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Effect of spinning workouts on affect

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  • ELTE Eötvös Loránd University Budapest Hungary

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Background: Numerous physical exercises trigger positive changes in affect after relatively short workouts. Spinning, also known as indoor-cycling, is a very popular form of exercise, especially among women, but its impact on affect have not been examined to date. Aims: The purpose of the current work was to investigate the possible benefits of spinning on affect in self-controlled and in instructor-led exercise sessions. Methods: Using baseline measures and pre- to post-exercise design with a psychometrically validated questionnaire, the net effects of spinning (without music) on positive- and negative-affect were measured in two exercise conditions: (1) self-controlled workout (i.e. without an instructor) and (2) instructor-led workout. After both conditions, 18 women rated the extent which they enjoyed the exercise session on a 10-point Likert scale. Results: The findings revealed that positive affect increased while negative affect decreased after both workouts. Exerted effort, measured through the heart rate, did not differ between the two conditions. However, participants enjoyed more the instructor-led exercise session than the self-regulated workout (effect size, Cohen's d = 0.93). Conclusions: This research reveals that spinning improves post-exercise affect, even without music and regardless of instructor’s presence. Therefore, it demonstrates the net benefits of this popular exercise on affect. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.3109/09638237.2015.1019053
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Running head: SELF-CONTROLLED AND INSTRUCTOR-GUIDED WORKOUT 1
Effect of Spinning Workouts on Affect
Attila Szabo, Zoltán Gáspár, Nikolett Kiss, Alexandra Radványi
Institute of Health Promotion and Sport Sciences
Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest
This is a pre-publication, uncorrected version of the manuscript: Szabo, A., Gáspár, Z., Kiss,
N., & Radványi, A. (2015). Effect of spinning workouts on affect. Journal of Mental Health,
24(3), 145-149 doi:10.3109/09638237.2015.1019053
http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.3109/09638237.2015.1019053
Author Note
Correspondence about this article should be addressed to dr. habil. Attila Szabo, Ph.D.,
Associate Professor and Acting Director, Institute for Health Promotion and Sport Sciences,
Faculty of Education and Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, 1117 Budapest, Bogdánfy
u. 10, Hungary. E-mail: drattilaszabo@yahoo.com and szabo.attila@ppk.elte.hu
Abstract
Background: Numerous physical exercises trigger positive changes in affect after relatively
short workouts. Spinning, also known as indoor-cycling, is a very popular form of exercise,
especially among women, but its impact on affect was not examined to date.
Aims: The purpose of the current work was to investigate the possible benefits of spinning on
affect in self-controlled and in instructor-led exercise sessions.
Methods: Using baseline measures and pre- to post-exercise design with a psychometrically
validated questionnaire, the net effects of spinning (without music) on positive- and negative
affect were measured in two exercise conditions: 1) self-controlled workout (i.e., without an
instructor), and 2) instructor-led workout. After both conditions 18 women rated the extent
which they enjoyed the exercise session on a 10-point Likert scale.
Results: The findings revealed that positive affect increased while negative affect decreased
after both workouts. Exerted effort, measured through the heart rate, did not differ between
the two conditions. However, participants enjoyed more the instructor-led exercise session
than the self-regulated workout (effect size, Cohen's d =.93).
Conclusions: This research reveals that spinning improves post-exercise affect, even without
music and regardless of instructor's presence. Therefore, it demonstrates the net mental health
benefits of this popular exercise.
Keywords: endurance training, exercise performance, motivation, physical activity, training
SELF-CONTROLLED AND INSTRUCTOR-GUIDED WORKOUT 1
Introduction
It is a consensus that a single bout of exercise improves affect (Anderson & Brice,
2011; Dasilva et al., 2011; Szabo, 2003a), which is a mental state that reflects how an activity
or a particular situation impacts the person (Duncan & Barrett, 2007). The benefits of a single
workout on affect were previously observed in different exercises, including: dance aerobics
(Rokka et al., 2010), Nordic walking (Stark et al., 2011), running (Hoffman & Hoffman,
2008; Szabo, 2003a), shadowboxing (Li & Yin, 2008), swimming (Valentine & Evans, 2001),
taekwondo (Toskovic, 2001), tai chi (Wang et al, 2010), walking (Dasilva et al., 2011), and
yoga (Streeter et al., 2010). Spinning, also referred to as exercise biking or indoor cycling, is
ranked among top ten most popular sports among women (Sport England, 2012). However,
the effects of spinning on affect were not examined to date.
Most explanations forwarded for the affect-mediating effects of a single bout of
exercise are based on exercise volume. Popular physiological models are the endorphin
hypothesis (Dunn & Dishman, 1991; Hoffmann, 1997), the amine hypothesis (Dunn &
Dishman, 1991), and the thermogenic hypothesis (Koltyn, 1997). A more recent explanation
relies on a dual mode model (Ekkekakis & Acevedo, 2006). Accordingly, changes in affect
due to exercise result from the interaction of cognitive appraisal of the exercise situation and
the subjective perception of physiological changes during exercise. In spinning, both the
presence and characteristics of music, as well as the presence and the motivating power of an
instructor may influence the subjective evaluation of the exercise situation, having an impact
on the emerging post-exercise affect.
An inverted-U relationship may be observed; positive changes in affect emerge below
the ventilatory threshold and negative responses above it (Ekkekakis & Acevedo, 2006). Yet,
the second part of the model―pertaining to the intensity of exercise(s)may be questionable.
A number of past investigations have revealed that exercise characteristics have little role in
mediating the psychological benefits (Rendi et al., 2008; Szabo, 2003a; Szabo & Ábrahám,
2012). Research has also demonstrated that an equal-to-exercise duration, low- or no-effort
activity, like mindful exercises, music, or humor trigger identical, or greater, changes in affect
than exercise (Netz, & Lidor, 2003; Szabo, 2003b; Szabo et al., 1998; Szabo et al., 2005).
