ArticlePDF Available

Workplace Accident in Malaysia: Most Common Causes and Solutions

  • University Tecnology MARA Terengganu
  • Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, Terengganu

Abstract and Figures

Accidents in the workplace occur for a number of reasons. It may results a minimal or tragic, causing minor injury, damage to equipment or even in some cases, major injury or death. Employees need to stay alert and aware at all times to avoid accidents, while managers need to know the most common causes for workplace accidents and be able to identify the risk factors early to prevent it. A conducive and competitive working environment may help the organization to run their daily operation smoothly, thus achieve their goals successfully. Considering on how much important safety at workplace, the Malaysian government has made efforts on executing safety and health policies through the enforcement of guidelines as well as conducting site safety seminars and certifications. Yet, existing record indicated that the present Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) situation in the workplace is still very much adverse and below expectation. This paper therefore addresses the issue about the most common causes of workplace accidents among workers at workplace. This paper further examined the relationship between individual factors and job factors that contribute to the workplace accidents and suggested solutions on those issues. After assessing through the homogeneity and heterogeneity of the population, the proportionate stratified sampling was performed in ensuring the generalizability of the study. Using 177 samples, correlation investigation was conducted at the survey sites. In ensuring the stability of information generated, cross-sectional data was conducted using self-administered questionnaire. Based on the result, we conclude that elements like stress and fatigue, unsafe act, machinery and tools, design of workplace, training procedures assumed to directly influence the workplace accident.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
Workplace Accident in Malaysia: Most Common Causes and Solutions
Noorul Huda Zakaria
Faculty of Business Management
Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia
Kuala Terengganu Campus, 21080 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
Norudin Mansor
Faculty of Business Management
Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia
Dungun Campus, 23000 Dungun, Terenggganu, Malaysia
Zalinawati Abdullah
Faculty of Business Management
Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia
Dungun Campus, 23000 Dungun, Terengganu, Malaysia
Accidents in the workplace occur for a number of reasons. It may results a minimal or tragic, causing minor injury,
damage to equipment or even in some cases, major injury or death. Employees need to stay alert and aware at all
times to avoid accidents, while managers need to know the most common causes for workplace accidents and be
able to identify the risk factors early to prevent it. A conducive and competitive working environment may help the
organization to run their daily operation smoothly, thus achieve their goals successfully. Considering on how much
important safety at workplace, the Malaysian government has made efforts on executing safety and health policies
through the enforcement of guidelines as well as conducting site safety seminars and certifications. Yet, existing
record indicated that the present Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) situation in the workplace is still very much
adverse and below expectation. This paper therefore addresses the issue about the most common causes of
workplace accidents among workers at workplace. This paper further examined the relationship between individual
factors and job factors that contribute to the workplace accidents and suggested solutions on those issues. After
assessing through the homogeneity and heterogeneity of the population, the proportionate stratified sampling was
performed in ensuring the generalizability of the study. Using 177 samples, correlation investigation was conducted
at the survey sites. In ensuring the stability of information generated, cross-sectional data was conducted using self-
administered questionnaire. Based on the result, we conclude that elements like stress and fatigue, unsafe act,
machinery and tools, design of workplace, training procedures assumed to directly influence the workplace
Keywords: Workplace accident, stress and fatigue, unsafe act, machinery and tools, design of workplace, training
The safety in workplace is one of the most essential issues that cannot be taken lightly. Because even it only minor
accident, it may cause serious and huge effect to the organization especially within the industry involved machinery
handling including of prime movers, trucks, forklifts and cranes that is very much related with the issue of safety
and health awareness. In an effort to promote the development of safety and healthy workplace, the issue is
important as it is one of the important functions for the organization and workers to conduct their daily operation
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
and task safely and correctly. Workers that have high level of safety and health awareness are able to conduct their
work effectively and efficiently, where it probably might prevent accidents from occurred at the workplace.
The workplace accident occurring during the daily operations results in no win situation. So, when accident occurs,
it should always be promptly reported to the office of Safety and Health to ensure that immediate action could be
taken by the organization. Further inspection could be conducted to identify the factors causing the accident and the
way on how to prevent it from occurring in the future. An employee also urged to report any near miss injuries or
accidents either to their supervisors or Safety and Health Office. This paper helps to identify potential hazards or
conditions that can be addressed to avoid injuries in the future.
Nowadays, workplace accident became worst and known to be a major concerned to the organization involved. This
kind of problem also familiarly faced by the industry’s workers that involve in the machinery handling operation
like the use of cranes, trucks, prime movers, and forklifts in conducting its operations and deliver its services. Its
need to be seriously address and promptly monitored as it may affect the organization in term of high cost to repair
the machinery, lead to the company’s bad reputation, and also cost for medical treatment for workers that involved
in accident. Prior to attempting an identification of the solution for workplace accident, it is important to better
understand what the elements are or factors that cause workplace accident first.
This study was conducted at the port of Pangkalan Bekalan Kemaman Sdn Bhd (PBKSB) involving the
administration and technical workers. The researcher further examined the relationship among the dependent
variable which is workplace accident and the independent variables which found to be two (2) major elements which
are the individual factors and nature of job.
The result of the study expected to raise the level of awareness towards safety and health needs at workplace. In
addition the employers or supervisors generally can identify what are the common causes that contribute to the
accident among their workers and can take the preventative measures in controlling them. In addition the company
can continuously review the psychic, sociological and economic cost incurred that may lead to the company’s bad
reputation or image and can affect the overall company’s production and operation. The company can further
evaluate the programs that have been performed to clearly discover either it helped the company to prevent further
accident at the workplace.
Workplace accidents not only can be very devastating but also can give major impact to daily production depending
on the type of work at stake. For instance, in places where complex machines are handled, it could be very
dangerous when accidents occur. In fact, there are so many other ways that can result in various incidents at the
workplace. Accidents occur for many reasons. Understanding why an accident happens is the first step in prevention
as it solution.
Based on the interview conducted with the Manager of Safety and Health of PBKSB, it was mentioned that the
similar problems are getting worst year by year. It has been recorded that there were frequent numbers of accidents
occurred each year at the workplace and the trend is increasing from year to year resulted unpredictable cost to the
industry. If there are no steps taken for prevention, it can be more serious and badly affected the image of the
On the average there were more than 40 accidents recorded for each year beginning 2005 till 2009 despite of efforts
done to ensure the safety environment. All accidents have multiple causes. It is therefore important to identify the
causes of accident so that it can be prevented in future and to reduce injury, ill health and also cost to the business.
By identifying the elements of the accident at the workplace, it is essential to investigate those that occurred and
considering the appropriate preventative measures in reducing the risk of them happening again.
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
The main aim of this study is to identify elements that contribute to the workplace accident among workers at
workplace. Further, it will also examine the relationship between:
1) Individual factors as measured by stress and fatigue, unsafe act, with workplace accident among workers.
2)Nature of job as measured by machineries or tools, designs of workplace, and training procedures, with workplace
accident among workers.
Workplace Accident
Accident may be defined as unplanned and uncontrolled events in which the action or reaction of an object,
substance, person or radiation results in personal injury or the probability thereof (Heinrich et al., 1980). As stated
by Male (2003), human factors are likely to contribute to this problem on a number of levels including factor
relating to individuals (e.g. drivers and pedestrians), the nature of the job (e.g. design of the workplace and vehicle),
and the organisational (e.g. training procedures and management systems). A zero accidents goal in the work
environment is a Herculean task and almost impossible to accomplish, but an effectual causal analysis paradigm
might lead to the implementation of successful intervention strategies that will effectively cut down the high human
and social cost associated with occupational accidents (Gyekye, 2010).
