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... Of the 26 independent studies (33 articles), 20 were based on unique populations, whereas 6 independent studies (13 articles) had populations shared by at least one other article. Those articles that shared study populations were as follows: Schenk et al [22,35]; Bauman et al [18] and Romero et al [36]; Alavi et al [37] and Roberts et al [38]; Cénat et al [39] and Hébert et al [40]; Hay and Meldrum [16] and Hay et al [41]; and Messias et al [42], Reed et al [43], and Kindrick et al [44]. Further details of these study populations are available in Multimedia Appendix 4. ...
... Excluding duplicate populations [35][36][37]39,41,43,44], the total number of unique participants was 156,384, with a mean of 6015 and median of 2243 individuals per study. Most studies included both female and male participants (often not reported separately). ...
... Cybervictimization was analyzed in 25 included studies [16,17,20,22,33,34,[37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56]; 7 studies examined both cybervictimization and cyberbullying perpetration [11,18,19,21,36,45,57], and 1 study investigated cyberbullying perpetration, but also included those who were both victims and perpetrators [35]. Inclusion in one of these groups was most commonly assessed by a participant's yes or no response to a single question. ...
Article
Background: Given the concerns about bullying via electronic communication in children and young people and its possible contribution to self-harm, we have reviewed the evidence for associations between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors (such as suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts) in children and young people. Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically review the current evidence examining the association between cyberbullying involvement as victim or perpetrator and self-harm and suicidal behaviors in children and young people (younger than 25 years), and where possible, to meta-analyze data on the associations. Methods: An electronic literature search was conducted for all studies published between January 1, 1996, and February 3, 2017, across sources, including MEDLINE, Cochrane, and PsycINFO. Articles were included if the study examined any association between cyberbullying involvement and self-harm or suicidal behaviors and reported empirical data in a sample aged under 25 years. Quality of included papers was assessed and data were extracted. Meta-analyses of data were conducted. Results: A total of 33 eligible articles from 26 independent studies were included, covering a population of 156,384 children and young people. A total of 25 articles (20 independent studies, n=115,056) identified associations (negative influences) between cybervictimization and self-harm or suicidal behaviors or between perpetrating cyberbullying and suicidal behaviors. Three additional studies, in which the cyberbullying, self-harm, or suicidal behaviors measures had been combined with other measures (such as traditional bullying and mental health problems), also showed negative influences (n=44,526). A total of 5 studies showed no significant associations (n=5646). Meta-analyses, producing odds ratios (ORs) as a summary measure of effect size (eg, ratio of the odds of cyber victims who have experienced SH vs nonvictims who have experienced SH), showed that, compared with nonvictims, those who have experienced cybervictimization were OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.65-3.34) times as likely to self-harm, OR 2.10 (95% CI 1.73-2.55) times as likely to exhibit suicidal behaviors, OR 2.57 (95% CI 1.69-3.90) times more likely to attempt suicide, and OR 2.15 (95% CI 1.70-2.71) times more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Cyberbullying perpetrators were OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.02-1.44) times more likely to exhibit suicidal behaviors and OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.10-1.37) times more likely to experience suicidal ideation than nonperpetrators. Conclusions: Victims of cyberbullying are at a greater risk than nonvictims of both self-harm and suicidal behaviors. To a lesser extent, perpetrators of cyberbullying are at risk of suicidal behaviors and suicidal ideation when compared with nonperpetrators. Policy makers and schools should prioritize the inclusion of cyberbullying involvement in programs to prevent traditional bullying. Type of cyberbullying involvement, frequency, and gender should be assessed in future studies.
... -6.4%), and Native American/Indigenous people (0.41% -6%). In addition, only three studies (Cénat et al. 2015;Kosciw et al. 2012;Kosciw et al. 2016) reported racial and ethnic demographic data on Middle Eastern participants. Furthermore, seven studies (Blais et al. 2013;Hillier et al. 2010;Hinduja and Patchin 2012;Mace et al. 2016;Priebe and Svedin 2012;Robinson and Espelage 2011;Walker 2015) did not report specific data on racial and/or ethnic diversity. ...
... Furthermore, seven studies (Blais et al. 2013;Hillier et al. 2010;Hinduja and Patchin 2012;Mace et al. 2016;Priebe and Svedin 2012;Robinson and Espelage 2011;Walker 2015) did not report specific data on racial and/or ethnic diversity. Moreover, four studies (Cénat et al. 2015;Guasp 2012;Schneider et al. 2015;Stoll and Block 2015) did not provide a breakdown of the percentage of racial and ethnic diversity in their sample and only reported White vs. non-White participants. ...
... Furthermore, some studies suggest that bisexual youth might not only be more susceptible to a higher prevalence of cyberbullying than heterosexual youth (Cénat et al. 2015) but also more susceptible than other sexual minority youth (Robinson & Espelage 2011). For example, Taylor et al. (2011) found that bisexual female students were more likely to experience cyberbullying than lesbian participants (38.5% vs. 28.1%). ...
Article
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Research has demonstrated that cyberbullying has adverse physical and mental health consequences for youths. Unfortunately, most studies have focused on heterosexual and cisgender individuals. The scant available research on sexual minority and gender expansive youth (i.e., LGBTQ) shows that this group is at a higher risk for cyberbullying when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. However, to date no literature review has comprehensively explored the effects of cyberbullying on LGBTQ youth. A systematic review resulted in 27 empirical studies that explore the effects of cyberbullying on LGBTQ youth. Findings revealed that the percentage of cyberbullying among LGBTQ youth ranges between 10.5% and 71.3% across studies. Common negative effects of cyberbullying of LGBTQ youth include psychological and emotional (suicidal ideation and attempt, depression, lower self-esteem), behavioral (physical aggression, body image, isolation), and academic performance (lower GPAs). Recommendations and interventions for students, schools, and parents are discussed.
... Of the studies included, eight (72.7%) consisted of cross-sectional surveys [54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61], two (18.2%) ...
... Overall, reporting of sexual minority participants varied across studies. Almost half (45.5%) of studies combined gay and lesbian identity [54,56,58,60,61]. Two studies (18.2%) reported a "predominantly/mostly heterosexual identity" category [60,61], and one (9.1%) ...
... Depression was operationalized as depressive symptoms in four studies (44.4%) [55,[59][60][61]64], psychological distress in two (22.2%) [54,56], suicidality in three (33.3%) [56][57][58], and two studies (22.2%)assessed either engagement in physical fights [57], or emotional responses to cyberbullying (including feelings of depression) [59]. ...
