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Roundtable Discussion: Youth Resistance Training

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Abstract

summary: The concept of periodization is important for strength and conditioning professionals. This roundtable covers several aspects of periodization strategies.

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... S trength and conditioning professionals have used periodization models to improve sports performance in athletes competing at the interscholastic, intercollegiate, and international levels (6,10). Athletes benefit from these training regimens because these conceptual models help them balance the demands of year-round training, as well as to refine their training so that they reach peak performance levels at critical points in their respective competitive season. ...
... Designing a periodized strength and conditioning program for the F44 class Paralympic discus thrower presented a unique coaching challenge, requiring individualized technical and training models to meet his physical abilities. The program presented here was based on periodization theory widely used by strength and conditioning professionals (6,10), and was augmented with rehabilitation models widely employed by sports medicine practitioners (26,27). This synthesis was accomplished by integrating physical therapy assessment and therapeutic exercise regimens into the athlete's annual training program. ...
... Periodization of training involves the manipulation of duration, volume, and intensity in an attempt to maximize the physiological adaptations that produce strength gains, increased power, and enhanced muscle velocity (8). The classical method of linear periodization divides strength training into different periods or cycles: macrocycles (9 -12 months), mesocycles (3 -4 months), and microcycles (1 -4 weeks), increasing intensity gradually while training volume is reduced between and within these cycles as training progresses (6). On the other hand, undulating or nonlinear periodization is characterized by more frequent alterations in the intensity and volume training measures over the duration of the training calendar (22). ...
... Periodization incorporates this principle of variation as the core component in its application (American College of Sports Medicine 2002). However, periodized training is not necessary until some form of base fitness has been obtained (Fleck 1999;Haff 2004b). ...
... Sequenced progression from one type of training such as strength training can boost the gains obtained by another type of training such as power training (Haff 2004a), and this is where a periodized program is so effective. An adequately designed and periodized training program in the off-season lays the broader foundations to a successful competitive season (Haff 2004b). Generally, classic periodization plans are divided into different training epochs: a macrocycle (e.g., a 4-6 month period), which is subdivided into smaller epochs called mesocycles (e.g., 4-6 week blocks), which is further subdivided into even smaller units called microcycles (e.g., 1 week blocks; Haff 2004a). ...
... Various combinations of these phases can be applied depending on the sport and/or individual's training goals, and each phase requires different levels of variation in training prescription (Stone et al. 2000b). The off-season period is where the most resistance training is performed and therefore also has the greatest application and manipulation of periodization (Haff 2004b). ...
Chapter
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HistoryBiologic process of trainingFactors affecting physical performanceFitness components associated with sportBasic principles of trainingBasic errors in trainingProgram designResistance training for sportGoal settingLimitations to trainingStart easilyTraining intensityTraining structureRegularity of trainingFrequency of trainingTraining durationHigh intensity trainingHard day, easy day principleTaperingPeaking and subsequent decline in competitive performanceRecoveryHeart rate monitoringWeight trainingStretchingOvertrainingPhysiologic basis of motor skill acquisitionTheories of motor skill acquisitionConclusions References
... However, because an athlete's peak performance can only be maintained for 2-3 weeks (74), the ability to coordinate this with a competition date long into the future (e.g., the Olympics) is a fundamental skill to all strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches and the one that may only be attained after competency of the science and practice of periodization. Furthermore, and despite an apparent lack of scientific rigor to govern its application (8,16,21,64,71), periodization is widely practiced (11)(12)(13)67) and recommended (26,27,64). The aim of this article, therefore, was to provide the S&C coach with a brief overview of periodization so as they may be cognizant of its theory and methodology. ...
... Mesocycle blocks are usually arranged in a 3:1 loading paradigm (Figure 4), whereby the load gradually increases for the first 3 microcycles (weeks) before an unloading phase in the fourth (creating the typical undulating appearance of periodized programs). The unloading phase reduces fatigue, thereby allowing adaptations to take place (26,27,64). The significance of appropriately planned work to rest ratios (with respect to training sessions) may be evidenced by the articles of Nadori and Granek (59) and Plisk and Stone (64) who suggest that the greater the number of progressive loading steps, the greater the number of unloading steps required, for example, a 4:2 paradigm. ...
... The significance of appropriately planned work to rest ratios (with respect to training sessions) may be evidenced by the articles of Nadori and Granek (59) and Plisk and Stone (64) who suggest that the greater the number of progressive loading steps, the greater the number of unloading steps required, for example, a 4:2 paradigm. It should also be noted that because training adaptations take place during recovery periods (27), the need to reduce accumulated fatigue cannot be understated. As an anecdotal example, one of the major differences between professional and semiprofessional athletes is that after training, the professional athlete returns home and rests, whereas the semiprofessional athletes goes off to work. ...
Article
PERIODIZATION REPRESENTS AN OPTIMAL STRATEGY FOR ORGANIZING STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING PROGRAMS. THE SELECTED STRATEGY, HOWEVER, SHOULD BE BASED ON THE LEVEL OF THE ATHLETE AND THE CONSTRAINTS OF THE COMPETITIVE SEASON. A COMMON THEME THROUGHOUT ALL THE PERIODIZATION PROTOCOLS IS THE NEED TO MANIPULATE VOLUME LOADS, PROGRESS FROM GENERAL TO SPORT-SPECIFIC TRAINING, AND DISSIPATE FATIGUE. SIGNIFICANT TO THE LATTER, THE USE OF PRECOMPETITION TAPERS APPEARS EVIDENTLY BENEFICIAL. ALTHOUGH ENOUGH ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE EXISTS TO VALIDATE THE USE OF PERIODIZATION, FURTHER SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION IS REQUIRED TO UNDERSTAND ITS USE AND LIMITATIONS TO ELITE LEVEL ATHLETES ACROSS EXTENDED PERIODS (E.G., >4 YEARS). UNTIL SUCH TIME, HOWEVER, ITS USE IS RECOMMENDED AND ADVOCATED BY THE RESEARCH HEREIN.
... Another form of periodization used is undulating or nonlinear, previously described by Poliquin (25), which is characterized by more frequent alterations in intensity and volume (21). This model was adapted by Rhea et al. (27) receiving the name of daily undulating periodization (DUP), in which modifications in volume and intensity are made daily (12). ...
