ArticlePDF Available

CURRY LEAVES (Murraya koenigii Linn. Sprengal)- A MIRCALE PLANT


Abstract and Figures

Curry leaves, an inevitable part of spicing up dishes are not a part of mere garnishing. They are rich in medicinal, nutraceutical properties and have even cosmetic uses. But from the age old days it is customary to pick up curry leaves from dishes and throw it out first before even tasting it.Mustard seeds sizzling in hot oil...into it go chopped onion and curry leaf... "sssssshh"... No curry in South India is complete without this step. Indian cuisine experts, especially in South India made it a habit to include curry leaves in our daily diet. More than adding to the multi-hued look and spicy taste, there was definitely some other reason why the wise Indian ladies included curry leaf a necessary ingredient in all our dishes. Though it is customary to remove these deep green leaves from dishes we are truly unaware of its health benefits. In this article we are exploring curry leaf health benefits besides the taste in our daily life.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Indian J.Sci.Res.4 (1): 46-52, 2014 ISSN: 0976-2876 (Print)
ISSN: 2250-0138(Online
1Corresponding author
CURRY LEAVES (Murraya koenigii Linn. Sprengal)- A MIRCALE PLANT
Head and A.P. Dept. of Home Science, Bhilai Mahila Mahavidyalaya, Bhilai
Prof and Senior research officer, GB Panth uni. of research and tech., Pantnagar
Research scholar, Dept. of process and food Engg., College of tech., Pantanagar
Curry leaves, an inevitable part of spicing up dishes are not a part of mere garnishing. They are rich in medicinal,
nutraceutical properties and have even cosmetic uses. But from the age old days it is customary to pick up curry
leaves from dishes and throw it out first before even tasting it.Mustard seeds sizzling in hot oil...into it go chopped
onion and curry leaf... "sssssshh"... No curry in South India is complete without this step. Indian cuisine experts,
especially in South India made it a habit to include curry leaves in our daily diet. More than adding to the multi-hued
look and spicy taste, there was definitely some other reason why the wise Indian ladies included curry leaf a
necessary ingredient in all our dishes. Though it is customary to remove these deep green leaves from dishes we are
truly unaware of its health benefits. In this article we are exploring curry leaf health benefits besides the taste in our
daily life.
Key Words: Nutraceutical Properties, Ingredient, Health Benefits.
Curry leaves are a popular leaf-spice used
in very small quantities for their distinct aroma due
to the presence of volatile oil and their ability to
improve digestion. “Let food be your medicine and
let medicine be your food.” Herbal and natural
products of folk medicine have been used for
centuries in every culture throughout the world.
Scientists and medical professionals have shown
increased interest in this field as they recognize the
true health benefits of these remedies. The
important advantages claimed for therapeutic uses
of medicinal plants in various ailments are their
safety besides being economical, effective and their
easy availability. Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) is
an important leafy vegetable. Its leaves are widely
used in Indian cookery for flavouring foodstuffs.
The leaves have a slightly pungent, bitter and
feebly acidic taste, and they retain their flavour and
other qualities even after drying. Curry leaf is also
used in many of the Indian ayurvedic and unani
The curry leaf tree is native to India, Sri
Lanka, Bangladesh and the Andaman Islands. Later
spread by Indian migrants, they now grow in other
areas of the world where Indian immigrants settled.
Widely cultivated, the leaves are particularly
associated with South Indian cuisines.
Curry leaf trees are naturalised in forests
and waste land throughout the Indian subcontinent
except in the higher parts of the Himalayas. From
the Ravi River in Pakistan its distribution extends
eastwards towards Assam in India and Chittagong
in Bangladesh, and southwards to Tamil Nadu in
India. The plants were spread to Malaysia, South
Africa and union Island with South Asian
The use of curry leaves as a flavouring for
vegetables is described in early Tamil literature
dating back to the 1st to 4th centuries AD. Its use is
also mentioned a few centuries later in Kannada
literature. Curry leaves are still closely associated
with South India where the word 'curry' originates
from the Tamil 'kari' for spiced sauces. An
alternative name for curry leaf throughout India is
kari-pattha. Today curry leaves are cultivated in
India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Australia, the
Pacific Islands and in Africa as a food flavouring.
Cultivation and collection
Flowering starts from the middle of April
and ends in the middle of May. The peak flowering
season under the Sanwara (H.P.) conditions was
observed to be the last week of April. The fruiting
season was observed to continue from the middle
of July to the end of August. The peak fruiting
SINGH ET AL.: CURRY LEAVES (Murraya koenigii Linn. Sprengal)- A MIRCALE PLANT
Indian J.Sci.Res.4 (1): 46-52, 2014
season, however, was found to continue from the
last week of July to the 1st week of August. Curry
leaf is Native to India. Large shrub to small tree.