More recently, the placebo effect was also linked to the acute changes in affect after
exercise (Szabo, 2013). The placebo may mediate both the cognitive appraisal of the exercise
situation and the perception of exercise characteristics of the dual mode model. In spinning,
for example, expectations associated with the instructor and workout could influence the post-
exercise affect, at least in part, via placebo effects. In this context, it should be appreciated
that the appraisal and perception of various exercise bouts are affected by past experiences in
both healthy and clinical samples (Mason & Holt, 2012).
In line with the dual mode model mentioned above, the appraisal of exercise intensity
influences affect. Since spinning is a high intensity exercise, that usually is performed above
the ventilatory threshold (López-Miñarro & Muyor Rodríguez, 2010; Piacentini et al., 2009),
according to this model it should generate no positive changes in affect. Spinning is,
however, a popular exercise that is usually performed in fitness centers under the direction of
an instructor and accompanied by music. In lack of positive affect, its popularity would be
doubtful. However, both the music and the instructor could influence one's affect that may be
independent of exercise. Therefore, to assess the "net" effect of a bout of spinning exercise
on affect it is essential to remove the instructor (and the music, because music alone has
significant influence on affect (Szabo et al., 2005)) from the exercise environment. The
removal of both could result in less enjoyable spinning sessions, and lesser positive changes
in affect, but can reflect the genuine impact of the exercise.
SELF-CONTROLLED AND INSTRUCTOR-GUIDED WORKOUT 2
The current exploratory research tested: (a) the "net" effect of spinning on affect, (b)
the impact of the instructor's presence on changes in affect after spinning, and (c) the level of
enjoyment of the spinning session with and without an instructor.
Method
Participants
Clients of a large university-affiliated extramural spinning class were approached and
requested to take part in the investigation. As an incentive for participation, a summary of the
group results was offered to them. Considering that spinning classes are most popular among
women (Reeves, 2012; Sport England, 2012) and the attendees of spinning class were women,
only female participants were tested. At the beginning, 20 women have agreed to participate
in the study from a pool of 24. However, data from one was incomplete and another potential
participant did not show up for the second test. Consequently, the final sample consisted of
18 consenting women aged between 19 to 27 years (M = 21.39, SD = 2.06). All participants
were Caucasian university students. They all spoke the same first language (Hungarian) and
trained with identical frequency and duration during scheduled spinning classes. The research
was conducted in full accord with institutional as well as international ethical regulations and
guidelines (The British Psychological Society, 2010; World Medical Association Declaration
of Helsinki, 2008).
Measures
The Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS - Watson et al., 1988) was used
for the assessment of affect. We adopted the 20-item psychometrically re-validated
Hungarian version of the scale (Gyollai et al., 2011). The scale consists of 10 positive items
(i.e., alert, active) and 10 negative items (i.e., nervous, upset). Each item is rated on a 5-point
Likert scale ranging from 1 (very slightly or not at all) to 5 (very much). A total score is then
obtained for both positive and negative items. The here adopted version of the PANAS has
excellent psychometric properties (Gyollai et al., 2011). The internal reliability of the current
scale was (Cronbach's alpha) .82 for positive scale items and .83 for negative scale items.
We have also employed a 10-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 (not at all) to 9 (very
much) to determine the level of subjective enjoyment of both, the instructor-driven and self-
directed work sessions.
For measuring the heart rates during exercise, we used Polar RS400 heart rate (HR)
monitors, consisting of chest-band recorder and a wrist-computer receiver. The RS400
receiver unit is compatible with PCs via an IrDA USB adapter. Its recording features include
actual and summary measures, adjustable recording rates (at 1s, 5s, 15s, or 60s), a memory
left indication, individual exercise files, and weekly history. The unit records HR accurately
and displays it in beats per minutes and also as percentages (%) of the maximum heart rate.
Procedure
After consenting to participation, volunteers were tested in counterbalanced sessions
using a within-participants design. Half of them worked out without an instructor in the first
session and the other half with the instructor, who dictated the exercise pace. The instructor
was a qualified female aerobic fitness instructor with special accreditation and several years
of experience in leading spinning classes. A second test session was performed exactly one
week later in reverse order. Before exercise, participants completed the PANAS.
SELF-CONTROLLED AND INSTRUCTOR-GUIDED WORKOUT 3
Subsequently, like during ordinary spinning classes, we fitted them with a heart rate monitor
using a chest-band electrode and the RS400 receiver. After calibration, participants started
spinning for 35 minutes that also included 2-3 min warm-up and cool-down periods. Apart
from usual environmental stimuli, there was no interaction between the class-participants.
Since music modifies affect (Szabo et al., 2005), and could act as an extraneous variable, no
music was played during the test sessions. Within five minutes after the workout, participants
completed the PANAS again and rated the level of enjoyment of the exercise session. Heart
rate monitors were collected for determining maximal and average heart rates during exercise.
The workloads were calculated in terms of percentage of maximal heart rate.
Data Analyses
We have coded and then recorded the gathered data into an SPSS (Version 17.0) file
for subsequent statistical analyses. Due to the relatively low sample size, we adopted the less
powerful, less sample-size sensitive, and under the situation more reliable Wilcoxon signed-
rank non-parametric tests. When statistically significant results emerged on the basis of this
test, we have also calculated the means- and standard deviations-based effect sizes (Cohen's
d). We used an alpha level of .05 for all statistical tests.
Results
To check the comparability of baseline measures in the two conditions, we performed
Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for positive- and negative affect before (at baseline) instructor-led
and self-controlled exercise sessions. These tests were statistically not significant neither for
positive affect, Z = -1.26, p = .21, nor for negative affect, Z = -0.70, p = .94.