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To determine the most effective periodization model for strength and hypertrophy is an important step for strength and conditioning professionals. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of linear (LP) and daily undulating periodized (DUP) resistance training on body composition and maximal strength levels. Forty men aged 21.5 +/- 8.3 and with a minimum 1-year strength training experience were assigned to an LP (n = 20) or DUP group (n = 20). Subjects were tested for maximal strength in bench press, leg press 45 degrees, and arm curl (1 repetition maximum [RM]) at baseline (T1), after 8 weeks (T2), and after 12 weeks of training (T3). Increases of 18.2 and 25.08% in bench press 1 RM were observed for LP and DUP groups in T3 compared with T1, respectively (p < or = 0.05). In leg press 45 degrees , LP group exhibited an increase of 24.71% and DUP of 40.61% at T3 compared with T1. Additionally, DUP showed an increase of 12.23% at T2 compared with T1 and 25.48% at T3 compared with T2. For the arm curl exercise, LP group increased 14.15% and DUP 23.53% at T3 when compared with T1. An increase of 20% was also found at T2 when compared with T1, for DUP. Although the DUP group increased strength the most in all exercises, no statistical differences were found between groups. In conclusion, undulating periodized strength training induced higher increases in maximal strength than the linear model in strength-trained men. For maximizing strength increases, daily intensity and volume variations were more effective than weekly variations.
... Um exemplo importante dessas considerações é o debate proposto em 2004 pela National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), intitulado "Roundtable Discussion: periodization of training", mediado porHaff 12,13 no qual cinco renomados pesquisadores discutiram a periodização e seus aspectos -entretanto, predominantemente no que diz respeito ao treinamento com pesos e suas facetas. Essa discussão buscou atualizar os conceitos abordados em 1986 nas páginas do NSCA Journalcom o mesmo objetivo. ...
... In comparison to linear and non-periodised training models, DUP has been proposed to offer equal, if not greater, improvements in physical performance. 20,21,22,33,54 The progressive overload of a given motor attribute during DUP is not achieved on a day-to-day basis as the training stimulus is too varied. As such, progressive overload is achieved during a subsequent training session with a similar focus. ...
Article
Modern military operations place unique and intense physiological and psychological demands upon the soldier. In order to help adapt to and cope with such demands, a high level of physical preparedness must be seen as a fundamental requirement of all military personnel. Indeed, the modern soldier needs to be more agile, more capable, more able to survive and more resilient than the enemy in order to ensure victory on the battlefield. Soldiers who are physically fit can be seen as a critical force multiplier. Not only do they demonstrate improved mission performance, but they may also be more resilient for both the physical and psychological demands of sustained military operations. Furthermore, physically fit soldiers may be less susceptible to injury and demonstrate better physical and mental health over the long term than less fit individuals.
... As training volume increases across these microcycles, fatigue may accumulate inhibiting performance (Haff, 2004a). During the final microcycle, an unloading microcycle, volume is significantly decreased, permitting fatigue to dissipate and promote the recovery-adaptations process (Haff, 2004a(Haff, , 2004bPlisk & Stone, 2003). Once the unloaded microcycle has been completed, the preceding training stimulus can be re-introduced at progressively higher workloads (Haff, 2004a). ...
... GAS is widely considered as the basis for modern periodization [6,155]. Advances in the scientific understanding of stress and adaptation, as well as technology, have led some authors to question the validity of both the GAS and periodization. ...
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Recent reviews have attempted to refute the efficacy of applying Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS) as a conceptual framework for the training process. Furthermore, the criticisms involved are regularly used as the basis for arguments against the periodization of training. However, these perspectives fail to consider the entirety of Selye’s work, the evolution of his model, and the broad applications he proposed. While it is reasonable to critically evaluate any paradigm, critics of the GAS have yet to dismantle the link between stress and adaptation. Disturbance to the state of an organism is the driving force for biological adaptation, which is the central thesis of the GAS model and the primary basis for its application to the athlete’s training process. Despite its imprecisions, the GAS has proven to be an instructive framework for understanding the mechanistic process of providing a training stimulus to induce specific adaptations that result in functional enhancements. Pioneers of modern periodization have used the GAS as a framework for the management of stress and fatigue to direct adaptation during sports training. Updates to the periodization concept have retained its founding constructs while explicitly calling for scientifically based, evidence-driven practice suited to the individual. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide greater clarity on how the GAS serves as an appropriate mechanistic model to conceptualize the periodization of training.
... Evidence suggests that this approach offers greater improvements in performance in comparison to traditional and nonperiodised training models. 6,7,8,9,10,11 Within a specific training block, a wave like, daily-undulating approach, alternating between heavy, moderate, and light training load sessions can be utilised. However, the scheduling of training sessions should not be set in stone and their sequencing should be dependent upon the athlete's day-today conditional training readiness. ...
Article
It is often stated that Strength and Conditioning (S&C) as a profession is both an art and a science. However, recently in certain quarters, the role of the S&C practitioner has arguably become more that of a sports scientist resulting in a lack of emphasis upon coaching. In order to address this, it is proposed that the development of a training philosophy which considers the importance of both coaching and sports science should form an inherent part of an S&C professionals’ development. The following article provides an overview of an S&C training philosophy developed through a combination of vocational and academic education, extensive practical coaching experience, and 15-years of military service. It is hoped that this article may challenge some existing believes and potentially inspire fellow S&C practitioners to reflect upon their own practice and perhaps consider the development of their own training philosophy by which to help guide their own professional practice within the field.
... The periodisation of strength training includes the variation of volume, intensity, frequency and exercise selection over time to enable the training stimulus to remain challenging and effective during a training programme (American College of Sports Medicine, 2009b). Recent studies have indicated that periodised strength training may improve sports-specific performance Hoffman et al., 2009) and, further, is thought to be beneficial when it comes to injury prevention (Haff, 2004). Strength and conditioning programmes in sports usually vary during the in-season and offseason periods, due to the change of the game and practice schedule. ...