Pinnate leaves are used in many South Indian
curries. Full sun or light shade. Fertilize with palm
or citrus fertilizer to promote leaf production.
Grows well in containers. Use a well drained
potting mix. Can be grown outdoors in Southern
California, South Texas and South Florida. Protect
from freezing. Seeds are fragile so handle with
care. Seeds are shipped in moist peatmoss/coir mix
and should be planted immediately.
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae- Order Sapindales
Family Rutaceae – Rue family
Genus Murraya J. Koenig ex L. – murraya
Species Murrayakoenigii (L.) Spreng. – curry leaf tree
Morphological characters
A small spreading shrub, about 2.5 metres
high; the main stem, dark green to brownish, with
numerous dots on it; its bark can be peeled off
longitudinally, exposing the white wood
underneath; the girth of the main stem is 16 cm.
Leaves, exstipulate, bipinnately compound, 30 cm
long, each bearing 24 leaflets, having reticulate
venation; leaflets, lanceolate, 4.9 cm long, 1.8 cm
broad, having 0.5-cm-long petiole. Flowers,
bisexual, white, funnel-shaped, sweetly scented,
stalked, complete, ebracteate, regular,
actinomorphic, pentamerous, hypogynous, the
average diameter of a fully opened flower being
1.12 cm; inflorescence, a terminal cyme, each
bearing 60 to 90 flowers; calyx, 5-lobed, persistent,
inferior, green; corolla, white, polypetalous,
inferior, with 5 petals, lanceolate; length, 5 mm;
androecium, polyandrous, inferior, with 10
stamens, dorsifixed, arranged into circles of five
each; smaller stamens, 4 mm. long whereas the
longer ones, 5 to 6 mm; gynoecium, 5 to 6 mm
long; stigma, bright, sticky; style, short; ovary,
Fruits, round to oblong, 1.4 to 1.6 cm
long, 1 to 1.2 cm in diameter; weight, 880 mg;
volume, 895 microlitres; fully ripe fruits, black
with a very shining surface; pulp, Wistaria blue
640/2; the number of fruits per cluster varying from
32 to 80. Seed, one in each fruit, 11 mm long, 8
mm in diameter, colour spinach green 0960/3;
weight, 445 mg; volume, 460 microlitres.(4)
Main component responsible for flavour
The major constituent responsible for the
aroma and flavor has been reported as pinene,
sabinene, caryophyllene, cadinol and cadinene .
Essential oils from M. koenigii
serves as an important part in soap making
ingredients, lotions, massage oils, diffusers,
potpourri, scent, air fresheners, body fragrance,
perfume oils, aromatherapy products, bath oils,
towel scenting, spa's, incense, facial steams, hair
treatments, and more . There are several methods
to extract essential oil from herb and spices like
steam distillation, hydrodistillation, and solvent
extraction but this study focus on a new, applicable
method of essential oil extraction that is ultrasonic-
assisted solvent extraction method. This extraction
method is a combination of solvent extraction and
ultrasonic extraction method. The steps required for
the preparation of the material prior to extraction
(including aspects concerning plant selection,
SINGH ET AL.: CURRY LEAVES (Murraya koenigii Linn. Sprengal)- A MIRCALE PLANT
Indian J.Sci.Res.4 (1): 46-52, 2014
collection, identification, drying, grinding and
weighing) and analyzing method for the essential
oil composition are detailed.
Specific gravity (25C) 0.9748
Refractive index (25C) 1.5021
Optical rotation (25C) + 4.8 [6]
Saponification value 5.2
Saponification value after after acetylation 54.6
Moisture 66.3%
Protein 6.1%
Fat (ether extract) 1.0%
Carbohydrate 18.7%
Fibre 6.4%
Mineral matter 4.2%
Calcium 810 mg/100 g of edible portion
Phosphorus 600 mg/100 g of edible portion
Iron 3.1 mg/100 g of edible portion
Carotene (as vitamin A) 12 600 IU/100 g
Nicotinic acid 2.3 mg/100 g
Vitamin C 4 mg/100 g
Thiamine and riboflavin Absent
Different form of curry leaves spiced our daily
While there are many different kinds of
curry powders and curry dishes throughout the
world, curry leaves come from only one type of
tree, the curry leaf tree. However, curry leaves can
come in four different forms: fresh, dried,
powdered and cooked.
Fresh curry leaves are the preferred form
for cooking. Fresh leaves may be used directly after
harvesting from a curry leaf tree. They also may be
placed or vacuum-packed in plastic bags and
refrigerated or frozen after harvesting, which keeps
them fresh from one week to two months. Fresh
curry leaves are generally found in the freezer
section of stores.
Curry leaves may be air dried or oven
dried, producing leaves that have a longer shelf life.
According to Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages, some
recipes require the baking or toasting of fresh curry
leaves before the leaves are added as a flavoring.
Dried leaves are also available commercially.