Article
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Background: Over 90% of adults in the United States have at least one social media account, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons are more socially active on social media than heterosexuals. Rates of depression among LGB persons are between 1.5- and 2-fold higher than those among their heterosexual counterparts. Social media allows users to connect, interact, and express ideas, emotions, feelings, and thoughts. Thus, social media use might represent both a protective and a risk factor for depression among LGB persons. Studying the nature of the relationship between social media use and depression among LGB individuals is a necessary step to inform public health interventions for this population. Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize and critique the evidence on social media use and depression among LGB populations. Methods: We conducted a literature search for quantitative and qualitative studies published between January 2003 and June 2017 using 3 electronic databases. Articles were included if they were peer-reviewed, were in English, assessed social media use either quantitatively or qualitatively, measured depression, and focused on LGB populations. A minimum of two authors independently extracted data from each study using an a priori developed abstraction form. We assessed appropriate reporting of studies using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research for quantitative and qualitative studies, respectively. Results: We included 11 articles in the review; 9 studies were quantitative and cross-sectional and 2 were qualitative. Appropriate reporting of results varied greatly. Across quantitative studies, we found heterogeneity in how social media use was defined and measured. Cyberbullying was the most studied social media experience and was associated with depression and suicidality. Qualitative studies found that while social media provides a space to disclose minority experiences and share ways to cope and get support, constant surveillance of one's social media profile can become a stressor, potentially leading to depression. In most studies, sexual minority participants were identified inconsistently. Conclusions: This review supports the need for research on the role of social media use on depression outcomes among LBG persons. Using social media may be both a protective and a risk factor for depression among LGB individuals. Support gained via social media may buffer the impact of geographic isolation and loneliness. Negative experiences such as cyberbullying and other patterns of use may be associated with depression. Future research would benefit from more consistent definitions of both social media use and study populations. Moreover, use of larger samples and accounting for patterns of use and individuals' experiences on social media may help better understand the factors that impact LGB mental health disparities.
... Indeed, in addition to the physical consequences often observed among victims of cyberbullying such as stomachaches and headaches (Kowalski et al., 2016), different studies show that they present lower academic performance, and higher rates of academic dropout and mental health problems (Hébert et al., 2016;Kowalski et al., 2016). About mental health problems, studies indicated that cyberbullying victims present more loneliness, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, psychological distress, substance use and suicidal ideations than non-victims (Cénat et al., 2015(Cénat et al., , 2018Kowalski et al., 2016). Studies have also shown that cyberbullied emerging adults who have also experienced trauma as emotional abuse from their parents are more likely to present mental health problems (Kowalski et al., 2018). ...
... Indeed, studies conducted with college-age students in various cultures and countries have shown that those who have experienced trauma are more likely to have ideation and suicidal behavior (Gvion and Levi-Belz, 2018;Serafini et al., 2015). Studies conducted with adolescents showed a positive association between suicidality and cybervictimization as an event stressful life (Cénat et al., 2015;van Geel et al., 2014). ...
... Despite studies with adolescents have shown that suicidal risk is a serious problem faced by many young victims of cyberbullying (Bauman et al., 2013;Sampasa-Kanyinga et al., 2014), suicidality (suicidal ideation and behavior) is one of the least explored mental health issues in studies of the consequences associated with cybervictimization among college-age students (Schenk and Fremouw, 2012). Indeed, cybervictimization is often associated with a feeling of powerlessness that results from the uncontrollable nature of the internet and a feeling of overexposure by victims that can create a high level of psychological distress (Cénat et al., 2015;Hinduja and Patchin, 2014). In addition, while some studies have explored the mediating role of depression on the association between cybervictmization and suicidality (Bauman et al., 2013;Sampasa-Kanyinga et al., 2014), despite the fact that the association between psychological distress and suicidal ideation and behavior has been clearly established in the scientific literature for a long time (Trout, 1980), few studies if any have explored the mediating role of distress associated with cybervictmization. ...
Article
Background Most of the scientific literature on cyberbullying and psychosocial consequences associated is based on samples of adolescents. Also, despite their contributions, the few studies with emerging adults were conducted with small or single-site samples. The present study aimed to document the prevalence of cyberbullying among college students in France and the association between cybervictimization, psychological distress and suicidality. Methods The sample included 4 626 French undergraduates. Participants answered to a cyberbullying scale that measured the frequency of victimization and distress associated. Suicidal ideations and attempts and emotional abuse from parents were also assessed. Results The prevalence of cybervictimization was higher in male students than female students. Cybervictims of both genders reported more suicidal ideations and suicidal attempts than non-victims. Mediated model shows a complete mediation effect of psychological distress associated to cybervictimization on the relationship between cyberbullying and suicidality. Limitations The study relied on a cross-sectional design, and as such it is impossible to observe neither developmental trajectories of cybervictimization, nor the causality between the variables. Also, a more comprehensive questionnaire assessing different forms of cybervictimization would have allowed to examine further forms of cybervictimization and their impacts. Conclusion This study with a large sample leads to important cues for prevention and intervention programs. It highlights that cyberbullying is not only an adolescence concern; but also a young adult issue associated with negative consequences.
... Disparate rates of cyberbullying victimization are also experienced by LGBTQ youth compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Bouris et al., 2016;Cénat et al., 2015), and such victimization is also linked to a range of poor health outcomes (Cénat et al., 2015). Indeed, despite the fact that LGBTQ youth continue to face bullying disparities inside and outside of the classroom, translating research findings into practice still lags behind (Earnshaw et al., 2017). ...
... Disparate rates of cyberbullying victimization are also experienced by LGBTQ youth compared to their heterosexual counterparts (Bouris et al., 2016;Cénat et al., 2015), and such victimization is also linked to a range of poor health outcomes (Cénat et al., 2015). Indeed, despite the fact that LGBTQ youth continue to face bullying disparities inside and outside of the classroom, translating research findings into practice still lags behind (Earnshaw et al., 2017). ...
... Despite research indicating that LGBTQ youth experience higher rates of in-school bullying and cyberbullying victimization relative to their heterosexual peers (Cénat et al., 2015;Kann et al., 2016;Toomey & Russell, 2016, for review), scant research has investigated within-group variability in bullying prevalence among sexual minorities and the differential risk that other personal identities (e.g., gender, grade in school, and race) may confer to this already vulnerable population. Accordingly, the present study adopted an intersectional approach to examine the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying victimization based on sexual orientation, gender, race, and grade among a nationally representative sample of high school students in the U.S. Results support findings that show gay/lesbian, bisexual, and unsure (i.e., questioning) youth to be disproportionately bullied in school and online relative to their heterosexual peers. ...
Article
While LGBTQ youth may be victims of bullying at greater rates than heterosexual youth, research examining in-school bullying and cyberbullying victimization disparities through an intersectional framework is limited. Using the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the present study examined the prevalence of in-school bullying and cyberbullying victimization across sexual orientation, gender, race, and grade (N=13,567). Results position sexual minority youth at higher odds of experiencing in-school bullying and cyberbullying than heterosexual youth and show that bisexual youth were more likely than gay/lesbian youth to be cyberbullied. Findings from intersectional analyses show within group variation in bullying victimization across sexual orientation based on gender, grade, and race. Specific intersectional results and implications for in-school bullying and cyberbullying preventive and intervention efforts are discussed.
... can send or post humiliating or threatening messages or photos of their targets to a third party or to a public forum where many online participants visit. 2 Research findings on the prevalence of cyberbullying in Canada vary. 3 For example, according to a national study in Canada, which consisted of 1001 children ages 10 to 17 years, 14% of children reported being cyberbullied once or more in the past month. 4 Other studies [5][6][7][8] reported much higher rates of cyberbullying than the aforementioned study. Li's study, 6 which includes a sample of 177 seventh-grade students in an urban area in Canada, found that over onequarter of the students had been cyberbullied. ...
