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The effect of overt and covert narcissism on self-esteem and self-efficacy beyond self-esteem

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Past literature has suggested a dual nature of trait based narcissism, comprising overt and covert forms. While several studies have examined the two subtypes in relation to self-esteem, very few studies have examined narcissistic subtypes and self-efficacy. 115 Psychology undergraduates filled in self-report measures of overt narcissism, covert narcissism, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Results demonstrated no significant relationship between overt and covert narcissism, suggesting two distinct subtypes. Overt and covert forms of narcissism were found to significantly contribute to self-efficacy beyond self-esteem. Further, overt narcissism positively predicted both self-esteem and self-efficacy beyond self-esteem. Conversely, covert narcissism was found to negatively predict self-esteem and self-efficacy beyond self-esteem. Overt narcissism subscale associations were also computed, with Power being associated with higher self-efficacy but not self-esteem, suggesting Power to be a more adaptive subscale. The Special Person subscale was associated with higher self-esteem but not self-efficacy, suggesting it forms the maladaptive core of overt narcissism. Exhibitionism was not associated with either self-esteem or self-efficacy. Results appear congruent with past literature, and have given an additional insight into the implications of trait based narcissism regarding self-efficacy. Findings appear to suggest trait based overt narcissism is a more adaptive construct to individual self-concept than covert narcissism.
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The effect of overt and covert narcissism on self-esteem and self-efficacy
beyond self-esteem
James Brookes
Department of Psychology, University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby DE22 1GB, UK
article info
Article history:
Received 23 March 2015
Received in revised form 6 May 2015
Accepted 7 May 2015
Keywords:
Narcissism
Overt narcissism
Covert narcissism
Self-esteem
Self-efficacy
abstract
Past literature has suggested a dual nature of trait based narcissism, comprising overt and covert forms.
While several studies have examined the two subtypes in relation to self-esteem, very few studies have
examined narcissistic subtypes and self-efficacy. 115 Psychology undergraduates filled in self-report
measures of overt narcissism, covert narcissism, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Results demonstrated no
significant relationship between overt and covert narcissism, suggesting two distinct subtypes. Overt
and covert forms of narcissism were found to significantly contribute to self-efficacy beyond
self-esteem. Further, overt narcissism positively predicted both self-esteem and self-efficacy beyond
self-esteem. Conversely, covert narcissism was found to negatively predict self-esteem and
self-efficacy beyond self-esteem. Overt narcissism subscale associations were also computed, with
Power being associated with higher self-efficacy but not self-esteem, suggesting Power to be a more
adaptive subscale. The Special Person subscale was associated with higher self-esteem but not
self-efficacy, suggesting it forms the maladaptive core of overt narcissism. Exhibitionism was not associ-
ated with either self-esteem or self-efficacy. Results appear congruent with past literature, and have
given an additional insight into the implications of trait based narcissism regarding self-efficacy.
Findings appear to suggest trait based overt narcissism is a more adaptive construct to individual
self-concept than covert narcissism.
Ó2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
It has been suggested that there are two distinct forms of patho-
logical (Kernberg, 1975; Kohut, 1971, 1977) and more recently
non-pathological narcissism (Wink, 1991). Several studies have
explored the associations of overt and covert narcissism and
self-esteem (Miller et al., 2011; Pincus et al., 2009; Rohmann,
Neumann, Herner, & Bierhoff, 2012; Rose, 2002). However, narcis-
sism and its subtypes have not been considered in relation to the
associated domain of self-efficacy. Exploring associations between
narcissistic subtypes and self-efficacy may further highlight adap-
tive and maladaptive elements of these multifaceted personality
constructs. Moreover, differences in self-efficacy may have impli-
cations for associated behavioural distinctions between overt and
covert subtypes of narcissism, such as aggression (Okada, 2010).
It has been conceptualised that there are two forms of trait
based narcissism, overt and covert (Wink, 1991). The overt form,
described as Grandiosity–Exhibitionism consists of exhibitionism,
an exaggerated sense of self-importance, grandiosity and desire
for attention (Wink, 1991). Conversely, the covert or Vulnerabilit
y–Sensitivity form of narcissism is characterised by hypersensitiv-
ity to criticism, a lack of self-confidence, being socially withdrawn,
but similar to the overt form, an element of grandiosity (Wink,
1991). Whilst covert narcissism is comprised of grandiosity as a
constituent part, there is an element of insecurity in grandiosity
(Miller, Gentile, Wilson, & Campbell, 2013).
