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Abstract

Although foam rolling is a common myofascial therapy used to increase range of motion (ROM), research is limited on the effectiveness of foam rolling on soft tissue extensibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a four week training period of the foam roll method on hamstring flexibility. Furthermore, the study was designed to compare the effectiveness of the foam roll myofascial release with a conventional contract-relax PNF stretching method and a control group. Forty healthy males (age: 17-47 yrs) were randomly assigned to a Foam Roll group (FOAM, n = 13), a Contract-Relax PNF stretching group (CRPNF, n = 14), or a Control Group (CG, n = 13). The FOAM group massaged their hamstring muscles with the foam roll three times per week for four weeks (12 training sessions). The CRPNF group was assigned to 12 sessions of contract-relax PNF stretching. The CG underwent no intervention. Hamstring flexibility (ROM) was measured by a stand-and-reach test before and after the intervention period. Two way repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant global time effect (P<0.001) and an interaction effect for time x treatment (P=0.004) demonstrating greater improvements in FOAM and CRPNF compared with CG, but no difference between the former. Delta changes from baseline to post intervention in ROM were not related to baseline ROM. The foam roll can be seen as an effective tool to increase hamstring flexibility within four weeks. The effects are comparable with the scientifically proven contract-relax PNF stretching method.

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... Of the remaining 604 subjects, 62.9% were male (n=380) and 37.1% were female (n=224). Separated by outcome measure, there were n=328 subjects (63.4% male, n=208 and 36.6% female, n=120) in studies relating to pain/soreness,18-25 n=398 for ROM (72.3% male, n=259 and 27.7% female, n=139), 8,19,20,22,23,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] and n=241 (60.2% male, n=145 and 39.8% female, n=96) for athletic performance. 8,19,21,23,24,26,[28][29][30]32,34,37 The typical study participant across all outcomes was a recreationally active adult (e.g. ...
... The results for MR's effect on ROM are much less clear. In total, 10 of 17 studies reported statistically significant ROM improvements of some kind, 17,20,22,23,26,[28][29][30]32,35 with no ideal MR duration apparent. Similarly, when split by studies that tested ROM by active versus passive means, five of nine studies measuring active ROM showed significant improvements 22,[28][29][30]35 while five of eight studies measuring passive ROM studies noted the same. ...
... In total, 10 of 17 studies reported statistically significant ROM improvements of some kind, 17,20,22,23,26,[28][29][30]32,35 with no ideal MR duration apparent. Similarly, when split by studies that tested ROM by active versus passive means, five of nine studies measuring active ROM showed significant improvements 22,[28][29][30]35 while five of eight studies measuring passive ROM studies noted the same. 17,20,23,26,32 Among the methods used to assess ROM, the kneeling lunge test (for the hip flexors) was the most common with five studies opting for that technique; 8,23,26,28,32 however, the fact that a total of ten different methods were used in 17 different studies to assess ROM about various joints demonstrates that the variation is too large to directly compare results. ...
Article
Background: Knowledge of the body's response to and recovery from exercise is rapidly increasing. State-of-the-art equipment and facilities allow recreationally active adults to seek innovations to enhance performance and shorten recovery time. Myofascial rolling (MR) is a relatively new practice, providing acute benefits for muscle pain and range of motion (ROM). However, there is no consensus on optimal MR duration. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the optimal MR duration using a foam roller or a roller massager for muscle pain, ROM, and athletic performance via qualitative review. Study design: Systematic Review of the Literature. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCOHost and PEDro (July 2018). Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were appraised using the PEDro scale. Studies were grouped by outcome measure, with a total number of subjects of n = 328 for pain/soreness, n = 398 for ROM, and n = 241 for performance. Heterogeneity of data prohibited a formal meta-analysis: studies were manually reviewed and classified as providing evidence for benefit of MR (i.e., significant positive effect) or not (i.e., null or negative effect) for each of the studied outcomes. Results: The most evidence-based benefit of MR is the alleviation of muscle soreness; seven of eight studies assessing pain/soreness resulted in a short-term reduction, and a minimum dose of 90 seconds per muscle appeared beneficial. While ten of 17 studies involving ROM showed acute improvements, the results were inconsistent and highly variable. No significant effects on performance were detected. Conclusion: Available data indicate that MR for 90 seconds per muscle group may be the minimal duration to achieve a short-term reduction in pain/soreness, with no upper limit found. Results do not support increases in chronic ROM or performance, and data are insufficient to provide a conclusive recommendation for impacting acute ROM. The heterogeneity of the literature highlights the need for additional research to determine optimal dose of MR. Level of evidence: 2a- (Systematic Review with heterogeneity).
... On the other hand, Foam Roller (FR) is a new method, applicable for expanding recovery, which is based on the release of fibrous muscle fascia (14). This method helps relieve fatigue through a pseudo-massage technique by affecting several physiological processes, such as the ability to improve arterial function, improve vascular endothelial function, reduce muscle pain, and decrease the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system (15). ...
... Blood lactate levels were also measured by sampling from the index finger of the right hand in four states, including before, immediately, one hour, and 24 hours after the simulated soccer match using a hp-cosmos lactometer (3,11). The pain and muscle delayed onset soreness were measured in five stages, including before, immediately, one hour, 24, and 48 hours after simulated soccer match using the Visual Pain Scale (VAS) (13)(14)(15). Also, the YO-YO recovery test, Sargent jump test, 20-meter sprint test, and sit and reach test were used to measure the variables of aerobic power, explosive power, speed, and flexibility, respectively (13,14,19 ...
... The pain and muscle delayed onset soreness were measured in five stages, including before, immediately, one hour, 24, and 48 hours after simulated soccer match using the Visual Pain Scale (VAS) (13)(14)(15). Also, the YO-YO recovery test, Sargent jump test, 20-meter sprint test, and sit and reach test were used to measure the variables of aerobic power, explosive power, speed, and flexibility, respectively (13,14,19 ...
Article
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Background: Research is limited on the effectiveness of various post-soccer match recovery methods. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of active recovery methods on performance and muscle damage indices in young male soccer players. Methods: In this study, 21 male subjects (age 16.95 ± 2, height 175.29 ± 4, weight 65.99 ± 5) were selected and divided randomly into three recovery groups after a simulated soccer match. Foam roller recovery included massaging various muscle groups using a foam roller. Recovery by immersion in cold water involved immersing the body up to the neck in cold water at 15 °C. In inactive recovery, the subjects had no activity. The Yo-Yo recovery test, Sargent jump test, 20-m speed test, lactometer, and ELISA tests were used to measure the variables of aerobic power, explosive power, speed, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine kinase, respectively. A two-way ANOVA test with repeated measures was used to determine the differences at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: A significant difference was observed between the foam roller recovery group and the control group 24 hours after the simulated soccer match in muscle damage indices (P value < 0.05). However, in the active recovery group comparison, no significant difference was observed in the performance indices (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that foam rolling recovery can be used as a useful way to accelerate recovery compared to water immersion recovery through a reduction in inflammatory responses.
... 6 Although previous findings support the theory that foam rolling increases flexibility, the treatment durations for foam rolling intervention are varied, ranging from 10 seconds to 2 minutes. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] To improve clinical decisions regarding treatment duration, comparisons of foam rolling intervention durations are necessary. In addition, evidence indicating the therapeutic effects of foam rolling beyond the time frame immediately after intervention remains inconclusive. ...
... The participants' non-rolling leg assisted in propelling the body along the foam roller. 11,15,24 The foot of the experimental leg was relaxed during rolling. Participants rolled the length of the hamstring muscle group in the sagittal plane from the ischial tuberosity to the popliteal fossa. ...
... Junker and Stoggl 11 also included a warm-up prior to performing the sit-and-reach ROM measure, but the foam rolling intervention was conducted during a 4-week training period. Taking into account our study's findings and that only one of six previous articles found an increase in flexibility when compared to controls, 11 we believe it cannot be definitively concluded that foam rolling increases flexibility when compared to a non-foam rolling control group. Differing foam rolling techniques (eg, sustained pressure on tender or trigger points) could result in ROM gains directly attributed to foam rolling. ...
... It is common practice among athletes and recreational exercisers to incorporate stretching procedures as part of a warm-up routine before an exercise session. It is believed that participating in such a warm-up protocol will increase range of motion (ROM) and may aid in decreasing injury risk caused by the ensuing sport or vigorous activity (2,7,15,22,33). Performance enhancement is also a main objective of stretching in order to improve outcomes in subsequent physical endeavors. This may be achieved through factors like improved joint mobility, movement competency and increased force output. ...
... We accept our hypothesis that FR was as effective as SS at increasing flexibility. An increase in ROM following FR of similar durations has also been shown by others in various lower extremity muscles, not including the hip adductors (2,3,7,15,20,33,34). It is important to note that FR and SS were not statistically more effective than CON in our study. ...
... It has been suggested that FR provides a stimulus that may lead to H-reflex inhibition with resulting increased flexibility (35). FR may also work via an increase in autogenic inhibition (15). This process of relaxation is proposed to occur in the same muscle that is experiencing a directed increase in pressure via the foam roll which would stimulate the Golgi tendon organ and reflexively decrease muscle tension (18). ...
Article
Full-text available
Foam rolling (FR) is a method of self-myofascial release (SMR) implemented to reduce tension in underlying soft tissue, leading to increased range of motion (ROM). The hip adductor muscles of the groin are commonly less flexible and often a site for soft tissue injuries. Limited research has been done to determine the most effective flexibility exercises to increase ROM in the groin muscles prior to exercise without comprising strength. The purpose was to determine the effect of an acute bout of FR on passive groin flexibility and strength. Randomized crossover study with 3 × 2 (Condition × Time) repeated measures ANOVA statistical design. 40 volunteers (n = 20 males; n = 20 females) with limited flexibility in groin ROM participated. Following warm-up, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and static ROM were measured pre and postintervention. Conditions included 60 seconds of FR, SS, and CON. The Condition × Time interaction was not significant for MVC or ROM. A main effect of time showed a significant increase in ROM from pre to post for FR (1.2°, p < 0.001), SS (1.0°, p < 0.001), and CON (0.5°, p = 0.039). No significant changes in MVC were observed for FR from pre to post (p > 0.05), whereas SS and CON both increased (p < 0.05). An increase in passive groin ROM after acute bouts of SMR or SS without compromising MVC was observed. This suggests that 60 seconds of FR may be employed before exercise to improve flexibility without strength decrement.
... 5 Many traditional warm-up methods such as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), static stretching, and deep tissue foam rolling (DTFR) have been shown to improve range of motion. [6][7][8] However, these techniques have also been shown to have some negative effects such as decreased power immediately after stretching. [6][7][8] A second limitation to a method such as static stretching is that there is an extended amount of time required to see ROM benefits from baseline. ...
... [6][7][8] However, these techniques have also been shown to have some negative effects such as decreased power immediately after stretching. [6][7][8] A second limitation to a method such as static stretching is that there is an extended amount of time required to see ROM benefits from baseline. 6 Flossing is hypothesized to immediately increase ROM while potentially leaving power unaltered. ...
... DTFR has been reported to improve hamstring flexibility similarly to a PNF stretching routine. 8 The hypothesis behind the benefits of DTFR includes the stimulation of GTOs. 8 This stimulation is believed to decrease athletic performance by negatively affecting the priming of the GTOs. ...
Article
Full-text available
# Background Flossing includes wrapping a specialized latex band around a muscle group providing compression, partially occluding blood flow, followed by performing exercises. This is hypothesized to improve flexibility by dissipating myofascial adhesions; however, research is lacking. # Objective To determine the effect of the application of a floss band to the thigh on hamstring flexibility and lower extremity power. # Design Crossover Study # Setting Exercise Physiology Laboratory. # Participants Twenty-one recreationally active individuals (8 male, 13 female; age = 22.62±2.99 years; height = 171.52±9.08 cm; mass = 73.57±11.37 kg). # Methods Three counterbalanced interventions were studied during body weight squats, lunges, and hamstring curls (without resistance): floss, sham, and control. The floss treatment included wrapping the Rogue Wide Voodoo Floss Band™ from the proximal knee to the gluteal fold at a pressure of 140 to 200 mmHg. The sham treatment included wrapping the same band in the same location with less pressure (10 to 40 mmHg) while the control treatment did not include floss band application. Hip flexion range of motion, via the straight leg raise, and power (single-leg vertical jump) were compared from pre-test to post-test using a 3x2 repeated measures ANOVA. # Results There was a significant interaction between time and session for hamstring flexibility (F~(2,40)~=17.54, *p*
... Of those, 319 were excluded for not meeting the criteria, with the reasons for exclusion outlined in Figure 1. Nine studies were eventually included in the review [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. of 1 awarded for meeting a criterion. A study is considered either high quality (6-11 points), low quality (4)(5), or poor (0-3). ...
... Of those, 319 were excluded for not meeting the criteria, with the reasons for exclusion outlined in Figure 1. Nine studies were eventually included in the review [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. ...
... One study involved male and female soccer athletes [20], whereas the other study [21] recruited male rugby players. Two studies employed recreationally-active males [24,26] and three studies [22,23,26] involved recreationally-active males and females. Two studies were conducted in healthy males and females [25][26][27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature on chronic effects of foam rolling (FR) on flexibility and performance. Electronic databases were searched during January 2022 for topics related to FR. Included studies met the following criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles written in English; (b) FR intervention of at least four weeks; (c) non-motorized FR device during intervention; (d) randomized controlled trial with existence of a control group; and (e) any lower body parameter related to flexibility, recovery, and performance. Nine studies met that criteria. Results revealed that chronic FR demonstrated conflicting results for improvement of flexibility. On the other hand, a majority of the articles in this review showed no beneficial effects of FR on performance. Lastly, the effect of FR on recovery is unclear. These findings suggest the need for further studies to establish the consensus about the long-term application of FR in flexibility, recovery, and performance.