... Li's study, 6 which includes a sample of 177 seventh-grade students in an urban area in Canada, found that over onequarter of the students had been cyberbullied. Cenat and colleagues' study, 5 which comprised a representative sample of 8194 students in Quebec, reported that 22.9% had been cyberbullied. However, Li's survey 7 of Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 found that over 40% had reported being cyberbullied, and the Mishina et al. 8 study from a diverse sample of middle and high school students in a large urban center in Canada found that 49.5% reported being bullied online. ...
Article
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.
... De igual manera, los estudios analizados también señalan la importancia del apoyo entre iguales para superar las dificultades sociales y las secuelas psicológicas por homofobia o transfobia (Cénat, Blais, Hébert, Lavoie y Guerrier, 2015;Marshall et al., 2015;Vergara, Marín y Martxuela, 2007). ...
... En primer lugar, la implicación activa del grupo de alumnado y el alumnado observador. Desde las indicaciones del bullying homo/trans-fóbico se aboga por un papel activo del alumnado al presenciar o conocer un caso de bullying, ya sea mediante la paralización de la agresión, la denuncia de la situación de acoso (Duque y Teixido, 2016;Platero, 2010;Poteat y Vecho, 2016;Wernick et al., 2013) o el apoyo al alumno o alumna victimizada (Cénat et al., 2015;Marshall et al., 2015;Vergara et al., 2007). En relación, el programa KiVa parte de la actuación del alumnado como herramienta principal que elimine las motivaciones del alumnado acosador, intervenga en las agresiones y apoye a las víctimas con el fin de minimizar y acabar con el bullying (Ávila, 2013; Embajada de Finlandia e Instituto Iberoamericano de Finlandia, s/f; Salmivalli y Poskiparta, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we have carried out a comparative analysis of needs and indications found to deal with homophobic and transphobic bullying in educational contexts, and potential and tools offered by the KiVa program. Our goal has been to find the possibilities of the program to tackle acute bullying based on homophobia and transphobia in schools of Elementary and Secondary Education. To this end, we conducted a literature review on the main databases for later extract the confluent features together that would allow us to achieve an understanding about the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the program to the needs and indications given in the literature and bullying research homo / trans-phobic. Our results have shown that continued use of KiVa program in schools and colleges can drastically reduce homophobic and transphobic bullying. © 2018, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. All rights reserved.
... National and international studies highlight the consequences of bullying in the short and long term in the lives of children and adolescents who experience this situation [11][12][13] , interfering in cognitive and socioemotional development, whether as victims, aggressors, or even spectators of such events. When suffering bullying, children and adolescents are more exposed to difficulty concentrating, low self-esteem, anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, attempted suicide, consummate suicide, self-harm, and psychological stress [12][13][14][15][16][17] . ...
... It has been shown that the effects of bullying interfere with the way of life of children and adolescents, affecting even the school performance of this age group 12,13,[16][17][18] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of bullying from the perspective of victims in students from the Southeast region of Brazil and analyze its association with individual variables and family context. Methods: Information on 19,660 adolescents from the National School-based Health Survey was analyzed, calculating the association between bullying and sociodemographic variables, risk behaviors, mental health, and family background. Multivariate analysis and the calculation of odds ratio and confidence intervals were performed. Results: The prevalence of bullying was 7.8% (95%CI 6.5 - 9.2). After adjustment, the following associations were observed: students with less than 13 years of age (OR = 2.40; 1.4 - 3.93); protection for those aged 14, 15, and 16 years; male gender (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.35 - 1.59); black color (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.11 - 1.40); yellow color (OR = 1.38 95%CI 1.14 - 1.6); private school students (OR = 1.11; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.23); and students who work (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.16 - 1.45). Higher education of the mothers was a protective factor in all groups. Risk factors considered were feeling lonely (OR = 2.68; 95%CI 2.45 - 2.94), having insomnia (OR = 1.95; 95%CI 1.76 - 2.17), having no friends (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.24 - 1.75), suffering physical abuse from family members (OR = 1.83; 95%CI 1.66 - 2.03), missing classes without their parents’ knowledge (OR = 1.23; 95%CI 1.12 - 1.34), as well as family supervision (OR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.05 - 1.23). To have drunk in the last 30 days (OR = 0.88 95%CI 0.8 - 0.97) was a protective factor. Conclusion: Bullying increases vulnerabilities among students, which suggests the need for an intersectoral approach in order to find measures to prevent them.
... The younger generation now termed digital natives find entertainment and excitement in life on their electronic gadgets that seamlessly connect them to anywhere on earth. The audiovisual and digital effects with speed siloes the rest of the world of reality and ties them physically, emotionally and eternally on the internet world (Cenat, Blais, & Hebert, 2015). The endless entertainment streaming inside the digital gadgets with multiple connectivity options and interactive platforms in the audiovisual mode occupy their minds against any other task. ...
... At the same time, it has become a root cause of menacing negative behaviour in the working cadre. (Cenat, Blais, & Hebert, et al., 2015). While the advantages are making professional or working life easier, it has also drawn the attention of the youth beyond their control, to oblige and express everything and anything including the undesirable through digital overpowering demands. ...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on the social media vulnerabilities due to excessive usage among the youth in developing countries like India. The increasing psychological dependence and ubiquitousness in the availability of technological gadgets make interaction possible at any time to anyone making the act of cyberbullying easier. The vulnerable sections of every society, especially the children, youth, and women, face incremental psychological health issues due to the negative impact of ever-increasing cyberbully-ing in one way or another. The chapter reports descriptively the extensive damages that are inflicted by social media platforms on the productivity of the developing countries due to the negative influence on the youth and working population of the developing countries including India.
... De 21,5 à 24,2 % des jeunes de la population générale recrutés en milieu scolaire sont victimes de cyberintimidation(Cénat et al., 2014). Cette proportion est encore plus élevée chez les JMS (jusqu'à 33 %) et entre 10 et 30% des situations de cyberintimidation chez ces derniers ciblent directement leur orientation sexuelle(Cénat, Blais, Hébert, Lavoie, & Guerrier, 2015). Les jeunes victimes de cyberintimidation de toute orientation sexuelle sont significativement plus nombreux à rapporter de la détresse psychologique, une plus faible estime d'eux-mêmes et des indices de suicidalité(Cénat et al., 2015;Sampasa-Kanyinga, Roumeliotis, & Xu, 2014).Les expériences amoureuses sont cruciales dans le développement des adolescents et des jeunes adultes, puisqu'elles leur permettent de développer leurs premiers scripts relationnels, de se sentir aimés et importants pour quelqu'un. ...
... Cette proportion est encore plus élevée chez les JMS (jusqu'à 33 %) et entre 10 et 30% des situations de cyberintimidation chez ces derniers ciblent directement leur orientation sexuelle(Cénat, Blais, Hébert, Lavoie, & Guerrier, 2015). Les jeunes victimes de cyberintimidation de toute orientation sexuelle sont significativement plus nombreux à rapporter de la détresse psychologique, une plus faible estime d'eux-mêmes et des indices de suicidalité(Cénat et al., 2015;Sampasa-Kanyinga, Roumeliotis, & Xu, 2014).Les expériences amoureuses sont cruciales dans le développement des adolescents et des jeunes adultes, puisqu'elles leur permettent de développer leurs premiers scripts relationnels, de se sentir aimés et importants pour quelqu'un. Pour les JMS, ces premières relations amoureuses leurs permettent d'entrer en contact avec quelqu'un qui a déjà vécu ou vit des défis similaires aux leurs(Detrie & Lease, 2007). ...