Powdered curry leaves are also called for
in some recipes and powdered curry is also
available commercially. After being dried, curry
leaves can be pulverized, producing a concentrated
powder. Powdered curry leaves, though, should not
be confused with curry powder. Commercial curry
powder is usually a mixture of many spices, while
powdered curry leaf is a powdered version of the
actual dried curry leaf. It is important to read spice
labels for accuracy prior to purchase.
SINGH ET AL.: CURRY LEAVES (Murraya koenigii Linn. Sprengal)- A MIRCALE PLANT
Indian J.Sci.Res.4 (1): 46-52, 2014
Sautéed or fried curry leaves are prepared
by the cook or chef prior to or during the cooking
process. Some recipes require that fresh curry
leaves be cooked before being added as flavouring.
Such sautéed or fried curry leaves would not
generally be purchased in advance. Instead, curry
leaves would be purchased fresh, or perhaps dried,
and then cooked in the kitchen.
Fig. 1 Curry Leaf Powder in Spices Fig. 2 Curry Leaf Plant
Table 1-Comparative nutrient content of fresh and dehydrated curry leaves
Nutrients Value of fresh curry
Leaves (100g)
Value of dehydrated
Curry leaves (100g)
Protein 6g 12g
Fat 1g 5.4g
Carbohydrate 18.7g 64.31g
Calcium 830mg 2040mg
Iron 0.93mg 12mg
Β-carotene 7560µg 5292µg
Source-Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources Vol. 2(4), December 2011, pp. 508-511
Traditional uses
The bark and the roots are used as a
stimulant by the physicians. They are also used
externally to cure eruptions and the bites of
poisonous animals. The green leaves are stated to
be eaten raw for curing dysentery, and the infusion
of the washed leaves stops vomiting. Curry leaves
are also used in calcium deficiency. It has Vitamin
A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin B2, Calcium
and iron in plenty. Its nutritional value benefits
both the young and the old alike. Women who
suffer from calcium deficiency, osteoporosis etc
can find an ideal natural calcium supplement in
curry leaves. Fresh juice of curry leaves, with lime
juice and sugar, is an effective medicine in the
treatment of morning sickness, nausea and
vomiting due to indigestion and excessive use of
Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2012; Vol. 2: Issue 2, Pg 51-
53 [AJPRes.] 53 fats. One or two teaspoons of juice
of these leaves mixed
With a teaspoon of lime juice may be
taken in these conditions. The curry leaves, ground
to a fine paste and mixed with buttermilk, can also
be taken on an empty stomach with beneficial
results in case of stomach upsets. Also used as
laxative. Boils and similar eruptions appear on
Skin during summer. Most of the boils
tend to subside over time, but some may persist and
remain painful. Curry leaves come handy in
treating such conditions. A paste made of curry
leaves is applied on these persistent boils for quick
SINGH ET AL.: CURRY LEAVES (Murraya koenigii Linn. Sprengal)- A MIRCALE PLANT
Indian J.Sci.Res.4 (1): 46-52, 2014
relief. Along with mint leaves and coriander leaves,
curry leaves can be used in treating excessive pitta
conditions. Curry leaves can be used with effective
result to treat burn, bruises and skin erruption.
Cataract development can be prevented by using
fresh juice of curry leaves. Kidney pain can be
cured by using juice of root of Murrayakoenigii. It
can be used in preventing premature greying of
Pharmacological activity
Curry leaves are rich in many minerals
and trace minerals such as Iron, zinc and copper.
Therefore, researchers recommended in a study
published in January 2007 in "Chemico-Biological
Interactions" that people with diabetes may benefit
from the addition of curry leaves in the diet.
minerals found in curry leaf extract are important
for maintaining normoglycemia, or the normal
glucose content of the blood. This is done by the
activation of pancreatic beta cells, which are
responsible for the creation of insulin. While the
nutrients in curry account for only about 1 to 2
percent of the required daily intake for these
elements, they are bioavailable, or readily usable
by the body. Therefore, the researchers suggested
that curry leaves may be useful for the management
A scrutiny of literature reveals some
notable pharmacological activities of the plant such
as activity on heart, Anti diabetic and cholesterol
reducing property, antimicrobial activity, antiulcer
activity, antioxidative property, cytotoxic activity,
anti diarrhea activity, phagocytic activity. (Syam,
Suvitha et al., 2011)
The antioxidative properties of the
leaves extracts of Murrayakoenigii using different
solvents were evaluated based on the oil stability
index. (Arulselvan P, et al., 2007)
M. koenigii possesses statistically
significant hypoglycemic potential in STZ-induced
diabetic rats. The M. koenigii extract appeared to
be more effective than glibenclamide, a known
antidiabetic drug. (Arulselvan, et al., 2006)
It also revealed hepato-protective
activity against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity.