The second set of non-parametric tests were used to test the null hypothesis that no
changes in affect occur from pre- to post-exercise in either instructor-led or self-controlled
exercise session. The results, however, revealed that positive affect has increased statistically
significantly (Table 1) after both sessions, Z = -1.94, p = .05, d = .39 (with the instructor) and
Z = -2.09, p = .03, d = .41 (without the instructor) respectively, and negative affect decreased
after the two exercise bouts, Z = -2.25, p = .02, d = .38 (with the instructor) and Z = -3.20, p =
.001, d = .91 (without the instructor), respectively.
Next, to determine whether the changes noted in affect were different in magnitude
between the instructor-led and self-controlled exercise sessions, we calculated difference
scores by subtracting the post-exercise values from pre-exercise (baseline) scores. The
difference scores for negative and positive affect were then tested with Wilcoxon signed-rank
tests. No differences in the magnitude of spinning-induced changes were seen neither in
positive- nor in negative affect, Z = -0.28, p = .78, and Z = -0.81, p = .42, respectively.
Results for measures of affect in the two exercise sessions are summarized in Table 1.
The comparison of the perceived enjoyment levels of the instructor-led and self-
controlled exercise sessions were also compared with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The
results revealed that participants enjoyed more the instructor-driven session than the self-
controlled spinning session, Z = -3.11, p = .002, d = .93 (Table 1). Effort estimates, in terms
of the percentage of maximal heart rate, were calculated for both sessions. The indices of
exercise effort were also contrasted between the two sessions by using the Wilcoxon signed-
rank test. There were no statistically significant differences in any of the following measures:
peak heart rate, average heart rate, and percent of the maximal heart rate (Table 2).
SELF-CONTROLLED AND INSTRUCTOR-GUIDED WORKOUT 4
Table 1
Means and standard deviations of psychological measures in two 35-minutes spinning
exercise conditions.
Free spinning, self-controlled
workout
Spinning with the
instructor's guidance
Positive affect before spinning
31.33 (5.56)
29.44 (4.19)
Positive affect after spinning*
33.89 (6.81)
31.83 (7.52)
Negative affect before spinning
13.06 (3.06)
13.61 (5.03)
Negative affect after spinning*
10.89 (1.41)
11.83 (4.22)
Difference (Δ) or change scores
from pre- to post-exercise
in positive affect
-2.56 (4.99)
-2.39 (7.98)
Difference (Δ) or change scores
from pre- to post-exercise
in negative affect
2.17 (1.92)
1.78 (3.28)
Ratings of enjoyment of the
spinning session
5.50 (1.72)**
7.00 (1.50)
Notes. *Statistically significantly different p < .05 from the above row or pre-exercise values,
and ** statistically significantly different p < .05 from the right column value for instructor-
led exercise session.
Table 2
Means and standard deviation of physiological measures in two conditions.
Free spinning, self-
controlled workout
Spinning with the
instructor's guidance
154.78 (11.79)
153.06 (14.07)
184.44 (8.40)
186.72 (6.11)
77.93(5.93)
77.06 (6.99)
Note. No statistically significant differences have emerged between the two exercise sessions.
Discussion
The present findings reveal that a bout of spinning exercise triggers positive changes
in affect. This is clearly a net effect that occurs without the invigorating and arousing effects
of music and that is evident even in the absence of the instructor. Considering that spinning is
one of the most popular exercises among women (Reeves, 2012; Sport England, 2012), its
impact on affect could have important relevance for mental health from both preventive and
therapeutic perspectives.
SELF-CONTROLLED AND INSTRUCTOR-GUIDED WORKOUT 5
These results may appear controversial in light of the extant knowledge. For example,
Ekkekakis and Petruzzello (1999) reviewed about 200 studies and concluded that high
intensity workout has negative impact on affect. In the current research only crude measures
of exercise intensity were taken, but both heart rates and percent maximal heart rate (Table 2)
were in the range of vigorous intensity exercises (Mayo Clinic, 2011). Further, the observed
improvements in both positive- and negative-affect were seen despite the removal of music
(and instructor in one session) from training. It is possible that completion of exercise yields
psychological satisfaction that in combination with placebo effects (expectation to feel good
after exercise) may trigger changes in affect. It should be highlighted, that while the changes
were significant in all instances, the effect sizes were small to moderate except for negative
affect in the self-directed session in which a large effect size was revealed. It is possible that
initial disappointment, caused by removal of both music and instructor, caused a pre-exercise
increase in negative affect that was counteracted via a positive appraisal of a good workout.
Finally, spinning is a phased-interval exercise in which the person has control over resistance
on the spinning bike. These factors could facilitate the generation of positive affect unlike in
other forms of high intensity exercises. Indeed, it was reported that high-intensity interval
running is more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise (Bartlett et al., 2011).
The participant-controlled exercise workload was not different from the instructor-led
session. There are two explanations for this finding. The first is that memory-based recall of
the habitual exercise workload was adopted to set the pace of the workout in the absence of an
instructor (and music). The second is that in a co-exercising environment, participants follow
the others, that is both motivating and effort-determining, supporting the Köhler motivation-
gain effect repeatedly observed in exercise and sport settings (e.g., Irwin et al., 2012).
The robust result revealing that participants enjoyed more the instructor-led workout
affords two tentative explanations. The first plausible conjecture is that the mental strategies
were different in the two conditions. Indeed, in the self-directed exercise participants had to
adopt internal association whereas with a continuous attentional focus on the instructor the
alternative session comprised predominantly external association (Stevinson & Biddle, 1998).
Further, under instructor's guidance, participants could be more relaxed and not worry about
the maintenance of their work pattern. Paying attention to the instructor and harmonizing the
movement to her guidance "forces" external association. The latter cognitive strategy has
been shown to be the most economical and least strenuous in identical modalities of exercise
(Neumann & Brown, 2013), that could be linked to the level of enjoyment of the exercise. A
second possible explanation may be that class-participants were conditioned to the instructor-
guided exercise classes and felt more relaxed and/or comfortable with the instructor who was
seen not only as a facilitator but also as a motivator of the classes.