Since the binary conceptualisation of trait based narcissism,
growing empirical attention has examined the overt and covert
constructs. Research has affirmed the independence of these sub-
types (Rathvon & Holmstrom, 1996). Findings have additionally
suggested fundamental differences in terms of expression, with
covert narcissism being characterised by greater distress
(Dickinson & Pincus, 2003). However, differences in reported dis-
tress may be partially attributed to overt narcissists’ tendency to
deny problems (Dickinson & Pincus, 2003). Nonetheless, the lack
of a significant relationship between overt and covert measures
of narcissism (Smolewska & Dion, 2005) appears to affirm the sug-
gestion of their independence.
Research has identified a variety of factor structures corre-
sponding to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, with two/three
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Address: Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street,
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E-mail address: james.brookes2014@my.ntu.ac.uk
Personality and Individual Differences 85 (2015) 172–175
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(Kubarych, Deary, & Austin, 2004), four (Emmons, 1984) and even
seven (Raskin & Terry, 1988) factors being suggested. The four and
seven factor solutions have been derived exclusively through
Principal Components Analysis (Emmons, 1984; Raskin & Terry,
1988). Conversely, the two and three factor solutions were addi-
tionally explored using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, with the
three factor solution demonstrating the best fit (Kubarych et al.,
2004). Therefore, the present research will consider the three
subscales of Power, Exhibitionism and Special Person identified
in Kubarych et al. (2004).
Psychoanalytic perspectives have identified pathological narcis-
sism as a defensive grandiosity in compensation for underlying
feelings of inferiority (Kernberg, 1975). Alternatively, social learn-
ing perspectives have suggested that narcissism consists of
genuine underlying beliefs of superiority (Millon, 1981). Given
these alternate suggestions of self-concept regarding pathological
narcissism, it is unsurprising that research has extended to trait
based narcissism and self-esteem. Self-esteem can be defined as
the view people have of themselves; whether they view them-
selves to be a good and valuable person or not (Kernis, 2003).
Higher overt narcissism has been associated with higher
self-esteem, with covert narcissism being conversely associated
with lower self-esteem (Miller et al., 2011; Pincus et al., 2009;
Rohmann et al., 2012; Rose, 2002). Thus, findings may be inter-
preted as suggesting that regarding individual self-concept, overt
narcissism is a more adaptive construct than covert narcissism.
Equally, subscale level associations with self-esteem have been
explored, with the Special Person and Power subscales being asso-
ciated with increased self-esteem (Brunell, Staats, Barden, & Hupp,
2011). Conversely, no significant association has been found
between Exhibitionism and self-esteem (Brunell et al., 2011).
This demonstrates differing subscale effects which may be sup-
pressed if total scale scores are exclusively considered.
Another element within the domain of self-concept is
self-efficacy. Self-efficacy can be defined as how people judge their
ability to both organise and carry out tasks (Bandura, 1986).
Moreover, as a concept it has implications for feelings, thoughts,
motivation and in turn, behaviour (Bandura, 1994). Self-efficacy
can be influenced by whether or not success in tasks is achieved,
hence may vary depending on recent events (Andersson, Moore,
Hensing, Krantz, & Staland-Nyman, 2014). In this respect,
self-efficacy bears similarity to self-esteem which is liable to fluc-
tuation in response to life events, especially in narcissistic individ-
uals (Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001). It has been identified that
self-esteem and self-efficacy are distinct, but related concepts
which are moderately correlated (Brown, Hoye, & Nicholson,
2012). The similarity between self-efficacy and self-esteem may
suggest that self-efficacy is likely to differ between narcissistic
subtypes. Despite there having been several studies examining
narcissistic subtypes and self-esteem, research has not considered
narcissism in relation to self-efficacy. Exploring self-efficacy in
relation to narcissism may further expand understandings of
differences between narcissistic subtypes and shed more light on
the variation in self-concept associated with the differing presenta-
tions of narcissism.