Thesis
The overall purpose of this thesis was to obtain knowledge about individualised, supervised strength and conditioning programmes for physical performance and injury prevention in female athletes. Data are presented both on the influence of individualisation and supervision during resistance training for physical performance and injury prevention and on the athletes’ experience of resistance training and the role of the physical coach. Data are also presented on physical performance testing and injury prevalence and preventive action in female volleyball. Study I: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of injury and the extent of preventive action in elite Swedish volleyball players. Injuries to players in the elite male and female Swedish division, during the 2002-2003 season, were registered using a questionnaire. Of the 158 volleyball players, a total of 82 players (52%) reported 121 injuries, during a total exposure time of 24,632 h. The majority of the injuries were located in the ankle, knee and back. Most injuries were classified as being of minor severity. Although most players took part in some kind of preventive action, one in every two players incurred an injury during the season, which indicates that the risk of suffering an injury in elite volleyball is relatively high. Study II: The purpose of Study II was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of sit-ups and push-ups and to investigate performance differences in muscular endurance (maximum number of repetitions) and power (timed; maximum number of repetitions in 30 s) in young women and men. Thirty-eight women and 25 men (age18-35) participated in the study. Thirteen female participants performed two test sessions of each test using a test-retest design. A high level of reliability was noted for both the sit-up and the push-up tests. There were no significant differences between the men and the women in the sit-up test, whereas the men performed significantly more push-ups than the women. Study III: The purpose of Study III was to evaluate the effects of a 26-week individualised and supervised strength and injury-prevention programme on performance enhancement. Young female volleyball players completed resistance training with either a supervised, individualised training programme (experimental group; n=10) or an unsupervised, non-individualised training programme (control group; n=17). Exposure and injury data were collected during the 2006-2007 season (baseline) and the 26-week programme with physical performance testing was carried out during the 2007-2008 season. After the intervention, the experimental group had improved significantly more (p<0.05) than the control group in the squat, barbell bench press, push-ups and sit-ups. Individualisation and supervision of resistance training seem to improve greater training adherence and strength gains compared with non-individualised and unsupervised training. Study IV: The purpose of Study IV was to explore and describe volleyball players’ experience of an individualised, supervised strength-training programme aiming at physical performance and injury prevention. The purpose was also to use the players’ observations to obtain an understanding of the role of a physical coach. The study comprised nine participants (mean age 19 years) who had been involved as the experimental group in Study III. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analysed using qualitative conventional content analysis. Three overarching themes describing the content of the text emerged: 1) being in an enjoyable, relaxed situation, 2) interaction between coach and athlete and 3) mental and physical achievements. Conclusions: Individualisation and supervision appear to be of importance for compliance, strength gains and athletic performance, during strength training. From the female team athletes’ perspective, the willingness to perform strength training is dependent on team spirit, individual goal-setting and bonding with the coach. Strength training, on the one hand, could be used to improve self-esteem among young females. On the other hand, when designing strength-training intervention studies, it is important to be aware of the fear and feeling of uncertainty that may exist among the participants when it comes to strength training. Key words: Strength training, physical performance, functional tests, strength assessment, injury prevention, physical coach, young female athletes, volleyball
Article
summary: Specificity is a vital concept in track and field training for the throwing events (6). Specific physiological/ performance characteristics can be developed by emphasizing specific training variables. Exercises must be specifically designed for the demands of the event. Effective program design must address energetics, mechanics, and coordination characteristics specific to throwing. The goal of final preparation in the competition phase is to develop speed strength and to maximize fitness, to fine-tune skills but minimize fatigue on the day of the competition. (C) 2007 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Thesis
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Summary of the doctoral thesis Introduction: In many sports, strength is considered an important basis for performance. One factor affecting strength is muscle mass. Therefore, it may be necessary to increase muscle mass in athletes through resistance training. However, the most effective strategy to gain muscle mass has not yet been clearly identified. Many methods used in practice are based on anecdotal evidence rather than empirical data. For this reason, different approaches to hypertrophy training were examined in this thesis based on three studies. The methods and most important results of these studies are summarized in the following. Methods: In the first study, adolescent American football players completed a 12-week resistance training program with three total-body training sessions per week using either Block Periodization (BLOCK) or Daily Undulating Periodization (DUP). The aim was to investigate the effects of the different periodization strategies on muscle mass and athletic performance. The second study assessed the impact of a three-week detraining period (DTR) on anthropometric measures and sport performance. In a third study, highly trained male subjects completed a six-week low-intensity calf resistance training intervention either without (noBFR) or with blood flow restriction (BFR). Before and after the intervention, 1-RM calf raise, calf volume, muscle thickness of the gastrocnemius, and leg stiffness were recorded. Results: At the end of the first intervention, both periodization groups showed significantly higher muscle mass and thickness, as well as athletic performance without differences between groups. Following DTR, fat mass increased significantly, and fat-free mass was reduced. All other measures were unchanged after DTR. Both BFR and NoBFR training resulted in significant increases in 1-RM and muscle thickness without differences between groups. Calf volume and leg stiffness remained unchanged in both conditions. Conclusions: In adolescent American football players, the structure of periodization does not appear to have any effect on muscle growth. Furthermore, a three weeks DTR does not result in negative effects. Both results provide new insights that can be helpful when creating training programs as well as for planning training-free periods. The currently frequently investigated BFR training does not show higher effects on muscle growth of the lower extremities than conventional low-intensity resistance training.
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Periodization is known to improve training adaptations but the most effective periodization approach for muscular strength development for a wide variety of populations is yet to be determined. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined all studies directly comparing linear and undulating periodized resistance training programs to determine and compare their effects on muscular strength. A systematic search of the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and SPORTDiscus databases revealed 17 studies satisfying the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 510 participants in the included studies. Sixteen studies reported significant increases in strength for both periodization approaches. Five studies reported significant differences in improvements between groups. The meta-analyses determined there were no differences in the effectiveness of linear versus undulating periodization on upper or lower body strength. The short-term nature of studies and the previous training history of participants were identified as potential confounding factors in the interpretation of findings. The results suggest that novelty or training variety are important for stimulating further strength development. Few studies have examined the effect of periodization approaches in adolescent, or athletic populations.
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Subjects: Seven competitive weightlifters participated in the study. Methods: The weightlifters performed a block style periodized plan across 20 weeks. Force plate data from the isometric mid-thigh pull and static jumps with 0 kg, 11 kg, and 20 kg were collected near the end of each training block (weeks 1, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 20). Weightlifting performance was measured at weeks 0, 7, 11, and 20. Results: Very strong correlations were noted between weightlifting performances and isometric rate of force development (RFD), isometric peak force (PF), peak power (PP), and jump height (JH). Men responded in a more predictable manner than the women. During periods of higher training volume, RFD was depressed to a greater extent than PF. JH at 20 kg responded in a manner reflecting the expected fatigue response more so than JH at 0 kg and 11 kg. Conclusions: PF appears to have been more resistant to volume alterations than RFD and JH at 20 kg. RFD and JH at 20 kg appear to be superior monitoring metrics due to their "sensitivity."
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Objectives: To determine those performance indicators that have the greatest influence on classifying outcome at the elite level of mixed martial arts (MMA). A secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of decision tree analysis in explaining the characteristics of victory when compared to alternate statistical methods. Design: Cross-sectional observational. Methods: Eleven raw performance indicators from male Ultimate Fighting Championship bouts (n=234) from July 2014 to December 2014 were screened for analysis. Each raw performance indicator was also converted to a rate-dependent measure to be scaled to fight duration. Further, three additional performance indicators were calculated from the dataset and included in the analysis. Cohen's d effect sizes were employed to determine the magnitude of the differences between Wins and Losses, while decision tree (chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID)) and discriminant function analyses (DFA) were used to classify outcome (Win and Loss). Results: Effect size comparisons revealed differences between Wins and Losses across a number of performance indicators. Decision tree (raw: 71.8%; rate-scaled: 76.3%) and DFA (raw: 71.4%; rate-scaled 71.2%) achieved similar classification accuracies. Grappling and accuracy performance indicators were the most influential in explaining outcome. The decision tree models also revealed multiple combinations of performance indicators leading to victory. Conclusions: The decision tree analyses suggest that grappling activity and technique accuracy are of particular importance in achieving victory in elite-level MMA competition. The DFA results supported the importance of these performance indicators. Decision tree induction represents an intuitive and slightly more accurate approach to explaining bout outcome in this sport when compared to DFA.
