ArticlePDF Available
Title Information Search Process
Author(s) Kuhlthau, C
Citation
CITE Seminar: Information Literacy and Pre-service
Programs, Hong Kong, China, 7 July 2005
Issue Date 2005
URL http://hdl.handle.net/10722/44002
Rights Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License
Information Search Process Carol Collier Kuhlthau Rutgers University
Information Search Process
Information Search Process
Carol Collier Kuhlthau
Rutgers University
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Model of the Information Search Process
Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or
(affective) frustration direction/ disappointment
doubt confidence
Thoughts vague-------------------------------------focused
(cognitive) -----------------------------------------------
increased interest
Actions seeking relevant information----------------------------seeking pertinent information
(physical) exploring documenting
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Uncertainty Principle
Uncertainty Principle
Uncertainty is a cognitive state which
commonly causes affective symptoms of
anxiety and lack of confidence. Uncertainty
and anxiety can be expected in the early stages
of the information search process.
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Uncertainty Principle
Uncertainty Principle
The affective symptoms of uncertainty,
confusion, and frustration are associated with
vague, unclear thoughts about a topic or
question. As knowledge states shift to more
clearly focused thoughts, a parallel shift occurs
in feelings of increased confidence.
Uncertainty due to a lack of understanding, a
gap in meaning, or a limited construction
initiates the process of information seeking.
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Uncertainty Principle
Uncertainty Principle
Uncertainty initiates the process of information seeking
Corollary Definition
Process Constructing meaning
Formulation Forming a focused perspective
Redundancy Encountering the expected and
unexpected
Mood Assuming a stance or attitude
Prediction Making choices based on expectations
Interest Increasing intellectual engagement
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Evidence of Process in
Evidence of Process in
Work Tasks
Work Tasks
Task Type Routine Tasks Complex Tasks
Uncertainty low high
Construction low high
Stages in the ISP low high
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Criteria for Choices in the
Criteria for Choices in the
Information Search Process
Information Search Process
Criteria Question
Task What am I trying to accomplish?
Time How much time do I have?
Interest What do I find personally interesting?
Availability What information is available to me?
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Levels of Mediation
Levels of Mediation
Level Description
1. Organizer No intervention
self service search in an organized collection
2. Locator Ready Reference Intervention
single fact or source search; query / answer
3. Identifier Standard Reference Intervention
subject search: group of sources in no
particular order;
problem / interview / sources
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Levels of Mediation
Levels of Mediation
Level Description
4. Advisor Pattern Intervention
subject search: group of sources in
recommended order;
problem / negotiation / sequence
5. Counselor Process Intervention
constructive search: holistic experience;
problem / dialogue / strategy /
sources / sequence / redefinition
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Levels of Education
Levels of Education
Single-Source Instruction
Variety of independent sessions:
Instructions on one type of source to address
specific problem
Instructor3
Orienting Instruction
Single session: overview of services, policies and
location of facilities and collection; no specific
problem
Lecturer2
No Instruction
Self service search in an organized collection
Organizer1
DescriptionLevel
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Levels of Education
Levels of Education
Process Instruction
Holistic interaction over time:
Instructions on identifying and interpreting
information to address evolving problem
Counselor
5
Strategy Instruction
Variety of independent sessions:
Instructions on a variety of sources to address
specific problem
Tutor
4
DescriptionLevel
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Zone of Intervention
Zone of Intervention
That area in which an information user
can do with advice and assistance
what he or she cannot do alone or can
do only with great difficulty.