... Die relativ junge Disziplin der Faszienforschung hat sich somit vom Aschenputtel-Dasein verabschiedet [17]. Dennoch erscheint ein genauerer Blick auf das Training der Faszien und eine damit intendierte akute Verbesserung der Beweglichkeit angezeigt, da einerseits vorliegende Untersuchungen gute Effekte zeigen konnten [3,9,11,15], andererseits aber nach wie vor Desiderate bezüglich exakter Protokolle, Vergleiche mit verschiedenen Dehntechniken sowie chronischer Effekte bestehen [2]. ...
... Zusätzlich zur Testleistung wurde die Uhrzeit der Messung protokolliert. Alle Teilnehmerinnen und Teilnehmer waren zum Zeitpunkt der Untersuchung breitensportlich aktiv; sie waren im Schnitt 28 Jahre alt (SD:11,9) und 173,5 cm groß (SD: 9,78 cm). Sämtliche relevanten Messwerte sind in Tab. ...
Article
Faszientraining gilt zwischenzeitlich als ein zentrales Thema für Fitness, Prävention und Rehabilitation. Dies trifft im Besonderen auf die Beweglichkeit und ihr Training zu. Der Beitrag überprüft die Wirkungen eines Faszientrainings mit dem Foamroller auf die ischiocrurale Muskulatur. Summary Fascia training is considered to be a central aspect of fitness prevention and rehabilitation. This is particularly applicable to flexibility and its training. This article analyses the effects of specific fascia training with a foam role on ischiocrural muscles
... Static stretching exercise were performed twice a day (two sets of 60 s duration, 30 s inter-set break) [34][35][36][37] . Foam rolling targeted the region between the greater trochanter of the femur and lateral knee joint line and was performed three times for 60 s (4-6 times per minute) with a break of 30 s between sets [38][39][40] . One additional strengthening session to be carried out at home was also prescribed, resulting in a total of three weekly strengthening training sessions. ...
... In addition to the lack of baseline differences, we found a 6-week training therapy to result in a significant increase in the SWE propagation velocities measured in the distal ITB. Under consideration of the compression model, physiotherapeutic interventions typically aim to reduce ITB tone through stretching exercise[37][38][39] or other myofascial interventions, such as foam rolling30,[40][41][42] . Thus, we hypothesized that ITB stiffness would be reduced after the intervention. ...
Article
Objectives To test the hypothesis that Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS) is caused by excessive iliotibial band (ITB) tension, promoted by hip abductor and external rotator weakness, and evaluate the influence of 6 weeks of physiotherapy on ITB stiffness. Design Interventional study with control group. Setting Clinical. Participants 14 recreational runners with ITBS and 14 healthy controls of both sexes. Main outcome measures Ultrasound shear wave elastography, hip muscle strength, visual analog scale pain, subjective lower extremity function. Results No statistical differences in ITB tension between legs as well as between patients suffering from ITBS and healthy controls were detected. Results showed significant strength deficits in hip abduction, adduction as well as external and internal rotation. Following six weeks of physiotherapy, hip muscle strength (all directions but abduction), pain and lower extremity function were significantly improved. ITB stiffness, however, was found to be increased compared to baseline measurements. Conclusion Shear wave elastography data suggest that ITB tension is not increased in the affected legs of runners with ITBS compared to the healthy leg or a physical active control group, respectively. Current approaches to the conservative management of ITBS appear ineffective in lowering ITB tone.
... In addition to the classic relaxation methods, a myofascial relaxation (MFR) method can be used to increase the extensibility of the muscle tendon unit (23) and it is one type of warmup regimen. Another MFR technique is the self-induced myofascial release (SMR) method used to treat limitations in soft tissues. ...
... Exercises performed with FRs have been widely used in sports and rehabilitation fields to change muscular tonus, to renew tissue flexibility and to increase ROM (13,29). It has been hypothesized that FRs can decrease the rate of fasciation conjoined muscle cases and scar tissues, decrease the duration of recovery and deliver increased muscular performance (23) and reduce arterial stiffness in certain tissues and repair the endothelial function (32) concluded that FR exercises acutely increased in knee joint ROM at 2 minutes post foam rolling (12.7%) and 10 minutes post foam rolling (10.3%) of the quadriceps muscles with no concomitant detrimental effects on neuromuscular force production. Other investigators have found that foam rolling can facilitate acute increases in ankle, knee, and hip passive ROM, reduce (21) or have no effect (6) in maximal isometric strength or velocity and maximum repetitions performance, and reduce delayed-onset muscle soreness (29,33). ...
Article
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Background: Foam rolling (FR) has been developed as a popular intervention, however the acute effect of muscular and range of motion (ROM) function using a FR is unknown in young taekwondo players. Objective: This study examined the acute effects of multiple (lower extremity and back part of the body) FR exercises on joint ROM and vertical jump performance in taekwondo athletes. Methods: Nineteen (age: 13.21 ± 0.85 years) black-belt taekwondo athletes (nmale = 13; nfemale = 6), volunteered to participate of this study. Anthropometric measurements, Passive Straight-Leg Raise Test (PSLR) on each limb and vertical jump tests were performed on the first measurement day. In the second day, following a common warm-up model, participants performed FR exercises on five areas (erector spinae, iliotibial band, hamstrings, quadriceps, and calves) for three minutes (30 seconds/1 set for each area). The tests were administered to all participants again by swapping over on the third day. A Two-Way and Three-Way ANOVA Repeated Measures tests were performed. Results: It was not observed any significant interaction between the three factors (time, side, or gender) and PSLR-ROM degrees of dominant and non-dominant legs (p>0.05). There were observed significant differences between the pre-and post-test measurements in the vertical jump height (+13.02%) and jump power (+5.23%) performance after FR exercises. Conclusion: Multiple FR exercises did not acute affect PSLR-ROM in taekwondo athletes. FR exercises may be effective within warm-up protocols and seems to be an efficient strategy to promote acute improvements in vertical jump performance in a short time period. Key words: myofascial release, range of motion, hamstrings muscles, power performance, taekwondo
... Of the 39 included trials, 15 investigated the effects of HR and CR against no intervention only, eight trials compared HR and CR against other stretching techniques only, and 16 trials compared HR and CR with both no intervention and another stretching technique. Only ten trials studied short-term effects of HR and CR against either control or another stretching intervention (Beltrão et al., 2014;Chebel, Galuppo, Cardoso de S a, & Bertoncello, 2010;Eston, Rowlands, Coulton, Mckinney, & Gleeson, 2007;Hardy, 1985;Hardy & Jones, 1986;Hartley-O'Brien, 1980;Junker & St€ oggl, 2015;Poor, Mohseni, Najafzadeh, Hemmati, & Najafi, 2014;Rowlands, Marginson, & Lee, 2003;Sady, Wortman, & Blanke, 1982), and only three trials studied its long-term effects at one week (Tanigawa, 1972), 15 days (Silva et al., 2012), and eight weeks (Moesch et al., 2014). Intervention durations ranged from one session to 10 weeks. ...
... Three trials were excluded from the meta-analysis due to noncomparability of groups at baseline (Gama et al., 2007;Magalhães et al., 2015;Rowlands et al., 2003) and large number of dropouts (Magalhães et al., 2015) (I 2 ¼ 67%). Two individual trials that measured short-term effects showed that changes lasted 24 h after cessation (SMD ¼ 2.79, CI ¼ 1.67 to 3.92; SMD ¼ 1.04, CI ¼ 0.23 to 1.86) (Junker & St€ oggl, 2015;Rowlands et al., 2003) while one trial showed that effects were lost 15 days after cessation (SMD ¼ À0.44, CI ¼ À1.33 to 0.45) (Silva et al., 2012). ...
Article
Objective To synthesize evidence on the effects of hold-relax and contract-relax stretching (HR and CR) on hamstrings flexibility compared with no intervention and other stretching techniques. Design Electronic databases (PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane CENTRAL, Scopus, LILACS) were searched from inception until March 31, 2014 and updated until May 31, 2017. Randomized controlled trials involving HR and CR to improve hamstrings flexibility in adults (aged ≥18 years old) with or without a pathological condition were included. Two reviewers independently searched literature, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data, while a third reviewer settled disagreements. Results Thirty-nine trials (n = 1770 healthy adults; median PEDro score = 4/10) were included. Meta-analysis showed large effects compared to control immediately after 1 session (6 trials, SMD = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.35, I² = 2%) and multiple sessions (4 trials, SMD = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.64 to 1.40, I² = 0%). Meta-analysis showed conflicting results compared to static stretching, while individual trials demonstrated conflicting results compared to other techniques. Conclusions The immediate effects of HR and CR on hamstrings flexibility in adults are better against control. The long-term effects against other stretching types, and optimal exercise prescription parameters require further research.
... Research investigating foam rollers, roller massagers, and other similar devices have generally reported increased range of motion (ROM), diminished perceived pain, accelerated recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage and augmented performance (5,17,48,62,67). Rolling can acutely increase ROM (6-13) by 3-23% (30,63) persisting for 20 minutes (37,41,52). Wilke et al.'s (68) meta-analysis examined 26 high methodological quality rolling trials reporting a large magnitude positive effect of rolling on ROM, contrasting with Wiewelhove et al. (67), who reported only a small (4%) ROM increase. ...
... In addition to the present findings of large magnitude improvements in ROM with 1-3 rolling repetitions, prior reviews (3,13,38,62) investigating the effects of rolling on ROM report that rolling provides acute increases in ROM, that can be maintained as long as 20 minutes (37,41,52). Hughes and Ramer's review (35) summarized that although many rolling studies report acute increases in ROM, the long-term effectiveness is still inconclusive. ...
Article
Behm, DG, Alizadeh, S, Hadjizadeh Anvar, S, Mahmoud, MMI, Ramsay, E, Hanlon, C, and Cheatham, S. Foam rolling prescription: a clinical commentary. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Although the foam rolling and roller massage literature generally reports acute increases in range of motion (ROM) with either trivial or small performance improvements, there is little information regarding appropriate rolling prescription. The objective of this literature review was to appraise the evidence and provide the best prescriptive recommendations for rolling to improve ROM and performance. The recommendations represent studies with the greatest magnitude effect size increases in ROM and performance. A systematic search of the rolling-related literature found in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was conducted using related terms such as foam rolling, roller massage, ROM, flexibility, performance, and others. From the measures within articles that monitored ROM (25), strength (41), jump (41), fatigue (67), and sprint (62) variables; regression correlations and predictive quadratic equations were formulated for number of rolling sets, repetition frequency, set duration, and rolling intensity. The analysis revealed the following conclusions. To achieve the greatest ROM, the regression equations predicted rolling prescriptions involving 1-3 sets of 2-4-second repetition duration (time for a single roll in one direction over the length of a body part) with a total rolling duration of 30-120-second per set. Based on the fewer performance measures, there were generally trivial to small magnitude decreases in strength and jump measures. In addition, there was insufficient evidence to generalize on the effects of rolling on fatigue and sprint measures. In summary, relatively small volumes of rolling can improve ROM with generally trivial to small effects on strength and jump performance.
... There was a significant increase in ankle dorsiflexion ROM compared to baseline for the dominant leg from zero to 20 minutes [2]. After a daily foam rolling intervention consisting of three 30-second bouts, Junker and Stöggl (2015) found that stand-and-reach test scores increased by three cm [3]. Mohr et al., (2014) investigated the acute effect of foam rolling, static stretching, and combined foam rolling and static stretching on passive hip flexion ROM. ...
... There was a significant increase in ankle dorsiflexion ROM compared to baseline for the dominant leg from zero to 20 minutes [2]. After a daily foam rolling intervention consisting of three 30-second bouts, Junker and Stöggl (2015) found that stand-and-reach test scores increased by three cm [3]. Mohr et al., (2014) investigated the acute effect of foam rolling, static stretching, and combined foam rolling and static stretching on passive hip flexion ROM. ...
... Miller and Rockey (2006) reported an improvement of hamstrings flexibility after an 8-week FR intervention but with a similar extent as in the control group. Both, Sherer (2013) and Junker and Stöggl (2015) demonstrated an increase in sit and reach, respectively stand and reach, test performance with no change in the control group following a 4-week FR training. Macdonald et al. (2014) demonstrated that three 20-min FR sessions (0, 24 and 48 hrs) following an exercise induced muscle damage protocol resulted in improved passive and dynamic ROM. ...
... This result is similar to findings of other studies regarding the training effects of FR on ROM. Junker and Stöggl (2015) demonstrated that a 4-week FR training as well as a CRPNF stretching yield to an improvement of ROM in the stand and reach test compared with a control group. The changes in flexibility in the FR group were even comparable with those observed in the CRPNF that is a common and effective method to increase ROM (Page, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Self myofascial therapy via foam roller is a common technique used by many athletes and patients to aid recovery, improve range of motion (ROM) and prevent injury. Further, it is suggested that foam rolling improves core stability. However, research about the training effects of foam rolling on measures of core "strength en-durance", muscle performance, balance and flexibility is limited. Forty recreationally active females and males (age: 18-48 yrs) were randomly assigned to a foam roll (FOAM, n = 14), a core stabilization (CORE; n = 12) and a control group (CG, n = 12). FOAM massaged their lower leg muscles (5 exercises) with the foam roll 2 times per week for 8 weeks while CORE was assigned to core stability training including 5 exercises. CG underwent no intervention. Applied tests for outcome measurements were the Bourban trunk muscle strength test (TMS), standing long jump (SLJ), single leg triple hop for distance (SLTH) test, Y-Balance test and stand and reach test. There was an interaction effect (time x treatment) for the dorsal TMS (p = 0.043), demonstrating greater improvements in CORE compared with FOAM and CG with no difference between FOAM and CG. For the stand and reach test a main effect for time (p < 0.001) and time x treatment interaction (p = 0.005) were found, indicating an increase in ROM in FOAM compared with CORE and CG with no difference between the latter. No significant effects were found for balance and muscle performance. An 8-week training with the foam roll is effective in increasing ROM in the stand and reach test without con-comitant decreases in core "strength endurance", muscle performance and balance parameters. The core stabilization training was sufficient to improve performance in dorsal TMS test.