Heinrich et. al., (1980), a leading Industrial Safety Engineer, developed the Domino Theory. He believed that all
accidents could be modelled with a chain of five factors. They were: Ancestry and social environment; The fault of a
person; An unsafe act and / or physical hazard; An accident; and The resulting injury. With moderate and high
psychological distress it wills more likely leading to the risk of workplace accident (Hilton and Whiteford, 2010).
As stated by Gyekye (2010), occupational accidents have mostly been attributed to two fundamental causes:
internal causal factors (dispositional characteristics of the worker), and external causal factors (characteristics of the
work environment). Approximately 1.6 million industrial accidents happen in the United States every year with
results ranging from minor to disabling injuries, and sometimes even death. The difference with these types of
accidents is that it directly affects a person’s job and the employer is responsible for accidents that happen in the
workplace (Dacanay, 2011).
Stress and Fatigue
The HSE’s (2004) definition of stress is the adverse reaction a person has to excessive pressure or other types of
demand placed upon them. These pressures or demands at work include working long hours, workload demands,
and supervisory pressures. In another perspective, stress is a form of body reaction towards any problem and
pressure resulted to an imbalance between our inner resources and skills on one hand, and pressures we encounter
and support received to deal with these (James and Arroba, 1999).
The focus on individual attitudes proposed by Kirkcaldy et al., (1999) suggests that the general atmosphere or
culture for safety in an organisation may have a role to play in mitigating the effects of stress. As revealed by
Trimpop et. al. (2010), there was a positive relationship between job stress and occupational accident. A link
between stress and being involved in a motor vehicle accident was also found by Dobson et al., (1999). The authors
found that there was an increase in the rates of accidents where participants felt rushed and where they exhibited
lower life satisfaction scores. In terms of general driving behaviour, Norris et al., (2000) observed that job stress was
one of the best predictors of future accident involvement. Kirkcaldy et al., (1999) further reported that, partly the
determinants of job-related accidents, found to be, attitudes towards safety serve to moderate the adverse indirect
impact of job stress on driving accidents. Safety attitudes in addition to their direct influence on driving accident
frequency also had an indirect effect through ‘recklessness’. It is attitude towards risk-taking that is ‘critical’ in
triggering on-site accidents.
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
Sharpe and Wilks (2002) suggest that the cause of fatigue include psychological stresses, such as loss or
bereavement; and social stresses, such as problems at work. Earlier investigation on the relationship between fatigue
and prolonged driving was discovered by Hakkanen and Summala (2000), found that heavy-vehicle drivers could
experience difficulties in staying alert whilst driving, could fall asleep at the wheel, or could experience a near miss
situation on the road that contributes to the accident during performing their daily work. Errors are more likely to
occur when workers have high levels of fatigue or during times of inflexible or over demanding work schedules
(HSE, 1999).
Unsafe act
Human errors that could potentially cause an accident are called unsafe acts may be defined to be a human action
that departs from hazard control or job procedures to which the person has been trained or otherwise informed,
which causes unnecessary exposure of a person to hazards (Joel, 1997).
In the 1920s, safety pioneer Heinrich studied and classified the records of 75,000 industrial accidents. He concluded
that in those days, 88 percent of industrial accidents were caused by unsafe acts, 10 percent of the accidents were
caused by unsafe conditions, and another 2 percent of industrial were due to unavoidable (acts of God). Of his 10
Axioms of Industrial Safety, three bear noting here:
An accident can occur only as a result of an unsafe act by a person and/or a physical or mechanical hazard;
An unsafe act by a person or an unsafe condition does not always immediately result in an accident;
The supervisor is the key person in the prevention of industrial accidents.
DuPont (1991) study found unsafe act causing or contributing to nearly all injuries. Similarly earlier finding by
Heinrich (1959, cited in Cooper, 1998) suggested that for every 330 unsafe acts, 229 will lead to a serious injury and
one in a major incident. Thus, the absence of any injuries for those who consistently engage in unsafe behaviours is
reinforcing that behaviour which may eventually result in a serious injury. Heinrich (1980) popularized the view that
the vast majority of injuries and illnesses are the result of unsafe act by workers. DuPont (1995) has a training
manual that instructs observers that both of the safe and unsafe acts are always done by people, not machines. Thus
it is highly essential to concentrate on people and their actions to see whether they are working safely.
As stated by Payne (2011), accident claims involving defective or dangerous machinery are all too common in the
UK. Recently, the Health and Safety Executive made a point of addressing the need for effective risk assessments in
the manufacturing industry. Mechanical handling removes most of the hazards of man-handling but introduces new
dangers. Injury to personnel is less frequent but tends to be more severe (Astley and Lawton, 1971). Workplace
transport or machinery is the second biggest cause of accidents in the workplace, accounting for about 70 fatalities
each year. The majority of these accidents are preventable (HSE, 2005b).
Although forklifts have many benefits (e.g. improving productivity or reducing manual handling) they also result in
numerous occupational hazards, especially when frequent interaction with pedestrians occurs (Horberry et al.,
2004). Larsson and Rechnitzer (1994) indicate that forklifts have been identified over a number of decades as having
a significant impact on serious and fatal injuries. They state that forklifts are inherently high hazard vehicles.
A number of authors (Horberry et al., 2004) have identified characteristics of forklifts which make them dangerous.
First, Forklifts have a high mass (a typical counter-balanced forklift has a mass of over 3 tonnes, making the loaded
mass nearly 6 tonnes, four times the weight of the average family car). Furthermore it usage is typically involved a
large amount of interaction with pedestrian workers. Thus the safety of operation is vital as the loads are often
simply placed on the tyres (not secured to the vehicle, therefore relying on gravity for stability). Thus they have
problems with stability due to having a narrow track and variable centre of gravity. For some machine the risk
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
evaluation is misleading due to the compact size of the vehicle. The nature of working with a forklift requires
drivers to divide their attention. When carrying a load in reverse the driver has to simultaneously monitor the
balance of his load at the back of the truck and watch the direction of travel driving with their left hand on the
steering wheel and right hand on the load control and they must monitor his blind spot (Miller, 1988).
Ellis (2003) found that struck by moving vehicle, falling from vehicle, being struck by object falling from vehicle,
vehicle overturning were the most common types of accident. Miller (1988) indicates that the literature points to the
two major causes of forklift accidents as (1) struck by forklift, and (2) load dropped or shoved onto employee. Other
causes highlighted by Miller (1988) include the driver catching a body part between the truck and another object and
driving off the loading dock. Astley and Lawton (1971) called for design changes to trucks. This indicated that poor
design was causing poor posture, leading to driver fatigue and spinal and abdominal trauma.
Design of work place
As stated by Beasley (2011), older buildings may contain asbestos, which will affect all occupants. Electrical wires
or faulty wiring may shock office workers, literally. Williams and Priestley (1980) indicate that because the majority
of major injuries occur to non-drivers the poor design and layout of workplaces must be seen as a causal factor.
Miller (1988) points out that in other areas where people and vehicles come into contact e.g. parking lots, we
carefully segregate them, but in warehouses the same rules often are not applied. One of Miller’s recommendations
was therefore the use of separate pedestrian routes. Williams and Priestley (1980) further indicated that the bulk of
the seriously injured are pedestrians. Therefore, workplace layouts, which increase the interaction between people
and vehicles, must be classed as a major causal factor.