This study examined overt narcissism, covert narcissism,
self-esteem and self-efficacy. Due to self-esteem being moderately
correlated to self-efficacy, it appeared appropriate to consider the
impact of overt and covert narcissism on self-efficacy, beyond
the variance accounted for by self-esteem. The aims for the study
were to (i) assess the relationship between overt and covert narcis-
sism, (ii) assess overt and covert narcissism’s link to self-esteem,
and (iii) assess whether overt and covert narcissism independently
predicted self-efficacy, beyond self-esteem. To further explore
specific facets of overt narcissism, Narcissistic Personality
Inventory subscale analyses were also computed.
2. Method
2.1. Participants
A total of 115 participants (27 males and 88 females) were
recruited from an in-house research participation system at a
British University. Although age demographics were not directly
collected, all participants were Psychology undergraduates and
therefore primarily aged between 18 and 21 years.
2.2. Materials
2.2.1. Overt narcissism
The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) (Raskin & Terry,
1988) was used to gain a measure of overt narcissism. While a
number of scales have been used to assess narcissism, the NPI
has been suggested to be a strong measure of overt narcissism,
with good internal reliability (Cronbach’s
a
= .80) respectively
(Hendin & Cheek, 1997). The NPI consisted of 40 questions, with
a choice between two statements for each question. Statements
which were characteristic of overt narcissism were counted as a
score of one, with opposing statements scored as zero.
2.2.2. Covert narcissism
The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS) (Hendin & Cheek,
1997) has been suggested to be an adept measure of covert narcis-
sism, and has been found to have good internal reliability
(Cronbach’s
a
= .72). The scale consisted of a ten question likert
scale, with responses ranging from 1 (very uncharacteristic or
untrue, strongly disagree) to 5 (very characteristic or true, strongly
agree).
2.2.3. Self-esteem
To obtain an overall score for self-esteem, the Rosenberg Self
Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) was used. Previous findings have
indicated good internal reliability of the scale (Cronbach’s
a
= .87
found by Brown et al. (2012)). The scale used a four point likert
scale, which ranged from 0 (strongly disagree) to 3 (strongly
agree). Questions (2, 5, 6, 8 and 9) were negatively phrased, hence
were reverse coded.
2.2.4. Self-efficacy
The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer & Jerusalem,
1995) has been found to have good internal reliability, ranging
from
a
= .75 to
a
= .91 (Scholz, Doña, Sud, & Schwarzer, 2002).
Hence the Generalized Self-Efficacy scale was administered to
acquire an overall measure of self-efficacy. The scale employed a
four point likert scale, ranging from 1 (not at all true) to 4 (exactly
true).
2.3. Procedure
The study was advertised on an in-house internet accessible
board. A questionnaire comprising several scales was administered
to gather self-report measures of overt narcissism, covert narcis-
sism, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Following informed consent,
the four overall scales (Narcissistic Personality Inventory,
Hypersensitive Narcissism scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale and
Generalized Self-Efficacy scale) were administered in a computer
randomised order. Participants viewed the debrief form which
identified the aims of the study. Research was conducted in line
with the code of ethics set out by the British Psychological Society.
J. Brookes / Personality and Individual Differences 85 (2015) 172–175 173
3. Results
3.1. Descriptive statistics
An exploration of the descriptive statistics revealed that Overt
Narcissism and its subscales (Power, Exhibitionism and Special
Person) were all positively skewed. These variables were square
root transformed, which brought skewness into tolerance for all
variables except Exhibitionism. Hence, a more cautious signifi-
cance level of P6.01 was employed for Exhibitionism (Kirk, 1982).
3.2. Correlation of overt and covert narcissism
Using a Pearson’s correlation, a very weak positive but
non-significant correlation was found between overt narcissism
and covert narcissism (r= .103, p= .274).
3.3. Multiple regression analyses predicting self-esteem
A summary of multiple regression analyses predicting
self-esteem is presented in Table 1. The first model, comprising
overt and covert narcissism significantly predicted self-esteem.
Overt narcissism independently predicted increased self-esteem,
with covert narcissism independently predicting lower
self-esteem. The second model explored subscale level associations
with self-esteem. Results revealed that NPI Special Person was sig-
nificantly linked to higher self-esteem. NPI Power and NPI
Exhibitionism subscales demonstrated no significant association
with self-esteem, whilst controlling for other variables in the
model.