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Zone of Intervention
Zone of Intervention
Z1 Problem self-diagnosed
Search self-conducted
Z2-Z5 Problem diagnosed through interview
a. Problem statement of request
b. Background – task, interest, time, availability
c. Diagnosis using theory base: Source or Process
Source Process
Z2 Right source Z5 a. Dialogue b. Explanation
Z3 Relevant sources c. Formulation d. Construction
Z4 Sequence of sources e. Learning f. Application
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Intervention Diagnostic Chart
Intervention Diagnostic Chart
Zone of
Intervention
Levels of
Mediation
Levels of
Education
Intervention
Z1 Organizer Organizer Self service
Z2 Locator Lecturer Single Source
Z3 Identifier Instructor Group of Sources
Z4 Advisor Tutor Sequence of
Sources
Z5 Counselor Counselor Process
Intervention
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Model of the Information Search Process
Model of the Information Search Process
Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation
————————————————————————————————————————————
Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion/ clarity sense of satisfaction or
(affective) frustration/ direction/ disappointment
doubt confidence
Thoughts vague———————————————focused
(cognitive) ————————————————
increased interest
Actions seeking relevant information——————————-seeking pertinent information
(physical) exploring documenting
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Four Basic Information
Four Basic Information
Literacy Abilities
Literacy Abilities
Strategy Definition
Recall Remembering ideas from what has been
gathered
Summarize Organizing ideas in capsulized form and
placing in meaningful sequence
Paraphrase Retelling in one’s own words
Extend Fitting ideas into what one already knows
to form new understandings
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Strategies for Intervening in the
Strategies for Intervening in the
Information Search Process
Information Search Process
Ability Definition
Collaborating Working jointly with others
Continuing Proceeding at more than one point in time
Choosing Selecting what is interesting and pertinent
Charting Visualizing ideas, issues, questions and
strategies
Conversing Talking about ideas for clarity and further
questions
Composing Writing to identify what is formulated and
what is missing
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Primary Inhibitors
Primary Inhibitors
Lack of time
Confusion of roles
Poorly designed assignments
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Basic Enablers
Basic Enablers
Constructivist view of learning
Team approach to teaching
Competence in designing process assignments
Commitment to developing information literacy
Carol Collier Kuhlthau Information Search Process Rutgers University
Reference
Reference
Kuhlthau, C. C.
Seeking Meaning: A
Process Approach to
Library and Information
Services.
Libraries Unlimited,
2004
... • Circulate around the room listening to student conversations • Reassure students that everyone experiences a range of emotions, and often this begins with uncertainty before choosing a topic, and when seeking relevant information, feelings can include confusion, frustration, and doubt (Kuhlthau, 2016) • What is "academic research" ...
... This quick prompt allows for students to voice their own feelings from experience and for us to reach a commonality as researchers. I quickly discuss the research of Carol Kuhlthau (2016) and her years of research on the Information Search Process. Over decades of research Kuhlthau (2016) found that we as information seekers tend to have a common experience when given an information-seeking task. ...
... I quickly discuss the research of Carol Kuhlthau (2016) and her years of research on the Information Search Process. Over decades of research Kuhlthau (2016) found that we as information seekers tend to have a common experience when given an information-seeking task. I briefly share with students that when they feel frustrated, it is not something they alone experience, rather, it is a common experience we share together. ...
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Critical pedagogy in libraries. Written by an academic and an academic librarian this chapter explores the opportunities and difficulties in bringing the key principles of critical pedagogy into librarian teaching in higher education.
... Researchers have developed models for better understanding information-seeking processes. One of the most cited is that of Carol Kuhlthau (1991b) who developed the Information Search Process (ISP) which includes a six-stage model that incorporates three dimensions of information-seeking behavior: affective (feelings), cognitive (thoughts), and the physical (action) and involves the stages of initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, presentation, and assessment. ...
... Figure 3 depicts a new information-seeking model that best describes the information-seeking behaviors of participants, including their feelings, thoughts, and actions at each of the six stages (Vargas Wright, 2018). It is depicted in a similar fashion to Kuhlthau's (1991b) model to facilitate comparison. The identified stages were initiating, lurking, and browsing; requesting information; being guided by a highly knowledgeable member; reconciling; applying; and appraising. ...
... and 6) enable a researcher to query a few words of an entry to bring up the already established term or phrase. Kuhlthau's (2020) concept complemented the study's findings by presenting a model for intentional information searching that, when understood by users, intermediaries, and system designers, provides a foundation for constructive interaction. Overall, Table 8 revealed that subject authority files related to presence are essential in cultural literature and studies. ...