Booth (1979) indicates that the prevention of workplace transport accidents by good design of the workplace is not
difficult, but once a dangerous layout is created it is much more difficult to correct. It is therefore imperative that
more attention is paid to the design stage within the working environment. Miller (1988) also makes specific
recommendations for reducing workplace transport accidents: Among them include the lighting levels that are
crucial in order for drivers to be able to see properly, and distinguish hazards/pedestrians as quickly as possible,
good lighting is essential. This becomes even more important as people age and their eyesight deteriorates. The
aspect of noise level should be monitored for promoting conducive workplace. Others include the working space
which allows smooth transportation activities which need to be supported with traffic control sign. The use of signs
and the use of high visibility lines to indicate edges (e.g. on ramps) is helpful. He draws attention to the use of stop
signs, indicating that they can be used when going from areas of different lighting levels, giving the drivers eyes
time to adjust. There is a need to be clear markings in any locations where there is an interaction between
pedestrians and vehicles. Ideally, mark zones on the floor for stock storage areas, traffic areas, and pedestrian routes.
Training procedures
Upon reviewing the past literature, the need to create workplace safety climate largely demand management support
(Coyle, 1995; Dedobbeleer and Beland, 1991) particularly in addressing the important of training. As already
mentioned, there is evidence to indicate that many workplace transport accidents are associated with poor training.
Steemson (2000) cites a number of case studies where adequate training would have prevented the injuries sustained
in lift truck incidents. The role of training in overcoming deficiencies in plant layout is also highlighted by Booth
(1979) who sees training as vital.
The importance accorded to training and improving competence has led these to be recognised as the main areas for
preventing accidents in workplace transport. Accordingly this area has received much attention in the literature. In
reviewing the areas of training and competence, related issues of education, skill development and selection of
competent operatives have also been considered (Male, 2003). With longer periods of safety training conducted on a
regular basis, the consistent result of work safety can be upheld (Shannon et. al., 1997).
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
Horberry et al., (2004) indicate that many of the hazards associated with forklift truck operation are well known.
Little has been done to modify the risk environment; instead a culture reliant upon education to prevent the
incidence of assumed erroneous behaviour exists. Larsson and Rechnitzer (1994), however, strike a note of caution
here, suggesting that the reliance on training and driver skills to overcome deficiencies in vehicle and workplace
design is considered by the authors to be a high risk strategy which will only ensure a continuing high level of
accident and injury. Thus addressing training issues in minimizing workplace accident is very essential. In fact
Collins et al., (1999) observed that a number of drivers themselves were critical of their training provision, noting
that it had not prepared them for the conditions busy production areas, the very issue that both Booth (1979) and
Williams and Priestley (1980) note as one of the main benefits of adequate driver training.
Theoretical framework
The operationalization of the research construct considers two (2) major elements that contributed to the accident
among workers; individual factors (stress and fatigue, and unsafe act) and nature of job (machineries or tools, design
of workplace and training procedures) were investigated.
Figure 1: Theoretical framework of the study.
Testable Hypothesis for the study:
Hypothesis 1 There is a significant relationship between individual factors as measured by stress and fatigue and
workplace accident among workers.
Hypothesis 2 There is a significant relationship between individual factors as measured by unsafe act and workplace
accident among workers.
Hypothesis 3 There is a significant relationship between nature of job as measured by machineries or tools and
workplace accident among workers.
Hypothesis 4 There is a significant relationship between nature of job as measured by design of workplace and
workplace accident among workers.
Hypothesis 5 There is a significant relationship between nature of job as measured by training procedures and
workplace accident among workers.
Sampling procedure
The number of population was drawn from the sampling frame of 322 workers at PBKSB. Of the population size 71
were administration workers and the rest 251 were for the technical workers. In ensuring that a good
representativeness of the sample, the study adopted proportionate stratified sampling and further executed through
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
fish bowl technique. Using the suggestion by Krejcie and Morgan (1970), the sample size of 177 respondents were
executed. The representations were further divided into 30 of administration workers and 147 of technical workers.
Data collection method and measurement
The face-to-face interviews was conducted with operations managers, operations executives, foreman and the
workers focusing on the same set of questions only in order to obtain the required data related to this study and
achieved the objective of the research. A more comprehensive data were further obtained by using personally
administered questionnaire used by the earlier researcher. In measuring the response, the researcher used two type of
scale for the study. They are Nominal Scale for section A, meanwhile for section B, C, D, E, F and G each had been
measured by the Likert Scale with the total of 36 items measuring the variables under investigation.
Analysis on qualitative investigation
The qualitative data was generated based on the interviews with a few staffs in order to strengthen the primary data
analysis procedures. Respondents were asked about the machineries and tools that were listed contributing factors to
the workplace accident. It was revealed that the use of old machineries and tools found to be problematic to the
workers in handling them. Sometimes they were unable to perform well and caused accident that may harm the
workers themselves.
Based on the interview conducted with the assistant manager of Quality Health Safety and Environment (QHSE) it
was highlighted that the unsafe act was one of the cause of the accident at the workplace. Some workers did not
follow the rules as outlined by the company such as conducting proper inspection before and during performing the
tasks. However, there were only several workers that were not aware about wearing the PPE such as gloves and
safety glass or goggles.
In another interview, one of them agreed that one of the factors that contributed to the accident at the workplace was
caused by stress and fatigue. Workers needed to complete a hard task that might cause fatigue and then lost their
concentration in completing their tasks. This problem then drove to the accident among the workers. Therefore, he
suggested that the workers involving with overtime to get enough rest to ensure that the tasks could be performed
successfully without any harm or injuries.
The forklift operator mentioned that a good and effective training were able to reduce the numbers of accidents.
With effective trainings it could motivate and provide proper knowledge to the workers in performing the tasks.
Therefore, it directly guided the workers in avoiding and reducing the workplace accidents. In addition, as revealed
by the senior foreman with more than 20 years experienced, the inability of the management to provide an effective
and efficient design of workplace might cause the operation bottleneck, especially for those handling machineries
like crane, prime mover or forklift. He said that this kind of problem could be one of the factors of workplace
Reliability of measure
Table 1: The Reliability Analysis
Workplace Accident 0.740
Machineries/ Tools 0.829
Stress and Fatigue 0.805
Design of Workplace 0.671
Unsafe Act 0.800
Training Procedures 0.865
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
As indicated in Table 1, the Cronbach’s Alpha for all the variables found to be good and reliable, following the rule
of thumb as suggested by Hair et al., (1976) where the value is more then 0.6.
Analysis of respondents profile
Findings on the profile of the sample is explained in table 2.
Table 2: Frequency Table
Between 20-29
Between 30-39
Between 40-49
50 above
Work experience
<2 years
2 5 years
6-10 years
11-15 years
>15 years
Asst Manager
Base Operative
Education Level
Income Level
< RM1000
RM1001- RM3000
RM3001- RM5000
RM5000 & >
7.9 53.1
NOTE: The exchange rate for 1 US Dollar = RM3.00
Table 2 displayed the profile of gender which indicated 95.5% were male while other 4.5% were female. Based on
the level of working experience, majority of respondents comprised of the workers with 2-5 years working
experience that indicates 67 respondents or 37.9%. While, 47 of respondents or 26.6% were having 6-10 years
working experience. There were 35 respondents (19.8%) were those with 11-15 years working experience and 23
respondents (13%) were with more than 15 years working experience. The minority of the respondents were
consisting of 5 respondents or 2.8% workers with less than 2 years working experience. Referring to education
background, 86.4% were having secondary school (SPM) level, 6.8% were with diploma, while 5.6% were having
degree or master education.
Based on department, it indicated majority of respondents (153 or 86.4%) were from operation department, 11 or
6.2% respondents were from finance department, followed by 8 or 4.5% respondents from administration, 4 or 2.3%
were from technical department and 1 or 0.6% were from QHSE department.