3.4. Multiple regression analyses predicting self-efficacy
A summary of multiple regression analyses predicting
self-efficacy is presented in Table 2. The first model, which consid-
ered self-esteem, overt and covert narcissism significantly pre-
dicted self-efficacy. Whilst controlling for self-esteem, overt
narcissism significantly predicted higher self-efficacy, with covert
narcissism significantly predicting lower self-efficacy. The second
model considered self-esteem, NPI subscales and covert narcis-
sism, and significantly predicted self-efficacy. Whilst controlling
for other variables in the model, NPI Power predicted higher
self-efficacy. NPI Exhibitionism and NPI Special Person did not sig-
nificantly predict self-efficacy.
4. Discussion
Findings appeared congruent with past literature, suggesting no
significant association between the two forms of narcissism.
Further, overt narcissism was associated with higher self-esteem
and covert narcissism with lower self-esteem, congruent with past
findings (Rohmann et al., 2012; Rose, 2002). NPI subscale analyses
were partially consistent previous findings (Brunell et al., 2011),
however the Power subscale failed to reach significance when
predicting self-esteem in the present study. The primary additional
findings of the present research are the exclusive associations
between overt narcissism, covert narcissism, NPI subscales and
self-efficacy.
Results identified no significant relationship between overt and
covert narcissism, with only a very slight correlation being found
between the two measures. Hence the results sit in line with both
the original suggestion (Wink, 1991), and subsequent research
which has suggested the independence of narcissistic subtypes
(Dickinson & Pincus, 2003; Rathvon & Holmstrom, 1996). Indeed,
results directly support past findings demonstrating no significant
relationship between overt and covert narcissism (Smolewska &
Dion, 2005).
Results indicated that overt and covert narcissism were signifi-
cant predictors of self-esteem. Overt narcissism was positively
related to self-esteem, congruent with past literature (Miller
et al., 2011; Rohmann et al., 2012; Rose, 2002). Covert narcissism
was found to negatively predict self-esteem, similarly in line with
past research (Miller et al., 2011; Rohmann et al., 2012; Rose,
2002). Since the overt form of narcissism relates to a more positive
self-concept, results may be interpreted as suggesting overt narcis-
sism is a more adaptive construct on an individual basis than cov-
ert narcissism, consistent with previous suggestions within the
literature (Rose, 2002). However, this assertion is only made with
regard to the personal adaptive properties of each trait; the impact
on others has not been assessed. Certainly, higher levels of either
form of narcissism may have a negative impact on interpersonal
functioning, with problems in interpersonal functioning being
commonplace among pathologically narcissistic individuals
(Miller, Campbell, & Pilkonis, 2007). It is worthy of note however,
that self-report findings regarding those at the higher end of overt
narcissism may need to be treated with caution, since previous lit-
erature has highlighted the propensity of overtly narcissistic indi-
viduals to deny and minimise problems (Dickinson & Pincus,
2003). Moreover, since narcissism is characterised by the inability
to distinguish between the ideal and real self (Rhodewalt & Morf,
1995), the discord between individuals’ self-views in comparison
to objective measures may provide a more valid assessment of nar-
cissism. Nonetheless, the sample in the present study were drawn
from a non-clinical population, potentially minimising this
concern.
Since overt narcissism does not present a unitary construct
(Kubarych et al., 2004), subscale level analyses were also com-
puted. NPI Special Person was the only subscale which significantly
predicted self-esteem. The significant positive association suggests
the Special Person facet relates to the most inflated self-view. The
NPI Power subscale failed to reach statistical significance in associ-
ation with self-esteem, contrary to previous findings (Brunell et al.,
2011). This may be due to the multiple regression in the present
study controlling for potential spurious associations, perhaps
stemming from NPI subscale intercorrelations (Kubarych et al.,
2004), contrary to previous explorations which exclusively per-
formed zero-order correlations (Brunell et al., 2011).
Table 1
Summary of multiple regression analyses predicting self-esteem.
Predictor BbR
2
p
Model 1 – Narcissism .328 <.001
Overt narcissism 2.005 .345 <.001
Covert narcissism .502 .494 <.001
Model 2 – Subscales .351 <.001
NPI power 1.411 .188 .052
NPI exhibitionism .272 .032 .703
NPI special person 1.969 .251 .009
Covert narcissism .496 .489 <.001
Table 2
Summary of multiple regression analyses predicting self-efficacy.