Limitations of the Study
While exercise intensities, as based on heart rate measures, were in the high intensity
range in general, in the current study, they were imprecise since intensity was not determined
in relation to the participants' fitness level. Further inquiries should define exercise intensity
in relation to one's aerobic capacity. In the current study, we were interested in the net effect
of spinning and, therefore, removed the music that is played during spinning classes. Further
studies should compare affect after spinning in music and no-music situations to demonstrate
the external validity of the results and to determine whether music has an additional effect on
post-exercise affect.
SELF-CONTROLLED AND INSTRUCTOR-GUIDED WORKOUT 6
Conclusions
The current research contributes three findings: (a) A single bout of spinning exercise
triggers positive changes in affect; (b) The benefits in affect emerge in lack of music as well
as instructor, therefore, they reflect the net effect of the spinning exercise; (c) The presence of
the instructor increases the enjoyment level of the spinning workouts. The implication of the
research is that spinning, one of the most popular leisure exercises among women, has mental
health benefits that are manifested in the acute improvement of affect.
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November 03, 2014 from http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/17c.pdf
... In this study, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation between STAI and POMS scores and changes in the HbO, HbR, and HbT concentrations. The emotion subscale has a certain participantivity in the evaluation of emotional changes (Knapen et al., 2009;Szabo et al., 2015;Subramaniapillai et al., 2016;Bernstein and Mcnally, 2018). In addition to using STAI and the POMS emotion subscale to monitor and evaluate emotional changes, fNIRS technology was introduced to monitor and evaluate changes in cerebral blood oxygen metabolism before, during, and after aerobic exercise, which is expected to improve the objectivity of emotion monitoring and evaluation. ...
... Meanwhile, Subramaniapillai et al. (Subramaniapillai et al., 2016) reported that adolescents with bipolar disorder would also feel the positive emotional benefits brought about by exercise. Szabo et al. (2015) concluded that, after aerobic exercise, positive emotions increased, and negative emotions decreased. Knapen et al. (2009) showed that the state of anxiety and negative emotions are not affected by aerobic exercise type. ...
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Objective: We sought to effectively alleviate the emotion of individuals with anxiety and depression, and explore the effects of aerobic exercise on their emotion regulation. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging technology is used to monitor and evaluate the process of aerobic exercise and imagination that regulates emotion. Approach: Thirty participants were scored by the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) and profile of mood states (POMS), and fNIRS images were collected before, after, and during aerobic exercise and motor imagery. Then, the oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO), deoxygenated hemoglobin (HbR), and total hemoglobin (HbT) concentrations and their average value were calculated, and the ratio of HbO concentration in the left and right frontal lobes was determined. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to calculate the correlation between variations in the average scores of the two scales and in blood oxygen concentrations. Results: In comparison with motor imagery, STAI, and POMS scores decreased after 20 min of aerobic exercise. The prefrontal cortex had asymmetry and laterality (with the left side being dominant in emotion regulation). The increase in hemoglobin concentration recorded by fNIRS was negatively correlated with STAI and POMS scores. Aerobic exercise has a good effect on emotion regulation. Significance: The study showed that portable fNIRS could be effectively used for monitoring and evaluating emotion regulation by aerobic exercise. This study is expected to provide ideas for constructing fNIRS-based online real-time monitoring and evaluation of emotion regulation by aerobic exercise.
... In addition to physical health benefits, habitual physical activity has positive impact on people's psychological health as well (Acevedo, 2012). Most forms of planned physical activities trigger immediate psychological benefits as demonstrated in studies with aerobic dancers (Rokka, Mavridis, & Kouli, 2010), cyclists (Petruzzello, Snook, Gliottoni, & Motl, 2009), hatha yoga- (Lavey et al., 2005;West, Otte, Geher, Johnson, & Mohr, 2004), and Bikram yoga practitioners (Szabo, Nikházy, Tihanyi, & Boros, 2016), shadowboxers (Li & Yin, 2008), swimmers Valentine & Evans, 2001), walkers (Dasilva et al., 2011) and Nordic walkers (Stark, Schöny, & Kopp, 2012), runners (Szabo & Ábrahám, 2013), spinners (Szabo, Gáspár, Kiss, & Radványi, 2015) and possibly other exercisers. ...
... The finding that aikido training results in increased positive affect and decreased negative affect immediately after training, compared to a baseline before the training, is in accord with past research in other physical activities (i.e., Bikram yoga (Szabo et al., 2016); leisure swimming ; spinning (Szabo et al., 2015)). The changes were large as based on the effect sizes (r = 0.5 and 0.6, respectively, which correspond to Cohen's d values > 1.0; Rosenthal, 1994) indicating that although anticipation of an intervention (in this case the training) may affect the baseline (Calvo, Szabo, & Capafons, 1996), aikido still has a prominent effect on improving affect. ...
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Background. Aikido is a philosophy and an Eastern martial-art which is conjectured to have many positive effects on mind and body. At this time there is limited, but growing research on this topic. The objective of the current work was to examine for the first time the hypothesis that aikido training, like many other western forms of organized physical activities, has acute psychological benefits as manifested via favourable changes in affect and the flow experience. Methods. Aikidokas (N = 53) took part in an in-situ investigation in which they completed the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) on at least three different occasions before and after their practice. They also completed a flow questionnaire at least on three occasions after their practice. Results. The results indicated that positive affect increased, and negative affect decreased (p < .001) from pre- to post-practice. Aikidokas reported flow experience that on the average was not greater than that reported for other exercises; however it was greater than that reported after video-sport games. The reported flow was independent of the magnitude of change in positive and/or negative affect. The more experienced aikidokas experienced greater skill-challenge harmony, but not oneness with the experience, which are two constructs in flow, than less experienced practitioners. Conclusion. These findings reveal relatively clearly for the very first time in the literature that aikido practice has acute, or immediate, psychological benefits akin to other martial arts and exercises.