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To compare the physiological and performance adaptations between periodized and nonperiodized resistance training in women collegiate tennis athletes. Thirty women (19 +/- 1 yr) were assigned to either a periodized resistance training group (P), nonperiodized training group (NV), or a control group (C). Assessments for body composition, anaerobic power, VO2(max), speed, agility, maximal strength, jump height, tennis-service velocity, and resting serum hormonal concentrations were performed before and after 4, 6, and 9 months of resistance training performed 2-3 d.wk (-1). Nine months of resistance training resulted in significant increases in fat-free mass; anaerobic power; grip strength; jump height; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press, bench press, and shoulder press; serve, forehand, and backhand ball velocities; and resting serum insulin-like growth factor-1, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. Percent body fat and VO2(max) decreased significantly in the P and NV groups after training. During the first 6 months, periodized resistance training elicited significantly greater increases in 1-RM leg press (9 +/- 2 vs 4.5 +/- 2%), bench press (22 +/- 5 vs 11 +/- 8%), and shoulder press (24 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 6%) than the NV group. The absolute 1-RM leg press and shoulder press values in the P group were greater than the NV group after 9 months. Periodized resistance training also resulted in significantly greater improvements in jump height (50 +/- 9 vs 37 +/- 7%) and serve (29 +/- 5 vs 16 +/- 4%), forehand (22 +/- 3 vs 17 +/- 3%), and backhand ball velocities (36 +/- 4 vs 14 +/- 4%) as compared with nonperiodized training after 9 months. These data demonstrated that periodization of resistance training over 9 months was superior for enhancing strength and motor performance in collegiate women tennis players.
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The use of resistance training for children has increased in popularity and interest. It appears that children are capable of voluntary strength gains. Exercise prescription in younger populations is critical and requires certain program variables to be altered from adult perspectives. Individualization is vital, as the rate of physiological maturation has an impact on the adaptations that occur. The major difference in programs for children is the use of lighter loads (i.e., > 6 RM loads). It appears that longer duration programs (i.e., 10-20 wks) are better for observing training adaptations. This may be due to the fact that it takes more exercise to stimulate adaptational mechanisms related to strength performance beyond that of normal growth rates. The risk of injury appears low during participation in a resistance training program, and this risk is minimized with proper supervision and instruction. Furthermore, with the incidence of injury in youth sports, participation in a resistance training program may provide a protective advantage in one’s preparation for sports participation.
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American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand on Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. Vol. 34, No. 2, 2002, pp. 364-380. In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of both concentric and eccentric muscle actions and the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises. It is also recommended that the strength program sequence exercises to optimize the quality of the exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher intensity before lower intensity exercises). For initial resistances, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) be used in novice training. For intermediate to advanced training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range, from 1-12 RM in a periodized fashion, with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using at least 3-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s concentric. 1-2 s eccentric). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 d.wk(-1) for novice and intermediate training and 4-5 d.wk(-1) for advanced training. Similar program designs are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion, with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training, and 2) use of light loads (30-60% of 1 RM) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 2-3 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise. It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (> 15) using short rest periods (< 90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand, as with prior ones, the recommendations should be viewed in context of the individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status.
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The purpose of this investigation was to study a high-intensity resistance exercise overtraining protocol resulting in muscular strength decrements. Seventeen weight-trained males were divided into an overtraining group (OT; N = 11; mean +/- SE, age = 22.0 +/- 0.9 yr,) that exercised on a squat machine daily for 2 wk with 100% of 1 repetition maximum (RM) relative intensity, and a control group (CON; N = 6; age = 23.7 +/- 2.4 yr) that exercised 1 d.wk-1 with low intensity (50% 1 RM). Test batteries were conducted at the beginning (test 1), after 1 wk (test 2), and after 2 wk (test 3) of the study. One RM performance significantly decreased from test 1 to test 3 (P < 0.05) for the OT group (mean = -12.2 +/- 3.8 kg), but not the CON group (mean = -1.1 +/- 0.8 kg). Isokinetic and stimulated isometric muscle force significantly decreased for the OT group compared with the CON group by test 3. The primary site of maladaptation appeared to be in the periphery as indicated by changes in stimulated force, circulating CK activity, and exercise-induced lactate responses. This protocol produced a significant decrease in 1 RM performance, thus providing a model for the study of short-term, high-intensity resistance exercise overtraining.
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Seventeen weight-trained males were divided into an overtraining group [OT; n = 11; age = 22.0 +/- 0.9 (SE) yr] that weight trained their legs daily for 2 wk with 100% 1 repetition maximum relative intensity on a squat machine and a control group (n = 6; age = 23.7 +/- 2.4 yr) that exercised 1 day/wk with low relative intensity (50% 1 repetition maximum). Test batteries including strength assessments and resting and exercise-induced concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were conducted at the beginning, middle, and end (tests 1-3, respectively) of the study. Strength capabilities decreased by test 3 for the OT group (P < 0.05). Resting catecholamine concentrations did not change for either group during the study, whereas exercise-induced concentrations of both epinephrine (test 1 = 3,407.9 +/- 666.6 pmol/l, test 2 = 7,563.7 +/- 1,210.6 pmol/l, test 3 = 6,931.6 +/- 919.3 pmol/l) and norepinephrine (test 1 = 42.9 +/- 7.4 nmol/l, test 2 = 70.0 +/- 8.8 nmol/l, test 3 = 85.2 +/- 14.5 nmol/l) significantly increased by tests 2 and 3 for only the OT group. Correlation coefficients suggested decreased responsitivity of skeletal muscle to sympathetic nervous system activity. It appears that altered exercise-induced sympathetic nervous system activity accompanies high relative intensity resistance exercise overtraining and may be among the initial responses to the onset of the previously theoretical sympathetic overtraining syndrome.