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
The table show the position of the respondents that majority of them (53.1%) of respondents were operators, 20.3%
were base operative, 7.9% of respondents were clerk, 7.3% or respondents were foreman, 4.0% were executive,
2.3% respondents were manager, 2.3% were assistant manager, 1.7% respondents were technician, 0.6% were
engineer and 0.6% were accountant. Based on respondents’ monthly income, 74% earned RM1000- RM3000,
20.9% earned less than RM1000, 2.8% earned RM3001- RM5000 and the other2.3% earned more than RM5000 per
Chi-Square test
By cross-tabulating several set of demographic profiles with the workplace accident, we further test the association
of the variables through chi-square. The chi- square distribution provides a means for testing the statistical
significance of contingency tables.
Table 3: Chi-Square Test between nominal variable and dependent variable
Nominal Variable
Working Experience
Table 3 demonstrated the result of Chi-Square testing between selected profiles as to the workplace accident. The
result shows that there was an association between working experience and workplace accident at p-value of 0.041,
whereas there were no significant association between age, gender, department, position and income with workplace
accident among workers as depicted by the p-value of 0.150, 0.213, 0.908, 0.495, 0.961 and 0.699 respectively.
Thus we can conclude that not only independent variables contribute to the workplace accident among workers but
working experience also demonstrated an important impact to the workplace accident.
Correlation coefficient
Correlation analysis was used to explain the existence of association and strength of the relationship between the
independent variables (stress and fatigue, unsafe act, machineries or tools, design of workplace and training
procedures) and dependent variable (workplace accident).
Table 4: Correlation between Independent and Workplace Accident
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2 tailed)
Stress & Fatique
Unsafe Act
Machineries/ tools
Design of workplace
Training procedures
The table above displayed the correlation between workplace accident among workers and the five independent
variables. The first one is the relationship between workplace accident among workers and stress and fatigue. There
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
was significant relationship between the two at 0.01 levels. The relationship was considered as substantial to very
strong as indicated by Pearson Correlation value of 0.522. The second hypothesis examined the relationship between
workplace accident among workers and unsafe act. There was a significant relationship between the two variables at
0.01 levels. The Pearson Correlation value of 0.220 explained that there was low to moderate relationship between
the two variables.
The third hypothesis examined the correlation between workplace accidents among workers and machineries or
tools. There was a significant relationship between these two at 0.01 levels. The Pearson Correlation showed the
figure of 0.208 which means that it indicated low to moderate relationship between two variables. While the fourth
hypothesis attempted to investigate the correlation between workplace accident among workers and design of
workplace. The table shows that there was significant correlation at 0.01 levels. The Pearson Correlation value of
0.405 explained that the association was moderate to substantial.
The last one is the relationship between workplace accidents among workers and training procedures. As depicted in
table 4, the result demonstrated that there was a significant relationship between these two variables at 0.01 levels.
The Pearson Correlation value of 0.428 indicated that there was a moderate to substantial relationship between the
two variables.
Multiple Regression analysis
Table 5: Output of Coefficients
Referring to table 5, this attempted to compare the strength of each factor and in explaining their relationship, all of
these five independent variables which are stress and fatigue, unsafe act, machinery or tools, design of workplace
and training procedures, which were significant with the value of .000; .001; 0,003; 0.001, and 0.000 respectively.
Further output through beta value of 0.390 and 0.256 suggested that stress and fatigue and workplace design were
the most contributing variables. While others like training procedures, unsafe act, and machineries or tools indicated
less serious but still needed to be address.
Table 6: Model Summary
R Square
Adj. R
Std. Error of
Change Statistics
R Square
F Change
Sig. F
Unstandardized Coeff
Standardized Coeff
Std. Error
Stress & fatigue
Unsafe act
Machineries & tools
Workplace design
Training procedures
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
As a whole, all the five variables (stress and fatigue, unsafe act, machineries or tools, design of workplace and
training procedures) were able to explained 61.5% of the relationship with workplace accident. Even though
approximately 38% could not be explained but still the investigation demonstrated all the five factors as a whole
were statistically significant at .000.
The purpose of the study focused on the workplace accidents among workers at workplace. Using several testing
procedures on the non-directional hypotheses the researcher came out with some conclusions that are acceptable to
the logical explanation of the grounded theories. The researcher further concluded that these five elements; stress
and fatigue, unsafe act, machinery or tools, design of workplace and also training procedures contribute to
workplace accidents among workers. Further, there are numbers of recommended solutions outline by researcher as
precautionary action should be taken by the company and workers themselves.
The first hypothesis is about the stress and fatigue. Similarly several earlier studies demonstrated the relationship of
workplace stress with workplace accident (Johnston, 1995; Kim, 2008; Hilton and Whiteford, 2010). It means that
when workers are stress and fatigue, irregularities of scheduling, and work overloaded will have an effect on their
concentration in conducting their works. Therefore, they are exposed to the probability of involving in the accidents.
Stress and fatigue in the norm of working life are synonym with workers. As this development could be one of the
contributory factors for workplace accident, company should design a proper working schedule for each department
that suits with their working style. Workers that usually work at night should have enough rest on the day and fit to
continue their job at night. Furthermore, there should be no worker that works too long after their usual schedule of
working hour. Another alternative for reducing accident due to stress and fatigue is by motivating them through
making them feel comfortable while working. Their complaint should be given attention by the authorities. With
these efforts, worker feels appreciated even though they had a rough day of working. Employers also can help to
reducing employees' stress levels by organizing the conditions and requirements of the workplace and jobs in such a
way as to minimize the sources of stress. Employers may take measures that include ensuring there is a pleasurable
working environment, make sure that all staffs has training in time management and delegation so that they can
manage their time effectively, having regular open communication so that opportunities to discuss problems and
worries are available for them.
The second hypothesis concerned on the relationship between unsafe act and workplace accidents. It means that any
other unsafe act by the workers such as failure to obey the rules that had been provided by the company, unethical
behavior at workplace or do not wear proper Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) such as safety gloves, safety
helmet and safety boots will contribute to the workplace accident among them. Controlling unsafe acts has proven to
be difficult. The reason for this is that unsafe acts involve the human factor, that is, they occur as a result of people’s
attitudes and behaviors. However, unsafe act should be closely monitored. Management should communicate what
is important clearly through goal setting, establishing policies and procedures, and even rewarding certain job
behaviors (Schneider and Rentsch, 1988; Dedobbeleer and Beland, 1991). The rules and regulations should be
seriously obeyed by all workers especially when performing high risk task. Workers should be fully equipped with
PPE when performing risky task such as eyewear, safety boots, gloves and others. The most important thing in doing
job is workers should do their job seriously and with full concentration. This is important because when workers
lack of concentration, they tend to involve in greater risk of having an accident. This will not benefit any parties in
the company but only cause loss of working hour. By reducing the occurrence of unsafe acts, it will directly reduce
number of accidents and injuries that occur in the workplace.
The third hypothesis proposed the relationship between the machinery and tools with the workplace accident. It
means that old machineries and tools, improper or irregular inspections done by the workers, insufficient training
among the workers and failure to immediately report any breakdown are among the factors that may contribute to a
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
workplace accidents. Machineries or tools are very much associated with day-to-day operation. As machinery is also
one of the elements that may contribute to the workplace accident among workers, it is important to the company
and workers themselves to make proper maintenance inspection before start their work. Make sure all of the tools
and equipments are good quality and well maintained. Another solution is by reducing the numbers of old
machinery such as forklift, crane and prime mover or by replace them with the new and available for the hard tasks.
The company and the supervisors need to be clearly know and understand and also able to give knowledge to the
workers on how to handle the machinery and tools correctly to ensure that workers have proper knowledge on
machinery and tolls handling.