... For example, the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey found that 24% of the students reported being bullied at school and 10% reported physically fighting on school property in the past year . Among youth victims of bullying and violence, there is significant psychological distress and low selfesteem; in turn, there are demonstrated increases in rates of mental illness, substance abuse, and suicide (Sinyor et al. 2014;Cénat et al. 2015). Victims of bullying are more likely to experience obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity, leading to increases in the rates of chronic diseases (Janssen et al. 2004;Kukaswadia et al. 2011;McLaughlin et al. 2016;Azagba 2016). ...
... There is evidence to suggest that not all youth experience bullying and violence equally. Increased rates of bullying have been demonstrated among those with lower socio-economic standing, sexual minorities (LGBTQ), and youth already suffering from illness (Cénat et al. 2015;Due et al. 2009;Fekkes et al. 2006;O'Malley Olsen et al. 2014). Bullying further exacerbates existing poorer health statuses among these groups. ...
Article
Objectives: Bullying and violence are common experiences and pose significant lifelong burdens of disease for youth. This study identifies upstream determinants of youth violence and examines the shared characteristics of victims and perpetrators. Methods: Multivariable multinomial logistic regression modeling analyzed a subsample of 5403 students who participated in the 2015 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey to estimate the likelihood that students with various risk profiles were victims and perpetrators. Results: Risk factors associated with an increased likelihood of being both a victim and a perpetrator, compared to neither, included harmful alcohol use, potential problem drug use, psychological distress, traumatic brain injury, problem video game playing, fighting, and carrying a weapon in the past 12 months. Many risk factors were more strongly associated with both victimization and perpetration relative to reporting either alone. Conclusion: This study demonstrates an association between risk factors of interest to public health for students reporting both victimization and perpetration. This group may warrant further targeted public health interventions to prevent violence alongside existing public health programs addressing other health risk behaviours.
... Variation in cyber-victimization measurement, as well as rapid evolution of virtual victimization contexts, makes it difficult to assess rates of cyber-victimization among SGMY. Despite the difficulty associated with measuring cyber-victimization, research suggests that SGMY consistently report higher levels of this type of victimization compared to heterosexual and cisgender peers (Abreu & Kenny, 2017;Cénat et al., 2015;Escobar-Viera et al., 2018;Ybarra et al., 2015). Understanding cyber-victimization may be particularly important for SGMY because, in addition to experiencing this type of victimization at higher rates, SGMY who experience cyber-victimization may have worse outcomes than their heterosexual and cisgender peers with regards to suicidality (Cénat et al., 2015), depression (Garaigordobil et al., 2020) , and eating disorders (Pistella et al., 2019). ...
... Despite the difficulty associated with measuring cyber-victimization, research suggests that SGMY consistently report higher levels of this type of victimization compared to heterosexual and cisgender peers (Abreu & Kenny, 2017;Cénat et al., 2015;Escobar-Viera et al., 2018;Ybarra et al., 2015). Understanding cyber-victimization may be particularly important for SGMY because, in addition to experiencing this type of victimization at higher rates, SGMY who experience cyber-victimization may have worse outcomes than their heterosexual and cisgender peers with regards to suicidality (Cénat et al., 2015), depression (Garaigordobil et al., 2020) , and eating disorders (Pistella et al., 2019). These findings parallel a larger literature suggesting more serious psychological consequences for sexual and gender minority individuals compared to heterosexual cisgender individuals following victimization experiences (Paquette et al., 2019;Roberts et al., 2010) Existing research highlights significant barriers that prevent SGMY from reporting cyber-victimization (Abreu & Kenny, 2017). ...
Article
Adolescents, in general, are spending more time in online environments, and understanding how youth navigate these contexts may be particularly important for addressing and improving outcomes among sexual and gender minority youth. Taking a developmental perspective, this review discusses online environments as contexts of both risk and resilience for youth in gender and sexual minority communities. In particular, we review literature highlighting how online environments provide a context for many salient aspects of adolescent development, including the promotion of identity development and the exploration of intimate, romantic and sexual behavior. The potential for online environments to serve as contexts for discrimination and victimization for gender and sexual minority youth are also discussed. Specific recommendations for parents, teachers and sexual and gender minority youth themselves are made for creating and promoting positive wellbeing in online spaces.
... Κνλγθ (Cénat, Blais, Hébert, Lavoie, & Guerrier, 2015). Δπίζεο, ζπρλέο κνξθέο παξαβαηηθήο ζπκπεξηθνξάο απνηεινύλ ζηελ Διιάδα νη βαλδαιηζκνί θαη ιηγόηεξν ε άκεζε άζθεζε ζσκαηηθήο βίαο ζε άιινπο (Spinellis et al., 1994(Spinellis et al., ζην Μπεζίξεο, 2015. ...
Conference Paper
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Η παραβατικότητα ανηλίκων αποτελεί μια μορφή αντικοινωνικής και παρεκκλίνουσας συμπεριφοράς, στην οποία συμπεριλαμβάνεται και η πρόκληση των δημόσιων αρχών.Ακριβώς, λόγω της ευρείας έννοιάς της, διακρίνεται σε βίαιες, επιθετικές αλλά και εγκληματικές πράξεις από μέρους των παιδιών και εφήβων, οι οποίες μπορεί να στρέφονται είτε προς τους άλλους, είτε προς υλικά αγαθά και περιουσία άλλων είτε προς τον ίδιο τους τον εαυτό. Η συγκεκριμένη εργασία, μέσω της επικέντρωσης της στην εμφάνιση παραβατικών συμπεριφορών από ανήλικους, στοχεύει να αναλύσει τους τρόπους με τους οποίους η εκπαίδευση, και πιο συγκεκριμένα το σχολικό πλαίσιο, καταστέλλει ή ενισχύει την παραβατικότητα των ανηλίκων. Έμφαση δίνεται, επίσης, στον ρόλο της Πρωτοβάθμιας και Δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης στην μείωση τηςπαραβατικής συμπεριφοράς στους ανήλικους μαθητές.
... Κνλγθ (Cénat, Blais, Hébert, Lavoie, & Guerrier, 2015). Δπίζεο, ζπρλέο κνξθέο παξαβαηηθήο ζπκπεξηθνξάο απνηεινύλ ζηελ Διιάδα νη βαλδαιηζκνί θαη ιηγόηεξν ε άκεζε άζθεζε ζσκαηηθήο βίαο ζε άιινπο (Spinellis et al., 1994(Spinellis et al., ζην Μπεζίξεο, 2015. ...