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Few data exist on the long-term adaptations to heavy resistance training in women. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of volume of resistance exercise on the development of physical performance abilities in competitive, collegiate women tennis players. Twenty-four tennis players were matched for tennis ability and randomly placed into one of three groups: a no resistance exercise control group, a periodized multiple-set resistance training group, or a single-set circuit resistance training group. No significant changes in body mass were observed in any of the groups throughout the entire training period. However, significant increases in fat-free mass and decreases in percent body fat were observed in the periodized training group after 4, 6, and 9 months of training. A significant increase in power output was observed after 9 months of training in the periodized training group only. One-repetition maximum strength for the bench press, free-weight shoulder press, and leg press increased significantly after 4, 6, and 9 months of training in the periodized training group, whereas the single-set circuit group increased only after 4 months of training. Significant increases in serve velocity were observed after 4 and 9 months of training in the periodized training group, whereas no significant changes were observed in the single-set circuit group. These data demonstrate that sport-specific resistance training using a periodized multiple-set training method is superior to low-volume single-set resistance exercise protocols in the development of physical abilities in competitive, collegiate women tennis players.
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The purpose of this investigation was to determine the long-term training adaptations associated with low-volume circuit-type versus periodized high-volume resistance training programs in women. 34 healthy, untrained women were randomly placed into one of the following groups: low-volume, single-set circuit (SSC; N = 12); periodized high-volume multiple-set (MS; N = 12); or nonexercising control (CON) group (N = 10). The SSC group performed one set of 8-12 repetitions to muscular failure 3 d x wk(-1). The MS group performed two to four sets of 3-15 repetitions with periodized volume and intensity 4 d x wk(-1). Muscular strength, power, speed, endurance, anthropometry, and resting hormonal concentrations were determined pretraining (T1), after 12 wk (T2), and after 24 wk of training (T3). 1-RM bench press and leg press, and upper and lower body local muscular endurance increased significantly (P < or = 0.05) at T2 for both groups, but only MS showed a significant increase at T3. Muscular power and speed increased significantly at T2 and T3 only for MS. Increases in testosterone were observed for both groups at T2 but only MS showed a significant increase at T3. Cortisol decreased from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3 in MS. Insulin-like growth factor-1 increased significantly at T3 for SSC and at T2 and T3 for MS. No changes were observed for growth hormone in any of the training groups. Significant improvements in muscular performance may be attained with either a low-volume single-set program or a high-volume, periodized multiple-set program during the first 12 wk of training in untrained women. However, dramatically different training adaptations are associated with specific domains of training program design which contrast in speed of movement, exercise choices and use of variation (periodization) in the intensity and volume of exercise.
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In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary. The optimal characteristics of strength-specific programs include the use of both concentric and eccentric muscle actions and the performance of both single- and multiple-joint exercises. It is also recommended that the strength program sequence exercises to optimize the quality of the exercise intensity (large before small muscle group exercises, multiple-joint exercises before single-joint exercises, and higher intensity before lower intensity exercises). For initial resistances, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) be used in novice training. For intermediate to advanced training, it is recommended that individuals use a wider loading range, from 1-12 RM in a periodized fashion, with eventual emphasis on heavy loading (1-6 RM) using at least 3-min rest periods between sets performed at a moderate contraction velocity (1-2 s concentric, 1-2 s eccentric). When training at a specific RM load, it is recommended that 2-10% increase in load be applied when the individual can perform the current workload for one to two repetitions over the desired number. The recommendation for training frequency is 2-3 d x wk(-1) for novice and intermediate training and 4-5 d x wk(-1) for advanced training. Similar program designs are recommended for hypertrophy training with respect to exercise selection and frequency. For loading, it is recommended that loads corresponding to 1-12 RM be used in periodized fashion, with emphasis on the 6-12 RM zone using 1- to 2-min rest periods between sets at a moderate velocity. Higher volume, multiple-set programs are recommended for maximizing hypertrophy. Progression in power training entails two general loading strategies: 1) strength training, and 2) use of light loads (30-60% of 1 RM) performed at a fast contraction velocity with 2-3 min of rest between sets for multiple sets per exercise. It is also recommended that emphasis be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body. For local muscular endurance training, it is recommended that light to moderate loads (40-60% of 1 RM) be performed for high repetitions (> 15) using short rest periods (< 90 s). In the interpretation of this position stand, as with prior ones, the recommendations should be viewed in context of the individual's target goals, physical capacity, and training status.
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Thirty-two untrained men [mean (SD) age 22.5 (5.8) years, height 178.3 (7.2) cm, body mass 77.8 (11.9) kg] participated in an 8-week progressive resistance-training program to investigate the "strength-endurance continuum". Subjects were divided into four groups: a low repetition group (Low Rep, n = 9) performing 3-5 repetitions maximum (RM) for four sets of each exercise with 3 min rest between sets and exercises, an intermediate repetition group (Int Rep, n = 11) performing 9-11 RM for three sets with 2 min rest, a high repetition group (High Rep, n = 7) performing 20-28 RM for two sets with 1 min rest, and a non-exercising control group (Con, n = 5). Three exercises (leg press, squat, and knee extension) were performed 2 days/week for the first 4 weeks and 3 days/week for the final 4 weeks. Maximal strength [one repetition maximum, 1RM), local muscular endurance (maximal number of repetitions performed with 60% of 1RM), and various cardiorespiratory parameters (e.g., maximum oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, maximal aerobic power, time to exhaustion) were assessed at the beginning and end of the study. In addition, pre- and post-training muscle biopsy samples were analyzed for fiber-type composition, cross-sectional area, myosin heavy chain (MHC) content, and capillarization. Maximal strength improved significantly more for the Low Rep group compared to the other training groups, and the maximal number of repetitions at 60% 1RM improved the most for the High Rep group. In addition, maximal aerobic power and time to exhaustion significantly increased at the end of the study for only the High Rep group. All three major fiber types (types I, IIA, and IIB) hypertrophied for the Low Rep and Int Rep groups, whereas no significant increases were demonstrated for either the High Rep or Con groups. However, the percentage of type IIB fibers decreased, with a concomitant increase in IIAB fibers for all three resistance-trained groups. These fiber-type conversions were supported by a significant decrease in MHCIIb accompanied by a significant increase in MHCIIa. No significant changes in fiber-type composition were found in the control samples. Although all three training regimens resulted in similar fiber-type transformations (IIB to IIA), the low to intermediate repetition resistance-training programs induced a greater hypertrophic effect compared to the high repetition regimen. The High Rep group, however, appeared better adapted for submaximal, prolonged contractions, with significant increases after training in aerobic power and time to exhaustion. Thus, low and intermediate RM training appears to induce similar muscular adaptations, at least after short-term training in previously untrained subjects. Overall, however, these data demonstrate that both physical performance and the associated physiological adaptations are linked to the intensity and number of repetitions performed, and thus lend support to the "strength-endurance continuum".