... Low arousal (Deactivation) The advantage of the two-dimensional approach is that it can assess affective changes as they unfold over time. For example, positive affect after a single bout of exercise has been reported for many forms of exercise activities, like dance aerobics (Rokka et al., 2010), Nordic walking (Stark et al., 2011), running (Hoffman & Hoffman, 2008;Szabo, 2003), swimming (Valentine & Evans, 2001), shadowboxing (Li & Yin, 2008), taekwondo (Toskovic, 2001), tai chi (Wang et al., 2010), walking (DaSilva et al., 2011), yoga (Streeter et al., 2010), Bikram yoga (Szabo et al., 2017), Pilates (Tolnai et al., 2016), spinning (Szabo et al., 2015), and many more. However, these investigations usually adopted a pre-post assessment of affect. ...
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The affective experience during and after exercise helps determine motivation, commitment, and adherence to sports. Choice reaction time (RT) is critical in decision-making and sports performance. In this within-subjects laboratory experiment, we scrutinized core affect and choice RT in 18 male adolescent basketball players during exercise sessions performed to voluntary exhaustion and during a control condition. The adolescents performed choice RT tasks in one of two exercise conditions and in the control session. Participants’ feeling states differed between exercise and control sessions and decreased slightly even after moderate exercise intensity. Core affect also declined as the workload increased, but it remained pleasant-activated in all conditions. The RT errors increased at the peak exercise intensity. These results suggest that while high-intensity training might negatively affect young athletes’ feeling states and impair their decision-making, their core affect remained positive, with large inter-individual variability. We discuss the practical implications of these results in adolescents’ sports.
... Participants can adjust the pedal resistance to mimic either cycling on a flat road or against a positive incline. Due to its easy accessibility and purported health benefits [2][3][4], spinning has gained wide popularity among the general public and has become a fast growing fitness trend, especially in the past decade. According to survey data from the United Kingdom, spinning classes were the third most popular group exercise among adults, with an estimated 745,000 participants in 2018 alone [5]. ...
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Objectives An increasing number of patients are diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis secondary to indoor spinning. We performed a systematic review to characterise the clinical features of this new clinical entity. Methods We conducted a thorough literature search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published from inception to June 23, 2021 were considered. A two-stage article selection process was performed. Articles that reported clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with spin-induced exertional rhabdomyolysis (SIER) were included. Quality assessment was performed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklists. Results There were a total of 22 articles and 97 patients with SIER. Most patients were healthy females who had attended their first spinning session. The mean time to clinical presentation was 3.1 ± 1.5 days. The most common presenting symptoms were myalgia, dark urine, and muscle weakness in the thighs. Seven patients (7.2%) developed acute kidney injury, and two patients (2.1%) required temporary inpatient hemodialysis. Four patients (4.1%) developed thigh compartment syndrome and required fasciotomies. No long-term sequelae or mortality were observed. The mean length of stay was 5.6 ± 2.9 days. Conclusions Healthcare professionals must have a high index of suspicion for SIER when a patient presents with myalgia, dark urine, or weakness after a recent episode of indoor spinning. Fitness centre owners, spinning instructors, and participants should also be better educated about the clinical features and manifestations of SIER.
... Spinning çalışmalarının sağlığa iyi geldiği, ancak güvenliğin sağlanması için yoğunlukların önemi ve egzersizler sırasında KAH takibinin gerekliliği vurgulanmıştır. [13][14][15] Mallol ve ark.nın antrenmanlı triatletler üzerinde, 7×5 dk %85 [maksimum KAH (KAH maks )], haftada 2 gün, 4 haftalık, koşu bandı ve bisiklet performansını karşılaştırdığı HIIT çalışmasında, bisiklet antrenmanlarının sporcuların performansını geliştirebileceği, sonuçların grup seçimi, ekipmanın türü, yüklenme süresi ve yoğunluğuna bağlı olarak değişebileceği vurgulanmıştır. 16 HIIT'lerin sağlıkla ilişkili bir parametre olan vücut kompozisyonuna etkileriyle ilgili cevapların tartışıldığı birçok çalışmada farklı sonuçlara rastlanmaktadır. ...
... Several million people every day choose this discipline to exercise 21 and it is ranked among the ten most popular sports. 22 On the other hand, ZU is an exercise program that began in 2001 and has rapidly gained popularity. The BP sessions were based on eight pre-established music selections that focused on different muscle groups. ...
Article
Background: Fitness activities such as indoor cycling (IC), Zumba® (ZU) and body pump (BP) are practiced by large segments of population. There are no studies showing which kind of fitness activity can produce more health benefits. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week of IC, alone or combined with ZU (IC+ZU), or BP (IC+BP), on blood pressure, body composition, and physical fitness. Methods: Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to four groups: IC, IC+ZU, IC+BP or control group (CG). Before and after 8-week of training, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fat, lean and bone mass, body circumferences, resting heart rate, aerobic fitness, limbs strength and vertical jump height (VJH) were assessed. Results: The IC and IC+ZU experienced significant decreases in SBP and DBP, which were significantly greater, compared to CG. Between-group comparisons showed greater decreases in body mass (BM) and body fat mass percentage (BFM) in IC compared to all groups, also significant differences were observed between IC+ZU and IC+B with CG. Decreases in neck, pectoral, waist and hip circumferences were found in IC, IC+ZU and IC+BP compared to CG. All experimental groups significantly increased 10RM leg press and leg flexion, VJH and VO2max compared to CG. Conclusions: Fitness classes of IC, alone or combined with ZU or BP, are effective in reducing blood pressure and improving body composition and physical fitness. The IC is the most effective in reducing BM and BFM.