... Foam rolling also promotes blood flow, so using one is an effective way to warm-up before a workout (Beardsley & Skarabot, 2015). Some studies have reported that foam rolling that affects the flexibility of the hamstring muscles, researchers have concluded that the compression force of self-foam rolling stimulate the sensation to muscle receptor and reduce muscle tension, result as increasing muscle flexibility (Junker & Stoggl, 2015). Effect of foam rolling still has been investigated and compared to others warming-up methods. ...
... The result of this study was similar to previous studied (Junker & Stoggl, 2015). The increase in flexibility after foam rolling may be explained by a change in the thixo-tropic property of the fascia encasing the muscle. ...
Conference Paper
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The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling compare with dynamic stretching, static stretching and none stretching on flexibility, power, agility and speed performance. Twelve male Kasem Bundit University football players age from 19 to 24 years were randomly assigned to perform four trials on nonconsecutive days, each trial consists of the pre-exercise period with one of four stretching type which instructed by video and then physical performance were tested to examine its effects. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. One-way ANOVA repeated was used to compare the differences between four conditions. All tests used the 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that the speed running time after foam rolling, static and dynamic stretching were less than static stretching significantly. Agility running time after foam rolling and dynamic stretching condition was change significantly when compared with none stretching. Vertical jump in foam rolling and dynamic stretching conditions were greater than non-stretching condition. In addition, foam rolling may affects flexibility by significantly increase the lumbar flexion while other condition does not different when compared with none stretching. These results support that using foam rolling and dynamic stretching prior workout can improve physical performance in football player.
... PEDro score ranged from 4 to 8. None of the study had score less than 4. Good quality studies were 9 (Grieve et al., 2015;Joshi et al., 2018;Skarabot et al., 2015;Hanten and Chandler 1994;Stanek et al., 2018;Shetty et al., 2018;Cathcart 2019;Kimberly et al., 2018;Roylance et al., 2013) and fair quality were 7 (Do et al., 2018;Behara and Jacobson 2017;Junker et al., 2015;Colin et al., 2019;Kuruma et al., 2013;Hsuan et al., 2017;Smith 2018). Each study has mentioned proper eligibility criteria and they all did between group comparison analyses. ...
... In the meta-analysis of five included studies (Grieve et al., 2015;Do et al., 2018;Joshi et al., 2018;Junker et al., 2015, Hsuan et al., 2017, the pooled mean before the experiment was found to be 25.02 (95% CI: 16.54, 33.50)]. Heterogeneity was found to be low among the included studies (p ¼ 0.65, I 2 ¼ 0%). ...
Article
Objective Our review is aimed to find out the efficacy of Myofascial Release Technique (MFRT) based on the Randomised Controlled Trials, on flexibility when given along Superficial back line (SBL) structures and to compare it with other soft tissue release techniques. Data Sources A systematic literature search on MEDLINE (Pubmed), Google Scholar, Science direct, Cochrane Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Clinical Trial Database in English; up to April 2020 was undertaken. Study selection PRISMA (The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols) was used for screening the relevant citations and reviewing the relevant studies. The literature searched total of 6,938 articles, however, only 68 were screened for eligibility. In the further screening, 16 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for our systematic review. Data Extraction Data was extracted into a table containing sample size, mean age of subjects, types of intervention, area to be treated, outcome measures used and results of the accepted studies. Data Synthesis 16 Randomized controlled trials and cross-over trials were found to be eligible for our review. Quality assessment of the RCTs was done with the PEDro scoring method. Randomised clinical trials that studied the comparative effect of Myofascial Release (MFRT) technique with different MFRT techniques, control/sham, and other soft tissue release techniques like stretching, were included. Results of this study showed little evidence proving the effectiveness of MFRT treatment compared to other soft tissue release techniques for improving flexibility so as to consider it as the preferred treatment. Methodological aspects of selected studies for further research are suggested. Study was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42020179118). Conclusion MFRT is a good technique for improving flexibility but when we talk about comparison with other soft tissue release techniques, then this therapy becomes little weak. More research are supposed to be done to give strong evidence regarding its effectiveness.
... Flexibility plays an important role in ensuring human movement by creating the range of motion (Junker et al., 2015). Besides its effect on functionality, its possible relationship with injury and performance is also striking (Behm et al., 2016;Medeiros et al., 2016;Wanderley et al., 2019). ...
... Stretching techniques mainly consist of static, dynamic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques. Myofascial techniques include active and passive myofascial release (Page, 2012;Junker et al., 2015). Among the passive myofascial release techniques, recently, the most common technique is foam rolling applications. ...
... Miller and Rockey (2006) reported an improvement of hamstrings flexibility after an 8-week FR intervention but with a similar extent as in the control group. Both, Sherer (2013) and Junker and Stöggl (2015) demonstrated an increase in sit and reach, respectively stand and reach, test performance with no change in the control group following a 4-week FR training. Macdonald et al. (2014) demonstrated that three 20-min FR sessions (0, 24 and 48 hrs) following an exercise induced muscle damage protocol resulted in improved passive and dynamic ROM. ...
... This result is similar to findings of other studies regarding the training effects of FR on ROM. Junker and Stöggl (2015) demonstrated that a 4-week FR training as well as a CRPNF stretching yield to an improvement of ROM in the stand and reach test compared with a control group. The changes in flexibility in the FR group were even comparable with those observed in the CRPNF that is a common and effective method to increase ROM (Page, 2012). ...
... PEDro score ranged from 4 to 8. None of the study had score less than 4. Good quality studies were 9 (Grieve et al., 2015;Joshi et al., 2018;Skarabot et al., 2015;Hanten and Chandler 1994;Stanek et al., 2018;Shetty et al., 2018;Cathcart 2019;Kimberly et al., 2018;Roylance et al., 2013) and fair quality were 7 (Do et al., 2018;Behara and Jacobson 2017;Junker et al., 2015;Colin et al., 2019;Kuruma et al., 2013;Hsuan et al., 2017;Smith 2018). Each study has mentioned proper eligibility criteria and they all did between group comparison analyses. ...
... In the meta-analysis of five included studies (Grieve et al., 2015;Do et al., 2018;Joshi et al., 2018;Junker et al., 2015, Hsuan et al., 2017, the pooled mean before the experiment was found to be 25.02 (95% CI: 16.54, 33.50)]. Heterogeneity was found to be low among the included studies (p ¼ 0.65, I 2 ¼ 0%). ...
... While some studies compared the effectiveness of different types of roller (during either pre or post-exercise), as well as the nature and the duration of the massage pressure (Cheatham et al., 2015;Curran et al. 2008;Debruyne et al., 2017;De Souza et al., 2017;Monteiro et al., 2017), the effects of a longer FR intervention targeting several muscles on ROM, throughout several training sessions, has received little attention. Junker and Stöggl (2015) investigated the effectiveness of a 4-week training with the foam roll method on hamstring flexibility. They provided evidence that FR is effective to improve range of motion, such beneficial effects being comparable with those provided by the wellknown contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching method. ...
... This finding corroborates the results pattern yielded by previous short-term interventions, which underlined the positive effects of FR on hip ROM (Behara and Jacobson, 2015;Bushell et al., 2015;Cheatham et al., 2015;De Souza et al., 2017). While challenging the recent study by Hodgson et al. (2018), these findings are in keeping with the study by Junker and Stöggl (2015), who explored the effects of a 4-week period of FR on hamstring flexibility. Mohr et al. (2014) reported that FR followed by static stretching contributed to increase the intramuscular tissue temperature and blood flow, and concomitantly reduce viscosity due to changes in the thixotropic properties of the muscle. ...
Article
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Both foam rolling and joint distraction training with elastic bands are very popular interventions designed to improve muscular function, motor performance, and joint range of motion, as well as to reduce feeling of fatigue and delayed onset of muscle soreness. The heterogeneity of methods used among studies however prevents from drawing firm conclusions about the optimal content of pre/post interventions. The present study aims at answering the following questions: i) Do foam rolling and joint distraction with elastic band training improve joint range of motion in national rugby players? ii) Do short and long rolling durations have similar effects on range of motion? In a first experiment, we compared ankle, knee, and hip flexibility scores in 30 national rugby players after a 7-week foam rolling training program involving either a short (20s) or long (40s) rolling duration. Data revealed that foam rolling substantially improved all range of motion scores, regardless the rolling duration (performance gains ranged from 9 to 18° in the foam rolling groups, i.e. 8 to 20% increase, but remained under 2° in the control group). In a second experiment, we investigated the effect of a 5-week joint distraction with elastic band training program on hamstring and adductor range of motion in 23 national rugby players. Data showed that elastic band training significantly improved sit-and-reach (29.16% increase, p = 0.01) as well as side split (2.31% increase, p < 0.001) stretching performances. Taken together, present findings confirm that both foam rolling and joint distraction exercises with elastic bands are likely to enhance joint range of motion and specific mobility patterns during sport performance, and further serve prophylaxis. Such effects therefore constitute a promising avenue for clinical, home therapy, and personal flexibility training.
... The current study only performed one session of MFR protocol. It was reported that three bouts of 1-min MFR protocol applied as intervention for duration of 2-weeks for six sessions [29], 4-weeks [28] and 8-weeks interventions [25] showed a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility as opposed to other in which reportedly include heterogeneity of participants' nature and uncontrolled testing time of the day [25]. It is suggested that future study to include multiple session of MFR. ...
... It was demonstrated that flexibility is dependent on time of day testing with flexibility deemed to be greatest in the evening [27,28]. It is assumed that the current study did not show significant improvement in flexibility as testing for all exposure was conducted between 10 to 11 in the morning. ...
Chapter
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Integrating warm-up and stretching prior to performing physical activities has been shown to enhance sporting performance prevent injuries. Foam rolling, also known as myofascial release is widely applied in sport settings as a warm-up. However, there is limited evidence on its effectiveness on lower body power and flexibility among ruggers. This study aimed to compare the effects of myofascial release using foam rolling (MFR) and resistance band assisted stretching (RB) on lower body power and flexibility among Malaysian rugby players. Fifteen elite Malaysian male rugby players were exposed to three warm-up routines consisted of a total body dynamic warm-up (DYN), a total-body dynamic warm-up with foam rolling session (MFR), and total-body dynamic warm-up with resistance band assisted stretching (RB). Following general warm-up in each condition, participants performed flexibility and power tests. Differences in test results between conditions (DYN vs. MFR vs. RB) were investigated using one-way ANOVA. Findings revealed no significant differences in test results for both variables, however MFR recorded a superior performance of power relative to others.
... The use of devices such as foam rollers, roller massagers, balls and other instruments that purportedly increase range or motion (ROM), decrease myofascial pain, improve recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage and improve performance has experienced a recent surge in the exercise science, physical therapy and rehabilitation literature [1][2][3][4][5]. Although the magnitude is highly variable, ranging from 3 to 23% [6,7], rolling generally increases ROM in the shortterm [6,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14] for up to 20 min [15][16][17]. Increases in joint ROM have been reported with as little as 5-10 s of rolling [14], but the vast majority of research implements multiple sets of 30-60 s of rolling. ...
Article
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The term “self-myofascial release” is ubiquitous in the rehabilitation and training literature and purports that the use of foam rollers and other similar devices release myofascial constrictions accumulated from scar tissue, ischaemia-induced muscle spasms and other pathologies. Myofascial tone can be modulated with rollers by changes in thixotropic properties, blood flow, and fascial hydration affecting tissue stiffness. While rollers are commonly used as a treatment for myofascial trigger points, the identification of trigger points is reported to not be highly reliable. Rolling mechanisms underlying their effect on pain suppression are not well elucidated. Other rolling-induced mechanisms to increase range of motion or reduce pain include the activation of cutaneous and fascial mechanoreceptors and interstitial type III and IV afferents that modulate sympathetic/parasympathetic activation as well as the activation of global pain modulatory systems and reflex-induced reductions in muscle and myofascial tone. This review submits that there is insufficient evidence to support that the primary mechanisms underlying rolling and other similar devices are the release of myofascial restrictions and thus the term “self-myofascial release” devices is misleading.
... La terapia de SMR se fundamenta en los principios que desarrolló Barnes en 1997 sobre la liberación miofascial, pero esta no requiere de la intervención del personal especializado, sino que el individuo mediante la utilización de diversos implementos como pelotas, rodillos o el "foam roller" la puede realizar. Este método pretende liberar el tejido fascial adherido o con restricciones, ejerciendo presión sobre la superficie corporal (Ferreira, 2015) Diversos estudios científicos constatan la eficacia de la SMR para la ganancia de ROM sobre la zona muscular manipulada (DeBruyne, Dewhurst, Fischer, Wojtanowski, y Durall, 2017;Junker y Stöggl, 2015), del mismo modo que para otras zonas musculares remotas de la misma cadena miofascial (Do, Kim, y Yim, 2018;Grieve et al., 2015;Me- rino, Mayorga, Fernández y García, 2011a). Dicha técnica parece no interferir en el rendimiento deportivo del atleta (Beardsley y Skarabot, 2015;Kalichman y Ben-David, 2017), ayudan a mejorar de la función arterial (Okamoto, Masuhara y Ikuta, 2014) y a la recuperación mediante la atenuación del dolor tras el ejercicio (Macdonald, Button, Drinkwater y Behm, 2014). ...