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training on physiological adaptations including muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle creatine accumulation. Methods: Nineteen healthy resistance-trained men were matched and then randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either a creatine (N = 10) or placebo (N = 9) group. Periodized heavy resistance training was performed for 12 wk. Creatine or placebo capsules were consumed (25 g x d(-1)) for 1 wk followed by a maintenance dose (5 g x d(-1)) for the remainder of the training. Results: After 12 wk, significant (P < or = 0.05) increases in body mass and fat-free mass were greater in creatine (6.3% and 6.3%, respectively) than placebo (3.6% and 3.1%, respectively) subjects. After 12 wk, increases in bench press and squat were greater in creatine (24% and 32%, respectively) than placebo (16% and 24%, respectively) subjects. Compared with placebo subjects, creatine subjects demonstrated significantly greater increases in Type I (35% vs 11%), IIA (36% vs 15%), and IIAB (35% vs 6%) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Muscle total creatine concentrations were unchanged in placebo subjects. Muscle creatine was significantly elevated after 1 wk in creatine subjects (22%), and values remained significantly greater than placebo subjects after 12 wk. Average volume lifted in the bench press during training was significantly greater in creatine subjects during weeks 5-8. No negative side effects to the supplementation were reported. Conclusion: Creatine supplementation enhanced fat-free mass, physical performance, and muscle morphology in response to heavy resistance training, presumably mediated via higher quality training sessions.
Article
Information concerning frequency of training for resistance trained individuals is relatively unknown. Problems in designing training programs for student athletes are frequently encountered due to differential time constraints placed upon them. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-selection of resistance training frequency on muscular strength. Sixty-one members of an NCAA. Division IAA football team participated in a 10-week winter conditioning program. Each subject was given the option of choosing from a three-day (3d, n=12) four-day (4d, n=15), five-day (5d, n=23) or six-day (6d, n=ll) per week resistance training program. In addition to the strength training, the subjects participated in a football conditioning program twice a week. Testing was conducted before and after the 10-week training program. Field tests common to football off-season conditioning programs were utilized to evaluate strength (1 RM squat and bench press), speed (40-yard sprint), endurance (two-mile run), vertical jump and anthropometric measurements. Posttests revealed significant changes for the 3d group in decreased time for the two-mile run (2mi), decreased sum of skinfolds (SF) and an increased chest girth (CH). The 4d program revealed significant decreases in body weight, 2mi, SF, and increases in 1 RM squat, CH and thigh girths (TH). The 5d group significantly decreased 2mi, and SF, and increased both 1 RM squat and bench press and CH and TH. The 6d group revealed significant decreases in 2mi, and SF, and an increase in 1 RM squat. Of the total variables measured, 4d and 5d frequency groups revealed the greatest amount of improvement. In conclusion, when resistance training frequency is self-selected by athletes (i.e., college football players) it appears that four or five days per week are the optimal choices for developing strength, endurance and muscle mass. (C) 1990 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Fourteen female NCAA Division I collegiate volleyball players were monitored during a 12-week off-season strength and conditioning program. Physical characteristics (mean +/- standard deviation) included: age, 19.6 +/- 0.6 years; height, 171.9 +/- 6.8 centimeters; weight, 64.3 +/- 7.0 kilograms. Training included resistance exercise, plyometrics, aerobic endurance exercise and on-court volleyball practice. At the beginning of the study, starters (ST, n = 6) were compared with non-starters (NST, n = 8), and were found to be faster, more flexible and stronger. ST were still stronger when one-repetition maximum (1 RM) values were corrected for fat-free mass (FFM). Ten subjects completed the 12-week strength and conditioning program and participated in the post-training tests. ST and NST responded similarly to the training program for all physical and performance tests. Significant improvements were observed for FFM, sport-specific peak and mean isometric force, vertical jump (VJ), shoulder flexibility, 1 RM strength and 1 RM/FFM for the bench press, military press, squat and hang power clean, and isokinetic leg extension torque at 1.05 and 3.14 rads*sec-1. Furthermore, two-mile run times and sit-up performance (in 60 seconds) also improved. Significant decreases were observed for VJ endurance. Over the course of the training program, the relationship between 1 RM strength and FFM decreased, while shoulder flexibility was increasingly related to sport-specific isometric strength. Isokinetic testing did not reflect the magnitude of changes in 1 RM tests. Thus, while differences appear to exist in physical characteristics between starters and non-starters, it was shown that most physical and performance variables for ST and NST can be improved with a comprehensive strength and conditioning program for female collegiate volleyball players. (C) 1991 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
This study examined the effects of manipulating volume and intensity on strength and power in experienced male athletes. Subjects (N = 22) were tested for maximum strength in the squat and bench press lifts, vertical jump (VJ), lean body mass (LBM), and neural activation levels (IEMG). They trained 3 days a week for 12 weeks according to a linear periodization model (n = 8), an undulating periodization model (n = 5), or a nonperiodized control model (n = 9). Training volume and relative intensity were equated for all groups. Maximal squat, bench press, and LBM all improved significantly in each group, and changes in maximal strength correlated significantly with changes in LBM. IEMG levels were generally unchanged and did not correlate with changes in strength. The VJ increased significantly through training, but there were no differences between groups. Changes in VJ were not significantly correlated with changes in squat, LBM, or IEMG levels. The results indicate that in short-term training using previously trained subjects, no differences in maximal strength are seen when training volume and relative intensity are equated. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The present investigation compared the effects of three selected mesocycle-length weight training programs using partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength. Ninety-two previously weight-trained males were tested at five intervals (T1 through T5) on freeweight bench press and parallel back squat strength before, during, and after 16 weeks of training. Groups 1 and 2 trained with programs consisting of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM and 6x8-RM at 83.3% of 1-RM, respectively, while keeping the amount of sets, repetitions, and training resistance (relative intensity) constant. Group 3 trained with a periodization program involving 4 weeks of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 6x8-RM with 83.3% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 3x6-RM with 87.6% of 1-RM, and 4 weeks of 3x4-RM with 92.4% of 1-RM. Group 4 served as a non-weight-training control group. A 4x5 (Group x Test) MANOVA with repeated measures on test revealed that pretest normalized bench press and squat strength values were statistically equal when the study began. For the bench press at T2, results revealed that Groups 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from Group 4 but not from each other. At T3, T4, and T5, Group 3 demonstrated significantly different strength levels in the bench press from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Groups 1 and 2 were not significantly different from Group 4. For the squat exercise at T2, T3, and T4, Groups 2 and 3 were significantly different from Groups 1 and 2 but not from each other. At T5, Group 3 was significantly different from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Group 2 was significantly different from Groups 1 and 4, and Group 1 was only significantly different from Group 4. It was concluded that a mesocycle-length weight training program. incorporating periodization is superior in eliciting upper and lower body strength gains when compared to programs with partially equated volumes. (C) 1993 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