... 1 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA 2 Georgia State University, Atlanta, USA intensity used during this exercise modality has been shown to elicit positive cardiorespiratory adaptations (Battista et al., 2008;Caria, Tangianu, Concu, Crisafulli, & Mameli, 2007). Participants have also reported improved affect immediately following a GIC class (Szabo, Gaspar, Kiss, & Radvanyi, 2015). More specifically, the unique environmental aspects of GIC (music, lighting scheme, etc.) have been shown to have a positive effect on pleasure and fatigue during exercise (Shaulov & Lufi, 2009). ...
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This study investigated factors influencing regular group indoor cycling (GIC) participation in a sample of Black (71%) and White (29%) adults. Seventeen regular GIC participants (≥1 day/week for ≥3 consecutive months) completed surveys that examined motivations for GIC participation. Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ), Preference for and Tolerance of Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire (PRETIE-Q), and open-ended survey questions were used. TSRQ showed autonomous motivation was significantly higher than controlled ( p <.001) and amotivation ( p < .001), with no significant difference between controlled and amotivation ( p = .08). There was no significant interaction between motivation and race. There were no significant differences between race groups for PRETIE-Q. Five themes emerged as reasons for GIC participation: music, physical health, social support, studio atmosphere, and enjoyment/fun. Racial differences surfaced in the themes. More research is needed to understand the role of cultural relevance as it relates to exercise motivation and regular exercise participation. This could inform strategies for promoting regular exercise in various populations.
... An example of that is the indoor-cycling (i.e. spinning) which is very popular form exercise among women (Szabo et al., 2015). Indeed, in the present study, women were more likely to endorse the view that cycling conveys benefits for the person. ...
Article
Previous research has shown that men cycle more than women and women tent to report less favourable perceptions and attitudes towards cycling than men. Gender differences in perceptions and attitudes towards cycling may be influenced by such difference in bicycle use. Attitudinal differences concerning cycling between male and female may be the consequence and not only the cause of gender imbalance in bicycle use. To our knowledge, no previous research has focused on gender differences in perceptions and attitudes towards cycling involving a sample with gender balance in bicycle use (e.g. regular cyclists). In our study, we investigated gender differences in attitudes towards cycling and towards cycling infrastructure, purpose of cycling, risk perception, and exposure to severe crashes in a large sample of regular cyclists. Following a cross-sectional design, we collected data from 2417 participants from Hungary, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Netherlands, and United Kingdom. A survey was administered to an online panel of respondents. Gender differences in attitudes towards cycling were small in terms of effect size or non-significant, with women having more positive attitudes in personal benefits rather than mobility benefits. Women reported gender-stereotyped reasons for cycling more than men, except for social activities. Also, women showed higher discomfort than men cycling in mixed traffic and higher risk perception than men. Furthermore, men reported higher exposure to severe crashes than women. We contend that bicycle use and gender role (i.e. society's shared beliefs concerning a range of attitudes, norms, and behaviours that are generally considered appropriate or desirable for individuals based on their actual or perceived sex) can affect differences between male and female cyclists in perceptions, attitudes towards cycling, and cycling behaviours.
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Objectives More patients are being diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis secondary to indoor spinning. We conducted a systematic review to characterize the clinical characteristics of this new clinical entity. Methods We conducted a thorough literature search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published from inception till 23 rd June 2021 were considered for inclusion. A two-stage article selection process was performed. Articles that reported clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with SIER were included. Quality assessment was performed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklists. Results There was a total of 22 articles and 97 patients with SIER. Most patients were healthy females who had attended their first spinning session. The average time to clinical presentation was 3.1 ± 1.5 days. The most common presenting symptoms were myalgia, dark urine and muscle weakness involving the thigh. Seven patients (7.2%) developed acute kidney injury, and two patients (2.1%) required temporary inpatient haemodialysis. Four patients (4.1%) developed thigh compartment syndrome and required fasciotomies. There were no long-term sequelae or mortality observed. The average length of stay was 5.6 ± 2.9 days. Conclusions Healthcare professionals must have a high index of suspicion of SIER if any patient presents with myalgia, dark urine or weakness after a recent episode of indoor spinning. Fitness centre owners, spinning instructors and participants should also be better educated about the clinical characteristics and manifestations of SIER.