Chronic ethanol consumption diminishes the
cellular antioxidant levels through free radical
induced injury causing hepatitis and cirrhosis with
mortality in severe cases. (Rupali Arun Patil, et al.,
It also shows antibacterial activity against S. typhi
and E.coli. (Jaju Shivkanya, et al., 2009)
Carbazole derivatives are well known for
their various pharmacological activities, including
anti-HIV, anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal
activities. A series of substituted carbazoles, termed
N-alkylated 3,6-dihalogenocarbazoles, that exhibit
fungicidal activity against C. albicans and the
emerging pathogen Candida glabrata. The most
potent fungicidal compounds of this series were
characterized et al., by minimal fungicidal
concentration (MFC) between 8.5 and 25 µM.
(Yukari Tachibana, et al., 2001)
Curry leaves (Murraya koenigii ) is a leafy
vegetable that belongs to the Rutaceae family. The
various notable pharmacological activities of the
plant such as activity on heart, Anti diabetic and
cholesterol reducing property, antimicrobial
activity, antiulcer activity, antioxidative property,
cytotoxic activity, anti diarrhea activity, phagocytic
activity. The chemical composition of the fresh
leaves of Murrayakoenigii consists of volatile oil.
Carbazole alkaloids and triterpene have been
isolated from stem bark and roots of Murraya
koenigii. Thus Curry leaves merits further
phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical
investigations for development of an effective
natural remedy to provide therapeutically effective
lead compounds.
Adams R.P. ; 2007. Identification of Essential Oil
Components by Gas Chromatographic/
Mass Spectrometry, 4th edition Allured
publishing Corporation.
Arulselvan P.and Subramanian S.P. ; 2007.
"Beneficial effects of Murraya koenigii
leaves on antioxidant defense system and
ultra structural changes of pancreatic beta-
cells in experimental diabetes in rats".
Chem Biol Interact., 16(2): 155–64.
Arulselvan P., Senthilkumar G.P., Sathish Kumar
D. And Subramanian S. ; 2006. "Anti-
diabetic effect of Murrayakoenigii leaves
on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats".
Pharmazie , 61 (10): 874–877.
SINGH ET AL.: CURRY LEAVES (Murraya koenigii Linn. Sprengal)- A MIRCALE PLANT
Indian J.Sci.Res.4 (1): 46-52, 2014
Bonde S. D., Nemade L. S., Patel M. R. and Patel
A. A.; 2007. Murrayakoenigii (Curry
leaf): Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and
Pharmacology-A Review, International
Journal of Pharmaceutical and
Phytopharmacological Research , 4(5) :
Chowdhury Jasim Uddin, Bhuiyan Md. Nazrul
Islam and Yusuf Mohammed; 2008.
Chemical composition of the leaf essential
oils of Murrayakoenigii (L.) Spreng and
Murrayapaniculata (L.) Jack,Bangladesh J
Pharmacol, 3: 59-63.
Mishra Gaurav, Ajay, Rahul, Sumit, Paras; 2011.
Comprehensive review: Murrayakoenigii
Linn , Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Life
Science, 1 (4) 2231 – 4423.
Murraya koenigii information from
NPGS/GRIN". www.arsgrin. gov.
bin/npgs/html/ 24703. Retrieved
Patil Rupali Arun, Mukund Langade Padmaja,
Babarao Dighade Pramod and Hiray
Ashok Yogesh; 2012. Antinociceptive
activity of acute and chronic
administration of Murrayakoenigii L.
leaves in experimental animal models,
Indian J Pharmacol. 44(1):15–19.
Salikutty Joseph and Peter K. V.; 2008. Curry leaf
( Murrayakoenigii ), perennial, nutritious,
leafy vegetable ,Economic Botany 39 (1):
Shivkanya Jaju, Pahwa Shilpa, Kumari Sangita
and Fuloria Neeraj; 2009.
Pharmacognostical studies and
antibacterial activity of the leaves of
Murrayakoenigii, [Phcog J] ,1(3) : 1 5.
Syam, Suvitha; Abdul, Bustamam Ahmad; Sukari,
Aspollah Mohd. Mohan, Syam;
Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Siddig, Wah, Sook
Tang; 2011."The Growth Suppressing
Effects of Girinimbine on Hepg2 Involve
Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle
Arrest". Molecules 16 (8): 7155–70.
Yukari Tachibana Hiroe Kikuzaki Nordin Hj.
Lajis and Nobuji Nakatan; 2001.
Antioxidative Activity of Carbazoles from
Murrayakoenigii Leaves, Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1(1) : 1
– 9.
... Murraya koenigii is originated from India, Sri Lanka and other east Asian countries and is utilized as a flavoring component in different food products (Handral et al., 2012;Biswas et al., 2012). The cultivation has extended to Reunion island, Yunnan, Laos, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Malaysia, South Africa, Bhutan, Thailand, Indonesia, Myanmar, southern china, Hainan, pacific islands, Australia, South Texas, South Florida and Southern California (Saini et al., 2015;Handral et al., 2012;Nouman et al., 2015;Singh et al., 2014). However, among all reported species of genus Murraya, only viz. ...
