3%
Isochrysis galbana
mg/100g PUFA's
20:53
22:63
Figure 13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, of biscuits with 0%, 1% and 3% Isochrysis galbana
biomass incorporation.
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 25
In spite of the drastic thermal processing (high temperatures) during biscuits
manufacturing, the addition of microalgal biomass leads to the presence of 3 fatty acids
(absent in control biscuits) which remain stable along storage time (Figure 13). The thermal
resistance of fatty acids should be due to its presence in an encapsulated form, inside the
microalga. Ig biscuits presented LC-PUFA’s-ω3 levels (EPA+ DHA) of 100 mg/100g and 30
mg/100g biscuit, for 1% and 3% microalgal biomass incorporation, respectively (Figure 13).
These values reflect an important source of PUFA-3 with a moderate biscuit consumption,
as the recommendations for dietary intake in healthy adults is 500 mg/day (ISSFAL, 2004).
)RRG*HOV
Most recently, our group is studying the incorporation microalgal biomass in food gelled
products, based on protein and polysaccharide mixed biopolymer systems. Gelled vegetable
desserts, alternative to dairy desserts, with pea protein isolate (4% w/w), κ-carrageenan
(0.15%) and starch (2.5%), optimized in previous studies (Nunes et al., 2003, 2006) were
used as model systems. The gels were prepared with different microalgae - Spirulina
(Arthrosphira) maxima, Chlorella vulgaris (green and orange, after carotenogenesis),
Haematococcus pluvialis (red, carotenogenic) and Diacronema vlkianum – were evaluated in
terms of colour and texture and compared with gels prepared with commercial pigments –
phycocyanin, astaxanthin, β-carotene, canthaxanthin and lutein. The microalgae gels imparted
less intense tonalities (Figure 14) and texture modifications, compared to the pigment
addition.
The pea protein/κ-carrageenan/starch mixed gel systems with 0.75% (w/w) microalgal
biomass addition were characterized in terms of rheological behaviour, including monitoring
of the viscoelastic functions (G’, G”) during gelification (cooling process) and maturation
kinetics (Batista et al., 2007b).
(a) (b)
Figure 14. Gelled vegetable desserts with incorporation of microalgae biomass (a) and commercial
pigments (b).
The incorporation of these biomaterials seemed to be beneficial, especially for
Haematococcus pluvialis which promoted a structural reinforcement expressed by improved
rheological properties (Figure 15). This may be related to its significantly higher fat content
L. Gouveia. A. P. Batista, I. Sousa et al. 26
(40.7%) in relation to other microalgae. The influence of fat content on gelling behaviour has
been studied in milk gelled systems (Houzé et al., 2005, Vélez-Ruiz et al., 2005) being
concluded that using high fat milk rather than skim milk results in stronger gels, which is
usually attributed to fat droplets acting as active filler particles embedded in the protein
matrix.
However, the addition of Spirulina promoted a drastic reduction on the gels rheological
parameters (Figure 15), which should be related with a thermodynamic incompatibility
between the microalgal protein and other components of the mixed gelled system. In fact,
Chronakis (2001) reported that proteins isolated from Spirulina are quite intricate
biomaterials, likely to be protein and/or protein-pigment (phycocyanin) complexes rather than
individual protein molecules. Therefore, Spirulina denaturation and gel formation is a
complex phenomenon per se, which can probably interfere with the gelling process of the
biopolymers present in the mixed gel system.
Further research is required in order to better understand the gelation mechanism of these
microalgae and the specific interactions with each biopolymer present in the complex mixed
gel system, as well as the influence of processing conditions (e.g. temperature, heating and
cooling rates).
Figure 15. Maturation kinetic curves (a) and mechanical spectra (b), at 5ºC, of pea protein/κ-
carrageenan/starch gels () with 0.75% (w/w) Haematococcus pluvialis (
) and Spirulina maxima ()
biomass. G’ (filled symbol), G” (open symbol).
&RQFOXVLRQ
The combination of the exceptional nutritional value of microalgae with colouring and
therapeutical properties, associated with an increase demand of natural products, make
microalgae worth exploring for utilization in the future in feed, food, cosmetic and
pharmaceutical industries, with recognized advantages comparing with the traditional
ingredients.
In the actual scenario with multiple pharmacological treatments, many believe that simple
dietary interventions or nutritional supplements may be more natural, acceptable and feasible
method of providing benefits.
Microalgae in Novel Food Products 27
Choose of the right food to eat in an early stage of life associated with a healthy lifestyle
can have important benefits in future life. A healthy diet based on microalgae novel food
products can have important benefits for all age groups.
The great results obtained by the authors in the preparation of common food products
with microalgae incorporation providing attractive and healthier food with enormous potential
as a functional food ingredient.
In the near future, the authors’ intent to continue the development of healthier food
products, preparing other widespread food product, such as pasta, salt crackers, extruded
products with the incorporation of microalgal biomass, as a vehicle of functional ingredients,
namely pigments, antioxidants and PUFA’s.