Predictor BbR
2
p
Model 1 – Narcissism .477 <.001
Self-esteem .331 .408 <.001
Overt narcissism 1.540 .326 <.001
Covert narcissism .192 .233 .005
Model 2 – Subscales .471 <.001
Self-esteem .350 .432 <.001
NPI power 1.725 .283 .002
NPI exhibitionism .473 .069 .367
NPI special person .097 .015 .864
Covert narcissism .164 .199 .017
174 J. Brookes / Personality and Individual Differences 85 (2015) 172–175
Alternatively, it is conceivable that the NPI Power subscale is
weakly positively associated with self-esteem, however failed to
reach significance in the present study due to lack of statistical
power. Hence, findings may warrant further explorations of the
NPI Power subscale in relation to self-esteem utilising another lar-
ger sample. NPI Exhibitionism was not significantly associated
with self-esteem, which may position the Exhibitionism facet
between the Power and Special Person subscales.
Despite the aims of the present study not being to assess the
impact of self-esteem on self-efficacy, results were congruent with
past findings of self-esteem and self-efficacy being positively asso-
ciated (Brown et al., 2012). Findings demonstrated that overt nar-
cissism made a unique positive contribution to individual
self-efficacy, beyond both self-esteem and covert narcissism.
Therefore, individuals higher in overt narcissism tend to have a
greater level of belief in their own ability to attain their goals,
which suggests a generally more positive outlook on life, especially
when considered in addition to the aforementioned increased
self-esteem. Covert narcissism was found to negatively predict
self-efficacy, beyond self-esteem and overt narcissism. Hence, find-
ings regarding self-efficacy appear congruent with the earlier sug-
gestion that overt narcissism is a reasonably adaptive trait within
non-pathological individuals, compared to the more maladaptive
covert form of narcissism (Rose, 2002).
Findings revealed that NPI Power was the only overt narcissism
subscale to significantly predict self-efficacy. The positive link
between NPI Power and self-efficacy may suggest it presents a
more adaptive element of overt narcissism, especially due to either
a weak (Brunell et al., 2011) or no significant link to self-esteem.
Certainly, a stronger belief regarding goal attainment without such
an inflated self-image may present the most adaptive element of
overt narcissism. NPI Exhibitionism and NPI Special Person were
not significantly linked to self-efficacy. Hence, despite NPI Special
Person being linked to higher self-esteem, it was not related to
self-efficacy. This may suggest the Special Person facet is charac-
terised by magical thinking due to an enhanced self-image, with-
out higher self-efficacy to inform a greater belief of actions
facilitating goal attainment. Therefore, NPI Special Person may rep-
resent the maladaptive core of overt narcissism. Since NPI
Exhibitionism is not associated with either self-esteem or
self-efficacy, the Exhibitionism facet may be located between the
more adaptive NPI Power and more maladaptive NPI Special
Person subscale. Moreover, the present exploration has highlighted
the importance of distinction between Power and Special Person
subscales within the NPI, since they demonstrate differing rela-
tionships with external correlates. These differences would not
have been observed utilising the alternative two factor structure
(Kubarych et al., 2004).
Future research may consider additional external correlates of
the three NPI components to further validate their adaptive and
maladaptive natures. These explorations may shed further light
on whether NPI Special Person forms the maladaptive core of overt
narcissism. Research may consider NPI subscale associations in
relation to both self-esteem and self-efficacy in another, larger
sample. This may clarify whether NPI Power reaches significance
in relation to self-esteem, while controlling for other NPI subscales.
Further studies may include an exploration of possible gender
differences.