... The fruits are wrinkled, ovoid to subglobose with 1.0-1.2 cm diameter and 1.4-1.6 cm length and 32 to 80 in number which turns purplishblack on ripening while the seeds are spinach green in color (Handral et al., 2012;Singh et al., 2014). A red sandy loam soil with an average temperature of 26-37°C is ideal for the growth of this shrub. ...
... Ultra sonication leads to increased disruption of cells and mass transfer due to collapsing of bubble cavitation and ultimately the liberation of cell contents into the medium. Further, ultrasounds are reported to (Walde et al., 2005;Salikutty et al., 2012;Ganesan et al., 2013;Gahlawat et al., 2014;Singh et al., 2014;Shivanna and Subban, 2014;Nishan and Subramanian, 2015;Igara et al., 2016) generate free radicals (OH) in the bubbles which during cavitation may kill the microorganisms (Rodríguez-Rojo et al., 2012) (Rodríguez-rojo et al., 2012) (Rodríguez-rojo et al., 2012. Also, the content of the cell is released into the solvent due to shockwave-induced damage of plant components (Bubalo et al., 2016). ...
The utilization of various herbals in the different traditional therapeutical and medicinal systems has been reported prehistorically. India due to its geographical positioning on the global map is blessed with a variety of climatic and growth conditions and sustains various herbals. India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and herbs and is also referred to as a ‘botanical garden of the world’. The use of herbals as functional and neutraceutical food ingredients is not a new concept and is known for centuries and nearly 80% of the world's population still rely on herbals or their processed products for different therapeutic applications. Murraya koenigii l. (meethi neem) is well recognized for its unique flavor and is used in various cuisines as fresh leaves or spice mix as powder. The therapeutic potential of Murraya leaf is well reported in conditions like diabetes, diarrhoea, cancer, HIV, ulcer, obesity, inflammation and skin related problems. Also, the potent antimicrobial activity of the shrub expands its application as extract, powder or nanoparticles to cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Continuous efforts are underway to explore the nutraceutical properties of the plant to boost its utilization in various food applications. Production of powder and extract from fresh leaves, fruits, seeds and roots, however, results in losses of bioactives and phyto-nutrients. Hence, the research personals and industries are evolving continuously for exploring alternative methods like freeze-drying, microwave and ultrasound-assisted dehydration, vacuum dehydration, etc. to minimize such losses. Murraya based nanoparticles for improving the delivery of target compounds have gained significant attention. The present review has been compiled to provide an insight into the fresh use and value addition of the herb with its potential therapeutic and medicinal properties along with the developments made in the field of processing, extraction and concerned health benefits.
... All parts of the plant are used to de-poison snake venom along with some other herbs. Especially the bark and the roots are used as a stimulant by the physicians externally to cure eruptions and the bites of poisonous animals (Singh, 2014). It is used as a treatment for nausea, coughs and fever (Jayaweera, 1982). ...
... Even curry leaves are used in fresh, dry, paste, or oil form in skin and hair care remedies. Murraya koenigii oil is a very popular hair growth-promoting oil among Sri Lankans (Jayaweera, 1982;Singh et al., 2014) 7. Ballon plant (Cardiospernum halicacabum; Family-Spindaceae) ...
Full-text available
Sri Lankan home gardens are rich in variety of medicinal plant species. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal value hence they are used in traditional Ayurvedic practices. However, leaves, roots, flowers, bark, fruits and rhizome have more medicinal value compared to other plant organs. The present review identifies twenty-five common medicinal plant species that can be easily found in home gardens of Sri Lanka while discussing their applications as home remedies. These plant species could be used to treat stomach pain, diabetes, fever, asthma, constipation, piles, dysentery, menstrual disorders, snakebite and skin diseases due to their biologically active ingredients and medicinal qualities related to antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antiviral and anti-cancer.
... Masyarakat Aceh dalam menyajikan masakan ikan dan daging pada umumnya menggunakan daun kari (Murraya koenigii) sebagai bumbu atau penyedap alami dalam masakan karena dapat memberikan rasa dan aroma yang khas pada masakan. Daun kari masih memberikam aroma khas dan rasa yang tajam walaupun sudah dikeringkan (Singh et al. 2014). Penggunaan daun kari sebagai bumbu masakan telah dilakukan secara turun temurun, misalnya masakan kari ikan paya, kari gulai ayam, kari gulai bebek, kari kambing dan kuah beulangong. ...