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The affective benefits of a single bout of exercise are widely reported, but several factors influence the affect measured after exercise. One is the last experience linked to the exercise session. In this laboratory study, we manipulated progressive treadmill exercise to ventilatory threshold by using cognitive tasks during and immediately after the exercise when we gauged affect and compared it to pre-exercise baseline. We assumed that the affective responses after exercise would mirror feeling states associated with the very last experience (i.e., the cognitive task) rather than exercise. We examined a total of 53 athletes assigned to exercise or no-exercise control group. In addition to heart rates, positive and negative affect, feeling state, and perceived arousal were measured before and after the intervention. The results revealed substantial improvements in affect in both groups, based on large effect sizes. The lack of difference in the dependent measures between the exercise and no-exercise control group may suggest that both groups responded to the same last experience (i.e., cognitive task), and the effects of exercise and sitting (control) were wiped out. These findings imply that pre-to post-intervention exercise investigations testing the psychological benefits of a single bout of exercise may not measure what they intend to measure, but merely the affective responses Cita: Laki, A.; Ihász, F.; de la Vega, R.; Ruiz-Barquín, R., Szabo, A. (2021). Impact of 'last experience' on affect after exercise reaching the anaerobic threshold: A laboratory investigation. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 21(3), 16-31 Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 21, 3 (octubre) The 'last experience' on affect after exercise 17 to the last experience or event before answering the questionnaire(s). In brief, many hundreds of studies' internal reliability, employing the pre/post protocols, may be questionable. RESUMEN Los beneficios a nivel emocional de un solo período de entrenamiento han sido ampliamente estudiados, pero su efecto medido después del entrenamiento está influenciado por varios factores. Uno de ellos es la última experiencia vinculada a la sesión de entrenamiento. En este estudio de laboratorio se manipula, mediante el empleo de tareas cognitivas, el ejercicio progresivo en cinta de correr hasta alcanzar el umbral ventilatorio. Tanto durante como inmediatamente después del ejercicio se evalúa la respuesta afectiva y se compara con la línea basal previa al ejercicio. Se espera que las respuestas emocionales después del ejercicio reflejarán los estados afectivos asociados con la última experiencia (es decir, la tarea cognitiva), en lugar de con el ejercicio. Además de la frecuencia cardíaca, se evaluaron un total 53 atletas asignados al grupo experimental de ejercicio o al control sin ejercicio. Se midieron el estado afectivo positivo y negativo, el estado de sentimiento, y la excitación percibida, tanto antes como después de la intervención. Los resultados revelaron mejoras sustanciales en el estado afectivo en ambos grupos, mostrando grandes tamaños del efecto. La falta de diferencia en las variables dependientes entre el grupo experimental y el control sugiere que ambos grupos respondieron de manera similar a la última experiencia, es decir a la tarea cognitiva, eliminando los efectos del ejercicio realizado. Las implicaciones de estos hallazgos son muy relevantes puesto que prueban que los resultados de los estudios realizados hasta el momento sobre los beneficios psicológicos de un solo período de ejercicio pueden no medir lo que pretenden, sino simplemente las respuestas afectivas y emocionales a la última experiencia o evento antes de responder el cuestionario que se suele aplicar. En resumen, la confiabilidad interna de cientos de estudios que emplean los protocolos pre-post en el análisis de la respuesta afectiva en condiciones de entrenamiento pueden ser cuestionable. Palabras clave: arousal, cognición, expectativa, estado afectivo, efecto placebo RESUMO Os benefícios emocionais de um único período de treinamento têm sido amplamente estudados, mas seu efeito medido após o treinamento é influenciado por vários fatores. Uma delas é a última experiência vinculada ao treinamento. Neste estudo laboratorial, o exercício progressivo em esteira é manipulado por meio de tarefas cognitivas até que o limiar ventilatório seja atingido. Durante e imediatamente após o exercício, a resposta afetiva é avaliada e comparada com a linha de base antes do exercício. Espera-se que as respostas emocionais após o exercício reflitam os estados afetivos associados à última experiência (ou seja, a tarefa cognitiva), ao invés do exercício. Além da frequência cardíaca, um total de 53 atletas designados para o grupo de exercício experimental ou o grupo de controle sem exercício foram avaliados. Estado afetivo positivo e negativo, estado de sentimento e excitação percebida foram medidos antes e depois da intervenção. Os resultados revelaram melhorias substanciais no status afetivo em ambos os grupos, mostrando grandes tamanhos de efeito. A ausência de diferença nas variáveis dependentes entre os grupos experimental e controle sugere que ambos os grupos responderam de forma semelhante à última experiência, ou seja, à tarefa cognitiva, eliminando os efeitos do exercício realizado. As implicações desses achados são muito relevantes, pois comprovam que os resultados dos estudos realizados até o momento sobre os benefícios psicológicos de um único período de exercício podem não medir o que pretendem, mas simplesmente as respostas afetivas e emocionais à última experiência ou antes de responder ao questionário normalmente aplicado. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 21, 3 (octubre) Laki, A.; Ihász, F.; de la Vega, R.; Ruiz-Barquín, R., Szabo, A. 18 Em resumo, a confiabilidade interna de centenas de estudos que empregam protocolos pré-pós na análise da resposta afetiva em condições de treinamento pode ser questionável.
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Key words: aerobic dance programs, high and moderate intensity, profile of mood state. ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a single session dance aerobic program of high and moderate intensity on the psychological mood state of healthy adults. The study sample consisted of 136 adults, who took part in two group exercise programs: 1) high-intensity dance aerobic exercises (n = 59) and 2) moderate-intensity dance aerobic exercises (n = 77). The questionnaire used for data collection was the Profile of Mood States inventory (POMS), by McNair, Lorr and Droppleman (1971) modified for the Greek population by Zervas, Ekkekakis, Psychoundaki, and Kakkos (1993). The subjects filled in the questionnaire before and after participating in each program. The repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the psychological mood state of the sample, before and after the subjects' participation in both programs. More specifically, there was a decrease in tension, depression, aggressiveness and confusion and, on the contrary, an increase in energy, while fatigue was kept on the same level. It can be concluded that both dance aerobics programs positively enhance the participants' mood state and can be used for the improvement of psychological mood of adults, offering, at the same time, a variety to aerobics classes.
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One of the assumptions underlying recent physical activity recommendations is that lower doses of activity (i.e. intensity and duration) are more enjoyable for the average person, thus leading to higher involvement and adherence rates. However, the veracity of this hypothesis can be questioned, since little is actually known regarding the association between activity doses and affective responses. The few preliminary attempts at the conceptual delineation of the dose-response relationship, all centred around an ‘inverted-U’notion, are reviewed and criticised as lacking empirical foundation. Available meta-analyses, as well as the empirical literature on the role of exercise intensity and duration, are examined. Increased intensity appears to be associated with reduced positivity of affect during and immediately following an exercise bout. Intensity effects appear to be attenuated during recovery. Fitness and training status appear to become significant mediators of the exercise-affect relationship only at high intensities. With intensity being kept constant, different exercise bout durations have not been shown to have a differential impact on pre- to post-exercise affective changes. Recommendations for future research include: (i) a shift from categorical to dimensional conceptualisations and operationalisations of affect; (ii) the examination of psychological theories on the association between activation and affect (e.g. extraversion-introversion, sensation seeking, type A behaviour pattern and related self-evaluative tendencies, reversal theory, optimal stimulation theory, multidimensional activation theory and self-efficacy); (iii) the systematic and theory-based examination of in-task and post-exercise affective responses; (iv) the incorporation of the parameter of fitness and/or activity status in research designs; and (v) the re-evaluation of methods for selecting exercise intensity levels.