Article
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Las adherencias en ciertas zonas musculares generan tensiones en otras musculaturas de la misma cadena muscular. El objetivo del estudio es probar el efecto inmediato de la “Auto-liberación Miofascial” (SMR) con la técnica de pelota de golf en la fascia plantar en deportistas federados de “Fútbol 11” (FU) y “Fútbol Sala” (FS) y su incidencia sobre la musculatura isquiosural. Además, se analizó las diferencias entre cada modalidad. El diseño es de tipo experimental longitudinal, con una muestra de 20 deportistas federados. Los resultados muestran una mejora en la longitud alcanzada en el “Test Sit and Reach” (SRT) de forma significativa la SMR entre “Grupo Control” (GC) y “Grupo Experimental” (GE). Entre modalidades no se aprecian diferencias significativas. Se concluye que existe un efecto inmediato de la SMR con la técnica de pelota de golf en la fascia plantar sobre la musculatura isquiosural. No existiendo diferencias significativas entre modalidades. Adhesions in certain muscle areas generate tension in other muscles of the same muscle chain. The aim of the study is to test the immediate effect of the “Self-myofascial release” (SMR) with the golf ball technique on the plantar fascia in federated sportsmen of "Football 11" (FU) and "Futsal" (FS) and its influence on hamstring musculature. Besides, the differences between each modality have been analysed. The design is of the longitudinal experimental type, with a sample of 20 federated sportsmen. The results show significant improvement in the length reached in the “Sit and Reach Test” (SRT) after the SMR between "Control Group" (GC) and "Experimental Group"(GE). There are no significant differences between modalities. It is therefore concluded that there is an immediate effect of SMR with the golf ball technique on the plantar fascia over the hamstring muscle. There are no significant differences between modalities.
... Su et al. (2016) reported greater hip flexor ROM with foam rolling versus static stretching. Improved flexibility can persist for up to 20 minutes after rolling (Junker and Stoggl, 2015;Kelly and Beardsley, 2016;Mohr et al., 2014) with increases in ROM ranging from 2.8% to 23.4% (Grieve et al., 2015). Despite the abundance of findings of increased ROM, there is not unanimity in the rolling literature. ...
Article
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Roller massage (RM) can be painful and induce muscle activity during application. Acute increases in pain pressure threshold (PPT) and range of motion (ROM) have been previously reported following RM. It is unclear whether the RM-induced increases in PPT and ROM can be attributed to changes in neural or muscle responses. To help determine if neural pain pathways are affected by roller massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was utilized as a form of electroanalgesia during RM with PPT and ROM tested on the affected and contralateral quadriceps. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in both quadriceps, the effect of brief intense TENS on PPT and ROM following unilateral RM of the quadriceps. A randomized within subjects' design was used to examine local and non-local effects of TENS and roller massage versus a control condition (rolling without TENS application). Four 30s bouts of roller massage of the dominant quadriceps were implemented with 30s of rest. The researcher applied the RM using a constant pressure device with approximately 70% of the maximum tolerable load. Perceived pain was monitored using a visual analog scale (VAS) during RM. Ipsilateral and contralateral quadriceps ROM and PPT were measured immediately following RM. Significant main effects for time showed increased PPT and ROM in both the treated and contralateral quadriceps, with no significant main effects for intervention or interactions for intervention and time. Moderate to large effect sizes and minimal clinically important differences (MCID) were detected when comparing baseline to pre- and post-tests respectively. VAS scores were significantly (main effect for intervention) and near significantly (interactions) reduced with MCID when TENS was applied during rolling. The addition of TENS to rolling did not increase PPT or ROM in the affected or contralateral quadriceps, likely due to a repeated testing effect.
... With the undulating massage-like mechanical pressure placed upon the target muscle(s), the SAFR is an effective tool to promote soft tissue extensibility (Barnes, 1997;MacDonald et al., 2013), as well as to enhance recovery from high-intensity exercise (D'Amico & Gillis, 2017;Macdonald et al., 2014;Pearcey et al., 2015). More specifically, the SAFR can improve joint range of motion (ROM) (Beardsley & Skarabot, 2015;Cheatham et al., 2015;Freiwald et al., 2016;Healey et al., 2014;Junker & Stoggl, 2015;MacDonald et al., 2013;Madoni et al., 2018;Monteiro et al., 2017;Su et al., 2017) and increase pain pressure threshold (PPT) (Cheatham & Baker, 2017;Cheatham, Stull & Kolber, 2019;Pearcey et al., 2015) without necessarily impairing subsequent athletic performance (Behara & Jacobson, 2017;Healey et al., 2014;MacDonald et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Background: Self-administered foam rolling (SAFR) is an effective massage technique often used in sport and rehabilitation settings to improve range of motion (ROM) without impairing the strength performance. However, the effects of unilateral SAFR on contralateral non-intervened muscle's rate of force development (RFD) are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of unilateral hamstrings SAFR on the contralateral limb flexibility, the isometric strength, and the RFD parameters. Methods: Thirty-four subjects (21 women) completed two separate randomly sequenced experimental visits, during which the control (rested for 10 min) or ten, 30-second SAFR were performed with the dominant hamstring muscle group. Before (Pre) and after (Post) the interventions, the contralateral hip flexion passive ROM, the maximal explosive isometric strength of the contralateral knee flexors with the corresponding prime mover muscles' surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude were measured. Separate two-way (time ×intervention) repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine the potential changes of the dependent variables. Results: The SAFR significantly improved the contralateral limb ROM (Pre vs. Post: 68.3 ± 21.0 vs. 73.2 ± 23.2 degrees, p < 0.001; d = 0.22). No change was found for the contralateral isometric strength or the maximal EMG amplitude. For the RFD parameters, the percent changes of the RFDs for the first 50, 100, and 200 ms of the maximal explosive isometric contraction were -31.2%, -16.8%, and -10.1%, respectively, following the unilateral SAFR, relative to the control condition. In addition, the decrement of the first 50-ms RFD reached statistical significance (p = 0.007; Cohen's d = 0.44). Conclusion: Ten sets of 30-second unilateral hamstring SAFR improved the ROM of the non-intervened contralateral limb, but decreased its ability to generate force, especially during the early phase (e.g., 50 ms) of the maximal explosive contraction.
... Various forms of stretching exercises are used to modify ROM, but acute negative effects of static stretching on muscular strength (3,11,12,22,26,38) have increased the interest in the effects of myofascial release techniques such as the FR intervention on ROM (4,18,40). Many studies have indicated that the FR intervention could increase ROM of the hip, knee, and ankle without impairing muscular strength (8,13,24,28), although some authors reported no changes in ROM after the FR intervention (31,42). ...
Article
Yoshimura, A, Inami, T, Schleip, R, Mineta, S, Shudo, K, and Hirose, N. Effects of self-myofascial release using a foam roller on range of motion and morphological changes in muscle: a crossover study. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Self-myofascial release using a foam roller (FR) is effective in improving range of motion (ROM) in at least some conditions. However, its mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated potential acute muscle morphological changes after the FR intervention and aimed to clarify the mechanism of increases in ROM by the FR intervention. We hypothesized that the FR intervention may increase ROM because of changes in fascicle length (FL) and aponeurosis displacement. This crossover study, involving 22 male university students (21.5 ± 1.3 years, 170.6 ± 4.0 cm, and 64.1 ± 8.9 kg; mean ± SD), compared the FR intervention targeting the gastrocnemius muscle with the control trial. The outcome measures were maximum passive ankle ROM, morphology of the gastrocnemius muscle (FL and aponeurosis displacement) during passive ankle plantar flexor movement, degree of pain during the FR intervention, and sensation of the triceps surae muscle. Although ROM of both dorsiflexion and plantar flexion increased significantly after the FR intervention (p < 0.01), no significant differences were found in FL and aponeurosis displacement before and after the FR intervention. The mean perception of pain during the FR intervention was rated as "slightly uncomfortable," corresponding to a 2.3 ± 2.4-cm on a 9.5-cm visual analog scale. We found that the FR intervention did not influence the morphology of muscle. It is necessary to investigate other factors related to ROM as the next step of this study.
... In the last few years, a field of research has been developed concerning the influence of FR use in the athletes' warm-up (Junker & Stöggl, 2015;McDonald et al, 2013;Madoni, Costa, Coburn & Galpin, 2018;Miller & Rockey, 2006;Mohr et al., 2014;Murray et al, 2016;Škarabot et al, 2015) in various fitness properties, such as flexibility and strength, with contradictory findings. Junger & Stöggl (2015) observed improvement in flexion of the hamstrings after a 4-week intervention program, where participants performed 3 x 40 sec FR in the posterior femurs, 3 times per week. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined program involving static stretching (SS) and foam rolling (FR) on hip flexion (Range of Motion-ROM) and jumping ability of soccer players. 24 amateur soccer players (age 21,73±0,87 years, height 179±0,53 cm and body mass 77,06±5,74 kg) divided in two groups: the control group which performed only short duration SS (10 sec) in quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors and gastrocnemious muscles and the experimental group which performed a combined program that included SS with the same duration and 30 sec FR in the same muscle groups. The participants were measured in the hip flexion (ROM) and the jumping ability was assessed with countermovement jump (CMJ) with the arms akimbo, and countermovement jump with free arms (CMJFREE). Two-way repeated measures analyses of variance revealed no significant difference between the two groups in any variable. However, there were observed significant differences between the pre-and post-intervention measurements in ROM and CMJ performance. These findings suggest that SS of short duration does not influence negatively the ROM and the jumping performance, and that a combined program with SS and FR also induces an improvement.
... However, the results were more O n l i n e F i r s t equivocal when only 1 bout of 60 seconds or less was performed over each region. [10][11][12] This aspect needs to be addressed because the average warmup time of athletes is often 20 to 40 minutes, of which athletes dedicate only 5 to 10 minutes to foam-rolling or similar exercises. 13 In fact, some researchers 8,14 found that shorter durations provided neutral effects on performance parameters, such as vertical jump and force output, whereas others found beneficial effects for performance variables such as efficiency during a lunge 12 and maximal voluntary contraction force. ...
Article
Context Foam-rolling exercises are frequently included in warmups due to their benefits for increasing range of motion (ROM). However, their effects on proprioception and vertical jump have not been analyzed and therefore remain unclear. Moreover, the effects of performing practical-duration foam-rolling exercises after typical warmup exercises such as jogging are unknown. Objective To analyze the effects of jogging and practical-duration foam-rolling exercises on the ROM, knee proprioception, and vertical jump of athletes. Design Randomized controlled study. Setting Sports laboratory and university track. Patients or Other Participants Thirty athletes were randomly classified into an experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). Intervention(s) The EG performed 8-minute jogging and foam-rolling exercises. The CG performed 8-minute jogging. Main Outcome Measure(s) Knee flexion, hip extension, active knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion (ADF), knee-joint position sense, and countermovement jump (CMJ) were evaluated before the intervention (baseline), after (post 0 min), and 10 minutes later. Results The EG exhibited higher values for ADF and CMJ at post 0 min (ADF: P < .001, d = 0.88; CMJ: P < .001, d = 0.52) and 10 minutes later (ADF: P = .014, d = 0.41; CMJ: P = .006, d = 0.22) compared with baseline. Although the CG also showed increased CMJ at post 0 min ( P = .044, d = 0.21), the EG demonstrated a greater increase ( P = .021, d = 0.97). No differences were found in the remaining ROM variables (knee flexion, hip extension, active knee extension: P values > .05). For knee-joint position sense, no differences were found ( P > .05). Conclusions Combining jogging and practical-duration foam rolling may increase ADF and CMJ without affecting knee proprioception and hip or knee ROM. Jogging by itself may slightly increase ADF and CMJ, but the results were better and were maintained after 10 minutes when foam rolling was added.
... 10 There has only been one rolling training study, which reported similar increases in a stand and reach flexibility test with foam rolling and PNF stretching after a three session per week, fourweek training period of healthy adults. 35 There were only minor differences between the Junker and Stoggl training study and the present study. While the frequency and duration (four weeks) of the rolling training was similar as was the duration of rolling repetitions (30 vs. 30-40s), the participants in the present study were on average six years younger (25 vs 31 years), and used a roller massager rather than a foam roller possibly with different intensities of rolling (7/10 VAS scale vs. body mass load when foam rolling). ...
Article
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Background: Roller massagers are popular devices that are used to improve range of motion (ROM), enhance recovery from muscle soreness, and reduce pain under acute conditions. However, the effects of roller massage training and training frequency are unknown. Purpose: The objective was to compare two different roller massage training frequencies on muscle performance. Study design: Randomized controlled intervention study. Methods: Twenty-three recreationally active university students were randomly allocated to three groups: control (n=8;), rolling three (3/W; n=8;) and six (6/W; n=7) times per week for four weeks. The roller massage training consisted of unilateral, dominant limb, quadriceps and hamstrings rolling (4 sets x 30 seconds). Both legs of participants were tested pre- and post-training for active and passive hamstrings and quadriceps range of motion (ROM), electromyography (EMG) activity during a lunge movement, unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJ), as well as quadriceps and hamstrings maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) forces and electromechanical delay. Finally, they were tested for pain pressure threshold at middle and distal segments of their quadriceps and hamstrings. Results: There were no significant training interactions for any measure with the exception that 3/W group exhibited 6.2% (p=0.03; Effect Size: 0.31) higher CMJ height from pre- (38.6 ± 7.1 cm) to post-testing (40.9 ± 8.1 cm) for the non-dominant limb. Conclusions: Whereas the literature has demonstrated acute responses to roller massage, the results of the present study demonstrate no consistent significant training-induced changes. The absence of change may highlight a lack of muscle and myofascial morphological or semi-permanent neurophysiological changes with rolling. Levels of evidence: 2c.
... Results from different studies indicate that foam rolling is effective in increasing ROM. There are a number of studies concerning the influence of foam rolling on flexibility (Behara & Jacobson, 2017;Halperin et al., 2014;Junker & Stöggl, 2015;Kelly & Beardsley, 2016), but it is unclear how long these changes in range of motion (ROM) last. Lastova et al. (2018) find that FR decreases sympathovagal balance for 30 minutes post-intervention, which is concurrent with an important hypotensive effect. ...