Full-text available
Keumamah loin merupakan ikan kayu semi basah dengan pengeringan sinar matahari satu sampai dua hari, memiliki karakteristik tekstur daging yang agak lunak, aroma spesifik dan mudah mengalami kemunduran mutu. Daun kari (Murraya koenigii) banyak mengandung senyawa bioaktif yang berfungsi sebagai antioksidan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruh ekstrak daun kari, suhu, dan waktu pengeringan terhadap mutu keumamah loin dan efektivitas daun kari sebagai antioksidan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen rancangan acak lengkap faktorial (RALF) dengan taraf perlakuan ekstrak daun kari (0% dan 10%), suhu (40°С dan 60°С) dan waktu pengeringan (8 jam dan 12 jam). Parameter yang diamati kadar proksimat, nilai aktivitas air (aw) dan bilangan thiobarbituric acid (TBA). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan daun kari, suhu, dan waktu pengeringan tidak berpengaruh terhadap kadar proksimat dan aktivitas air. Kadar protein diperoleh sebesar 28,22–32,1%, kadar lemak 2,72–4,60%, kadar abu 2,70–4,52%, kadar air 35,10–50,43% dan aktivitas air 0,84–0,87. Namun penggunaan daun kari berpengaruh terhadap bilangan TBA. Penggunaan daun kari 10%, suhu 40°С dan waktu 8 jam merupakan perlakuan terbaik karena memiliki bilangan TBA paling rendah yaitu sebesar 0,40±0,003 mg malonialdehida/kg. Penggunaan daun kari, suhu, dan waktu pengeringan dapat menghambat terjadinya proses oksidasi lipid pada produk keumamah loin.
... Due to presence of distinct aroma, it is most popular among South Indian cuisines. Volatile oil accounts for this desirable aroma (Singh, 2014). Apart from aroma, different parts of the plant contain various bioactive compounds which have potential to fight infection and strengthening the immune system (Gahlawat et al., 2014). ...
... O. sanctum possess antimicrobial activity (Singh and Chaudhuri, 2018). Curry leaves possess antimicrobial activity (Singh et al., 2014). ...
Full-text available
Milk and milk products are considered to be highly nutritious. Paneer is the most popular traditional food product. Herbs provide several health benefi ts, so were used as remedy for several diseases in ancient period. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop milk paneer enriched with medicinal and aromatic herbs. Aloe vera pulp, Basil leaves, Curry leaves and Mint leaves were incorporated in three diff erent variations viz. 25g, 50g and 75g to 1 liter of standard milk having 4.5% fat and 8.5% SNF and curd was used as coagulant. Sensory evaluation of paneer was done on a 9 point hedonic scale. Proximate composition analysis was done using standard methods. Shelf life was assessed every alternate day, till 6 th day of storage for sensory characteristics by using 5 point rating scale. Microbial load was assessed on 0 day using standard plate count method. Results revealed that developed paneer had good sensory characteristics and were also good in terms of nutrient composition. Th e bacterial count was within the permissible limits and also the overall acceptability did not show much change over the storage period. Th e paneer developed from selected herbs were found to be cost eff ective.
Full-text available
Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii are commonly occurring plants in Maharashtra belonging to family Rutaceae .Members of Rutaceae are rich in vitamin C content. Murraya koenigii locally known as curry patta and Aegle marmelos locally known as bael/ kawath is edible and used in various food preparations. They are known to have anti-inammatory, anti-oxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial properties and It was thought necessary to nd out if there was any variation in the phytochemical content ie mainly Vit C and antioxidant activity of these two plants especially in the leaves . It was observed that phytochemical content was higher during monsoon season.
Full-text available
Strawberry is one of the most popular tropical fruits in Indonesia. The fruit has a concise shelf life and quickly deterioration after harvesting due to mechanical injury, physiological disorders, water loss, fungal growth, and high respiration rates. Postharvest technology is one technique that can maintain fruit quality and extend shelf life, one of which is a coating technique called edible coating. The edible coating layer of corn starch with the addition of curry leaf extract has antibacterial activity that can inhibit the growth rate of microorganisms. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of the edible coating solution produced from corn starch with the addition of curry leaf extract to produce the best edible coating layer. This study used a factorial completely randomized design experimental method, which consisted of treatment with curry leaf extract concentration (8%, 10%, and 12%) and dipping time (4, 5, and 6 minutes) with three repetitions. The result showed a significant delay in weight loss and total dissolved solids in strawberries compared to the uncoated control strawberries. In addition, the edible coatings had positive results in organoleptic based on panelists’ acceptance of color, aroma, taste, texture, and overall. These findings suggest that using 8% curry leaf extract with 4 minutes dipping time could be favorable to extend the shelf-life and maintain the quality of strawberry fruit.