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Η παραβατικότητα ανηλίκων αποτελεί μια μορφή αντικοινωνικής και παρεκκλίνουσας συμπεριφοράς, στην οποία συμπεριλαμβάνεται και η πρόκληση των δημόσιων αρχών. Ακριβώς, λόγω της ευρείας έννοιάς της, διακρίνεται σε βίαιες, επιθετικές αλλά και εγκληματικές πράξεις από μέρους των παιδιών και εφήβων, οι οποίες μπορεί να στρέφονται είτε προς τους άλλους, είτε προς υλικά αγαθά και περιουσία άλλων είτε προς τον ίδιο τους τον εαυτό.Η συγκεκριμένη εργασία, μέσω της επικέντρωσης της στην εμφάνιση παραβατικών συμπεριφορών από ανήλικους, στοχεύει να αναλύσει τους τρόπους με τους οποίους η εκπαίδευση, και πιο συγκεκριμένα το σχολικό πλαίσιο, καταστέλλει ή ενισχύει την παραβατικότητα των ανηλίκων. Έμφαση δίνεται, επίσης, στον ρόλο της Πρωτοβάθμιας και Δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης στην μείωση της παραβατικής συμπεριφοράς στους ανήλικους μαθητές.
... Dans les écoles secondaires québécoises, les personnes non hétérosexuelles présentent des taux de victimisation homophobe significativement plus élevés que les personnes hétérosexuelles. Cénat, Blais, Hébert, Lavoie et Guerrier (2015) rapportent des taux de discrimination fondée sur l'orientation sexuelle sur une période de 12 mois variant de 7 à 47 % chez les personnes lesbiennes, gaies ou bisexuelles de 14 à 18 ans, comparativement à 1,7 % chez les personnes hétérosexuelles. Chamberland, Richard et Bernier (2013) rapportent que 69 % des jeunes lesbiennes, gais, bisexuel.le.s ou queer (LGBQ) de 14 à 17 ans ont vécu des incidents homophobes de divers ordres, contre 35,4 % des jeunes hétérosexuels. ...
Article
Le racisme, l’hétérosexisme et le cissexisme sont des formes d’oppression qui exposent les jeunes racisés, les jeunes de la diversité sexuelle et les jeunes trans ou en questionnement de leur identité de genre à de la violence. Nous inspirant de la théorie de l’intersectionnalité, nous avons exploré les expériences de victimisation vécues par les jeunes sur une période de 12 mois en fonction de ces formes d’oppression. L’échantillon analysé est composé de 2 276 personnes âgées de 14 à 23 ans recrutées à travers le Québec. Les résultats ont révélé que les personnes non hétérosexuelles, trans ou en questionnement étaient plus susceptibles de rapporter de la victimisation sur les sept indicateurs mesurés, et ce, d’autant plus si elles étaient racisées. Ces résultats révèlent la vulnérabilité de ces jeunes et illustrent la pertinence d’une approche intersectionnelle pour mieux appréhender leurs expériences de victimisation.
... As a result, prevalence rates vary. For example, several Canadian studies report cyberbullying victimization rates ranging from 14% to 50% of youth surveyed and self-reported cyberbullying perpetration rates ranging from 25% to 36% ( Beran et al. 2015;Cassidy et al. 2009;Cénat et al. 2015;Li 2010;Mishna et al. 2010Mishna et al. , 2012Wade and Beran 2011). ...
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This article presents findings related to the role parents can play in the prevention of cyberbullying and the promotion of cyber-kindness. The findings are drawn from a study conducted at a private school in Western Canada, involving 177 student survey participants in Grades 8 through 10 (including both day students and boarding students) and interviews with 15 educators employed at the same school. Findings relate to parental supervision of computer usage, students’ willingness to inform parents about cyberbullying, and how students and educators view the role of parents in relation to the prevention of cyberbullying and the promotion of cyber-kindness. Education, dialogue, relationship strengthening, computer usage monitoring, and partnerships between schools and parents are emphasized as solutions, which are highly consistent with the existing research literature on this topic. Additionally, the study reveals the particular vulnerability of boarding students to cyberbullying victimization and perpetration.
... Canada is a large and geographically diverse country, so many of the studies of adolescents are localized to a particular region, except for one randomized national study of 1001 youth aged 10 to 17 conducted by Beran et al. (2015), which found that 14% of youth had been cyberbullied in the past month, while 7% admitted to cyberbullying others. Other studies with similar age groups, but with different time periods, show a range of victimization between 18% and 50% and perpetration from 25% to 36% Cénat et al., 2015;Li, 2006;Mishna, Cooke, Gadalla, Daciuk, & Solomon, 2010;Wade & Beran, 2011). ...
Article
Cambridge Core - Developmental Psychology - Bullying, Cyberbullying and Student Well-Being in Schools - edited by Peter K. Smith
... 5 Furthermore, extensive cross-sectional research has demonstrated disparities in these malleable risk factors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and/or queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth as compared with their heterosexual, nontransgender peers, including higher levels of depressive symptoms and emotional distress as well as self-harm and suicidal ideation [6][7][8][9][10] and correlations of these risk factors with lifetime history of suicide attempts. 11 Explanations for these disparities include LGBTQ-specific risk factors for adolescent suicidality and emotional distress such as LGBTQ victimization and bullying, [11][12][13][14] which in one study was found to mediate half of the LGBTheterosexual disparity in emotional distress. 15 It is important to note that risk status is not uniform across sexual minority groups, with bisexual youth significantly more likely than their single sex-attracted peers (gay, lesbian, heterosexual) to report a history of victimization, feeling less worthy to be alive, depressed mood, suicidal tendencies; and 4 to 5 times more likely to report suicide attempts. ...
Article
BACKGROUND Sexual minority young people have demonstrated higher rates of emotional distress and suicidality in comparison to heterosexual peers. Research to date has not examined trends in these disparities, specifically, whether there have been disparity reductions or increases and how outcomes have differed over time by sex and sexual orientation group. METHODS Minnesota Student Survey data, collected from 9th and 12th graders in 3 cohorts (1998, 2004, 2010) were used to examine emotional distress and suicidality rates. Logistic regression analyses were completed to examine outcome changes over time within and across sexual orientation/sex groups. RESULTS With few exceptions, sexual minority youth are at increased risk of endorsing emotional distress and suicidality indicators in each surveyed year between 1998 and 2010. Young people with both‐sex partners reported more emotional distress across all health indicators compared to their opposite‐sex partnered peers. With a few exceptions, gaps in disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority have not changed from 2004 to 2010. CONCLUSIONS Disparities in emotional health persist among youth. Research is needed to advance understanding of mental health disparities, with consideration of sexual orientation differences and contextualized to sociocultural status and changes over time. Personalized prevention strategies are needed to promote adolescent mental health.
... Finally, it is also possible that ability to defend oneself is impaired among adolescents with mental health problems, and they therefore become easy targets for bullies (Kaltiala-Heino & Fröjd, 2011). Subjection to bullying has been associated with mental health problems among SMY (Birkett et al., 2009;Cénat et al., 2015;Collier, Van Beusekom, Bos, & Sandfort, 2013;Eisenberg et al., 2016). On the other hand sexual minority status is per se associated with excessive internalizing (Birkett et al., 2009;Marshal et al., 2011) and externalizing disorders/ symptoms (Beaver et al., 2016). ...
Article
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We analyzed the associations between sexual orientation and subjection to/perpetration of bullying at school, taking into account confounding by psychiatric symptom dimensions and involvement in the other role. Survey data among 25,147 boys and 25,257 girls in comprehensive school, and 33,231 boys and 36,765 girls in upper secondary education in Finland were used. Data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. Even though associations between sexual minority status and subjection to bullying grew weaker when confounding was controlled for, independent associations were found in both boys and girls, and in both younger and older adolescents. Positive associations first seen between same sex attraction and bullying perpetration leveled out and partially turned inverse when controlling for confounding. Uncertainty about one’s interests had different associations with involvement in bullying in different age groups.