Design of workplace is one of the crucial parts in avoiding accident in the workplace. Exploring further on the issue,
the fourth hypothesis was formulated on the relationship between designs of workplace as part of the elements that
are positively contributed to the workplace accidents. This means that irregular workplace layout, the absence of
safety features, improper communication among the staffs involved, and inability of the supervisors to provide clear
explanation of the layout, may cause problems to the workers in handling their machinery or transport smoothly. As
such these considerations assumed to be among the critical elements that contribute to the workplace accidents.
Effective design and layout of workplace can eliminate some workplace hazards and help get a job done safely and
properly. Poor design and layout can frequently contribute to accidents by hiding hazards that cause injuries. In
situation when accident frequency rates are very rare, there is a tendency where workers might be complacent and
their awareness of the potential accident are underestimated (Shannon et. Al 1997). The design of it should be
proper planned and well balanced between high risk spot and also low risk spot in the workplace. The high risk spot
in the workplace should be taken more consideration as it involves time, money and also the safety of workers itself.
There should be proper signs in the area such as cross lines and danger zone. There also need to have road signs for
heavy vehicles such as truck to park their truck, waiting lines and other. This will help to make job easier as for the
company and also for the client. This also can help in avoiding accident happen caused by the design of workplace
While the last hypothesis indicated that there is relationship between training procedures and workplace accidents.
Lack of training indicated that workers are unable to perform their work well, limit and improper knowledge on how
to handle the machineries or tools correctly, and ineffectively perform their work without the occurrence of accident.
Upon analyzing each of the factors separately through correlation and analysis the impact of the whole factors
together through multiple regression, the investigation therefore able to conclude that all the six hypotheses that had
been formulated earlier; stress and fatigue, unsafe act, machineries or tools, design of workplace, training procedures
and work related factors were among the contributory elements to the workplace accident among workers.
Addressing the issues on Training Procedures is essential in avoiding accident happen in workplace. Company
should provide proper training for all their workers. They should be no exception for workers as for the permanent
and also contract workers. This is because all these workers provide their work resources for the company to achieve
the same goal. So, there should be no exception in providing training for the workers. The type of training
employees should receive will of course depend upon the type of job. However, as a general rule, staff should be
trained in working procedure and in the use of equipment. As we know, training will make workers more competent
in doing their jobs. Company should not exclude training as it is important to the workers in establishing their
working skills and also to provide good work that will produce greater income for the company itself. Furthermore,
there should be more safety talk done by the company to give more education for the workers about the importance
of safety. The safety talk should be meaningful to all workers to learn and equipped them with safety knowledge.
They should emphasize their concern on workers about safety issues so they are not only attending the talk because
of the attendance but because of the knowledge gained from the talk. When they truly understand about the
importance of safety in the workplace, this will help to reduce accident in the workplace. Among the prominent
elements need to be considered include quality movement, awareness creation, technology changes, operation
practice changes, productivity improvements, and operation multi-skilling (Brown, 1996).
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
Besides, as demonstrated in Table 3, there was an association between working experience and workplace accident.
It can be concluded that this personal factor, other than independent variables discussed play an important part to
workplace accident, where it needs the consideration from all parties involving employers and employees.
Employees that lack of work experience or less skilled are able to contribute to workplace accident since they may
avoid asking questions in order to avoid looking foolish, unknowledgeable and incompetent against their peers and
employer. Therefore, employer should play their role to educate and promote them with Occupational Safety and
Health procedures at workplace. This will help them in improving workplace safety and avoid the increasing
numbers in accident at workplace.
The creation of safe and sound workplace is not the responsibility of the employer only. Workers also have to take a
part in order to keep their workplace free from any degree of risks and hazards. Therefore, most of the common
accidents at workplace should be prevent with the cooperation from both employers and employees considering it as
their responsibility to prevent accidents at their work place. Employers are required to perform risk assessment for
possible accidents that could occur and adapt necessary methods to prevent accidents in the health and safety
procedures practiced by them. Employees then must strictly follow the health and safety measures adapted by their
employers and help to avoid accidents at workplace to ensure that they can run the operation effectively and
Astley, R.W. and Lawton, R.H. (1971). The Ergonomic Aspects of Fork Lift Truck Design. Bedfordshire, Cranfield
Institute of Technology.
Beasley, D. (2011). The Most Common Causes Of Workplace Injuries: Protecting Employees. Retrieved March 8,
2012, from
Booth, R.T. (1979). Making factories safe for fork lift truck drivers. Occupational Health, April: 193 - 197.
Brown, K.A., (1996). Workplace safety: A call for research, Jounal of Operations Management, Vol. 14, pp 157-
Collins, J.W., Smith, G.S., Baker, S.P. and Warner, M. (1999). Injuries related to forklifts and other powered
industrial vehicles in automobile manufacturing. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 36 (5) 513-521.
Coyle, I. R., Sleeman, S.D., and Adams, N. (1995). Safety Climate, Journal of safety Research, Vol. 26, pp 247
Dacanay, M. (2011). Understanding And Preventing Industrial Accidents. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from
De dobbeleer, N., and Beland, F. (1991). A safety climate measure for construction sites, Journal of Safety
Research, Vol. 22, pp 97 103.
De Vaus, D, (2002), Analyzing Social Science Data, 1st Ed. SAGE Publication Ltd.
Dobson, A., Brown, W., Ball, J., Powers, J. and McFadden, M. (1999). Women drivers’ beha viour, socio-
demographic characteristics and accidents. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31: 525-535.
DuPont.(1991). Managing Safety: Operations Managers’ Safety Training Resource Manual.
DuPont.(1995).Safety Training Observation Program for Supervision, Unit 1 Introduction: The STOP System, page
Ellis, P. (2003). Workplace transport a typical risk assessment process that should take place when risk assessing
vehicles within the workplace. Occupational Safety and Health Journal, 33 (12) 38.
Gyekye, S.A. (2010). Occupational safety management: The role of causal attribution. International Journal Of
Psychology, 2010, 45 (6), 405416.
Hair, J.F., Babin, B., Money, A.H.,and Samouel, P. (2003). Essential of Business Research Methods. John Wiley &
sons, Inc., U.S.A
Hakkanen, H., and Summala, H. (2000). Driver sleepiness-related problems, health status and prolonged driving
among professional heavy-vehicle drivers. Transportation Human Factors, 2 (2): 151-171.
Heinrich, H.W., D. Petersen, and N. Ross. (1980) . Industrial Accident Prevention, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New
Hilton M. F., and Whiteford H. A., (2010). Associations between psychological stress, workplace accidents,
workplace failures and workplace successes, Int Arch Occup Environ Health, Vol83, pp. 923 -933.
Business and Management Review Vol. 2(5) pp. 75 88 July, 2012 ISSN: 2047 - 0398
Available online at
Horberry, T., Larsson, T.J., Johnston, I. and Lambert, J. (2004). Forklift safety, traffic engineering and intelligent
transport systems: a case study. Applied Ergonomics, 35 (6) 575-581.
HSE (2004). Working Together to Reduce Stress at Work: A Guide for Employees. HSE Information: standards/pdfs/leaflet.pdf. 09.06.05.
HSE. (1999). Reducing error and influencing behaviour, 2nd Edition, Health and Safety Series Booklet HS(G) 48.
HSE (2005b), HSE and workplace transport htm. Accessed
James, K. and Arroba, T. (1999), Energizing the workplace: a strategic response to stress. Aldershot, Brookfield,
VT: Gower.
Joel, L,(1997). The Handbook of Maintenance Management, Industrial Press, New York.
Johnston, JJ (1995). Occupational injury and stress, Journal of Occup Environ Med, Vol. 37, pp 1199-1203.
Kim J. (2008). Psychological distress and occupational injury: findings from the National Health Interview Survey
2000-2003, Journal preview Med Public health, Vol 41, pp 200-207.