Secondary fermentation is generally recommended to improve the aroma, flavour, overall acceptability and stability of the wines. Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 expressing L-alanine dehydrogenase gene is hereby proposed as a starter culture bacterium for the value addition of ginger, kiwi, plum and rose wines through secondary fermentation. Secondary fermentation using Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (alaD⁺) imparted a natural sweetness and several health-promoting attributes to the dry wines, thereby improving their sensory and quality attributes. GC-MS-based metabolic fingerprinting further revealed the presence of significantly higher levels of L-alanine and many bioactive secondary metabolites and flavour enhancers such as 3-butynol, acetaldehyde, alaninol, aminopentols, benzene methanol, octanoic acid, ribitol, etc. and therapeutic ingredients such as 8-azanonane, actinobolin, adamantanemethylamine, aminononadecane, amphetamine, benzeneethanamine, guanosine, heptadecanenitrile, isopropyluriedoacetate, octanoic acid, nortriptyline and rimantadine in the secondary fermented wines. Further, a probable metabolic pathway was constructed to indicate major metabolic biotransformations in the wines which accounted for the improved quality attributes and strongly anticipated their therapeutic potential. This study is probably the first of its kind to highlight the application of P. acidilactici BD16 (alaD⁺) for in situ L-alanine production during secondary wine fermentation for enhancing organoleptic and therapeutic attributes of interest to health-conscious consumers.
Full-text available
The ethnopharmacological investigation was done to study the traditional usage of indigenous medicinal plants of Palampur, Himachal Pradesh. Therefore, an extensive ethnopharmacological survey was conducted to document the traditional knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants. Direct interviews of 77 informants were conducted with the help of a questionnaire. Three quantitative factors (use value, factor informant consensus and fidelity level) were used for the analysis of generated data. A total of 102 species, belonging to 90 genera and 30 families were identified and collected with the help of traditional healers and local informants from different locations of the study area. Total 19 medicinal plants species were reported for new or less known ethnomedicinal uses. Also, 3 threatened wild plants species were collected from the study area. The maximum number of species belongs to the family Lamiaceae (7), Fabaceae (7), Asteraceae (6), Moraceae (4 species), Apocyanaceae (4 species) and Euphorbiaceae (3 species). Different plant parts were used by local informants such as leaves, galls, fruits, seeds, latex, stem, root, flowers, bark, and rhizomes. It was also observed that maximum numbers of plant species were used to cure gastro-intestinal disorders (48 species), skin disorders (34 species) and respiratory disorders (25 species). Ethnopharmacological data depict that medicinal plants were extensively used by local people to cure gastrointestinal, dermatological disorders and skeletomuscular disorders. Traditionally used medicinal plants have enormous potential to provide the raw material for the discovery of new bioactive compounds and drugs.
Full-text available
Functional foods or drinks prepared using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have recently gained considerable attention because they can offer additional nutritional and health benefits. The present study aimed to develop functional drinks by the fermentation of buttermilk and soymilk preparations using the Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (alaD+) strain expressing the L-alanine dehydrogenase enzyme. LAB fermentation was carried out for 24 h and its impact on the physicochemical and quality attributes of the fermented drinks was evaluated. Levels of total antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids, and especially L-alanine enhanced significantly after LAB fermentation. Further, GC-MS-based metabolomic fingerprinting was performed to identify the presence of bioactive metabolites such as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1-dodecene, 2-aminononadecane, 3-octadecene, 4-octen-3-one, acetic acid, azanonane, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, chloroacetic acid, colchicine, heptadecanenitrile, hexadecanal, quercetin, and triacontane, which could be accountable for the improvement of organoleptic attributes and health benefits of the drinks. Meanwhile, the levels of certain undesirable metabolites such as 1-pentadecene, 2-bromopropionic acid, 8-heptadecene, formic acid, and propionic acid, which impart bitterness, rancidity, and unpleasant odor to the fermented drinks, were reduced considerably after LAB fermentation. This study is probably the first of its kind that highlights the application of P. acidilactici BD16 (alaD+) as a starter culture candidate for the production of functional buttermilk and soymilk.
Full-text available
Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at
Full-text available
Murraya koenigii is an edible herb widely used in folk medicine. Here we report that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant, inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells. The MTT and LDH assay results showed that girinimbine decreased cell viability and increased cytotoxicity in a dose-and time-dependent manner selectively. Girinimbine-treated HepG2 cells showed typical morphological features of apoptosis, as observed from normal inverted microscopy and Hoechst 33342 assay. Furthermore, girinimbine treatment resulted in DNA fragmentation and elevated levels of caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. Girinimbine treatment also displayed a time-dependent accumulation of the Sub-G(0)/G(1) peak (hypodiploid) and caused G(0)/G(1)-phase arrest. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively induce programmed cell death in HepG2 cells and suggests the importance of conducting further investigations in preclinical human hepatocellular carcinoma models, especially on in vivo efficacy, to promote girinimbine for use as an anticancer agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.
Full-text available
The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng and M. paniculata (L.) Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2%) followed by caryophyllene (9.5%). Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%), beta-caryophyllene (11.8%), spathulenol (10.2%), beta-elemene (8.9%), germacrene D (6.9%) and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene) (6.4%). The composi-tions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.