... Canada is a large and geographically diverse country, so many of the studies of adolescents are localized to a particular region, except for one randomized national study of 1001 youth aged 10 to 17 conducted by Beran et al. (2015), which found that 14% of youth had been cyberbullied in the past month, while 7% admitted to cyberbullying others. Other studies with similar age groups, but with different time periods, show a range of victimization between 18% and 50% and perpetration from 25% to 36% Cénat et al., 2015;Li, 2006;Mishna, Cooke, Gadalla, Daciuk, & Solomon, 2010;Wade & Beran, 2011). ...
... Klocke, 2014), Cyberbullying (vgl. Cénat, Blais, Hébert, Lavoie & Guerrier, 2015), körperlicher Aggression und Gewalt (vgl. Mustanski, Andrews & Puckett, 2016) bis hin zu sexuellen Handlungen gegen ihren Willen (vgl. ...
Article
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Die Diskussion über eine „Sexualpädagogik der Vielfalt“ im Bildungsplan an Schulen ist kontrovers und polarisierend. Befürworter und Gegner werfen sich gegenseitig vor, ihre Thesen pro bzw. contra lesbischer, schwuler, bisexueller, trans und intersexueller (LSBTI*) Themen in der Sexualbildung seien empirisch kaum begründet. Als Beitrag zu dieser Diskussion bietet der Artikel einen aktuellen, evidenzbasierten Überblick über die empirische Forschungslage. Die Ergebnisse lassen den Schluss zu, dass Sexualpädagogik den Beginn der Aufnahme sexueller Aktivität nicht beschleunigt, sondern häufig eher verzögert; LSBTI* Inhalte im Unterricht die sexuelle Orientierung von Jugendlichen nicht ändert; und eine Akzeptanz sexueller Vielfalt und geschlechtlicher Identitäten helfen kann, Kinder und Heranwachsende vor homo- und transphobem Bullying an Schulen zu schützen.
... These negative school experiences put LGBT students at high risk of being socially isolated (Blais, Gervais, & Hébert, 2014;Button, O'Connell, & Gealt, 2012;Henderson, 2016); of being absent from school in order to avoid bullying, abuse, and assault (Bouris et al., 2016;Burton, Marshal, & Chisolm, 2014;O'Malley Olsen et al., 2014); of using substances to compensate for their sufferings (Andersen et al., 2015;Button et al., 2012;Dermody, Marshal, Burton, & Chisolm, 2016;Donahue et al., 2017;Hequembourg et al., 2011;Hughes, Johnson, Steffen, Wilsnack, & Everett, 2014;Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West, & Boyd, 2010a, 2010bLehavot & Simoni, 2011;Oshri et al., 2014;Otis et al., 2016;Tait, 2015); of being infected with sexually transmitted diseases (Hequembourg et al., 2011;Oshri et al., 2014); of suffering from depressive symptoms (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, & Sucato, 2013;Burton et al., 2014;Donahue et al., 2017;Dunn, Clark, & Pearlman, 2015;Hughes et al., 2014;Johnson et al., 2011;Lehavot & Simoni, 2011;Priebe & Svedin, 2012;Ramsey et al., 2016); and of thinking about or even attempting suicide (Bouris et al., 2016;Burton et al., 2013;Button et al., 2012;Cénat et al., 2015;Dunn et al., 2015;Duong & Bradshaw, 2014). ...
Article
Should children and adolescents be educated in school about gender diversity, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) issues? This is a question many governments and educational policymakers discuss in their process of reforming relationships and sex education. However, these reform plans face resistance from parents, religious groups, and political parties. Specifically, opponents argue that (a) children who learn about LGBT issues in school will engage in same-sex practices or even become homosexual, bisexual, or trans* themselves; (b) schools force a particular view on children that stands in contrast to the heteronormative, religious, and/or political views of parents; and (c) teachers act as role models and change the sexual orientation and gender identity of their students. This systematic literature review aims to offer evidenced-based answers to these arguments on the grounds of biological, sociological, psychological, and educational research. First, twin studies and genome scans in behavioral genetics research unveil strong biological roots of sexual orientation and identity that will not change through inclusive sexuality education. Second, psychological and sociological research signals that heteronormativity, homosexuality non-acceptance, and negative attitudes toward LGBT people in general are associated with lower levels of education and intelligence as well as higher levels of religious belief and political conservatism. For at-risk sexual minority students who show gender nonconforming and gender atypical behavior, schools can create a safe climate and protect adolescent health if they succeed in reducing homophobic and transphobic discrimination, bullying, peer victimization, and verbal, physical, and sexual abuse. Third, action research and ethnographic narratives in educational research tend to indicate that queer educators as role models in classrooms do not change the sexual orientation and gender identity of their pupils. In summary, based on this systematic review, governments and policy makers can expect that reforming the teaching of sex education to include LGBT issues in schools will have positive effects for heterosexual students and for students belonging to a sexual minority.
... It also highlights the potential need for clinicians working with sexual minority clients to assess and address lower self-esteem and any issues related to sexual orientation It should be noted that this review focused on differences in self-esteem as a continuous outcome. Only one study compared proportions of sexual minority and heterosexual individuals with "clinically" low self-esteem (Cenat et al., 2015). However, there are no widely agreed cut-offs regarding what constitutes "clinically" low self-esteem. ...
Article
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Sexual minority individuals experience higher rates of mental health problems than heterosexual people. It has been suggested that minority stress explains this disparity, partly by elevating rates of general psychological risk factors such as low self-esteem. This study investigated self-esteem in sexual minority people compared with heterosexual people through a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic search of four databases was conducted. Observational studies comparing self-esteem in sexual minority and heterosexual men and women separately were included. A qualitative synthesis and random effects meta-analysis were conducted. Potential moderators were explored using subgroup analyses of age, sexual minority orientation, and sample type. Thirty-two eligible studies were identified; 25 compared self-esteem in men and 19 in women. Most studies used the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) to measure self-esteem. Compared with heterosexual men and women, there was significantly lower self-esteem in sexual minority men (SMD = -0.33, 95% CI [-0.44, -0.23]) and women (SMD = -0.20, 95% CI [-0.29, -0.11]). This difference appeared to be moderated by sample type: There was preliminary evidence for more robust differences in men and bisexual individuals. Findings are consistent with the suggestion that self-esteem is lower in sexual minorities than in heterosexual individuals. However, caution is required in drawing firm conclusions due to methodological limitations of the included studies. Self-esteem is a potential target for intervention to prevent psychological disorders in this population.
... Recent studies have reported that sexual minority adolescents had higher lifetime risk of suicidal ideation (48% vs. 13%), plan (16.6% vs. 5.4%), attempt (12.0% vs. 5.4%), and self-harm (29.7% vs 10.6%) compared to their heterosexual peers (Kann et al., 2018;Liu et al., 2019;Luk et al., 2021;Taliaferro et al., 2017). Relatedly, studies have found a positive association between general cybervictimization and suicide risk in this population (Bishop et al., 2021;Cénat et al., 2015;Duong & Bradshaw, 2014;Sinclair et al., 2012). However, the association between suicide risk and digital sexual violence (nonconsensual sharing of sexually explicit media) among sexual minority adolescents has yet to be explored. ...