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Correlations between social class and specific types of sport participation have frequently been observed (Crook 1997; Ceron-Anaya 2010; Dollman and Lewis 2010; Stalsberg and Pedersen 2010). However, discrete associations between occupational class positions and specific sporting activities overlook the complex interrelationships amongst these sports. Until recently, understanding the relationality of sport has been constrained by a lack of available and appropriate data. Work by Bourdieu (1984), and more recently Bennett et al. (2009), have explored the general field of cultural consumption and sport has been one dimension of these treatments. Using multiple correspondence analysis (Le Roux and Rouanet 2004), this research focuses upon the social space of sport participation in Britain in order to provide a more detailed account of how these activities are organised. From data in the Taking-Part Survey (n = 10,349), which was conducted between July 2005-October 2006, 19 sporting practices are situated along four key dimensions. The first dimension separates gender and corresponds to a division between an embodied or social focus. Dimension two captures the impact of age. Internal and external orientations divide dimension three, where men tend to be internally oriented. Class, education and Social status are significant along this dimension. Dimension four differentiates between various self-employed and various forms of manual workers; reinforcing occupational and educational differences. Consequently, the social space of sports participation cannot be neatly contained within the logic of class; other explanations drawing on friendship, education and embodiment are also needed.
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This study was designed to investigate and to compare the acute alterations in selected measures of mood profile in novice Taekwondo practitioners while evaluating whether dynamic Taekwondo practice was an appropriate exercise modality for enhancing six psychological state dimensions: Vigor, Anxiety, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, and Confusion. 20 male and female college-age students enrolled in Taekwondo activity class and an additional 20 students enrolled in the lecture-control class (ages 18 to 21 years) completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) inventory prior to and immediately following one 75-min. session of dynamic Taekwondo or lecture. To examine the exercise effect, a series of 2 X 2 analysis of covariance were performed on mean posttest scores, using pretest scores as the covariate. Analysis indicated that Tackwondo participants reported a significant improvement (p < .007) with respect to the control group in scores on Tension, Depression, Anger, Fatigue, Confusion, and Vigor. Also, Total Mood Disturbance significantly improved after the dynamic Taekwondo session. The selected affective benefits of an acute Taekwondo exercise in this study were independent of sex. Unlike the exercising subjects, the control subjects reported no such benefits and, indeed, increased their scores for negative mood states. These results suggest that a dynamic version of Taekwondo achieves the necessary activity parameters that begin to induce positive mood state changes and that extensive Tackwondo skill is not necessary to elicit some beneficial change in affect, This study also supports the findings of several earlier studies indicating that acute exercise may elicit positive changes in affective states and that prolonged exercise is not necessary to produce immediate beneficial alterations of mood.
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The attentional focus of an individual can influence performance and physiological outcomes during strength training exercises. However, prior research has largely investigated this issue with male participants performing a biceps curl exercise and has not investigated the full range of attentional focus strategies. In the present experiment, 24 females did a sit-up exercise while adopting an associative or dissociative strategy of attending to cues that were external or internal to result in four conditions: external association, internal association, external dissociation, and internal dissociation. The external association condition produced the lowest electromyographic activity of the abdominal muscles, the lowest heart rate, and the greatest range of movement. The internal dissociation condition produced the lowest level of exercise satisfaction. The results suggest that a focus on the effects of muscle action is the most economical and least strenuous way to exercise with sit-ups and similar forms of exercise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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Objectives: To examine whether expectations regarding the benefits of exercise influence perceived mood changes post-exercise, by virtue of memory biases. Design: 2 x 2 Mixed design with 40 participants assigned to either exercise or non-exercise conditions. Pre-activity mood estimate (actual vs. retrospective) was measured within-groups. Mood change was assessed using the Incredibly Short Profile of Mood States (Whelan, Epkins, & Meyers, 1990). Method: The exercise group completed a 10-min jogging session, with current mood assessed pre- and post-activity. Additionally, participants were asked, post-activity, to retrospectively assess their pre-activity mood state. A non-exercise control group completed a 10-min cognitive task. Results: Findings concur that 10-min bouts of exercise can beneficially impact upon mood. In addition, this effect was augmented by biased recall of pre-exercise mood. Conclusions: Individuals' perception of mood enhancement can be augmented by reconstructive memory biases, suggesting that expectations regarding the benefits of exercise are crucial for maximising perceived mood enhancement.
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This paper offers an analysis of the book reviews published about the 1973 book Experience of Abortion: A case study of North-East Scotland, a volume edited by Gordon Horobin. The paper sets the scene at the time of publication of Experience of Abortion, including abortion as a societal issue, the 1967 Abortion Act and the role of the MRC Medical Sociology Unit in Aberdeen. The reviews were analysed using content analysis. Considering the controversy of abortion in the early 1970s, it is interesting that the book reviews were overwhelmingly positive towards both Experience of Abortion and the need for high quality social science research in this field. Several reviews highlighted the importance of having someone like Sir Dugald Baird in Aberdeen and that of the Aberdeen-based Medical Research Council's (MRC) Medical Sociology Unit. Nearly 40 years later abortion has disappeared off the sociology and social policy agenda, at least in the United Kingdom (UK), and Horobin's legacy in medical sociology appears to be in areas other than abortion or reproductive health more generally.