ArticlePDF Available

The chronology of the Subotiv Settlement.

Authors:

Abstract

Samples collected at the Chornoliska culture site near the village of Subotiv, Cherkasy region during the 1994-1995 Ukrainian-German expedition were radiocarbon dated in Kiev. The foundation of the Subotiv settlement dates to 1300-1200 cal BC. A skeleton found in one of the buildings at this site is dated at the end of the early period (between 1120 and 1040 cal BC). In the youngest part (a small town) of the Subotiv settlement, we found the remains of a 'building sacrifice'-the skeleton of a teenager. The average calibrated date for this skeleton is 834-807 cal BC, whereas the timber from the rampart dates between 902-810 cal BC. Thus, the rampart was apparently built between 834-807 cal BC. Among the objects found on the site were Arzhan-type bone arrowheads. Such arrowheads, when found in Eastern Europe, are believed to indicate the military expansion of Proto-Scythian nomads. The Sargary settlement in western Kazakhstan dates to 960-820 cal BC, the Arzhan arrow in Siberia to 960-850 cal BC. We assume that the Chornogorivka complexes in eastern Eurasia date to the earlier time period (960-820) than those in western Eurasia (834-807). The time of the Chornogorivka expansion on the territory of Ukraine is therefore within the range 834 to 820 BC.
THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE SUBOTIV SETTLEMENT
VICTOR I. KLOCHKO,1 NIKOLAI N. KOVALIUKH,2 VADIM V. SKRIPKIN2 and
INGO MOTZENBECKER3
ABSTRACT. Samples collected at the Chornoliska culture site near the village of Subotiv, Cherkasy region during the 1994-
1995 Ukrainian-German expedition were radiocarbon dated in Kiev. The foundation of the Subotiv settlement dates to 1300-
1200 cal BC. A skeleton found in one of the buildings at this site is dated at the end of the early period (between 1120 and 1040
cal BC). In the youngest part (a small town) of the Subotiv settlement, we found the remains of a "building sacrifice"-the
skeleton of a teenager. The average calibrated date for this skeleton is 834-807 cal BC, whereas the timber from the rampart
dates between 902-810 cal BC. Thus, the rampart was apparently built between 834-807 cal BC. Among the objects found on
the site were Arzhan-type bone arrowheads. Such arrowheads, when found in Eastern Europe, are believed to indicate the mil-
itary expansion of Proto-Scythian nomads. The Sargary settlement in western Kazakhstan dates to 960-820 cal BC, the
Arzhan arrow in Siberia to 960-850 cal BC. We assume that the Chornogorivka complexes in eastern Eurasia date to the ear-
lier time period (960-820) than those in western Eurasia (834-807). The time of the Chornogorivka expansion on the territory
of Ukraine is therefore within the range 834 to 820 BC.
INTRODUCTION
The Chornoliska culture, discovered by Ukrainian archaeologist A. I. Terenoghkin in the 1950s-
1960s (Terenoghkin 1961), was spread over a vast geographical area. The area included the for-
est-steppe zone between the Dniester and Dnieper Rivers, and the Vorskla River basin (a tributary
of the Dnieper River). This culture is contemporaneous with the monuments of the Ha A-B periods
in Central Europe, the Tracian Halstatt cultures, the Luzitanian culture in Poland, and, partially, the
Cimmerian period of the northern Black Sea area; this culture directly preceeds the Scythians. The
culture comprises two periods dated by traditional archaeological methods: the early period (Xth-
IXth centuries BC) and the later period (VIIIth century to the first half of the VIIth century BC) (Ter-
enoghkin 1971).
The artifacts of the Chornoliska culture are closer in general appearance to those of Urnenfeld and
Trakia Halstatt cultures than to monuments of Eastern cultures (Sroubnaia and Andronovskaia). By
now ca. 100 settlements of this culture are known, but detailed excavations were conducted only on
selected sites and, in addition, covered a very small area. The most thoroughly excavated Chorno-
liska culture sites are located at the Tiasmyn River basin. The best-studied site is Subotiv, located in
the Lower Tiasmyn area near the village of Subotiv, Cherkasy region, Ukraine. Terenoghkin exca-
vated this site many years ago, but the work was not finished and the materials were unpublished.