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... Narsisizmin fenotipindeki en önemli ayırım büyüklenmeci ve kırılgan olarak Wink (1991) tarafından yapılmıştır. Büyüklenmeci narsisizm, yüksek benlik saygısı (Barry ve diğerleri, 2015;Brookes, 2015;Zhang ve diğerleri, 2017) öznel iyi oluş, sosyal olarak baskınlık, kibirlilik, bencillik, teşhircilik gibi özelliklerle karakterize edilirken, kırılgan narsisizm ise düşük benlik saygısı (Brookes, 2015;Zhang ve diğerleri, 2017), kaçınma, utanç, reddedilmeye veya eleştirilmeye aşırı duyarlılık, aşırı kaygı, kolayca incinme gibi özelliklerle karakterizedir (Czarna ve diğerleri, 2018;Miller ve diğerleri, 2016;Pincus ve Lukowitsky, 2010;Krizan ve Herlache, 2017). Bu iki fenotip bazı ortak noktalara sahiptir (Levy, 2012) ve bu nedenle bireyler bazen bu iki durum arasında gidip gelebilmektedirler (Ronningstam, 2009). ...
... Narsisizmin fenotipindeki en önemli ayırım büyüklenmeci ve kırılgan olarak Wink (1991) tarafından yapılmıştır. Büyüklenmeci narsisizm, yüksek benlik saygısı (Barry ve diğerleri, 2015;Brookes, 2015;Zhang ve diğerleri, 2017) öznel iyi oluş, sosyal olarak baskınlık, kibirlilik, bencillik, teşhircilik gibi özelliklerle karakterize edilirken, kırılgan narsisizm ise düşük benlik saygısı (Brookes, 2015;Zhang ve diğerleri, 2017), kaçınma, utanç, reddedilmeye veya eleştirilmeye aşırı duyarlılık, aşırı kaygı, kolayca incinme gibi özelliklerle karakterizedir (Czarna ve diğerleri, 2018;Miller ve diğerleri, 2016;Pincus ve Lukowitsky, 2010;Krizan ve Herlache, 2017). Bu iki fenotip bazı ortak noktalara sahiptir (Levy, 2012) ve bu nedenle bireyler bazen bu iki durum arasında gidip gelebilmektedirler (Ronningstam, 2009). ...
... Genel olarak bu sonuçlara yönelik ilgili alanyazın incelendiğinde bu değişkenler arasındaki ilişkilerin incelendiği bir çalışmaya rastlanmamıştır. Büyüklenmeci narsisizmin yüksek benlik saygısı (Barry ve diğerleri, 2015;Brookes, 2015;Zhang ve diğerleri, 2017) ve kırılgan narsisizm düşük benlik saygısı (Brookes, 2015;Zhang ve diğerleri, 2017) (2000) benlik saygısının partneri ve ilişkiyi nasıl algıladıklarına yönelik bir etkisinin olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. Bu bağlamda büyüklenmeci narsisizm özellikleri olan bireylerin romantik ilişkilere yönelik algılarının daha olumlu olmasının ve akılcı olmayan inançlara daha az sahip olmalarının sahip oldukları yüksek benlik saygılarının, kırılgan narsisizm özellikleri gösteren bireylerin ise romantik ilişkilerine yönelik olan algılarının daha olumsuz olmalarının ve akılcı olmayan inançlara daha çok sahip olmalarının düşük benlik saygısı ile ilişkili olabileceği düşünülmektedir. ...
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Bu araştırmada üniversite öğrencilerinde romantik ilişkilerde akılcı olmayan inançlar ile büyüklenmeci ve kırılgan narsisizm ve bilişsel esneklik arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışma grubu Türkiye’de farklı üniversitelerde öğrenim gören 306’sı (%73,4) kadın, 111’i (%26,6) erkek olmak üzere 417 üniversite öğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Veriler, Demografik Bilgi Formu, Romantik İlişkilerde Akılcı Olmayan İnançlar Ölçeği, Patolojik Narsisizm Envanteri ve Bilişsel Esneklik Envanteri kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Değişkenler arasındaki ilişkileri belirlemek için Pearson Korelasyon Analizi ve Hiyerarşik Regresyon Analizi, değişkenlerin ortalamalarındaki farklılaşmaları belirlemek için t -Test ve Tek-Yönlü ANOVA analizleri uygulanmıştır. Demografik değişkenlerle yapılan analizlere göre, daha önceden hiç ilişki yaşamamış kişilerin, daha önceden ilişki yaşayan kişilere kıyasla romantik ilişkilerde akılcı olmayan inançlara daha fazla sahip oldukları belirlenmiştir. Yapılan korelasyon analizi sonucunda, büyüklenmeci narsisizm ve bilişsel esneklik ile romantik ilişkilerde akılcı olmayan inançlar arasında negatif yönde, kırılgan narsisizm ile romantik ilişkilerde akılcı olmayan inançlar arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişkiler olduğu saptanmıştır. Regresyon analizi sonuçlarında, bilişsel esneklik ve büyüklenmeci ve kırılgan narsisizmin romantik ilişkilerde akılcı olmayan inançları anlamlı düzeyde yordadıkları bulunmuştur. Araştırma sonuçları çerçevesinde, kişilik özelliklerinin ve bilişsel mekanizmaların bireyin romantik ilişkilerinde akılcı olmayan inançlarını etkileyen yapılar oldukları belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar ilgili alanyazın ışığı altında tartışılmış ve öneriler sunulmuştur.