Article
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This paper aimed to examine the association between digital sexual violence (threat to post or nonconsensual posting of sexually explicit media) and suicidal (ideation, planning, and attempt) and non-suicidal self-harm behavior. The data for the current analysis come from an online sample of sexual minority adolescents (aged 14–17) recruited from across the United States (n = 970). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the association between digital sexual violence with suicide (ideation, planning, and attempt) and self-harm. In the sample, 9.1% of participants reported being threatened to have their sexually explicit media posted without their consent, while 6.5% reported their sexually explicit media had been posted without their consent. Threat to post sexually explicit media without consent was associated with higher odds of reporting suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88), suicide plan (OR = 2.12), suicide attempt (OR = 3.56), and self-harm (OR = 1.96). While nonconsensual posting of sexually explicit media was associated with higher odds of reporting suicidal ideation (OR = 1.82) and suicide attempt (OR = 2.20). All models controlled for age, assigned sex at birth, sexual identity, and race and ethnicity. These findings underscore important considerations and future research directions. Given the associations between digital sexual violence and suicide risk among sexual minority adolescents, suicide prevention efforts with adolescents must be responsive to the needs of sexual minority adolescents and the changing landscape of sexual violence in digital spaces. Future research should examine the trajectories of digital sexual violence among adolescents and comparative analyses by demographic subgroups to better understand changes in these processes over time.
... Tant la recherche que les programmes d'intervention devraient donc s'adresser à l'ensemble des jeunes, d'autant que nombre d'ados se disent indécis ou en questionnement quant à leur orientation sexuelle ou présentent des « dissonances » entre leurs attirances, leurs comportements sexuels et leur autoidentification. Les études récentes basées sur de larges échantillons tendent d'ailleurs à différencier plus finement entre eux les sous-groupes de minorités sexuelles, et mettent à jour la vulnérabilité des élèves en questionnement, bisexuelꞏleꞏs ou principalement mais non exclusivement hétérosexuelꞏleꞏs (voir entre autres Cénat et al., 2015 ;Saewyc et al., 2014). Il est donc souhaitable que les recherches futures sur l'intimidation ou sur la santé des adolescentꞏeꞏs incorporent des mesures de l'orientation sexuelle tenant compte de ses dimensions d'attirances, de comportements, et d'identités (Toomey et Russell, 2016 ;Beaulieu-Prévost et Fortin, 2015). ...
Article
Cet article propose une lecture critique de trois enquêtes réalisées respectivement au Canada anglais, au Québec et aux États-Unis, sur le climat scolaire et les violences interpersonnelles entre pairs fondées sur la non-conformité aux normes sexuelles et de genre, dans le milieu scolaire. Il relève l’ampleur de ces violences, qui peuvent toucher tous les élèves, ainsi que la victimisation relativement plus importante des jeunes trans ou non cisgenres et des élèves dont l’expression de genre est non conforme aux normes de genre. Toutefois, ces enquêtes mettent au second plan l’analyse des violences sexistes ou subies en tant que filles, y compris par les filles non hétérosexuelles, de même que l’examen des auteur·e·s des violences interpersonnelles. Tout en constatant l’enchevêtrement et le caractère systémique des violences liées à la sexualité et au genre, ces études négligent de considérer l’asymétrie entre filles et garçons et le rôle des violences interpersonnelles dans la reproduction des rapports sociaux de sexe.
... Estimates show that between one in ten to one in three adolescents are bullied in school at least once during the past month, depending on the sample and instrument used in measuring bullying (Baiden et al., 2017;Datta et al., 2016;Huang and Cornell, 2015;Lessne and Yanez, 2016). The past month prevalence of cyberbullying victimization among adolescents is also estimated to range between 10-20% (Carter and Wilson, 2015;Cénat et al., 2015;Hertz et al., 2015). ...
... While bullying is destructive to any adolescent, sexual minority adolescents are expected to be more vulnerable to bullying than their heterosexual peers. This is because, first, sexual minorities are more likely to experience bullying when compared with their heterosexual peers, and second, they are more likely to suffer from severe consequences, for example, suicide, than their heterosexual counterparts due to already amplified emotional distress that are inherited as identifying as a sexual minority (Cénat et al., 2015;Mueller et al., 2015). Therefore, we believe that examining an increasing stressor among adolescents (i.e., bullying) among a higher risk group associated with suicidality can shed light onto SM risk for ideation. ...
Article
Introduction Roughly one-third of sexual minority adolescents (SMA) report at least one lifetime suicide attempt. Supportive connections are protective for ideation, yet little is known about this association with SMA—especially longitudinally. Methods Five-step logistic regressions examined the associations of bullying, SMA, and ideation, and also how connectedness mediates this from age 9 and 15 (Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study; N = 3,023 adolescents). Results At age 9, SMA reported higher levels of daily bullying compared with heterosexual peers (26% versus 14%), and at age 15, SMA reported daily (7%) and weekly (20%) bullying. SMA (32%) reported ideation compared with their heterosexual peers (13%) at age 15. Parental and school connectedness protected adolescents regardless of sexual orientation for SI, but parental attachment buffered the effect of SMA ideation more than school connectedness. Conclusion Impressing upon schools to be mindful of bullying on their campuses, especially of SMA, is crucial for suicide prevention as we found heterosexual students connected to their school were protected from ideation, yet this was not found for SMA. Strong parent–child bonds can mediate the effects of bullying while at school, speaking to the importance of having at least one trusted adult in an adolescent's life.
... From another perspective, in recent years, researchers have analyzed the variables that predict that a person is involved in cyberbullying as a victim at the individual, school, family, and community level (Kowalski et al., 2019). The probability of someone being a victim of cyberbullying depends on several variables: the time spent on the Internet (Sasson & Mesch., 2017;Shapka et al., 2017), gender (Caravaca et al., 2016;Morales & Rueda, 2018), race/ethnicity (Lapidot-Lefler & Hosri, 2016;Mohammed & Bellamy, 2015), sexual orientation (Cénat et al., 2015;Elipe et al., 2017), suffering a disability or chronic condition (Bevilacqua et al., 2017;Carrington et al., 2017), body weight (Kenny et al., 2017), low selfesteem (Chu et al., 2019), perception of peer support (Kowalski et al.,2019), family structure (Bevilacqua et al., 2017), family environment (Chen et al., 2018), parental bond (Sampasa-Kanyinga, Lalande, & Colman., 2018), sexual abuse history (Hébert et al., 2016), and neighbourhood climate (Khoury-Kassabri et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The study’s purpose was to examine the prevalence and explore some factors associated with cyberbullying in high-school adolescents at Santa Marta, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was designed, which participated in students between 13 and 17 years. Participants completed the item for being a victim of cyberbullying of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey for high school students designed by the Center for Disease Control of the United States. A total of 1462 students answered the questionnaire (M = 14.4 years, SD = 0.8). 19.6% (n = 287) reported lifetime cyberbullying victimisation. Cyberbullying victimisation was associated with post-traumatic stress disorder risk (OR = 2.05, 95%CI 1.51–2.79), lifetime cigarette smoking (OR = 1.91, 95%CI 1.42–2.57), female gender (OR = 1.68, 95%CI 1.25–2.26), family dysfunction (OR = 1.68, 95%CI 1.18–2.41), and poor-fair health condition (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.08–1.95). Being a victim of cyberbullying is frequent among Colombian high-school adolescents. It is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder risk, cigarette smoking, female gender, family dysfunction, and poor-fair general health condition. Longitudinal investigations are needed to measure better the dynamics of cyberbullying and the nature of such associations.