Some excavated materials are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
The goals of the recent joint Ukrainian-German research at Subotiv were to complete excavations
on the site, investigate the stratigraphy, and collect materials for metallurgical analysis and radiocar-
bon dating. 14C dating of this site is of great importance for both the Chornoliska culture and for
determining the exact dates of the end of this culture and the appearance of the Chornogorivka-type
sites-the first wave of the Eastern Proto-Scythian nomads in the northern Black Sea area. This will
allow us to determine the beginning of ethnic and cultural processes resulting in formation of the
Scythian culture in Eastern Europe.
' Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 12 Heroyev Stalingrada Ave., Kiev 254655 Ukraine
2State Scientific Center of Environmental Radiogeochemistry of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 34 Palladin
Ave., Kiev 142, 252680 Ukraine
3Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, Eurazien Abteilung, Postfach 330014, D-14191 Berlin, Germany
Proceedings of the 16th International 14C Conference, edited by W. G. Mook and J. van der Plicht
RADIOCARBON, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1998, P. 667-673 667
668 V. I. Klochko et al.
Fig. 1. Materials excavated at the Subotiv site: A) bronze Fig. 2. Bronze bracelet and bush ax found in 1955 at
dagger ("karasuk" type). B) iron sword with bronze hilt. Subotiv site
METHODS
The Kiev laboratory has developed a new method for lithium carbide production from organic mate-
rials. This technique allows us to obtain lithium carbide from bone collagen without preliminary
extraction of the collagen. The bones are divided into small parts and after washing thoroughly with
trisodiumphosphate solution, and are treated with 2% hydrofluoric acid. This acid decomposes car-
bonates but fixes calcium. It gives the sample a porous and solid structure, which allows easy wash-
ing and cleaning. The sample treated in this way is mixed with manganese dioxide and placed into
the reactor for vacuum thermodestruction. The lithium carbide yield is ca. 95%. This method per-
forms well, especially for small samples (Skripkin and Kovalyukh 1998). The samples were mea-
sured with a QuantulusTM 1220 liquid scintillation counter (LSC), using 7.3 and 0.8-mL Teflon®
vials and 4 g L-1 PPO plus 0.1 g L-1 POPOP.
RESULTS
Chronology of the Subotiv Site
The main aim of the joint Ukrainian-German research at the Subotiv site was to obtain a series of
14C dates. The dating material consisted mainly of animal and human bones, taken from carefully
stratified layers representing all periods of the settlement (Fig. 3).
Table 1 shows the 14C dates. The results were calibrated using the Groningen Radiocarbon Calibra-
tion Program (van der Plicht 1993), employing the dataset from Stuiver and Pearson (1986), and
Subotiv Settlement Chronology 669
Fig. 3. Map showing the excavations at the Subotiv site
Pearson and Stuiver (1986). The earliest dates were obtained for the bottom of Building no. 4 (Ki-
5505, 5502 and 5504). The average result for these 3 dates is 3055 ± 35 BP. The calibrated result
(2 Q) is 1404-1254 and 1244-1210 cal BC. Taking into account the archaeological and historical
information available for the Chornoliska culture, the preferable interval for the construction of
Building no. 4 is 1244-1210 cal BC.
The period when the building ceased to be used as a living quarters is estimated from the dating of
a human skeleton buried inside: i.e., 1125-1028 cal BC (average date). Thus, the first horizon of the
settlement is traced to the time range (1244-210}-(1125-1028) cal BC. The life activity at the "quad-
rant 0-11" excavation site is dated between 1218 and 1006 (Ki-5863), and 1032 and 900 (Ki-5864)
cal BC. The youngest object of the site is the small town's rampart, built on the cultural layer of the
Chornoliska period. Under the rampart, human remains from a "building sacrifice" were found.
Table 2 shows the dates of the skeleton and the timber from the rampart.
As seen from Table 2, the rampart was constructed no later than 815-804 cal BC (1 Q) or 825-801
cal BC (2 0). We believe that this date marks end of human occupation of the site. Hence, the second
Chornoliska culture period of the Subotiv site can be dated to 1000-800 cal BC. The samples from
the excavations of the small town were 14C dated using different fragments of the skeleton. The frag-
ments were subjected to independent physical-chemical treatments followed by an independent
measurement of the 14C content in each one. We obtained a series of 14C dates with an average sta-
tistical error of 19 yr. This allows minimization of the age uncertainty after calibration (Table 2).