To examine the efficacy of a 3-week, high-intensity, resistance exercise protocol for inducing overtraining, 9 subjects trained their lower body on a squat-simulating resistance exercise machine. Five subjects performed a training (Trn) protocol 5 days a week to elicit an overtraining response. Four subjects performed a control (Con) protocol 2 days a week. Test batteries of sprints, jumps, and strength tests were performed four times during the study at l-week intervals (Tl, T2, T3, T4). One-RM performances increased for the Trn group by T2 and remained augmented through T4. Overtraining did not occur, but other performances were attenuated for the Trn group. Increased sprint times for 9.1 m and 36.6 m were evident by T2 for the Trn group and remained slower through T4. Leg extension torque decreased for the Trn group by T4. Future attempts to induce intensity-dependent overtraining for study should use greater training intensities or different training modalities and should monitor physiological factors that may contribute to this phenomenon. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
This study examined the effects of a single set of weight training exercise to failure and 2 multiple-set protocols (not to failure) on the 1-RM parallel squat. Forty-three men were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 weight training protocols emphasizing leg and hip strength: SS = single set to failure of 8-12 reps; MS = 3 x 10 reps; MSV = multiple-set program using a varied set and rep scheme. Relative intensity (% initial 1-RM), intensity (average mass lifted), and volume load (repetitions x mass) differed between groups over 14 weeks. Body mass, body composition, and the 1-RM parallel squat were assessed at baseline and at Weeks 5 and 14. Results showed no significant changes in body mass or body composition. The 1-RM squat increased significantly in all groups. Differences in 1-RM between groups indicate that MS and MSV increased approximately 50% more than SS over the 14 weeks. Results suggest that multiple sets not performed to failure produce superior gains in the 1-RM squat. (C) 1997 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the trends of fitness acquisition via isometric knee extension breaking strength (IKEBS) as measured by a Nicholas Manual Muscle TesterTM (NMMT) and body composition as measured by summing skinfolds. The data were analyzed on 7 female gymnasts for 1 academic year. The four skinfold thicknesses taken from the right side of the body by the same investigator included medial gastrocnemius, anterior thigh, triceps, and chin. The IKEBS measurement was obtained by placing the NMMT approximately 2 cm proximal to the anterior ankle joint line, placing the knee in 30[degrees] of flexion, and pushing on the NMMT until the athlete could no longer resist the displacing force. The gymnasts showed a marked decrease in sum of skinfolds during the preparatory phase of training. Skinfolds stabilized during the competition phase and then increased postseason. The IKEBS assessments were calculated as absolute values, relative to body mass, and relative to skinfold sums. The IKEBS trends indicated rapid increases during the preparatory period followed by moderate increases during the competition phase. Both body composition and strength changes occurred weekly throughout the year. (C) 1995 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
An overview of the main problems and misconceptions in the clinical application and theoretic evaluation of the stress concept reveals that the same 10 problems appear to cause the greatest difficulties in its application, irrespective of the specialty in which it is used: (1) the correct definition of stress, stressors and the general adaptation syndrome; (2) the concept of nonspecificity in biology and medicine; (3) the conditioning of stress responses by diverse endogenous (mainly genetically determined) and exogenous (environmental) factors; (4) the relation between the genral and the local adaptation syndromes; (5) the difference between direct and indirect pathogens; (6) the definition of the morbid lesions in whose pathogenesis stress plays a particularly prominent role--the so-called diseases of adaptation; (7) the role of genetics versus that of factors under voluntary self-control in mastering biologic stress; (8) the mode of action of syntoxic and catatoxic hormones, drugs and behavioural attitudes; (9) the so-called first mediator of the stress response, which carries the message that a state of stress exists from the directly affected area to the neurohormonal regulatory centres; and (10) the prophylaxis and treatment of stress-induced damage by pharmacologic and behavioural techniques.
Article
Athletic performance improves as the athlete adapts to progressively increasing training loads. Empirical observations and studies investigating fluctuations in performance indicate that this adaptation occurs during periods of reduced training, termed regeneration periods. Thus it is essential that adequate regeneration time be included in training programmes so that adaptation can be achieved. In order to induce adaptation, heavy periods of training are used to provide a stimulus for adaptive processes to become functional. The literature and anecdotal accounts suggest that the cycling of light, medium, and heavy periods of training is an optimal method for combining the heavy periods of training with the periods of light training needed to allow adaptation and supercompensation.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to present a hypothetical model for strength training and to present supporting data. The model is an attempt to conform to the concepts of training 'periodization' and specificity of training. The model consists of four phases: (1) Hypertrophy, high volume-low intensity, (2) Basic Strength, moderate volume-high intensity, (3) Strength-Power, low volume-very high intensity (special subphases include maintenance and peaking), (4) Active Rest, very low volume-very low intensity. A review of the literature indicates that three sets of six repetitions maximum, 3 days/week is the generally recommended method of attaining maximal strength increases. However, a short term comparison (6 weeks) showed the model to be superior in producing gains in the squat (1 RM), squat/kg body weight and power as measured using the vertical jump and Lewis formula. Additionally two observations of the practical use of the model with high caliber athletes are presented. Six Olympic niveau weightlifters were observed at three competitions about 3 months apart. The 3 lifters training according to the concepts of the model showed greater improvement compared to the three using traditional methods. The second observation used a high school American-style football team. The players using the strength training model produced greater gains (bench press, squat and power) than the players using 3x6 RM over a 12 week period. The data gathered suggest that the model for strength training presented produces superior strength-power gains when compared to traditional methods.
Article
Nine elite male junior weightlifters (mean age 17.6 +/- 0.3 yrs) performed weightlifting tests before (Test 1) and after (Test 2) 1 week of increased training volume (overreaching) and repeated the protocol after 1 year of their training program. Strength increased by Year 2 (p < 0.05) but did not change during either week of increased training volume. The 1-week overreaching stimulus resulted in attenuated exercise-induced testosterone concentrations during Year 1, but augmented exercise-induced testosterone concentrations during Year 2. Testosterone concentrations at 7 a.m. decreased for only Year 1. For both years, the 1-week overreaching stimulus increased cortisol at 7 a.m, indicative of the increased training volumes. Testosterone/cortisol was not affected by increased training volume for either year. One year of chronic weightlifting and prior exposure to the overreaching stimulus appears to decrease the detrimental effects of stressful training on the endocrine system.
Article
This study was performed to determine which of three theoretically optimal resistance training modalities resulted in the greatest enhancement in the performance of a series of dynamic athletic activities. The three training modalities included 1) traditional weight training, 2) plyometric training, and 3) explosive weight training at the load that maximized mechanical power output. Sixty-four previously trained subjects were randomly allocated to four groups that included the above three training modalities and a control group. The experimental groups trained for 10 wk performing either heavy squat lifts, depth jumps, or weighted squat jumps. All subjects were tested prior to training, after 5 wk of training and at the completion of the training period. The test items included 1) 30-m sprint, 2) vertical jumps performed with and without a countermovement, 3) maximal cycle test, 4) isokinetic leg extension test, and 5) a maximal isometric test. The experimental group which trained with the load that maximized mechanical power achieved the best overall results in enhancing dynamic athletic performance recording statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvements on most test items and producing statistically superior results to the two other training modalities on the jumping and isokinetic tests.