Kirkcaldy, B., van den Eeden, P., Trimpop, R. and Martin, T. (1999). Modelling psychological and work-situation
processes that lead to traffic and on-site accidents, Disaster Prevention and Management, 8 (5): 342-350.
Krejcie, R., and Morgan, D. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological
Measurement, 30, 607-610.
Larsson, T.J., and Rechnitzer, G. (1994). Forklift trucks-analysis of severe and fatal occupational injuries, critical
incidents and priorities for prevention. Safety Science, 17, 275-289.
Male, G.E. (2003). Safety of Industrial Lift Trucks: A Survey of Investigated Accidents and Incidents (April 1997
March 2001). Health and Safety Executive, Special Inspector Reports 60.
Miller, B.C. (1988). Forklift safety by design. Professional Safety, September 18-21.
Norris, F.H., Matthews, B.A. and Riad, J.K. (2000). Characterological, situational and behavioural risk factors for
motor vehicle accidents: a prospective evaluation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 505-515.
Payne, N. (2011). Machinery accidents in the workplace. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from
Schneider, B., and Rentsch, J. (1988). Managing Climates and cultures: A future perspective. In J. Hage (ed).
Futures of organizations: Innovating to adopt strategy and human resources to rapid technological changes
(pp. 181-200). Lexington MA.
Shannon, H.S., Mayr, J., and Haines, T., (1997). Overview of the relationship between Organizational and
Workplace factors and Injury Rates, Safety Science, Vol. 26, No.3, pp. 201-217.
Sharpe, M. and Wilks, D. (2002). ABC of psychological medicine, British Medical Journal, 325: 480-483.
Steemson, J. (2000). Fork lifts: why training is crucial. Occupational Safety and Health, Vol 30; Part 7 23-26.
Trimpop R, Kirkaldy B, Athansou J.,and Cooper C., (2010), Individual differences in Working hours, work
perceptions and accident rates in vetinary surgeries, Work Stress Vol. 14, pp 181- 188.
Williams, E.A. and Priestley, S.E. (1980). Fork lift truck injuries. Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine,
30, 149-152.
... The negligence of positive safety behavior could lead into high accident case at workplace [2,3]. Accident, even if minor, can cause serious adverse effect to the organization [4]. Kamardeen [5] also affirmed that workplace accident inflicts direct and indirect costs on a business. ...
... The workplace accidents are possibly caused by behavior of taking shortcuts and bypassing the standard operating procedures [4]. Other than that, safety behavior is among the critical factors of safety performance that contributes towards work-related accidents [7]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In Malaysia, industrialization and population growth have both contributed to an increase in workplace occupational injuries. The most recent statistics on reported accidents show that out of 10,000 employees, 99 have been directly involved in work-related accidents. Accidents do not occur by chance, thus there are multiple factors which are contributing to workplace accidents. It is important to spread safety awareness to employees inside the organization. The main objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between safety leadership, supervisor safety roles and safety behavior in logistics companies of Malaysia. The study respondents included 160 employees from logistics companies of Malaysia. A partial least square equation modeling “Higher Order Two-Stage Approach” analysis was performed to assess the measurement and structural model involving variables of safety leadership, supervisor safety roles and safety behavior to draw the results. The results of the study revealed that safety leadership roles imposed by the managers have a significant effect on safety behavior, mediated by supervisors’ safety roles. Therefore, the findings of the study suggest that safety leadership and supervisor safety roles be implemented in logistics companies. These make employees more inclined to take part in safety initiatives which can make the workplace safer.
... Occurrence of workplace accidents can result in negative image of the organization itself. Studies prove that unsafe act that involves dangerous working method and conscious risk taking is the reason behind fatal accidents (Lind, 2008;Brown et al., 2000;Abdullah et al., 2012). Findings from another related study, also says that unsafe act by workers for instance not obeying rules, unethical behavior at workplace for instance refusing to wear PPE such as safety boots, safety helmets and safety gloves are among them (Abdullah et al., 2012). ...
... Studies prove that unsafe act that involves dangerous working method and conscious risk taking is the reason behind fatal accidents (Lind, 2008;Brown et al., 2000;Abdullah et al., 2012). Findings from another related study, also says that unsafe act by workers for instance not obeying rules, unethical behavior at workplace for instance refusing to wear PPE such as safety boots, safety helmets and safety gloves are among them (Abdullah et al., 2012). The author also clearly mentions that some managers had to allocate certain budget for rewarding system to encourage worker to practice safety behavior. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Safety culture is seen to be an essential element in any form of organization. As an education institution, the safety and health committee or Jabatan Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerja (JKKP) was formed to enhance the safety system in Department of Electrical Engineering, Polytechnic Port Dickson. In conjunction with that, this study mainly examines the influence of safety leadership of JKKP’s committee members towards safety behaviour of lecturers in Department of Electrical Engineering (Jabatan Kejuruteraan Elektrik, JKE) of Polytechnic Port Dickson. The independent variable is safety leadership that has three attributes, which are safety motivation, safety concern and safety policy. On the other hand, the dependent variables are safety compliance and safety participation, collectively referred to as safety behaviour, that targets the group of lecturers. JKE has 67 lecturers and 6 committee members of JKKP. A total of 60 questionnaires were distributed to population size of 67 lecturers. Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Each safety behaviour attributes are compared with safety leadership attributes individually. When compared to safety compliance all three safety leadership attributes (safety concern, safety motivation, safety policy) have significant relationship. The highest influence goes to safety policy (β=0.632), followed by safety motivation (β = 0.628) and the least is safety concern (β=0.156). As with safety participation, the highest influence goes to safety motivation (β = 0.664), followed by safety policy (β=0.613) and the least is safety concern (β=0.200). The safety behaviour among lecturers of JKE can be predicted with selective safety leadership attributes as shown above. Keywords: Safety Leadership, Safety Behaviour
... Usually, supervisor can identify the common causes and factors that contribute to the near misses, incidents and accidents at the workplace as they can take preventative measures to avoid them from happening (Zakaria, Norudin, & Abdullah, 2012). In short, the supervisor is the key person in controlling the construction accidents. ...
... In short, the supervisor is the key person in controlling the construction accidents. Based on the study by Zakaria, Norudin and Abdullah (2012), most of the company has provide some skilful supervisor that have a clear view on how the workers should work at site and they are able to convey the knowledge the workers. However, the number of supervisors are insufficient to accommodate the number of construction workers who are overwhelmed when in the larger project (Saaidin, Endut, Samah, & Ridzuan, 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vast developing countries like Malaysia are often linked to an excellent economic growth and rapid construction development. Therefore, the operational safety issues have always been a hot topic in the construction sector due to the near misses and accidents are still at an alarming rate. Although various studies and initiatives have been made to reduce the accident rate but in reality, accidents still occur, especially at the operational level. Hence, a study has been conducted to explore the current safety issue and work behaviour of construction site workers in Malaysia. This study was started out by reviewing accidents statistic report published by the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH). Then, literature from various sources mainly; journals, articles, conference papers and books were examine to strengthen the issue. Semi structured interviews were carried out to obtain data from informants who are mainly site safety personnel who are well versed with the construction safety. The finding of this study reveals that near misses, incidents and accidents are still occurring at the operational levels due to poor workers behaviours and attitudes. Despites initially, various approach such as constant supervision, strict safety policies and regulation, implementation of safety clauses and safety training have been conducted by the management to enhance safety awareness among the construction workers
... 8,9 Workplace stress, use of unsafe machinery and tools, unsafe activities and conditions, and also latent factors such as inadequate training and lack of awareness among the workers were found to be the common causes of workplace accidents in Malaysia. 10 Similarly, the construction workers in Bhutan are also prone to health and safety hazards. In 2022, the Department of Labour reported that among the accident cases reported, non-fatal accidents comprised 25% and fatal accidents contributed 62.5%. ...