The age of some skeleton fragments differ from the average date, but within statistical scatter.
670 V. I. Klochko et al.
TABLE 1. Radiocarbon Dating of the Samples from the Subotiv Site
Sample Lab no. 14C age
No. Sample location material BC
1 Building no. 4 Bones 55
1164-1143
1132-1002
20 1260-1234
1220-930
2 Debris from building no. 4 Bones 50 1250-1248
1206-1174
1170-1046
201304-1286
1268-994
3 Debris from building no.4 Bones 45
1212-1113
1096-1064
20 1296-1290
1266-1006
4 Debris from building no. 4 Bones 50 10
5 Debris from building no.4 Bones 60 1306-1284
1268-1115
1090-1076
20 1386-1342
1320-1014
6 Hole no. 1, building no. 4 Coal 60 1386-1342
1322-1202
1182-1166
1140-1134
2o1414-1114
1096-1070
7 Bottom, building no. 4 Coal 50
1324-1254
1242-1210
20 1406-1158
1148-1126
8 Bottom, building no. 4 Coal 40
1358-1312
20 1430-1262
9 Quadrant 0-11, sample no. 4/1 Bones ±40
1166-1141
1134-1044
20 1260-1236
1218-1006
10 Quadrant 0-11, sample no. 3/1 Bones 40 1198-1186
1166-1142
1132-1036
20 1258-1236
1216-1004
Subotiv Settlement Chronology 671
TABLE 1. Radiocarbon Dating of the Samples from the Subotiv Site (Continued)
Sample Lab no. 14C age
No. Sample location material cal BC
11 Quadrant 0-11 Coal 35
Northwestern square, eastern wall 20 1252-1246
Sample no. 3/2 1206-994
12 Quadrant 0-11 Bones 30
Sample no. 4/2 1074-1006
20 1160-1147
1128-986
960-938
13 Quadrant 0-11 Bones ±30 1044-982
Sample no. 4/lA 966-932
2a 1116-1090
1078-924
14 Quadrant 0-11 Bones ±40
Southeastern square 1078-990
Sample no. 4/3 954-942
20 1160-1146
1128-918
15 Quadrant 0-11 Bones 40
Southeastern square 1078-990
Sample no. 4/3A 954-942
20 1160-1146
1128-918
16 Quadrant 0-11 Bones 35
Sample no. 3/lA 972-930
20 1116-1090
1078-912
17 Quadrant 0-11 Bones 35 1020-928
Southwestern square 20 1115-1092
Sample no. 7 1076-908
18 Quadrant 0-11 Bones 50 1116-1090
Sample no. 3/iH 1080-984
962-934
20 1202-1182
1168-1140
1136-906
19 Quadrant 0-11 Bones 30 992-950
Northwestern square, eastern wall 948-922
Sample no. 3/2/A 201032-900
20 Quadrant 0-11 Bones
Sample no. 4/2A 20 1115-1092
1076-898
874-852
21 Small town timber from the rampart Timber 35 898-876
(average date) 850-814
20 906-808
22 Small town. Human skeleton from under the Bones 17 824,810
rampart (average date) 20 834,807
23 Settlement of Sargary Timber 900-568
860-808
20 986-960
938-792
672 V.1. Klochko et al.
TABLE 2. Dating Results for Skeleton Fragments Found Under the Rampart of Subotiv Village,
Cherkasy Region
Sample Lab no. 14C age no. age
no. (Ki-) (yr BP) (Bc) BP) (BC)
1 5359 2610 ±40 6 900-872
2o836-760 854-812
674-664 20922-802
630-592
580-544
2 5360 2640 ± 35 820-796 7
20 842-776 2o828-760
678-658
634-550
3 5361 2700 ± 40 896-876 8 842-802
850-808 to 900-866
20 908-804 860-800
4 5362 2730 ± 40 900-830 9
20 930-806 20 844-732
5 5363 2590 ±45
626-598 Average date 2657 19 815-804
568-566 20 825-801
20 824-756
686-540
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Among the Eurasian monuments contemporaneous with the second Chornoliska culture horizon of
the Subotiv site dated by the 14C method, the Tuva Arzhan burial mound is of particular interest. The
bone arrowheads from this burial mound are similar to the rhomboidal arrows of the Subotiv site.
