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A Complete Energy Level Diagram for All Trivalent Lanthanide Ions

Division of Condensed Matter and Interfaces, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Journal of Solid State Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.13). 02/2005; 178(2):448-453. DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2004.07.046
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ABSTRACT

We describe the calculations of the 4fn energy levels, reduced matrix elements for 4fn-4fn transitions and the simulation of absorption and emission spectra. A complete 4fn energy level diagram is calculated for all trivalent lanthanide ions in LaF3: The calculated energy levels are compared with experimentally obtained energies. For Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb many, and in some cases all, energy levels have been observed. This work provides a starting point for future investigation of as yet unobserved VUV energy levels.

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    • "The static optical properties of these materials, i.e., the energy level structure and the transition strengths, are understood in terms of the crystal field theory. These topics are treated at length in the literature (Griffith, 1961; Dieke et al., 1968; Peijzel et al., 2005). Ions in solids can also interact with the elementary excitations of the lattice, such as phonons, leading to thermalization and nonradiative relaxation within the single ion energy structure. "
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    • "Considering the energy levels of all lanthanides, as shown in the Dieke energy level diagram (Dieke 1968, Peijzel et al. 2005, Wegh et al. 2000) it is immediately evident that the energy level structure of Yb 3+ is ideally suited to be used in down conversion for use in c-Si solar cells. The Yb 3+ ion has a single excited state (denoted by the term symbol 2 F 5/2 ) some 10,000 cm -1 above the 2 F 7/2 ground state, corresponding to emission around 1000 nm. "

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