... Foam rolling and roller massagers are relatively recent and popular devices used to increase range of motion (ROM) or flexibility (see reviews 1,2 ) and decrease pain sensitivity, 2 and in some reports, improve performance. 1 The use of rolling has led to significant improvements with hip flexion (hamstrings), [3][4][5][6][7][8] hip extension (quadriceps), 3,9,10 knee extension (quadriceps), 5,[11][12][13] ankle dorsiflexion (plantar flexors), [14][15][16] and sit-and-reach ROM. 17 However, the results in the literature are not unanimous, as some studies have reported trivial effects of rolling on the following ROMs: knee extension 18 and flexion, 19 ankle dorsiflexion, 20 and sit-and-reach performance 21 . Although statistically significant, a 60-s bout of quadriceps rolling can induce a small change in hip flexor and quadriceps flexibility, which was of little practical relevance. ...
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Background: Prior studies have reported an increase in range of motion (ROM) and pain pressure thresholds (PPT) with self-massage using foam rollers and roller massagers. A possible mechanism for the increased ROM is the increase in stretch (pain) threshold. The effects of the use of a topical analgesic alone or in combination with rolling may provide additional benefits for ROM and PPT and improve the ability to tolerate discomfort during a fatiguing protocol. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of a topical analgesic alone or a roller massager alone and a combination of both on ROM, PPT, and performance in a fatiguing protocol. Design: This study used a repeated-measures, randomized, within-subjects design. Methods: Sixteen healthy, active male participants (age range, 18-27 years) free from musculoskeletal injuries participated in the study that included 5 conditions, namely, control, placebo gel, topical analgesic gel, rolling and placebo gel, and rolling and topical analgesic gel. All sessions involved 2 ROM and PPT pretests separated by 5 min. Further, after a 20-min recovery period, 2 posttests of ROM, PPT, and heel raises to failure (HRF) were completed at 5-min intervals. In sessions including gel application, immediately after posttest 2, the gels were manually applied on the dominant-leg calf muscles. In sessions including self-massage, 18 min after pretest 2, a rolling massage protocol of 3 sets of 30 s with 10-s rest for a score of 7/10 on the pain scale to cadence of 1 s for the full length of the muscle was conducted from the same sitting position. Statistical analysis: A 5 conditions  4 times repeated-measures ANOVA () was used to analyze PPT and ROM, whereas a 5 conditions  2 times ANOVA was used for HRF. Results: There were no significant main effects for condition or any interactions. A main effect for time (P = 0.031) showed meaningful but no statistically significant (P = 0.1) increases in PPT with near-significant increases between pretest 1 (35.9 6 10.1 kg) and pretest 2 (38.3 6 12.6 kg) and significant (P = 0.02) increases from posttest 1 (36.3 6 11.4 kg) to posttest 2 (38.9 6 12.8 kg). ROM also showed a main effect for time (P < 0.0001), with significant improvements between all times and with the exception of results from posttest 1 to posttest 2 [pretest 1 (13.8 6 3.1 cm), pretest 2 (14.08 6 3.2 cm), posttest 1 (14.28 6 2.9 cm), posttest 2 (14.4 6 3.3 cm)]. HRF showed a main effect for time, with a significant (P = 0.006) decrease in repetitions from posttest 1 (22.1 6 6.7) to posttest 2 (20.4 6 4.4). Conclusions: In contrast to prior rolling studies, there was no augmentation of ROM or PPT and there was no isolated or additive effect with the use of topical analgesic. This lack of significance might be attributed to the inclusion of 2 pretests, a nonclinical healthy young population (no pain or injuries), a more restricted ROM associated with the ankle joint, or type II errors (false negatives with a relatively small sample population). Clinical applications: The use of roller massagers and topical analgesic alone or in combination may have limited effects in the ankle joint model of a healthy population, and further research should investigate clinical populations and other joint/muscle complexes/regions. Key Point: The use of a topical analgesic alone, a roller massage alone, or a combination of both were ineffective for increasing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, pressure pain threshold, or heel raise endurance task.
... Foam rolling or self-soft tissue mobilization can also be effective in decreasing neuromuscular tone in the involved musculature. Several studies have shown foam rolling is effective in improving short term flexibility of the quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip flexors in healthy subjects (40)(41)(42), however, it is unknown as to how long these effects last. Further investigation is needed to determine long term effects of foam rolling; however, it can be a useful tool in decreasing muscular tone and pain prior to or following exercise. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature regarding conservative treatment options for the three most common knee injuries in runners including patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS), and patellar tendinopathy (PT). Each diagnosis is discussed using current research to describe the pathophysiology, evaluation process, and evidence based effective treatment strategies including therapeutic exercise, manual therapy, neuromuscular re-education, and modalities. The result is a comprehensive overview of each diagnosis and a research-based approach to effectively evaluate and treat each condition for best outcomes.
... Foam rolling improves hamstring flexibility range of motion similar to contract-relax PNF stretching. 50 A systematic review and meta-analysis reported a single bout of foam rolling induced large flexibility improvements compared with inactivity and similar increases compared with stretching interventions but does not produce long-term changes in flexibility. 51 Quickly establishing a solid foundation with a full, functional range of motion is critical. ...
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There is a need to improve the quality of rehabilitation in sports medicine to return athletes to optimal function safely and quickly, reducing the risk of reinjury. This paper describes a planning paradigm to guide clinical reasoning during individual treatment sessions and a model for planning the rehabilitation program from acute injury to return to play. The design of a rehabilitation program should be a collaborative, team effort, and accounting for the specific needs of the athlete. As the athlete progresses from acute injury management all the way back to full competition, the rehabilitation professional emphasizes the components of pain management , motion, motor control, and force production in varying degrees based upon phases of tissue healing and the athlete's response. Utilizing high-value, evidence-based treatments maximize both the effectiveness and efficiency of rehabilitation to restore and improve upon preinjury levels of physical performance.
... 6,36,37 Most of the studies reported increased flexibility after the use of one or multiple (from 2 to 24) SMFR sessions, even when different intervention protocols were used. 1,[12][13][14]18,24,26,32,33,36,40,41,44,45,47 Thus, the use of a single session or multiple sessions of SMFR after a training protocol produced similar results, both being indicated for flexibility recovery. ...
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Self-myofascial release with a roller has been used as a tool to accelerate recovery. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate how one session or multiple sessions of self-myofascial release with a roller affect the recovery of an athlete´s performance. The research was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, BVS, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases using the terms: foam rolling, foam roller, and self-myofascial release combined with recovery, exercise, fatigue, and sport and acute effects, chronic effects and performance, resulting in 12,020 articles. After checking the inclusion criteria, 40 studies were selected and analyzed. It was concluded that multiple sessions of self-myofascial release with a roller are more effective in recovering lower limb power and speed performance than just one session. A single session is more effective for recovering strength performance than multiple sessions. Moreover, both single and multiple sessions showed similar results in the recovery of agility, pain, flexibility, blood lactate removal, and perception of recovery. Finally, multiple sessions between sets of resistance exercise seem to reduce performance, decreasing the number of repetitions and resistance to fatigue, while a single session did not produce a significant effect. Self-myofascial release with a roller demonstrates potential for speeding up the recovery process of athletes. Future studies should evaluate the effect of the regular use of self-myofascial release with a roller on performance recovery. Level of evidence II; Systematic review. Keywords: Manipulation therapy; Recovery of function; Physical performance
... Hence, it would be interesting to compare the magnitude in the increase of ROM between foam rolling and stretching. Apart from the two already included studies in the main analysis [55,56], we have also found a further study in our systematic search [57] where the effects of foam rolling with either static stretching [56,57], or PNF stretching [58] were compared. Our analysis showed that based on these three studies no significant difference between stretching and foam rolling exists ( Fig. 4; [ES = 0.516; Z = 1.566; 95% CI − 0.130 to 1.161; p = 0.12; I 2 = 60.25]). ...
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Background A single foam-rolling exercise can acutely increase the range of motion (ROM) of a joint. However, to date the adaptational effects of foam-rolling training over several weeks on joint ROM are not well understood. Objective The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of foam-rolling training interventions on joint ROM in healthy participants. Methods Results were assessed from 11 studies (either controlled trials [CT] or randomized controlled trials [RCTs]) and 46 effect sizes by applying a random-effect meta-analysis. Moreover, by applying a mixed-effect model, we performed subgroup analyses, which included comparisons of the intervention duration (≤ 4 weeks vs > 4 weeks), comparisons between muscles tested (e.g., hamstrings vs quadriceps vs triceps surae), and study designs (RCT vs CT). Results Our main analysis of 290 participants with a mean age of 23.9 (± 6.3 years) indicated a moderate effect of foam-rolling training on ROM increases in the experimental compared to the control group (ES = 0.823; Z = 3.237; 95% CI 0.325–1.322; p = 0.001; I ² = 72.76). Subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences between study designs ( p = 0.36). However, a significant difference was observed in the intervention duration in favor of interventions > 4 weeks compared to ≤ 4 weeks for ROM increases ( p = 0.049). Moreover, a further subgroup analysis showed significant differences between the muscles tested ( p = 0.047) in the eligible studies. Foam rolling increased joint ROM when applied to hamstrings and quadriceps, while no improvement in ankle dorsiflexion was observed when foam rolling was applied to triceps surae. Conclusion Longer duration interventions (> 4 weeks) are needed to induce ROM gains while there is evidence that responses are muscle or joint specific. Future research should examine possible mechanisms underpinning ROM increases following different foam-rolling protocols, to allow for informed recommendations in healthy and clinical populations.
... Another exercise and rehabilitative potential training method for the core musculature could be foam rolling (Junker and Stoggl, 2015;Behm and Wilke, 2019;Behm et al., 2020;Nakamura et al., 2021) especially when it is applied on the lower leg muscles. Foam rolling is a form of rolling self-massage in which body weight is applied on a foam roller to roll and compress the targeted musculature (MacDonald et al., 2013;Pearcey et al., 2015;Wiewelhove et al., 2019;Wilke et al., 2020). ...
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The objective of this study was to compare the activation of the core (trunk) musculature during quadriceps and hamstrings foam rolling (FR) vs. prone and supine/reverse static planks to determine if FR is a viable means of training the core musculature. Using a randomized allocation, nine recreationally trained, young adults (18-26 years) performed two sets each of quadriceps and hamstrings FR as well as supine/reverse and prone static planks for 30-s each with 1-min rest between sets and 5-min rest between exercises. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lower abdominals (LA), external obliques (EO), lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES) muscle groups were normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction and analyzed. Quadriceps FR exhibited a very large magnitude greater LA activity compared to reverse plank (p = 0.033, d = 4.42) and hamstrings FR (p = 0.020, d = 3.49), respectively. The prone plank demonstrated very large magnitude higher EO EMG activity compared to reverse plank (p = 0.001, d = 9.17), hamstrings FR (p = 0.002, d = 8.14), and quadriceps FR (p = 0.011, d = 5.97). Reverse plank (p = 0.003, d = 12.06), and quadriceps FR (p = 0.002, d = 7.84) induced greater ULES activity compared to the prone plank and hamstrings FR, respectively. Reverse plank also exhibited very large magnitude higher LSES activity compared to the prone plank (p < 0.001, d = 7.68), hamstrings FR (p = 0.002, d = 4.11), and quadriceps FR (p = 0.005, d = 2.34), respectively. In conclusion, whereas reverse plank was the most effective activator of dorsal core muscles, quadriceps FR may also be a time efficient alternative exercise to activate back (ventral core) muscles. The prone plank is effective for ventral core muscles activation.
... One possible explanation for the inconsistency between these three studies might be the difference in training variables, given that all aforementioned studies prescribed different intervention set, repetition, and frequencies. However, this fails to explain the different results between Junker and Stöggl (2015) and Hodgson et al. (2018) who both investigated the chronic effects of a 4week foam rolling intervention on hamstring flexibility. Despite similar training protocols regarding training duration, frequency, and volume, only Junker and Stöggl (2015) discovered significant improvements in ROM. ...
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Background Foam rolling has been shown to acutely improve joint range of motion (ROM). However, limited knowledge exists on the chronic and residual effects. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the chronic and residual effects of a 2-week roller–massager intervention on ankle dorsiflexion ROM and dynamic balance.Methods Forty-two participants (24.3 ± 2.5 years, 33 males, 9 females) were randomly assigned to either roller-massage (RM) or control group (= no intervention). Ankle ROM was assessed with the weight-bearing lunge test (WBLT) and dynamic balance with the Y-Balance test for both limbs. The RM group was instructed to roll their calf muscles for three sets of 60 s per leg on 6 days a week over 2 weeks. Acute effects were measured during baseline testing for dorsiflexion ROM and dynamic balance immediately after foam rolling. Chronic and residual effects were measured 1 day and 7 days after the intervention period. Multivariate ANOVA was performed for post-hoc comparisons to determine acute, chronic, and residual effects.ResultsSignificant acute and chronic foam rolling effects (p <0.05) were found for ankle dorsiflexion ROM. The chronic increase in ROM slightly decreased 7 days post-intervention but remained significantly above baseline (p < 0.05). Regarding dynamic balance, there were no acute but chronic (p < 0.05) and residual (p < 0.05) effects.Conclusion Using a roller–massager for a 2-week period chronically increases ROM and dynamic balance. These increases are still significant 7 days post-intervention emphasizing the sustainability of foam rolling effects.
... Although there is a lack of evidence showing increased performance of SMR as a warm-up strategy, no deleterious effects were previously reported. 20 In order to investigate a short-term effect of four weeks training with foam rollers for flexibility, Junker et al. 21 recruited 47 men recreationally active. They were divided into three groups: the first group used the foam roller (FOAM, n = 13) performing three sets for hamstring on each leg in a total duration of 30-40 seconds; a second group used contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (CRPNF, n = 14) consisted of three times of six seconds of isometric contraction and 10 seconds stretching, in a total of three sets; and the last one was a control group (n = 13). ...