We relate the appearance of those arrows in Subotiv with the termination of human activities at the
site. The latest 14C date of the burial mound is 810 cal BC (Marsadolov et a1.1996; Zaitseva et at.
1996). By correlating the dendrochronological and 14C dates of the burial mound, we obtained a date
of 800 BC (Zaitseva et a1.1996). 14C dates of the Arzhan site are contemporaneous with the those of
the termination of the Subotiv site. The 14C date for Building 5 (mud-hut) in the Sargary settlement
in Western Kazakhstan, where arrowheads of the Arzhan type were found, yields 2700 ± 60 BP (Le-
1183). The calibrated date is 938-792 cal BC (Avanesova 1991). Both archaeological materials
(arrows of the Arzhan type) and 14C dates allow us to view these three monuments within the frame-
work of one historic hypothesis concerning the Western expansion of "proto-Scythians" (Klochko
and Murzin 1987a,b,1989). Chochorowski proposed to date this event-which he called a "Cimme-
rian expansion to the territory of Central Europe"-between 950 and 880 BC (Chochorowski 1995).
In terms of our recent dates, we believe that this expansion of Eastern nomads-which caused the
emergence of the Chornogorivka culture in the Ukraine territory (Dubovskaya 1993)-occurred no
later than 820-800 BC.
Subotiv Settlement Chronology 673
REFERENCES
Avanesova, N. A. 1991 Culture of Shepherd Tribes in the
Bronze Age in the Asian Part of the USSR (Based on
Metal Wares). Tashkent: 200 p. (in Russian).
Chochorowski, J. 1995 Dating of the Cimmerian Horizon
in Central Europe and Late Bronze Age Prahisto-
rychne, Vol. 4. Katovice: 267-28 (in Polish).
Dubovskaya, 0. P. 1993 Questions of composition of the
Chornogorivska implement complex. Archeologiche-
ski Almanac 2. Donetsk:137-160 (in Russian).
Klochko, V. I. and Murzin, V. Y. 1987a About Interfer-
ence of the Local and Introduced Elements of the
Scythian Culture. Scythians of the Northern Black Sea
Area. Kiev, Naukova Dumka: 12.19 (in Russian).
1987b About dating of the Chornogorivska No-
vocherkask sites. Cimmerians and Scythians. Pro-
ceedings of the all-Union workshop devoted to the
memory of Dr. A. I. Ternozhkin. Kirovograd: 73-75
(in Russian).
1989 About the Chronology of Antiquities of the
Chornogorivska Novocherkask Problems of Archae-
ology of the Dnieper Area. Dnipropetrovsk, Dnipro-
petrovskiy University: 61-71 (in Russian).
Marsadolov, L. S., Zaitseva G. I., Sementsov, A. A. and
Lebedeva L. M. 1996 Possibilities of radiocarbon dat-
ing to relate the variable scale of large burial mounds
of the Saiano-Altai to the calendar. Radiocarbon and
Archaeology (St. Petersburg): 1: 24-32 (in Russian).
Pearson, G. W. and Stuiver, M. 1986 High-precision cal-
ibration of the radiocarbon time scale, 500-2500 BC.
In Stuiver, M. and Kra, R., eds., Calibration Issue. Ra-
diocarbon 28(2B): 839-862.
Skripkin, V. and Kovalyukh, N. 1998 Recent develop-
ments in the procedures used at the SSCER Labora-
tory for the routine preparation of lithium carbide. Ra-
diocarbon, this issue.
Stuiver, M. and Pearson. G. W. 1986 High-precision cal-
ibration of the radiocarbon time scale, AD 1950-500
BC. In Stuiver, M. and Kra, R., eds., Calibration Issue.
Radiocarbon 28(2B): 805-838.
van der Plicht, J. 1993 The Groningen radiocarbon cali-
bration program. In Stuiver, M., Long, A. and Kra, R.
S., eds., Calibration 1993. Radiocarbon 35(1): 231-
237.
Terenoghkin, A. I. 1961 Pre-Scythian Period on the
Right Bank of the Dnieper. Kiev, Naukova Dumka:
246 p. (in Russian).
1971 The Cimmerian. Kiev, Naukova Dumka: 220
p. (in Russian).