Full-text available
Background: The global construction industry is highly dangerous, accounting for one in five fatalities, particularly prevalent in developing countries. As construction activities surge in Bhutan, safety standards and the occurrence of accidents have become concerning. This article aims to examine fatal and non-fatal accidents and safety culture in Bhutan's construction industry. Methods: A desk review was conducted to examine reports and documents related to construction accidents in Bhutan. Additionally, a cross-sectional study was carried out at various construction sites, including roads, bridges, buildings, and hydropower projects. The sample size consisted of 208 participants, selected with consideration of a 6.76% margin of error (e) at a 95% confidence level, assuming a standard deviation of 50% (d = 0.5). Results: The construction industry has the highest frequency of workplace accidents, particularly fatal ones, compared to other sectors. Despite a decrease in the accident rate over time, it remains significantly elevated. This study found that 26.4% of construction workers experience annual accidents. Workers who didn't use personal protective equipment (39.1%) or used it sporadically (23.7%) had higher accident rates. The safety culture in construction workplaces generally showed an acceptable level, with a mean score of three or higher. However, workers with low safety behavior and moderate scores in safety leadership, communication, training, and awareness exhibited higher rates of non-fatal accidents. Conclusion: Construction workers in Bhutan face a higher risk of workplace accidents and injuries. Contributing factors include insufficient safety training and awareness, ineffective safety leadership and communication, and the prevalence of unsafe behaviors among workers.
... Numerous studies have shown that some individual factors (e.g., being stressed, low level of literacy and haste) and certain job features (e.g., defective or dangerous machinery, poor lighting conditions, and poor training procedures) were potential risk factors for injuries at work (4)(5)(6)(7). Studies done in Australia, Qatar and Iran indicated disparities in the risk of injury across age, gender and occupation subgroups, suggesting a higher risk of work-related injuries among older workers, males and construction industry workers (8)(9)(10). ...
Full-text available
Background: Injuries during work are often exogenous and can be easily influenced by environmental factors, especially weather conditions. Precipitation, a crucial weather factor, has been linked to unintentional injuries, yet evidence of its effect on work-related injuries is limited. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the impact of precipitation on injuries during work as well as its variation across numerous vulnerability features. Methods: Records on the work-related injury during 2016-2020 were obtained from four sentinel hospitals in Guangzhou, China, and were matched with the daily weather data during the same period. We applied a time-stratified case-crossover design followed by a conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between precipitation and work-related injuries. Covariates included wind speed, sunlight, temperature, SO 2, NO 2, and PM 2.5. Results were also stratified by multiple factors to identify the most vulnerable subgroups. Results: Daily precipitation was a positive predictor of work-related injuries, with each 10 mm increase in precipitation being associated with an increase of 1.57% in the rate of injuries on the same day and 1.47-1.14% increase of injuries on subsequent 3 days. The results revealed that precipitation had a higher effect on work-related injuries in winter (4.92%; 95%CI: 1.77-8.17%). The elderly (2.07%; 95%CI: 0.64-3.51%), male (1.81%; 95%CI: 0.96-2.66%) workers or those with lower educational levels (2.58%; 95%CI: 1.59-3.54%) were more likely to suffer from injuries on rainy days. There was a higher risk for work-related injuries caused by falls (2.63%; 95%CI: 0.78-4.52%) or the use of glass products (1.75%; 95%CI: 0.49-3.02%) on rainy days. Conclusions: Precipitation was a prominent risk factor for work-related injury, and its adverse effect might endure for 3 days. Certain sub-groups of workers were more vulnerable to injuries in the rain.
... From our findings, gender does not play any significant role in work-related injury experienced offshores. This is so as they have both been exposed to same training on causes of accident and how to prevent accidents in the work place [18]. This is in tandem with the findings of [19] who agreed on occupational injuries among students were not gender-based. ...
Full-text available
This study aimed to find out the effect of Demographic factors on work-related Injuries in the Oil and Gas Industry in the Niger Delta Region in Nigeria. The research method that was used for this study was a correlation design to test the demographic variables and how related they were to work-related injuries The instrument used for this study was a well-structured questionnaire on Analysis of Work-related Accidents which was sent to e-mails of oil and gas workers in Akwa Ibom state and the Rivers state of Nigeria for the collection of data to provide answers to the questions. The reliability of the instrument was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha which was 0.767, Different statistical test methods (Mann-Whitney, Kruskal Wallis, z-test, ANOVA and Dunn’s test) were used. The findings revealed that gender does not play any significant role in work-related injuries with p-values greater than 0.05, Education plays a role in certain types of injuries i.e. (contusion and MSDs with P-values of 0.013 and 0.015 respectively, and musculoskeletal disorders were the common types of injuries experienced by staff with a p-value of 0.05. Fractures and Amputations were experienced by workers who have spent above 16 years working offshore with p-values of 0.031, 0.035 and 0.020, 0 & 022 respectively. In Summary, certain demographic factors have effect on work-related Injuries.
... Despite the nation's economic growth and the rising number of workers who depend on them, several construction catastrophes have been recorded on construction sites over the years throughout the country, leading to a large fatality rate and injuries (Chong andLow 2014, Keng andRazak 2014). Working on construction sites is still regarded as a risky, filthy, and challenging job that exposes workers to several occupational dangers and risks (Chan et al. 2012, Zakaria et al. 2012, Akasah et al. 2016. Construction accidents result in property damage, plant losses, and material losses, as well as higher expenses, project delivery postponement, and a tarnished image for contractors (Asanka andRanasinghe 2015, Winge andAlbrechtsen 2018). ...
Full-text available
Despite its important role in socioeconomic growth, the construction industry has an unacceptably high rate of accidents when compared to other industries. On Malaysian construction projects, overtime accidents have been a big problem. Despite the government's efforts to mitigate this threat, reports suggest an increase in the incidence of accidents on building sites. As a result, the goal of this research is to determine the fundamental causes of construction site accidents and near-misses. A survey was created and distributed to construction site experts in order to achieve this goal. The analysis revealed that worker ignorance of safe work procedures, insufficient provision of safety warnings/signs, working under the influence of drugs/alcohol, working with defective equipment, and insufficient working platforms were the leading roots of accidents on building sites. The study concludes that accidents do not just happen on construction sites but happen as a result of numerous causes. Hence, to reduce the menace of incessant accidents, there is a need to address these causes before and during construction works. The study recommends that before the commencement of any construction work, a comprehensive accident causation analysis must be carried out.
... The clients should be very clear and determinant about safety and set zero injury objectives at their construction sites. As demonstrated by Ref. [57], setting such objectives improves safe work behavior and aids in monitoring and improving unsafe acts of construction workers. The owner also needs to include OHS associated specifications and standards in project objectives, project brief, and design requirements, and appoint safety team so that the viable and safe options for compliance may be explored and implemented. ...
Full-text available
Construction industry is dynamic in nature worldwide because of growing ambiguities in costs, techniques, and construction processes. The construction projects undergo various events and activities with change of stakeholders in constantly variable working environment. This is why, construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries with high rates of accidents, injuries, and deaths. This study aimed to review the role of management (owner/clients) in fostering occupational health and safety (OHS) in preconstruction phase of projects. The methodology adopted in this study focused on extensive review of literature related to roles of owner in fostering construction safety, including a process of identification and sorting of owner roles in planning, design, and tendering and procurement stages of project. The review of literature led to the identification of 55 roles of owner from 22 sources focusing on OHS in preconstruction phase of projects. The identified roles of owner were categorized according to three stages of preconstruction phase viz. planning, design, and tendering and procurement. Overall, 14 roles in planning, 19 roles in design, and 22 roles in tendering and procurement of construction projects, were identified for owner/client. In conclusion, role of owner in planning stage revolved around proactive identification of potential hazards which can influence the status of OHS at construction sites, while for the design, the roles included selection of safe designers utilizing safe design approaches with high precision, for designing out the risks identified in planning. Subsequently, owner roles in tendering and procurement stage encompassed correct selection and efficient management of contractors, provision of safety budget, and conduct of site inspections for compliance to safety requirements detailed by owner. The identification of and compliance to owner roles will improve the status of safety standards in global construction sector.