Full-text available
The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of Murraya koenigii in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of M. koenigii at a dose of 200 mg/kg/ b.w./day for a period of 30 days significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid and creatinine in diabetic treated group of animals. Determination of plasma insulin level revealed the insulin stimulatory effect of the extract. The results suggest that M. koenigii possesses statistically significant hypoglycemic potential in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The M. koenigii extract appeared to be more effective than glibenclamide, a known antidiabetic drug.
The present study deals with the macro and microscopical studies as well as antibacterial studies of Murraya koenigii Linn.leaf. Some distinct characters were observed while studying their transverse sections. Macroscopically, the leaf's shape was lanceolate measuring 4.9 cm long and 1.8 cm broad with a reticulate venation Microscopically, the midrib and laminar region showed a distinct epidermis. The collenchyma was thick walled followed by loosely arranged parenchymatous cells containing oil and starch grains. Physiochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf were also carried out. The antibacterial studies confirmed that the methanolic extract was quite effective for S.typhi and E.coli at 100 μg/ ml and 200 μg/ ml respectively. The present study might be useful to supplement information in regard to its identification parameters assumed significantly in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs in the present scenario lacking regulatory laws to control quality of herbal drugs and also to find out the antibacterial activity.
Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii, Rutaceae) is an important leafy vegetable and the leaves are widely used in Indian cookery for flavouring foodstuffs. The leaves have a slightly pungent, bitter and feebly acidic taste, and they retain their flavour and other qualities even after drying. Curry leaf is also used in many of the Indian ayurvedic and unani prescriptions. The plant originated in the Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh, India, and at present it is cultivated in Burma, Ceylon, China, Australia and the Pacific Islands. The crop is usually propagated by seeds. A volatile oil, curry leaf oil, produced from the plant has uses in the soap industry. There is need to conserve the variability in the plant to prevent extinction of desirable types.
To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of acute and chronic administration of petroleum ether extract of Murraya koenigii L. leaves (PMK) and total alkaloids separated from petroleum ether extract of Murraya koenigii leaves (AMK) in mice. PMK was subjected for isolation of total alkaloid fraction AMK. The antinociceptive activity of PMK (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and AMK (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.), after acute and chronic administration (for 15 days), was evaluated using peripheral model like acetic acid-induced writhing method and central model like hot plate method and tail immersion method. Statistical analysis was carried out by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. In acute studies, PMK and AMK significantly and dose-dependently reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhing, significantly increased the latency of paw licking in hot plate method, and significantly increased the basal reaction time in tail immersion method. With chronic administration of PMK and AMK, highest activity was observed on day 9 in acetic acid-induced writhing model. In hot plate and tail immersion method, chronic administration of PMK and AMK initially showed fluctuating responses but produced highest degree of antinociception on day 9 of the study. The degree of antinociception produced by PMK and AMK at the end of 15 days study suggest that Murraya koenigii has potential to use as an analgesic.
The antioxidative properties of the leaves extracts of Murraya koenigii using different solvents were evaluated based on the oil stability index (OSI) together with their radical scavenging ability against 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The methylene chloride (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract and the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction of the 70% acetone extract significantly prolonged the OSI values comparable to those of alpha-tocopherol and BHT. Five carbazole alkaloids were isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2) extract and their structures were identified to be euchrestine B (1), bismurrayafoline E (2), mahanine (3), mahanimbicine (4), and mahanimbine (5) based on (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass (MS) spectral data. The OSI value of carbazoles at 110 degrees C decreased in the order 1 and 3 > alpha-tocopherol > BHT > 2 > 4, 5 and control. It is assumed that compounds 1 and 3 contributed to the high OSI value of the CH(2)Cl(2) extract of M. koenigii. The DPPH radical scavenging activity for these carbazoles was in the order ascorbic acid > 2 > 1, 3 and alpha-tocopherol > BHT > 4 and 5.
Oxidative stress and oxidative damage to tissues are common end points of chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Oxidative stress in diabetes coexists with a reduction in the antioxidant status, which can further increase the deleterious effects of free radicals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Murraya koenigii leaves extract against beta-cell damage and antioxidant defense systems of plasma and pancreas in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. The levels of glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in blood and insulin, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathione and TBARS were estimated in plasma of control and experimental groups of rats. To assess the changes in the cellular antioxidant defense system such as the level of reduced glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were assayed in pancreatic tissue homogenate. The levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, TBARS, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were altered in diabetic rats. These alterations were reverted back to near control levels after the treatment of M. koenigii leaves extract. Transmission electron microscopic studies also revealed the protective nature of M. koenigii leaves on pancreatic beta-cells. These findings suggest that M. koenigii treatment exerts a therapeutic protective nature in diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress and pancreatic beta-cell damage. The antioxidant effect of the M. koenigii extract was compared with glibenclamide, a well-known hypoglycemic drug.