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Objective: the aim of this study was to compare differences in volume load, total repetition performed and rating of perceived exertion between static stretching and self-myofascial release on antagonist muscles. Methods: Eighteen recreationally trained men (23.4 ± 3.3 years; 80.7 ± 11.1 kg; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm) performed 10 repetitions maximum test and retest in the leg extension exercise on the first two visits. Then, three experimental sessions were conducted in a random order, in which two consisted of self-myofascial release and static stretching on hamstrings, and the other was used as a control. Results: significant higher repetitions were performed in the third set of static stretching when compared to control protocol. Additionally, significant reductions in total repetitions performed were observed only in the control session. No significant differences were noticed in the volume load of leg extension and rating of perceived exertion between protocols. Conclusion: self-myofascial release and static stretching performed before a session in the antagonist muscles can maintain repetitions performance by optimizing recovery between sets and reducing fatigue of agonist muscle.
... Using the G*power version -3.1.9.6, at an α = 0.01 and 1-β = .95 using effect size of 1.5 (Junker et al 2015) for three group comparison of one -way ANOVA of three group comparison. A total of 15 was derived as a sample. ...
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The present study was aimed at comparing the self-myo-fascial release technique (SMFR), cupping therapy (CTh), & static stretching (SS) on the hamstring flexibility (HF) using active knee extension test (AKE), for active flexibility; sit & reach test (SRT) and the passive straight leg raise (PSLR) test, for passive flexibility. N = 45 individuals were evaluated for hamstring flexibility. Interventions were given using foam roller (4mins for 3days), cupping therapy (7 minsfor3days) and passive stretching (3 times with 30 seconds hold for 5 days). One-way ANOVA in the follow-up analysis of three groups has shown variation for AKE (p value = 0.013*), for PSLR (p value = 0.019*). In parallel analysis using unpaired t test-post intervention analysis, SRT has shown better result for SMFR versus SS (p= 0.018), AKE has shown better result for SS versus CTh (p=0.043), and PSLR has shown better result for CTh versus SMFR (p=0.02); follow-up analysis , SRT has shown better result for SMFR versus SS (p=0.04), and SMFR versus CTh (p=0.012), AKE has shown better results for SMFR versus SS (p= 0.045), and SMFR versus CTh (p=0.0035), PSLR has shown better results for CTh versus SMFR (p= 0.004), and SS versus SMFR (p= 0.025)
... In the 21st century, with the rapid development of science and technology, people's life is becoming more and more convenient; however, the accelerated pace of life makes people lack exercise, which leads to the hidden dangers of various diseases [1]. To improve physical fitness and get rid of sub-health, in addition to the daily balanced diet, it is also necessary to maintain enough exercise. ...
... Another possible mechanism is the tissue hydration. The pressure applied by the FR soak the myofascial complex with fluid, improving the movement between the layers of fascia and increasing the blood flow in the region (22). Okamoto et al. (30) observed a decrease in arterial stiffness and an increase in plasma nitric oxide concentration. ...
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Previous studies investigated the effects of foam rolling (FR) on measurements of strength and power. However, the acute effect of FR on muscle thickness (MT) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) after multiple sets of resistance exercise remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of one and three minutes of quadriceps FR on muscle thickness (vastus lateralis [VL] and rectus femoris [RF]), pain threshold (VL and RF), and total load lifted (TLL) on multiple sets of knee extension. Nine resistance-trained men (age: 24.8 ± 5.2 years; height: 177 ± 7 cm; total body mass 77.7 ± 6.2 kg) participated the study. MT, PPT, and performance on multiple sets of knee extension were compared after performing passive recovery (CON), one minute (FR1), or three minutes of FR (FR3). A similar total training load among experimental conditions was observed. There was a greater increase on VL muscle thickness after FR3 when compared to CON and FR1. In addition, there was an increase on rectus femoris PPT two minutes post FR3, with no differences between conditions. These results indicate that longer duration FR-protocol may acutely increase muscle thickness of the vastus lateralis muscle without negatively affect the TLL and PTT.
... This result became possible due to the inclusion of such exercises in the Pilates training, as rolling on the foam roller and spike balls, flexion, extension, abduction of the hip, and articulation of the foot. Junker and Stöggl (2015), Kao et al. (2015), Kibar et al. (2016), Kloubec (2010), and Rogers and Gibson (2009) reported similar results when using Pilates exercises to increase hamstring elasticity in women of different age groups. Park et al. (2020) reported the beneficial effects of Pilates exercise on hamstring flexibility in male athletes. ...
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AbstractBackground: Pilates training has proven to be an effective method of mental and physical conditioning in rehabilitation, and it has become increasingly popular within the general fitness community. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of Pilates training practice on the respiratory system, joint mobility, and muscle strength of healthy middle-aged women with sedentary occupation. Methods: Thirty-two healthy women (age 45.4 ± 2.3 years, range 40–49 years; body mass 73.5 ± 1.5 kg; body height1.70 ± 0.03 m) were recruited and randomised into experimental (n = 18) and control (n = 14) groups. The experimental group participated in a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates workouts (beginner level) three times per week. Results: After intervention, the experimental group revealed significant positive changes in the vital capacity test (p = .05), Stange test (p = .001), and Gencha test(p = .001). Respiratory rate and body mass index improved slightly. All joint mobility and muscle strength variables of the participants showed significant differences compared with the baseline data (p < .05). The most significant improvements were observed in variables of the shoulder girdle mobility during flexion (p = .003), abdominal strength (p = .041), and body strength endurance(p = .003 and .034). No significant changes were observed in the control group. Conclusions: The results confirmed that a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates workouts three times per week is effective in improving parameters of the respiratory system, shoulder girdle, abdominal strength and endurance, and hip and shoulder joint mobility in healthy middle-aged women with a sedentary occupation.
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Objective To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis assessing the effects of foam rolling on range of motion, laboratory- and field-based athletic measures, and on recovery. Data sources MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and Science Direct were searched (2005-June 2018). Study selection Experimental and observational studies were included if they examined the effects of foam rolling on measures of athletic performance in field or laboratory settings. Data extraction Two investigators independently assessed methodologic quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Study characteristics including participant age, sex and physical activity status, foam rolling protocol and pre- and post-intervention mean outcome measures were extracted. Data synthesis A total of 32 studies (mean PEDro = 5.56) were included in the qualitative analysis, which was themed by range of motion, laboratory-based measures, field-based measures and recovery. Thirteen range of motion studies providing 18 datasets were included in the meta-analysis. A large effect (d=0.76, 95% CI 0.55-0.98) was observed, with foam rolling increasing range of motion in all studies in the analysis. Conclusions Foam rolling increases range of motion, appears to be useful for recovery from exercise induced muscle damage, and there appear to be no detrimental effect of foam rolling on other athletic performance measures. However, except range of motion, it cannot be concluded that foam rolling is directly beneficial to athletic performance. Foam rolling does not appear to cause harm and seems to elicit equivalent effects in males and females
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Introduction: Static stretching (SS) has been used for inducing acute and long-term increases in range of motion (ROM). Foam rolling (FR) has recently gained popularity for acutely increasing ROM. However, the long-term effects of FR on ROM have not been thoroughly evaluated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and long-term changes in dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) as a result of six weeks of FR, SS, and FR followed by SS (FR + SS). Methods: Participants (n = 44) were randomly assigned to FR, SS, and FR + SS groups. FR group foam rolled the triceps surae. SS group performed a wall stretch for both legs. FR + SS performed FR immediately followed by SS. All groups completed 12 training sessions in six weeks. Dorsiflexion ROM was assessed before and after the first training session, before the second session of week three, before and after the last session in week six, and at week seven. Results: There was a 4.0% acute increase in ROM at week six (p = 0.004) for all three groups. ROM increased 8.4% from week three to week seven for all three groups (p < 0.001). When comparing week one baseline to week seven, ROM increased 18.3% for all three groups (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Static stretching and foam rolling appear to be comparable in terms of increasing dorsiflexion ROM acutely as well as after six weeks of training for healthy, university-aged participants. Foam rolling combined with static stretching does not appear to provide a synergistic effect on improving dorsiflexion ROM.
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Focused Clinical Question : What is the efficacy of structured foam rolling protocols at increasing hamstring muscle flexibility in active adults when compared with just maintaining regular levels of activity? Clinical Bottom Line : There is significant evidence to support the use of structured foam rolling programs in active adults to improve hamstring flexibility.
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Background Hip adductors are the group of muscles that stabilize the pelvis during weight transfer in lower limbs in a gait cycle. As the full range of motion is seldomly used this group of muscles commonly goes into tightness which in turn may be a predisposing factor in development of back pain and knee pain. Methods 54 healthy individuals were selected after screening for bilateral hip adductor tightness by measuring hip abduction range of motion using goniometer. They were randomized to either MWM adductor stretch, myofascial release or conventional stretching group. All subjects were assessed pre and post intervention. Outcome measure used were hip abduction range of motion and bent knee fall out test. Results Statistically significant difference was noted between the experimental and the control group in terms of hip abduction range of motion and bent knee fall out test. Conclusion Intervention showed significant results in all the three groups however MWM adductor stretch when used in conjunction with conventional stretching has proved to be more effective than myofascial release with foam roller and conventional stretching in increasing the abduction range of motion and bent knee fall out test.
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Background: Roller massage (RM) has become a popular intervention prescribed by physical therapy (PT) professionals. While this popularity has stimulated an increase in research and product development, the trends in the use of RM among PT professionals remain undocumented. It is unknown how professionals are using RM and integrating the research into their clinical practice. Purpose: To survey and document responses in the knowledge, clinical application methods, and use of RM devices among PT professionals in the United States. Design: Cross-sectional survey study. Methods: A 20-question online survey related to personal and professional demographics, beliefs about RM, preferred RM devices, RM exercise prescription, and client education was emailed to PT members of the Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy Sections. Results: A total of 685 sports and orthopedic PT professionals completed the survey. Most professionals surveyed believe that RM decreases pain (80%), increases mobility (68%), and increases range of motion (ROM) (40%). Fifty-one percent believed moderate density rollers have the greatest effect. Eighty percent of professionals use a foam roller in their practice and 51% recommend to clients. A high proportion of professionals prescribe RM for injury treatment (82%) and for pre and post-exercise interventions (55%). Most professionals recommend rolling daily for 30 seconds to two minutes (55%), per muscle group (64%), at a self-paced cadence (47%). A high proportion of professionals use patient reported outcomes (80%), followed by joint ROM (59%), and movement-based testing (42%) to measure effects of RM. Eighty-seven percent of professionals use live instruction to educate clients and 91% believe there is a gap in the research. Conclusion: The results of this survey should be considered descriptive and a starting point for future research to establish a consensus on optimal RM programming, devices, and application parameters for different musculoskeletal conditions. The observed responses provide some insight into how PT professionals are using RM in their practice and highlight the existing gap between the research and professional practice. Further research is needed to explore the responses documented in this study. Level of evidence: 3.
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Foam rolling (FR) durations totaling ≤60 seconds (s) per muscle are reported to acutely increase flexibility and vertical jump performance. However, limited research has investigated whether these benefits can outlast the inactive post-warmup preparatory period that typically separates warmups from the start of sporting competition. 11 male athletes (height 1.77 ± 0.09 m, body mass 78.0 ± 17.0 kg, age 22 ± 2 years) completed familiarization, followed by 3 experimental trials in a randomized and counterbalanced repeated measures crossover design. Trials commenced with 5 minutes (min) of jogging, before ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ADF-ROM), sit and reach (S&R), countermovement jump (CMJ), and squat jump (SJ) baseline testing. Participants then sat inactively for 10 min (control) or performed lower extremity FR totaling either 30 (30 FR) or 60 s (60 FR) that targeted four agonist-antagonist leg muscles. Testing was then repeated before and after a simulated inactive 15 min post-warmup preparatory period to establish the acute and delayed effects of FR on performance. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to identify any significant interaction effects between conditions (30 FR, 60 FR, control) and timepoint (baseline, acute, delayed). No significant condition x timepoint interaction effect was detected for the ADF-ROM (f = 1.63, p = 0.19), S&R (f = 0.80, p = 0.54), CMJ ((f = 0.83, p = 0.99), or SJ (f = 0.66, p = 0.99). Therefore, FR totaling ≤60 s appears insufficient to enhance flexibility or vertical jump performance in male athletes.
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Objectives: As the hamstrings and lumbar extensors have their muscular origin in the pelvis, there may be possible relationship among these structures. So weakness or inflexibility of one structure may correspondingly change the strength and position of the other to maintain pelvis control, which may lead to development of low back pain. So the aim of the study is to compare the prevalence of hamstrings tightness in subjects with chronic low back pain versus normal individuals. Methods: A comparative study was conducted at S.B.B. College of Physiotherapy. A convenience sample of 60 participants with age group between 20 to 60 years was taken, 30 in each group. Group A were patients with chronic low back pain who were not taking any physiotherapy treatment and Group B were age and gender matched normal individuals. For both the groups, persons with previous history of knee injury, knee deformity and fractures around knee joint with limited range of movement and radiating pain were excluded. Patients with low back pain of more than 3 months and normal individuals who were not involved in any flexibility programme were approached and flexibility of hamstrings was measured by active knee extension test. Results: Means of hamstrings flexibility in groups A & B were compared using Mann Whitney U test. Mean degree of hamstrings tightness for A=31.63°±8.34°, B=14.30°±9.70°, U=81.00, p<0.01.Conclusion: There was significant difference of hamstrings flexibility between patients having chronic low back pain and age and gender matched normal individuals.
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Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques are commonly used in the athletic and clinical environments to enhance both active and passive range of motion (ROM) with a view to optimising motor performance and rehabilitation. PNF stretching is positioned in the literature as the most effective stretching technique when the aim is to increase ROM, particularly in respect to short-term changes in ROM. With due consideration of the heterogeneity across the applied PNF stretching research, a summary of the findings suggests that an ‘active’ PNF stretching technique achieves the greatest gains in ROM, e.g. utilising a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle to place the target muscle on stretch, followed by a static contraction of the target muscle. The inclusion of a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle appears to have the greatest impact on enhancing ROM. When including a static contraction of the target muscle, this needs to be held for approximately 3 seconds at no more than 20% of a maximum voluntary contraction. The greatest changes in ROM generally occur after the first repetition and in order to achieve more lasting changes in ROM, PNF stretching needs to be performed once or twice per week. The superior changes in ROM that PNF stretching often produces compared with other stretching techniques has traditionally been attributed to autogenic and/or reciprocal inhibition, although the literature does not support this hypothesis. Instead, and in the absence of a biomechanical explanation, the contemporary view proposes that PNF stretching influences the point at which stretch is perceived or tolerated. The mechanism(s) underpinning the change in stretch perception or tolerance are not known, although pain modulation has been suggested.