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The study aimed to determine the status, describe the importance, and identify the challenges encountered by catalogers, specifically on the subject authority files for Filipino cultural literature and studies at the University of Baguio (UB) Libraries. The study used a quantitative method to determine the status, importance, and challenges on the subject authority files using a researcher-made questionnaire and a qualitative method to analyze the existing subject headings used in the OPAC to reflect the local subject headings. The catalogers validated the use of local terms as subject headings through an interview. The primary respondents were the 13 librarians of the UB Libraries who were performing cataloging tasks. The study found that: 1) the status on the availability of subject heading tools, presence of guidelines, and provisions for subject authority files for Filipino cultural literature and studies at the UB Libraries were necessary for the effective and efficient access of local library resources; 2) subject authority files for Filipino cultural literature and studies were vital in the Cataloging Section; and 3) the primary challenges encountered by the catalogers were the availability of subject heading tools including thesaurus and a network or consortia among libraries primarily to formulate acceptable terms for use in cultural literature and studies in the workplace. The proposed prototype subject heading lists should be adopted to effectively and efficiently access UB library materials.
... This model was revised according to changing scenario of information needs in 2011 as a generic "core" model for Higher Education with a series of "lenses" for different learning groups of various communities and ages (SCONUL, 2011). Kuhlthau (2005) developed the Information search process (ISP) model. He was a Professor of LIS at Rutgers University in New Jersey. ...
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This study has investigated the role of librarians’ Information Literacy (IL) skills to enhance the research productivity of Faculty Members of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. The population of the study was the faculty members of the University of Agriculture and five library professionals of the university’s Central Library. A quantitative approach followed by a survey research design was adopted to meet the objectives of the study. Data were gathered through the instrument of the questionnaire. Quantitatively driven data was analyzed by SPSS Software. Results showed that Library professionals played a vital role in the promotion of research culture on the whole. IL instruction programs were of great value for the output of research productivity. Library professionals faced several barriers including lack of information literacy training, Unreliable power supply, the ineffective role of library organizations, lack of funding from institutions, lack of proficiency to use the internet, personal health issues, and official issues like leaves, permissions, work burden, etc. The most preferred suggestions to improve IL skills of LIS professionals and faculty members are; provision of funds or scholarships, revision of LIS curriculum, the active role of Pakistan Library Association (PLA), National IL skills training program for LIS professionals and faculty members, and instructional programs for the improvement of IL skills of faculty members and librarians.
... Tak sprecyzowany cel działań znacznie ułatwia dalsze wyszukiwanie, gdyż staje się ono ukierunkowane, w przeciwieństwie do wyszukiwania na etapach wcześniejszych, w których dominowało rozglądanie się po dostępnych zasobach. punkt zwrotny uwidacznia się też wyraźnie w sferze emocji -pojawia się pewność siebie, i w sferze myśli -stają się one przejrzyste i zogniskowane wokół ustalonego tematu (Kuhlthau, 2009;vakkari, 2001a, s. 46 ...
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Various responses are felt by information seekers in information retrieval. Feelings of joy, sadness and anxiety will appear during the process. One of the systematic and comprehensive Information Searching Process (ISP) models is the Kulthau Model. This literature review aims to describe the stages of information retrieval in order to determine the crucial point of the emergence of anxiety during the information search process and analyze the factors that cause the Kultau Model as an anxiety detector during the retrieval process. The results of the study identified that the Kultau model accommodates the cognitive, affective and emotional aspects of information seekers and formulates these three aspects into 6 stages of information retrieval, including: initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, organization and presentation stages. Furthermore, the feeling of anxiety felt by information seekers is caused by the occurrence of information gaps due to failure to collect, identify and select supporting information that is relevant to the information needed. The information gap affects the emotional condition of the information seeker which in a certain level causes anxiety. The potential Kulthau model is introduced to prospective information seekers so that they have a complete understanding of the information retrieval process. Furthermore, the Kulthau model builds awareness about the importance of 3 crucial points of information retrieval, namely: initiation, selection and exploration stages. If these three points can be exceeded, the information retrieval process will be easy and effective, thereby reducing the potential for feelings of anxiety to arise during the ISP process.
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