... Accordingly, individuals may be inclined to deliver the message that they are not affected by abandonment and do not care about abandonment to protect themselves from being abandoned or to protect themselves when faced with abandonment. Emotions might be suppressed, and their cognitions become active, so that the autonomy and self-efficacy that they do not have are not apparent to others and they are not hurt (Young et al., 2006;Besser and Priel, 2009;Brookes, 2015). Individuals with grandiose narcissistic tendencies are known to have a fear of abandonment, see this as a weakness of self-worth and display a defensive grandiosity (Behary and Dieckmann, 2011;Brookes, 2015). ...
... Emotions might be suppressed, and their cognitions become active, so that the autonomy and self-efficacy that they do not have are not apparent to others and they are not hurt (Young et al., 2006;Besser and Priel, 2009;Brookes, 2015). Individuals with grandiose narcissistic tendencies are known to have a fear of abandonment, see this as a weakness of self-worth and display a defensive grandiosity (Behary and Dieckmann, 2011;Brookes, 2015). Accordingly, although the story of abandonment was coded as cold (Hostile-dominant quadrant), both the GN and VN groups chose to react "sociable" (Friendly dominant quadrant), meaning that they gave anti-complimentary responses. ...
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Aim Narcissism is a direct result of the lack of self-expression. Thus, this trait is enshrined in cycles of strategies to protect self-worth in interpersonal relationships. The aim of the present study was to understand in what way narcissistic individuals understand their interactions with themselves and others. Method The study included two groups comprising high grandiose narcissism (GN, n = 43) and high vulnerable narcissism (VN, n = 44). The participants who received scores that were one standard deviation (SD) above the mean, either on the PNI-grandiosity or on the PNI-vulnerable dimensions, constituted the GN and VN groups among 518 students (Age: M = 23.57, Sd = 2.13). Results The chi-square test was performed to evaluate the dimensions of narcissism with respect to responses of the participants and their partners (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional). The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) was administered to evaluate narcissistic characteristics. The “Criticism Story” of the Story Completion Inventory in Romantic Relationships (SCIRR) was used for criticism. The circular pattern between the responses of the participants and their partners was examined using the Interpersonal Schemas Scale (ISS). The results revealed that the vulnerable group gave more complementary responses emotionally and made more complementary predictions in terms of the expected reactions from the romantic partner than the grandiose group. Discussion The results were discussed in reference to the basic self-esteem-protecting motivations of the groups.
... Benlik saygısı dışında, narsisizm özsaygının anlamlı düzeyde bir yordayıcısıyken, özsaygının narsisizmin ileriye dönük belirleyicisi olmadığı belirlenmiştir (Zuckerman & O'Loughlin, 2009). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin narsisizm ile öz yeterlilik algıları arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen başka çalışmalarda öz yeterlilik ile narsisizm arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir (Brender-Ilan & Sheaffer, 2018;Brookes, 2015;Gönülalan, 2019;Hirschi & Jaensch, 2015). Narsisizmin saldırganlığı pozitif yönde beslediği (Ang & Yusof, 2005;Barry, Chaplin & Grafeman, 2006;Kauten & Barry, 2014;Locke, 2009;Przepiorka, Blachino, & Wiesenthal, 2014), mutluluk (Özözen Danacı, 2017;Zuckerman & O'Loughlin, 2009) ve umut (Hickmen, Watson, & Morris, 1995 arasında ise negatif yönde ilişki olduğu belirlenmiştir. ...