$NQRZOHGJHPHQWV
This work is part of a research project “Pigments, antioxidants and PUFA’s in
microalgae based food products – functional implications” (PTDC/AGR-ALI/65926/2006)
sponsored by the Portuguese Foundation for the Science and Technology (“Fundação para a
Ciência e a Tecnologia” - FCT). A.P. Batista acknowledges the PhD research grant from
FCT (SFRH/21388/BD/2005).
5HIHUHQFHV
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... Even if they cannot be considered algae as they lack plastid and chlorophyll, these organisms are exclusively heterotrophic [8,9]. Microalgae are also very diverse, and more than 30,000 species have been described so far [10,11]. The ease with which they can be cultured explains in part why they have been receiving increasing interest in recent years. ...
... So far, microalgae are still poorly explored and valued as a natural source for a healthy diet [13]. Among the critical number of species known to date, only a few are commercially produced due to strict food safety regulations, namely in Europe, and because their cultivation in industrial quantities is only a few decades old [10,11]. This translates into a high potential for the production and commercialization of these organisms in the coming years. ...
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... The survival rate and productive value of energy was not differed (P >0.05) among control and D. salina treated groups in this study. Algae of D. salina has high levels of beta-carotene, glycerol, protein and other fine chemicals (Gouveia et al., 2008;Ghasemi et al., 2011;Wichuk et al., 2014;Cuellar-Bermudez et al., 2015;Gong and Bassi, 2016). Chemical composition of D. salina algae indicated 8.47% moisture, 54.17% crude protein, 0.80% fiber, 11.42% total lipid, 18.47% ether extract and 6.67% ash (Mohammed 2018 b). ...
... Lately, there has been a growing trend towards using natural ingredients in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to the increasing concerns regarding consumer safety, environmental sustainability, and regulatory issues over the introduction of synthetic chemicals in human nutrition, healthcare, and beauty products [5][6][7]. Several microalgae bioactives possess significant biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities, among others [8][9][10]. Therefore, the use of such compounds is a recognized source of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which possess applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries as an emulsifier and thickening agent [59]. ...
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Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice, and Techniques, Second Edition introduces the fundamentals of emulsion science and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied to better understand and control the appearance, stability, and texture of many common and important emulsion-based foods. Revised and expanded to reflect recent developments, this second edition provides the most comprehensive and contemporary discussion of the field of food emulsions currently available. It contains practical information about the formulation, preparation, and characterization of food emulsions, as well as the fundamental knowledge needed to control and improve food emulsion properties. New features include updates of all chapters, a critical assessment of the major functional ingredients used in food emulsions, and reviews of recent advances in characterizing emulsion properties.
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Algae are some of the fastest growing organisms in the world, with up to 90% of their weight made up from carbohydrate, protein and oil. As well as these macromolecules, microalgae are also rich in other high-value compounds, such as vitamins, pigments, and biologically active compounds, All these compounds can be extracted for use by the cosmetics, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and food industries, and the algae itself can be used for feeding of livestock, in particular fish, where on-going research is dedicated to increasing the percentage of fish and shellfish feed not derived from fish meal. Microalgae are also applied to wastewater bioremediation and carbon capture from industrial flue gases, and can be used as organic fertilizer. So far, only a few species of microalgae, including cyanobacteria, are under mass cultivation. The potential for expansion is enormous, considering the existing hundreds of thousands of species and subspecies, in which a large gene-pool offers a significant potential for many new producers. Completely revised, updated and expanded, and with the inclusion of new Editor, Qiang Hu of Arizona State University, the second edition of this extremely important book contains 37 chapters. Nineteen of these chapters are written by new authors, introducing many advanced and emerging technologies and applications such as novel photobioreactors, mass cultivation of oil-bearing microalgae for biofuels, exploration of naturally occurring and genetically engineered microalgae as cell factories for high-value chemicals, and techno-economic analysis of microalgal mass culture. This excellent new edition also contains details of the biology and large-scale culture of several economically important and newly-exploited microalgae, including Botryococcus, Chlamydomonas, Nannochloropsis, Nostoc, Chlorella, Spirulina,Haematococcus, and Dunaniella species/strains. Edited by Amos Richmond and Qiang Hu, each with a huge wealth of experience in microalgae, its culture, and biotechnology, and drawing together contributions from experts around the globe, this thorough and comprehensive new edition is an essential purchase for all those involved with microalgae, their culture, processing and use. Biotechnologists, bioengineers, phycologists, pharmaceutical, biofuel and fish-feed industry personnel and biological scientists and students will all find a vast amount of cutting-edge information within this Second Edition. Libraries in all universities where biological sciences, biotechnology and aquaculture are studied and taught should all have copies of this landmark new edition on their shelves. This edition first published 2013