Full-text available
Introduction: This Paper is all about the work environment of hotel housekeepers in Indian hospitality, who are illiterate or less educated & those are working from a long time which told us the effects on workers health & impact on their work performance. In hotel industry, the 'metropolis' has progressed and demanding to provide more exotic services to its guest, There are more physically stressed work which results in stress among employees and most of staff enduring significant pains and injuries .Due to over burden and working environment injurious in workers is common health issue, and little is known about it in the hotel industry. The purpose of research is to investigate the epidemiology of injuries & hazards in housekeeping workers, particularly in the Indian hospitality. Method: A cross-sectional industrial research involving 330 workers was carried out utilizing a tool like SPSS and EpiData by using systematic random sampling, in which data is filed and evaluated. It is triangulated along results of qualitative data to the quantitative data, and compromised odd ratio and the 94-95% confidence interval were presented and used to explain the final conclusions. Conclusion:-The current research revealed a very high occurrence rate. There are many reason of injuries as such low training session conducting about equipment's operating, less knowledge of chemicals hazards, low educational background having two years or less of work experience, working in long shifts, which cause sleep disorders or issues were statistically significant. The results shows that the execution level of safety practice were poor in housekeeping department To raise awareness and better comprehend the risk elements at work, it is advised that health and safety training should conducted on time to time to create the awareness among workers.
Full-text available
This study examined the extent of workers participation and planning for an injury free workplace across manufacturing companies in Niger Delta. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The population for this study comprised nine (9) manufacturing firms—one from each of the Niger Delta's states, Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Delta, Edo, Cross River, Imo, Rivers, and Ondo were selected for the research. By using the Taro Yamane formula, the sample size of 325 employees was utilized for the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled, Workers Participation and Planning for an Injury Free Workplace across Manufacturing Companies Questionnaire. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while a Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Findings from the study showed that there is a very significant positive association between worker engagement and safety performance [(P =.000) p=0.05] amongst others. The study unequivocally established that poor organizational culture, low employee competency levels, lack of communication, ineffective leadership, and literacy/language barriers were the main obstacles to effective worker participation in SMS implementation across Niger Delta manufacturing companies.
Full-text available
Questionnaire data concerning the frequency of prolonged driving, sleepiness-related problems while driving and personal health status were analyzed from 567 professional drivers with 5 work descriptions. Of the drivers 31% had been regularly driving more than 10 hr, 19% reported having dozed off at least twice while driving, and 8% reported a near-miss situation due to dozing off during the past 3 months. Sleepiness-related problems while driving appeared across all driver groups, including drivers transporting dangerous goods and bus drivers, and were strongly related to prolonged driving, sleep deficit, and drivers’ health status. The effects of the latter factors were interactive and cumulative: Frequent sleepiness-related problems occurred in more than one half of the drivers with the combination of prolonged driving, sleep deficit, and lowered self-perceived health. The results give unreserved support for regulating driving hours and increase concern of the connection between professional drivers health status and sleepiness-related problems while driving.
One percent of factory accidents involve forklift trucks, but the forklift accidents produce ten percent of physical injuries. As many as 25 percent of these accidents are caused not by the driver but by controllable environmental factors. We can eliminate hazards and design a safe operating environment only when we understand the real cause of forklift incidents. Ten lift truck accidents previously blamed on operator error were investigated as part of a safety curriculum project. The project attempted to determine the adequacy of standard forklift training courses. Each accident was serious and had produced an injury. The environmental design aspects found in these accidents are discussed here. 11 Refs.
The purpose of this paper is to call attention to the increased importance of workplace safety in the field of operations management, and to suggest ways in which this topic can be woven into research agendas. A key tenet is the proposition that the competitive priority construct (quality, cost, delivery and flexibility) may need to be expanded to include social responsibility - with workplace safety as one dimension of this new priority. The cost of workplace injuries in the U.S. is increasing at an alarming rate, and accident occurrences have grown steadily over the last several years. The manufacturing sector is especially vulnerable to safety problems and, thus, is the central focus of this paper. A number of new factors are increasing the importance of related issues for operations managers. Three of these factors - the quality movement, changes in technology and changes in operations practices - are embedded within the operations function. Two others - workforce diversity and organized labor interests - are associated with the human resource function but have links with operations. Political, legal and public forces stem from outside the boundaries of the organization, but still have important influences on operations management. Regardless of the origins of these phenomena, all have direct effects on the management of operations and all have significant implications for research in this field.
Fatigue can refer to a subjective symptom of malaise and aversion to activity or to objectively impaired performance. It has both physical and mental aspects. The symptom of fatigue is a poorly defined feeling, and careful inquiry is needed to clarify complaints of “fatigue,” “tiredness,” or “exhaustion” and to distinguish lack of energy from loss of motivation or sleepiness, which may be pointers to specific diagnoses (see below). Prevalence—Like blood pressure, subjective fatigue is normally distributed in the population. The prevalence of clinically significant fatigue depends on the threshold chosen for severity (usually defined in terms of associated disability) and persistence. Surveys report that 5-20% of the general population suffer from such persistent and troublesome fatigue. Fatigue is twice as common in women as in men but is not strongly associated with age or occupation. It is one of the commonest presenting symptoms in primary care, being the main complaint of 5-10% of patients and an important subsidiary symptom in a further 5-10%. Fatigue as a symptom—Patients generally regard fatigue as important (because it is disabling), whereas doctors do not (because it is diagnostically non-specific). This discrepancy is a potent source of potential difficulty in the doctor-patient relationship. Fatigue may present in association with established medical and psychiatric conditions or be idiopathic. Irrespective of cause, it has a major impact on day to day functioning and quality of life. Without treatment, the prognosis of patients with idiopathic fatigue is surprisingly poor; half those seen in general practice with fatigue are still fatigued six months later.
In a large scale survey of almost 2,500 medical professionals working in practice throughout Germany, a comprehensive questionnaire was designed to assess diverse socio-demographic factors, as well as job-related features such as occupational stress, work satisfaction and working climate, and attitudes towards safety and risk-taking. Clinical outcome risk variables were also monitored, including on-site accidents and driving accidents. An attempt was made to apply Lisrel analyses to provide a more detailed insight into the multidimensional nature of the interactions between the various categories of data. Background and personal variables (demographic and attitudes towards risk-taking and safety-consciousness) have differential effects on accident behaviour. Overall, on-site accidents (within the medical practice) were directly and exclusively related to risk-taking, in contrast to moving vehicle accidents, which were determined by gender, recklessness and safety consciousness. The results explained 6-7 per cent of the variance which, whilst small, was significant, and more importantly, offers information and implications for understanding accident-related behaviour.
the concern of this chapter . . . extends beyond the definition of climate and culture to (1) the creation and maintenance of climate and culture, and to (2) the application of climate and culture concepts to the management of some issues that effective organizations will have to confront in the future a brief overview of the climate and culture literatures is presented a framework that specifies six facets of organizational behavior that contribute to the creation and maintenance of climate and culture is described the framework for the creation and maintenance of climate and culture is applied to managing three environmental changes with which managers of organizations of the future will have to cope (increased service orientation, demographic diversity, and organizational interdependence) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)