Zaitseva, G.I., Vasiliev, S. S., Marsadov, Z. S. et a1.1996
Employment of the mathematical statistics method for
correlation of dendrochronological and radiocarbon
data (basing on Saiano-Altai elite burial mounds' ma-
terials). Radiocarbon andArcheology (St. Petersburg)
1: 33-38 (in Russian).
... Alternatively, Kossack (1987) restricted the existence of the Novocherkassk-type monuments to the end of the 8th century BC. In all cases, the Chernogorovsk-type monuments are interpreted as being pre-Scythian, linked to a wave of nomads from the Eastern-Eurasia steppe zone who appeared in the Northern Black Sea region in about the 9th century BC (Klochko et al. 1997). One of the key monuments of the pre-Scythian period in the European part of Eurasia is the Uashkhitu barrow in the Northern Caucasus which is related to the Novocherkassk culture and dated by archaeological evidence to the first half of the 7th century BC (Erlikh 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper is compares the chronology of the monuments of the Scythian epoch located in the east and west of the Eurasian steppe zone on the basis of both archaeological and radiocarbon data. The lists of 14 C dates for the monuments located in different parts of Eurasia are presented according to the periods of their existence. Generally, the 14 C dates are confirmed the archaeological point of view and allow us to compare the chronological position of the European and Asian Scythian monuments on the united 14 C time scale.
... Other elite barrows (Arzhan-2 and those of Tuekta and Pazyryk), also located in the area of the Sayan-Altai Mountains of southern Siberia and central Asia (Tuva Republic), have been dated to the period between the end of the 7th to the middle of the 3rd century BC. On the basis of archaeological data it is evident that a wave of pre-Scythian nomads from the eastern Eurasian steppe zone appeared in the northern Black Sea region during the 9th century BC [21]. The most ancient known Scythian monument in Europe (Steblev group barrows, grave 15, located on the right bank of the Dnieper River) was dated to the 8th century BC. ...
Article
Full-text available
In south-central Siberia archaeological evidence suggests an acceleration of cultural development and an increase in the density of nomadic populations around 850 BC. We hypothesize a relationship with an abrupt climatic shift towards increased humidity caused by a decline of solar activity. Areas that initially may have been hostile semi-deserts changed into attractive steppe landscapes with a high biomass production and high carrying capacity. Newly available steppe areas could be invaded by herbivores, making them attractive for nomadic tribes. The central Asian horse-riding Scythian culture expanded, and an increased population density was a stimulus for westward migration towards southeastern Europe.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the area of the Babadag şi Cozia‐Saharna cultures there are known new fortifications of the 10th‐9th centuries BC. Archaeological investigations carried out at these sites have provided a number of materials that allow us to assess the fortifications in terms of topography, the types and structure of the defensive system, as well as their functional status. Also there are highlighted some similarities and differences in the fortifications of the Babadag and Cozia‐Saharna cultures as well as in relation to the fortresses of the neighbouring cultures–Gáva‐Holihrady and Chernoles.
Article
The article presents the method and results of an investigation of 885 ceramic sherds from Chornolis hillfort, Tyasmyn hillfort, and Kalantaiv hillfort of the Chornolis culture in the middle Dnieper region. Although highly fragmented ceramic sherds are the most frequent type of archaeological material at these sites, this is the first time their morphology and decoration have been statistically analysed. The discovered correlations among pottery parameters helped us to establish a framework for comparison of the hillforts. These findings clarified the microchronology of the sites and cultural relationships of the Chornolis culture.
Article
Full-text available
Climatic change since 850 BC and development of the Scythian culture. The climate shift to more humid conditions at the Subboreal/Subatlantic transition in Northwest Europe is also evident in southern Siberia. Regions that originally were semi-deserts developed into attractive steppe areas with high biomass production, and increased carrying capacity. The central area of southern Siberia is of special interest because of an acceleration of the cultural development and increase of human population density shortly after 850 BC. We hypothesise a causal relationship between the initiation of the humid conditions at the start of the Subatlantic period and the growth and migration of the Scythian population. To cite this article: B. van Geel et al., C. R. Palevol 5 (2006).