Article
Overtraining is defined as an increase in training volume and/or intensity of exercise resulting in performance decrements. Recovery from this condition often requires many weeks or months. A shorter or less severe variation of overtraining is referred to as overreaching, which is easily recovered from in just a few days. Many structured training programmes utilise phases of overreaching to provide variety of the training stimulus. Much of the scientific literature on overtraining is based on aerobic activities, despite the fact that resistance exercise is a large component of many exercise programmes. Chronic resistance exercise can result in differential responses to overtraining depending on whether either training volume or training intensity is excessive. The neuroendocrine system is a complex physiological entity that can influence many other systems. Neuroendocrine responses to high volume resistance exercise overtraining appear to be somewhat similar to overtraining for aerobic activities. On the other hand, excessive resistance training intensity produces a distinctly different neuroendocrine profile. As a result, some of the neuroendocrine characteristics often suggested as markers of overtraining may not be applicable to some overtraining scenarios. Further research will permit elucidation of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and other physiological systems in the aetiology of performance decrements from overtraining.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation in conjunction with resistance training on physiological adaptations including muscle fiber hypertrophy and muscle creatine accumulation. Nineteen healthy resistance-trained men were matched and then randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either a creatine (N = 10) or placebo (N = 9) group. Periodized heavy resistance training was performed for 12 wk. Creatine or placebo capsules were consumed (25 g x d(-1)) for 1 wk followed by a maintenance dose (5 g x d(-1)) for the remainder of the training. After 12 wk, significant (P < or = 0.05) increases in body mass and fat-free mass were greater in creatine (6.3% and 6.3%, respectively) than placebo (3.6% and 3.1%, respectively) subjects. After 12 wk, increases in bench press and squat were greater in creatine (24% and 32%, respectively) than placebo (16% and 24%, respectively) subjects. Compared with placebo subjects, creatine subjects demonstrated significantly greater increases in Type I (35% vs 11%), IIA (36% vs 15%), and IIAB (35% vs 6%) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Muscle total creatine concentrations were unchanged in placebo subjects. Muscle creatine was significantly elevated after 1 wk in creatine subjects (22%), and values remained significantly greater than placebo subjects after 12 wk. Average volume lifted in the bench press during training was significantly greater in creatine subjects during weeks 5-8. No negative side effects to the supplementation were reported. Creatine supplementation enhanced fat-free mass, physical performance, and muscle morphology in response to heavy resistance training, presumably mediated via higher quality training sessions.
Article
Eleven women (TRW; 64 +/- 4 yrs) and ten men (TRM; 65 +/- 5 yrs) participated in the strength/power training twice a week for 24 weeks. Basal concentrations of serum total and free testosterone, growth hormone (GH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) as well as acute responses of serum total and free testosterone, growth hormone (GH) were measured. Maximal 1RM strength in the squat, chair rise time and muscle fibre distribution and areas of type I and IIa and IIb of the vastus lateralis were also examined. 1RM squat increased in TRW by 26 (SD10)% (p < .001), and in TRM by 35 (7)% (p < .001) and chair rise time improved in both groups (p < .001). Fibre areas increased in type I, (p < .01), IIa (p < .01) and IIb (p < .01) in TRM and type I (p < .05) and IIa (p < .05) in TRW. The proportion of type IIa increased from 31% to 43% (p < .05) in TRW and that of type IIb decreased from 27% to 17% (p < .05) in TRW and from 25% to 17% (p < .05) in TRM. Individual concentrations of testosterone/cortisol ratios correlated (r = 0.63; p < .05) with the individual increases in 1RM strength in TRW. The exercise sessions resulted in acute increases in serum GH in both groups (p < .05) with a further increase (p < .01) up to 10 minutes post-loading in TRM at post-training.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of amino acid supplementation on muscular strength, power, and high-intensity endurance during short-term resistance training overreaching. Seventeen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either an amino acid (AA) or placebo (P) group and underwent 4 weeks of total-body resistance training consisting of two 2-week phases of overreaching (phase 1: 3 x 8-12 repetitions maximum [RM], 8 exercises; phase 2: 5 x 3-5 RM, 5 exercises). Muscle strength, power, and high-intensity endurance were determined before (T1) and at the end of each training week (T2-T5). One repetition maximum squat and bench press decreased at T2 in P (5.2 and 3.4 kg, respectively) but not in AA, and significant increases in 1 RM squat and bench press were observed at T3-T5 in both groups. A decrease in the ballistic bench press peak power was observed at T3 in P but not AA. The fatigue index during the 20-repetition jump squat assessment did not change in the P group at T3 and T5 (fatigue index = 18.6 and 18.3%, respectively) whereas a trend for reduction was observed in the AA group (p = 0.06) at T3 (12.8%) but not T5 (15.2%; p = 0.12). These results indicate that the initial impact of high-volume resistance training overreaching reduces muscle strength and power, and it appears that these reductions are attenuated with amino acid supplementation. In addition, an initial high-volume, moderate-intensity phase of overreaching followed by a higher intensity, moderate-volume phase appears to be very effective for enhancing muscle strength in resistance-trained men.
Article
Prestigious professional organisations have questioned the efficacy of resistive training by children or have often neglected to address weightlifting in their position papers on resistive training for children. The purpose of this paper was to address the deficit in data regarding the efficacy of training children for weightlifting and to report data regarding to safety in this population. Eleven subjects (3 female, 8 male) who had trained at the USA Weightlifting Development Centre in Shreveport Louisiana for a minimum of 22 months (mean = 28.8; SD +/- 4.4) served as subjects for this study. Means for the pool of subjects subjected to t-test to compare data obtained at each subject's initial competition with that obtained at the individual's most recent competition revealed significant positive changes in body weight, snatch weight, clean and jerk weight, and total weight lifted. The latter three were significant both in absolute weight and in weight lifted per kg of body weight. Total weight lifted at competitions plotted separately for boys and for girls across time indicated an apparently steeper slope of improvement for boys. The latter were not tested for significance because of the small sample sizes. The lack of injury in training and in 534 competitive lifts was discussed. None required medical attention or loss of training time. It was concluded that there can be no doubt regarding the efficacy of weightlifting as carried out at the USA Weightlifting Development Centre. The importance of proper application of scientific theory of conditioning in a conservative manner for this population was emphasised.
Periodization Breakthrough
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