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Foam rollers are used to mimic myofascial release techniques and have been used by therapists, athletes, and the general public alike to increase range of motion (ROM) and alleviate pressure points. The roller-massager was designed to serve a similar purpose but is a more portable device that uses the upper body rather than body mass to provide the rolling force. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSE: A roller massager was used in this study to examine the acute effects on lower extremity ROM and subsequent muscle length performance. Seven male and ten female volunteers took part in 4 trials of hamstrings roller-massager rolling (1 set - 5 seconds, 1 set - 10 seconds, 2 sets - 5 seconds, and 2 sets - 10 seconds) at a constant pressure (13 kgs) and a constant rate (120 bpm). A group of 9 participants (three male, six female) also performed a control testing session with no rolling intervention. A sit and reach test for ROM, along with a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force and muscle activation of the hamstrings were measured before and after each session of rolling. A main effect for testing time (p<0.0001) illustrated that the use of the roller-massager resulted in a 4.3% increase in ROM. There was a trend (p=0.069) for 10s of rolling duration to increase ROM more than 5s rolling duration. There were no significant changes in MVC force or MVC EMG activity after the rolling intervention. The use of the roller-massager had no significant effect on muscle strength, and can provide statistically significant increases in ROM, particularly when used for a longer duration.
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Flexibility is associated with arterial distensibility. Many individuals involved in sport, exercise and/or fitness perform self-myofascial release (SMR) using a foam roller, which restores muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia and/or soft-tissue extensibility. However, the effect of SMR on arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial function using a foam roller is unknown. The present study investigates the acute effect of SMR using a foam roller on arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial function. Ten healthy young adults performed SMR and control (CON) trials on separate days in a randomized controlled crossover fashion. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, blood pressure, heart rate and plasma nitric oxide concentration were measured before and 30 min after both SMR and CON trials. The participants performed SMR of the adductor, hamstrings, quadriceps, iliotibial band and trapezius. Pressure was self-adjusted during myofascial release by applying body weight to the roller and using the hands and feet to offset weight as required. The roller was placed under the target tissue area and the body was moved back and forth across the roller. In the CON trial, SMR was not performed. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity significantly decreased (from 1202 ± 105 to 1074 ± 110 cm/s) and the plasma nitric oxide concentration significantly increased (from 20.4 ± 6.9 to 34.4 ± 17.2 μmol/L) after SMR using a foam roller (both P < 0.05), but neither significantly differed after CON trials. These results indicate that SMR using a foam roller reduces arterial stiffness and improves vascular endothelial function.
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This study compared the acute effects of static stretching (SS) and neuromuscular proprioceptive facilitation (PNF) stretching on heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) in female athletes. Twelve subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups (2 experimental groups (SS and FNP) and 1 control group (CS)). The groups performed stretching activities as follows: SS (2 sets, 30 sec each for the pectoral and biceps muscles with a 15 sec rest interval between sets); PNF (2 sets, 30 sec each for the pectoral and biceps muscles with 6 sec of isometric contraction and a 15 sec rest interval between sets); and CS (rest). Ten min before and after the experimental and control activities, the subjects had their HR, SBP, DBP, and SpO2 values measured. The results did not demonstrate significant differences in HR, SBP, and DBP (P>0.05) within or between the groups. However, the SpO2 values (before vs. after exercising) were significantly (P<0.001) lower following stretching in the SS and PNF groups but not in the CS group. Thus, although SS exercises and PNF did not alter the HR and pressure responses, they may induce acute deleterious effects for upper limb development by decreasing the oxygen supply to the muscles.
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Foam rolling is thought to improve muscular function, performance, overuse and joint range of motion (ROM), however, there is no empirical evidence demonstrating this. Thus, the objective of the study was to determine the effect of self-myofascial release (SMR) via foam roller application on knee extensor force and activation and knee joint range of motion. Eleven healthy male (height 178.9 ± 3.5 cm, mass 86.3 ± 7.4 kg, age 22.3 ± 3.8 years) subjects who were physically active participated. Subjects' quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction force, evoked force and activation, and knee joint ROM were measured prior to, two minutes, and 10 minutes following two conditions; 1) two, one minute trials of SMR of the quadriceps via a foam roller and 2) no SMR (Control). A two-way ANOVA (condition x time) with repeated measures was performed on all dependent variables recorded in the pre- and post-condition tests. There were no significant differences between conditions for any of the neuromuscular dependent variables. However, following foam rolling, subjects' ROM significantly (ρ < 0.001) increased by 10 and 8% at 2 and 10 minutes, respectively. There was a significant (ρ < 0.01) negative correlation between subjects' force and ROM prior to foam rolling, which no longer existed following foam rolling. In conclusion an acute bout of SMR of the quadriceps was an effective treatment to acutely enhance knee joint range of motion without a concomitant deficit in muscle performance.
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Stretching is a common activity used by athletes, older adults, rehabilitation patients, and anyone participating in a fitness program. While the benefits of stretching are known, controversy remains about the best type of stretching for a particular goal or outcome. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to discuss the current concepts of muscle stretching interventions and summarize the evidence related to stretching as used in both exercise and rehabilitation.
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Research is limited and controversial on the effectiveness of various stretching methods on muscle lengthening. Objective: Studying the effectiveness of static stretch and muscle energy technique on the flexibility of hamstring muscles. Thirty young females (20-25 yrs old) participated voluntarily in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: static stretch group (controls; n=15) and muscle energy technique (MET) group (experimental; n=15). The control group underwent ten sessions of static stretches of hamstring muscle, and the experimental group was assigned to ten sessions of MET at 50% voluntary isometric contraction. Hamstring flexibility was evaluated by passive knee extension test at baseline and again following interventions. Both treatment methods were capable of significantly improving the shortness of hamstring muscles (P< 0.01); and no considerable difference was observed between the methods. Ten sessions of hamstring stretches in normal young women using either static stretch or MET had similar effect on restoring flexibility to hamstrings.
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When treating patients with functional disorders using a special manual technique, tissue changes can be felt by the therapist and the patient. This study was conducted to objectively document these changes. In the author's practice for body therapy, 30 patients were measured with high-frequency ultrasound (22MHz) immediately before and after their first treatment in the area where they experienced pain or other discomfort and/or movement restriction. Highly significant differences can be seen in the structure of the collagen matrix in the dermis before and after treatment. These changes reflect the differences in tension, softness and regularity, which can be palpated before and after treatment and are thought to be caused by changes in the mechanical forces of fibroblasts and increased microcirculation.
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To investigate whether there was a difference in hamstring length between patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome and healthy asymptomatic controls aged 18 to 35 years. A cross-sectional observational study measuring hamstring length in patients and asymptomatic controls. Hospital physiotherapy department. Two groups were tested; one group diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome (mean age 27 years, n=11, six males, five females) and one group of asymptomatic controls (mean age 25 years, n=25, 13 males, 12 females). Hamstring length was evaluated using the passive knee extension method to measure popliteal angle. The mean (standard deviation) values for hamstring length were 145.6 (8.7) degrees for patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 153.7 (10.1) degrees for the asymptomatic controls. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference between the groups was 8.0 (0.8 to 15.1) degrees , and analysis with a t-test revealed that this was statistically significant (P<0.05). This study found that patients with patellofemoral pain had shorter hamstring muscles than asymptomatic controls. It is not clear whether this is a cause or effect of the condition. Further research is suggested to study how hamstring length changes with rehabilitation, and the relationship with pain.
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Muscular tightness is frequently postulated as an intrinsic risk factor for the development of a muscle injury. However, very little prospective data exist to prove this. Increased muscle tightness identifies a soccer player at risk for a subsequent musculoskeletal lesion. Prospective cohort study. We examined 146 male professional soccer players before the 1999-2000 Belgian soccer competition. None of the players had a history of muscle injury in the lower extremities in the previous 2 years. The flexibility of the hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, and calf muscles of these players was measured goniometrically before the start of the season. All of the examined players were monitored throughout the season to register subsequent injuries. Players with a hamstring (N = 31) or quadriceps (N = 13) muscle injury were found to have significantly lower flexibility in these muscles before their injury compared with the uninjured group. No significant differences in muscle flexibility were found between players who sustained an adductor muscle injury (N = 13) or a calf muscle injury (N = 10) and the uninjured group. These results indicate that soccer players with an increased tightness of the hamstring or quadriceps muscles have a statistically higher risk for a subsequent musculoskeletal lesion. Preseason hamstring and quadriceps muscle flexibility testing can identify male soccer players at risk of developing hamstring and quadriceps muscle injuries.
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Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques are commonly used in the athletic and clinical environments to enhance both active and passive range of motion (ROM) with a view to optimising motor performance and rehabilitation. PNF stretching is positioned in the literature as the most effective stretching technique when the aim is to increase ROM, particularly in respect to short-term changes in ROM. With due consideration of the heterogeneity across the applied PNF stretching research, a summary of the findings suggests that an 'active' PNF stretching technique achieves the greatest gains in ROM, e.g. utilising a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle to place the target muscle on stretch, followed by a static contraction of the target muscle. The inclusion of a shortening contraction of the opposing muscle appears to have the greatest impact on enhancing ROM. When including a static contraction of the target muscle, this needs to be held for approximately 3 seconds at no more than 20% of a maximum voluntary contraction. The greatest changes in ROM generally occur after the first repetition and in order to achieve more lasting changes in ROM, PNF stretching needs to be performed once or twice per week. The superior changes in ROM that PNF stretching often produces compared with other stretching techniques has traditionally been attributed to autogenic and/or reciprocal inhibition, although the literature does not support this hypothesis. Instead, and in the absence of a biomechanical explanation, the contemporary view proposes that PNF stretching influences the point at which stretch is perceived or tolerated. The mechanism(s) underpinning the change in stretch perception or tolerance are not known, although pain modulation has been suggested.
Article
Background: Diagnoses and treatments based on movement system impairment syndromes were developed to guide physical therapy treatment. Objectives: This masterclass aims to describe the concepts on that are the basis of the syndromes and treatment and to provide the current research on movement system impairment syndromes. Results: The conceptual basis of the movement system impairment syndromes is that sustained alignment in a non-ideal position and repeated movements in a specific direction are thought to be associated with several musculoskeletal conditions. Classification into movement system impairment syndromes and treatment has been described for all body regions. The classification involves interpreting data from standardized tests of alignments and movements. Treatment is based on correcting the impaired alignment and movement patterns as well as correcting the tissue adaptations associated with the impaired alignment and movement patterns. The reliability and validity of movement system impairment syndromes have been partially tested. Although several case reports involving treatment using the movement system impairment syndromes concept have been published, efficacy of treatment based on movement system impairment syndromes has not been tested in randomized controlled trials, except in people with chronic low back pain.
Article
Faszien üben nicht nur Stütz- und Verbindungsfunktionen aus. Die in ihnen enthaltenen Rezeptoren machen sie zu einem wichtigen Sinnesorgan. Ihre Durchtrittstellen stimmen oft mit Akupunkturpunkten überein. Faszien enthalten kontraktile Zellen und stehen in Wechselwirkung mit dem Vegetativum, so dass über deren Behandlung auf Letzteres eingewirkt werden kann. Summary The importance of fasciae in manual therapy Fasciae not only have a supporting and connecting function. Due to their receptors, they are important sensory organs. Their points of passage often correspond to acupuncture points. Fasciae contain contractile cells and interact with the vegetative nervous system and thus their treatment can be effected via the latter. Résumé La signification des fascias dans la thérapie manuelle Les fascias n’ont pas seulement de fonctions de soutènement et de connection. A cause de leurs récepteurs, ils sont de plus un important organe des sens. Leurs points de passage s’accordent souvent avec les points d’acupuncture. Les fascias contiennent des cellules contractiles et se trouvent dans une action réciproque avec le système neuro-végétatif de façon qu’on puisse l’influencer en traitant les fascias.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of a Foam Roller (FR) warm up routine and a dynamic warm-up routine on strength, power, and reactive power using a squat jump (SJ) countermovement jump (CMJ) and depth jump (DJ). Nine college aged recreational males with a minimum of 1-year experience in plyometric training completed the study. Following baseline testing, subjectswere randomly assigned to a warm up protocol on the second session of the study and then completed the otherprotocol on the third day of the study. The best of three jumps were recorded. RMANOVA revealed a significant increase in jump height following the dynamic warm up in the CMJ (p=.018). A post hoc paired t-test revealed significance of (p=.015) between the FR to dynamic warm-up routines following the CMJ. All other jumps yielded decreases in performance, with no significant changes SJ (p=0.135) and DJ (p=0.145). A lack of significant change may be attributed to the removal of the trigger point (TrP) release from the FR due to the subjectivity of each individual’s pain level and amount of trigger points. In conclusion FR warm ups are not recommended prior to physical activity requiring increased neurologic activation as the FR warm up was shown to decrease jump performance as the neurologic demand of the jumps increased. Foam roller routines may be beneficial for the injured athlete prior to activity but should be followed by a dynamic warm up before partaking in activity.