Article
Full-text available
Reports minor corrections for the calibration curve previously published in the Belfast dendrochronology data set. -K.Clayton
Article
Full-text available
Radiocarbon ages of dendrochronologically-dated wood spanning the last 4500 years were determined at both the Seattle and Belfast laboratories. The combined results are reported in this issue of radiocarbon in two papers, with this paper covering the AD 1950—500 BC interval, and the twin (Pearson & Stuiver, 1986) covering the 500 BC–2500 BC interval.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we describe and discuss the advantages from improvements in equipment design and operating procedures developed at the State Scientific Centre of Environmental Radiogeochemistry (SSCER) laboratory in Kiev. Two experimental areas are considered, viz . 1. The direct chemisorption into a lithium alloy of carbonaceous gases produced by the controlled thermal degradation (pyrolysis) of organic materials under vacuum . This approach offers the advantage of a single stage, highly efficient and economical procedure for the production of lithium carbide. It is applicable for most types of sample material encountered in routine dating work and including organic detritus dispersed in a highly (up to 95% by weight) mineral matrix and/or carbonates. Bone collagen can also be processed without the need for its prior extraction and purification. 2. A conical thin walled reaction vessel for achieving improved and reproducible recoveries in the production of lithium carbide from CO 2 gas . This apparatus allows a much improved control over the surface dependent reaction in instances where there is no option other than the direct interaction of molten lithium with prepared CO 2 gas.
Article
Variations in atmospheric 14 C content complicate the conversion of conventional 14 C ages BP ( i.e., years before AD 1950) into real calendar ages (AD/BC) (de Vries 1958; Willis, Tauber & Münnich 1960). These variations are indirectly observed in tree rings from European and North American wood. In recent decades, measurements made on dendrochronologically dated wood have resulted in the generally accepted Stuiver and Pearson calibration curves. These curves, together with other calibration data, were published in the first Radiocarbon Calibration Issue (Stuiver & Kra 1986), and are extended in the present Calibration Issue (Stuiver, Long & Kra 1993).
Culture of Shepherd Tribes in the Bronze Age in the Asian Part of the USSR (Based on Metal Wares)
  • N A Avanesova
Avanesova, N. A. 1991 Culture of Shepherd Tribes in the Bronze Age in the Asian Part of the USSR (Based on Metal Wares). Tashkent: 200 p. (in Russian).
Dating of the Cimmerian Horizon in Central Europe and Late Bronze Age Prahistorychne
  • J Chochorowski
Chochorowski, J. 1995 Dating of the Cimmerian Horizon in Central Europe and Late Bronze Age Prahistorychne, Vol. 4. Katovice: 267-28 (in Polish).
About Interference of the Local and Introduced Elements of the Scythian Culture. Scythians of the Northern Black Sea Area
  • V I Klochko
  • V Y Murzin
Klochko, V. I. and Murzin, V. Y. 1987a About Interference of the Local and Introduced Elements of the Scythian Culture. Scythians of the Northern Black Sea Area. Kiev, Naukova Dumka: 12.19 (in Russian). 1987b About dating of the Chornogorivska Novocherkask sites. Cimmerians and Scythians. Proceedings of the all-Union workshop devoted to the memory of Dr. A. I. Ternozhkin. Kirovograd: 73-75 (in Russian).
Possibilities of radiocarbon dating to relate the variable scale of large burial mounds of the Saiano-Altai to the calendar
  • L S Marsadolov
  • G I Zaitseva
  • A A Sementsov
  • L M Lebedeva
Marsadolov, L. S., Zaitseva G. I., Sementsov, A. A. and Lebedeva L. M. 1996 Possibilities of radiocarbon dating to relate the variable scale of large burial mounds of the Saiano-Altai to the calendar. Radiocarbon and Archaeology (St. Petersburg): 1: 24-32 (in Russian).
Pre-Scythian Period on the Right Bank of the Dnieper
  • A I Terenoghkin
Terenoghkin, A. I. 1961 Pre-Scythian Period on the Right Bank of the Dnieper. Kiev, Naukova Dumka: 246 p. (in Russian).
Employment of the mathematical statistics method for correlation of dendrochronological and radiocarbon data (basing on Saiano-Altai elite burial mounds' materials)
  • G I Zaitseva
  • S S Vasiliev
  • Z S Marsadov
Zaitseva, G.I., Vasiliev, S. S., Marsadov, Z. S. et a1.1996 Employment of the mathematical statistics method for correlation of dendrochronological and radiocarbon data (basing on Saiano-Altai elite burial mounds' materials). Radiocarbon andArcheology (St. Petersburg) 1: 33-38 (in Russian).