... As well as occurring on a spectrum, there are various types of narcissism and the type that is most associated with dysfunctional organisational behaviour is that of the grandiose narcissist. Grandiose narcissism is evident through admiration seeking, exhibitionism, aggression, dominance, entitlement and exploitiveness (Brookes, 2015). While initially being perceived as charming and popular, the negative correlates of this personality may become more apparent over time (Leckelt et al., 2018) and the exploitative nature of such people may be observed (Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001). ...
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The paper explores, through a review of literature, the complexities associated with the increasing need of taking an agile approach to leadership in managing projects. The paper aims to explore the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA) required by project leaders to adopt an agile approach to leading their project teams. Project leadership in itself is complex given the wide range of activities it involves. In addition, agile is increasingly becoming a need in leadership style let alone to be used as a methodology to manage projects. The goal is to explore a modern approach to leadership formation when applying agile methodology from the point of view of leading project teams. A systematic literature review has been conducted on literature available from the last five years (2017-2022) to capture the complexities associated with agile leadership. Alongside the complexities, the knowledge, skills, and attributes required by a project leader implementing an agile approach to their leadership style have been studied. As a result, an effort to create a development approach to agile leadership has been derived based on KSA for existing project leaders who might be willing to adopt this new leadership style. The results of this research will aid project leaders to gain a strong understanding of changing landscape and provide an avenue to better support, guide, and coach their project teams with agility. The results will also inform future; leadership preparation courses in order to train new and upcoming leaders in the field of project management.
... As well as occurring on a spectrum, there are various types of narcissism and the type that is most associated with dysfunctional organisational behaviour is that of the grandiose narcissist. Grandiose narcissism is evident through admiration seeking, exhibitionism, aggression, dominance, entitlement and exploitiveness (Brookes, 2015). While initially being perceived as charming and popular, the negative correlates of this personality may become more apparent over time (Leckelt et al., 2018) and the exploitative nature of such people may be observed (Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001). ...
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Online services that bring together those who want to take part in volunteering projects and volunteering opportunities are called volunteer match platforms. To increase volunteer engagement these platforms need to reach more people. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the expectations of users from these platforms and design and manage the platforms accordingly. This study aims to examine the main aspects impacting the engagement of volunteers in volunteer match platforms. For this purpose, 8 potential users of a newly established volunteer match platform in Turkey, Köprü Project, were interviewed. As a result of the study, it was found that the most important aspects of volunteer match platforms for potential users are gaining trust both for the projects and the platform, providing social media links of the projects on the platform, and regularly communicating with its users.
... Individuals with high levels of NAN tend to hold greater beliefs about their abilities to achieve goals. Narcissistic individuals are viewed as more motivated by rewards than agentic experiences (Brookes, 2015). For example, such individuals will be motivated by activities or behaviors that may increase their status and power (Konrath & Tian, 2018). ...
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One way of making scholarships sustainable is to continue the “chain of kindness.” However, relatively few studies have examined the psychological predictors involved in making a scholarship recipient feel that “pay it forward” is under their control. This study aimed to determine the predictions of four types of narcissism on Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC) in continuing scholarship. The instruments used comprised psychological scales measuring PBC, which were constructed by the authors, and some types of narcissism, i.e. the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI), Brief-Pathological Narcissism Inventory (B-PNI), and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 (NPI). Data were obtained by convenience sampling from 212 Indonesian scholarship recipients and analyzed with multiple linear regression (predictive correlational design). The results showed that the regression model had statistical significance (F(4, 211)= 15.452, p = .000, R2 = 23%). A notable result was that communal narcissism predicted PBC in a positive direction. Narcissism often has negative connotations; however, the results contribute by showing that there is also a “bright side” of narcissism.
... Hendin and Cheek (1997) later devised the 10-item Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS), which encompasses items such as "I can become entirely absorbed in thinking about my personal affairs, my health, my cares or my relations to others" or "I feel that I am temperamentally different from most people" (Hendin & Cheek, 1997; p. 592). The HSNS puts a strong emphasis on hypersensitivity (particularly in the social context; see next section and Fossati et al., 2009) and is related to low self-esteem (e.g., Brookes, 2015) and introversion (Jauk et al., 2017), making it a measure which could be said to capture specifically a "shy type" of narcissism (cf. Wink, 1991; for data, see Rogoza et al., 2018). ...
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