Article
OBJECTIVE: Recent claims suggest foam rollers are useful in self-myofascial release and are a stretching technique used by health care professionals to treat patients with a variety of soft tissue conditions including muscle tightness. The purpose of this study was to determine if foam rollers are beneficial in gaining range of motion (ROM) in the hamstring muscle group. DESIGN AND SETTING: All subjects' ROM was tested prior to the beginning of the stretching protocol. All stretching routines were performed three times a week in the Mitchell Hall athletic training room. Treatment consisted of three-one minute stretching bouts with a one minute rest between each stretch. The control group was instructed to continue with normal activity, but to perform no additional stretching. SUBJECTS: Twenty-three male and female college students (ages 18-32) from the University of Wisconsin- La Crosse participated in this study. All subjects were healthy with no history of recent injury. The criterion for subject inclusion was tight hamstrings as defined by a knee extension range of motion less than 80˚. MEASUREMENTS: Active knee extension measurements were determined using an inclinometer and a Flexometer® before the start of the stretching program, at four weeks and at the conclusion of eight weeks. RESULTS: A doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis was used to interpret the data. The statistical significance was set at p
Article
Flexibility is a key component of physical fitness. It has been suggested that measures of physical fitness components may vary throughout the day. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the time of day on flexibility performance. Twenty-six men (mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 2.5) were evaluated by hip flexion on kinematic analysis and also by an absolute score in the modified Sit-and-Reach test during a repeated measure design. This was done during three experimental sessions, which occurred at 8:00AM, 1:00PM, and 6:00PM, in random order. All subjects were previously familiarized with the test parameters. There was a diurnal variation only in the modified Sit-and-Reach test score between 8:00AM and 6:00PM (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the hip kinematic analysis between hours. These findings suggest that flexibility performance in the modified Sit-and-Reach test, in absolute scores, is affected by the time of day, with higher performance in the evening.
Article
Conventional sports training emphasizes adequate training of muscle fibres, of cardiovascular conditioning and/or neuromuscular coordination. Most sports-associated overload injuries however occur within elements of the body wide fascial net, which are then loaded beyond their prepared capacity. This tensional network of fibrous tissues includes dense sheets such as muscle envelopes, aponeuroses, as well as specific local adaptations, such as ligaments or tendons. Fibroblasts continually but slowly adapt the morphology of these tissues to repeatedly applied challenging loading stimulations. Principles of a fascia oriented training approach are introduced. These include utilization of elastic recoil, preparatory counter movement, slow and dynamic stretching, as well as rehydration practices and proprioceptive refinement. Such training should be practiced once or twice a week in order to yield in a more resilient fascial body suit within a time frame of 6-24 months. Some practical examples of fascia oriented exercises are presented.
Article
Various theories have been proposed to explain increases in muscle extensibility observed after intermittent stretching. Most of these theories advocate a mechanical increase in length of the stretched muscle. More recently, a sensory theory has been proposed suggesting instead that increases in muscle extensibility are due to a modification of sensation only. Studies that evaluated the biomechanical effect of stretching showed that muscle length does increase during stretch application due to the viscoelastic properties of muscle. However, this length increase is transient, its magnitude and duration being dependent upon the duration and type of stretching applied. Most of these studies suggest that increases in muscle extensibility observed after a single stretching session and after short-term (3- to 8-week) stretching programs are due to modified sensation. The biomechanical effects of long-term (>8 weeks) and chronic stretching programs have not yet been evaluated. The purposes of this article are to review each of these proposed theories and to discuss the implications for research and clinical practice.
Article
Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are important aspects of musculoskeletal medicine, including chiropractic. The purpose of this study was to review the most commonly used treatment procedures in chiropractic for MPS and MTrPs. The Scientific Commission of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters (CCGPP) was charged with developing literature syntheses, organized by anatomical region, to evaluate and report on the evidence base for chiropractic care. This article is the outcome of this charge. As part of the CCGPP process, preliminary drafts of these articles were posted on the CCGPP Web site www.ccgpp.org (2006-8) to allow for an open process and the broadest possible mechanism for stakeholder input. PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and databases for systematic reviews and clinical guidelines were searched. Separate searches were conducted for (1) manual palpation and algometry, (2) chiropractic and other manual therapies, and (3) other conservative and complementary/alternative therapies. Studies were screened for relevance and rated using the Oxford Scale and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network rating system. A total of 112 articles were identified. Review of these articles resulted in the following recommendations regarding treatment: Moderately strong evidence supports manipulation and ischemic pressure for immediate pain relief at MTrPs, but only limited evidence exists for long-term pain relief at MTrPs. Evidence supports laser therapy (strong), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, acupuncture, and magnet therapy (all moderate) for MTrPs and MPS, although the duration of relief varies among therapies. Limited evidence supports electrical muscle stimulation, high-voltage galvanic stimulation, interferential current, and frequency modulated neural stimulation in the treatment of MTrPs and MPS. Evidence is weak for ultrasound therapy. Manual-type therapies and some physiologic therapeutic modalities have acceptable evidentiary support in the treatment of MPS and TrPs.
Article
The effects of two proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques on increasing the range of hip flexion during active straight leg raising were compared in 30 normal women. Subjects were randomly assigned into contract-relax, hold-relax, or control groups and were tested with the pelvis stabilized. An exercise technique was applied to the right lower extremity in two diagonal patterns while electrical activity was monitored from the contralateral rectus femoris, vastus medialis, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris muscles. Comparison of pretest and posttest measurements of the angle of straight leg raising of both lower extremities indicated that the increase in range of motion of the right lower extremity in subjects in the contract-relax group was significantly greater than that in the hold-relax and control groups. For the unexercised extremity, the increase in motion in subjects in the contract-relax group was significantly greater than that in the control group. Of the 30 subjects, 29 showed evidence of electrical activity in the contralateral limb when the right lower extremity was contracting against resistance.
Article
Thirty normal male subjects were used in this study to compare the effects of the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) hold-relax procedure and passive mobilization on tight hamstring muscles. A mathematical method was used to measure the angle of passive straight leg raising rather than the goniometric method. The study demonstrated that subjects receiving the PNF hold-relax procedure increased their range of passive straight leg raising to a higher degree and at a faster rate than the subjects receiving passive mobilization.
Article
Four hundred and fifty-nine children and adolescents from third, sixth and ninth classes in seven schools on Funen were questioned in 1991. Seven percent had complaints from back and knee, and 3% from the heel. When the hamstrings were so short that one knee had an extension deficit gently measured to more than 40 degrees, when the hip was flexed 90 degrees, the incidence of back pain rose significantly to 15%. Furthermore 18% had complaints from the knee and 35% from the heel when the passive range of motion of the foot was less than 0 degrees of dorsiflexion measured with the knee extended. As 75% of the boys and 35% of the girls over age ten have short hamstrings and 13% of both sexes have short Achilles tendons, it is recommended that school children be involved in a daily stretching programme in order to diminish the complaints from the extremities often seen in this group.
Article
Orthodontics is based upon the cellular response to biomechanical forces. However, little is known about the way cells respond to such forces. An experimental model has been designed to study the morphological and metabolic behaviour of human cells, subjected to cyclical or static mechanical loads. The model involves attaching human fibroblasts to silicone collagen-coated membranes, which are subjected to either continuous of cyclical stretching by a motor coupled with a movable supporting frame. The effect of continuous or cyclical stretching on the secretion of collagenase, an enzyme thought to play an important role in the process of tooth movement, was measured. Cyclical stretching of fibroblasts over a 4-day period, approximately doubled collagenase production as compared with the control. Continuous stretching, on the other hand, was only 50 per cent as effective in enhancing enzyme release. In contrast, the secretion of the collagenase inhibitor was unaffected by either form of mechanical deformation. To understand the effect of cyclical forces further, a morphological study using humane fibroblasts was performed. It was found that stretching or compression delivered an immediate and proportional deformation of the cells. After 10-15 minutes the morphology of cells readapted to the new mechanical environment, causing a loss of the biological activation. This suggest that a new mechanical stimulus is necessary to induce a new biological reaction.
Article
This study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of low back pain (LBP) in 13- to 16-year-old Danish school children. The cohort consisted of 671 boys and 718 girls in eighth and ninth grade in 46 municipal schools in three counties of Sealand. All the pupils filled in a questionnaire with LBP as the main topic and were at the same time examined by the school doctors. The first part of the questionnaire contained questions about leisure time sports activity, TV watching, PC use, job in leisure time and smoking. The second part dealt with LBP in relation to frequency and severity, influence on daily living and use of the health system. The school doctor measured body height and weight, (BMI), degree of hypermobility and the tightness of the hamstring muscles. The results showed a cumulative life-time prevalence of LBP of 58.9%, a 1-year prevalence of 50.8% and an increase in LBP prevalence of 6.4% from 14 to 15 years of age, independent of gender. Fourteen percent (141 F, 54 M) fulfilled the criteria for general hypermobility and 12.2% (45 F, 124 M) had tightness of hamstring muscles of more than 40 degrees. Recurrent/continuous LBP in a moderate to severe degree was recorded in 19.4% of children (182 F, 88 M). This was positively correlated to female gender, BMI more than 25 kg/m(2), competitive sport for boys, poor physical fitness, daily smoking, heavy jobs in leisure time, increased use of the health system and reduced life quality. Stepwise logistic regression analysis indicates that female gender, daily smoking and heavy jobs are important associated factors for severe LBP in adolescents, with an observed probability of 46% if all factors are present. We don't know yet whether these factors are of any causal importance in the development of severe LBP.
Article
This investigation determined the effects of a static stretching program with different stretching protocols on the flexibility and passive resistance of the hamstrings of young adults. Forty healthy subjects (24 males and 16 females) aged 18 to 30 years were randomly assigned to one of four groups. The two training groups underwent static stretch training of the hamstrings either with a four-week protocol or with an eight-week protocol. The other two groups acted as control groups. A significant increase in flexibility of hamstrings was found in both of the two training groups (P<0.05). No difference was found in the range of motion gained between the two training groups. An increase in passive resistance at the corresponding maximal joint angle was only demonstrated in the four-week training group (P<0.05). Both protocols are effective in terms of improving flexibility of hamstrings. However, if injury is reduced when there is relatively lower passive resistance at the end-of-range, then the eight-week training regimen would be recommended.
Article
We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of stretching as a tool to prevent injuries in sports and to make recommendations for research and prevention. Without language limitations, we searched electronic data bases, including MEDLINE (1966-2002), Current Contents (1997-2002), Biomedical Collection (1993-1999), the Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus, and then identified citations from papers retrieved and contacted experts in the field. Meta-analysis was limited to randomized trials or cohort studies for interventions that included stretching. Studies were excluded that lacked controls, in which stretching could not be assessed independently, or where studies did not include subjects in sporting or fitness activities. All articles were screened initially by one author. Six of 361 identified articles compared stretching with other methods to prevent injury. Data were abstracted by one author and then reviewed independently by three others. Data quality was assessed independently by three authors using a previously standardized instrument, and reviewers met to reconcile substantive differences in interpretation. We calculated weighted pooled odds ratios based on an intention-to-treat analysis as well as subgroup analyses by quality score and study design. Stretching was not significantly associated with a reduction in total injuries (OR = 0.93, CI 0.78-1.11) and similar findings were seen in the subgroup analyses. There is not sufficient evidence to endorse or discontinue routine stretching before or after exercise to prevent injury among competitive or recreational athletes. Further research, especially well-conducted randomized controlled trials, is urgently needed to determine the proper role of stretching in sports.
Article
To determine if submaximal contractions used in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (CRPNF) stretching of the hamstrings yield comparable gains in hamstring flexibility to maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). Randomised controlled trial. A convenience sample of 72 male subjects aged 18-27 was used. Subjects qualified by demonstrating tight hamstrings, defined as the inability to reach 70 degrees of hip flexion during a straight leg raise. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: 1, 20% of MVIC; 2, 60% of MVIC; 3, 100% MVIC. Twelve subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (no stretching). Subjects in groups 1-3 performed three separate six second CRPNF stretches at the respective intensity with a 10 second rest between contractions, once a day for five days. Goniometric measurements of hamstring flexibility using a lying passive knee extension test were made before and after the stretching period to determine flexibility changes. Paired t tests showed a significant change in flexibility for all treatment groups. A comparison of least squares means showed that there was no difference in flexibility gains between the treatment groups, but all treatment groups had significantly greater flexibility than the control group. CRPNF stretching using submaximal contractions is just as beneficial at improving hamstring flexibility as maximal contractions, and may reduce the risk of injury associated with PNF stretching.
Article
Systematic literature review. Investigate the literature regarding the most effective positions, techniques, and durations of stretching to improve hamstring muscle flexibility. Hamstring stretching is popular among physical therapists, athletic trainers, and fitness/coaching professionals; however, numerous stretching methodologies have been proposed in the literature. This fact establishes a need to systematically summarize available evidence in an attempt to determine the most effective stretching approach. A list of 28 pertinent manuscripts that included randomized and clinical trials was created according to specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. These manuscripts were critically reviewed for quality according to the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (10-point) scale and descriptive information about the stretching parameters employed in the research. Cumulatively, 1338 healthy subjects were included in the reviewed studies. Methodological quality scores ranged from 2 to 8 (mean +/- SD, 4.3 +/- 1.6). Several methodological flaws were frequently recognized, including failure to conceal group allocation or perform blinded assessment. All studies reported improvements in range of motion after stretching. Overall, methodological quality was poor, with only 21.4% (6/28) of studies achieving a score between 6 and 8. Thus it was difficult to confidently identify 1 most effective hamstring stretching method. Instead, the evidence appears to indicate that hamstring stretching increases range of motion with a variety of stretching techniques, positions, and durations.
Article
Some researchers have suggested that an alteration of stretch perception could be responsible for the success of the contract-relax (CR) stretch, a stretch technique derived from proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). This study was conducted to determine if the alteration of the stretch perception is a possible explanation for the range of motion (ROM) gains of the CR stretch. Eighteen subjects performed two stretches in randomized order: the slow stretch and the CR stretch. The stretch intensity was controlled. The stretch force was measured and compared between the slow stretch and CR stretch. There was a significant difference between the stretch force that could be applied in the PNF stretch (126.0 N) and the slow stretch (108.4 N); P = 0.00086. The average stretch tolerance progressively increased with successive trials from 120.6 N in the first trial to 132.4 N in the fourth trial. The alteration of stretch perception plays a role in the success of the CR form of PNF stretching. At least four repetitions of the CR stretch are recommended to get the greatest ROM gain.
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