... The studies reported relatively persistent results that sexual minority youths and nonwhite students felt unsafe at school. This might be because sexual minority youths [84,85] and students from ethnic minorities [86,87] faced a higher risk of being bullied. We were surprised that several studies reported that older students had lower perceived school safety, as there is generally a decrease in bullying as children grow older [88,89]. ...
Article
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This study systematically reviewed the literature on perceived school safety. We investigated the prevalence, factors and associated mental health difficulties, as well as cross-cultural findings. Five databases were searched up to 9 February 2021 for peer-reviewed papers published in English. We included quantitative studies that explored the perception of school safety among children and adolescents. The reference lists of the selected papers were also searched. We conducted a narrative synthesis of the included studies. The review included 43 papers. The mean prevalence of the students who felt unsafe at school was 19.4% and ranged from 6.1% to 69.1%. Their perceived safety was associated with a wide range of personal, school, and social factors. Not feeling safe at school was related to being victimized and mental health difficulties, including depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Higher perceived school safety was associated with measures such as the presence of a security officer and fair school rule enforcement. The results showed the lack of cross-cultural studies on perceived school safety. Empirical studies are needed that examine the mechanisms of school safety, using valid measures. A clear definition of school safety should be considered a key aspect of future studies.
... As pointed out by recent studies (Hamby et al., 2018), with increasing access of youth to Internet, the integration of polyvictimization to better understand victimization via information and communication technologies becomes a crucial issue for the implementation of prevention and intervention programs for adolescents, young adults, and adults. Indeed, since the past decade, more and more young people have experienced victimization via Internet and social networks (Brochado, Soares, & Fraga, 2017;Cénat, Blais, Hébert, Lavoie, & Guerrier, 2015;Kowalski, Giumetti, Schroeder, & Lattanner, 2014). Smartphones, tablets, game consoles, computers, and social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Ask.fm, and others have become new areas where college-age students may experience victimization (Hinduja & Patchin, 2014). ...
Article
Few studies have explored potential associations between polyvictimization and cybervictimization and even fewer have involved in college-age sample. As it has been shown in the literature, polyvictimization is associated with higher psychological distress and lower resilience. This study is aimed to model the association between polyvictimization and cybervictimization by testing the mediating role of psychological distress and resilience. The sample included 4,626 undergraduates from France. Participants completed questionnaires assessing cybervictimization, polyvictimization (emotional abuse from parents, exposure to interparental violence, parental neglect, unwanted sexual touching, and unwanted sexual intercourse), psychological distress, and resilience. Results show that each form of victimization considered was significantly associated with cybervictimization. Also, polyvictimized participants presented higher prevalence of cybervictimization. The association between polyvictimization and cybervictimization was partially mediated positively by psychological distress and negatively by resilience. In fact, more cybervictimization was observed among polyvictimized participants with a high score of psychological distress, whereas fewer cybervictimization was observed in those with a high score of resilience. This study provides a new understanding of the mechanisms involved in cybervictimization that can help to better prevent and intervene with victims. Our results suggest that mental health professionals should assess childhood experiences of victimization when they are working with cybervictims. They also suggest the need for mental health professionals to help both polyvictimized and cybervictimized youth to develop resilience skills and coping strategies.
... Ces manifestations contribuent à instaurer un climat d'inconfort ou de peur qui inhibe l'acceptation et le dévoilement d'une orientation sexuelle ou d'une identité de genre non normative chez les élèves (Cénat, Blais, Hébert, Lavoie & Guerrier, 2015 ;Dorais, 2014), ou encore leur appartenance à une famille homoparentale ou transparentale (Olivier, 2015;Vyncke, Julien & Jodoin, 2014). Ce constat est aussi de circonstance chez les membres du personnel scolaire, puisque plusieurs choisissent de ne pas faire un coming out dans leur milieu de travail, par crainte de représailles de la part de la direction, de leurs collègues, des élèves ou des parents (Richard, 2015a). ...
Article
En tant qu’espace privilégié pour la construction identitaire et pour le développement du jugement critique, l’école québécoise a pour mission de transmettre des connaissances et des valeurs, mais aussi d’accompagner l’apprentissage d’une citoyenneté engagée. Le débat comme dispositif didactique est l’une des entrées retenues pour initier les élèves à la délibération démocratique. S’appuyant sur les savoirs coconstruits par le GRIS-Montréal, un organisme communautaire québécois « démystifiant » la diversité sexuelle et de genre, cet article présente une méthode pédagogique où le témoignage est au cœur d’une démarche de conscientisation préalable au débat. Il convient d’abord de déconstruire les préjugés, avant d’envisager débattre de façon critique de questions touchant à la diversité sexuelle et de genre. Le témoignage personnel offre alors des prises efficaces pour sensibiliser les élèves, en accolant à des réalités méconnues des expériences vécues qui s’éloignent des théories ou des points de vue désincarnés. https://revuegef.org/article/44/temoigner-plutot-que-debattre-les-interventions-en-milieu-scolaire-du-gris-montreal
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We investigated whether the associations between involvement in bullying and emotional and behavioral symptoms among adolescents differ according to sexual orientation. Respondents were 25 147 boys and 25 257 girls in comprehensive school (Mage 15.4, SD 0.6), and 33 231 males and 36 765 females in upper secondary education (Mage 17.4, SD 0.8) in Finland. Data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. SMY reported more symptoms and more involvement in bullying than did heterosexual youth. Involvement in bullying as both victim and perpetrator was associated with emotional and behavioral symptoms among all adolescents, regardless of their sexual orientation. These associations were mainly consistent across sexual orientation groups. The few differences found suggested weaker associations among SMY than among heterosexual youth.
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Bullying is a harmful phenomenon largely diffused in our society and difficult to contrast effectively. With the advent of Information and Communication Technology bullying out of the schoolyard and placed it online. Nowadays, online bullying, or cyberbullying, is a new alarming threat, especially for children. Cyberbullying has rapidly gained popularity thanks to the spread of smartphones and social media and has become a big concern for educational institutions, educators, and parents. This paper focuses on the similarity, difference, and complementarity between bullying and cyberbullying aiming at a better understanding their characteristics in order to fight tchem.
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Through the accounts of young queer men in Montreal, Ortiz Núñez and Meunier explore the role that digital media plays in their identity construction and coming out processes. This chapter aims to understand, beyond the social discourse of vulnerability, how queer youth have engaged in resistance practices in the digital media culture in which they grew up. Through constructing and narrating their online histories queer young people have been writing queer histories of the recent past while also developing new ways of expressing historical experience, online activism and resistance to the norms surrounding them, especially during secondary school.
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Cyberbullying is associated with increased risk of suicidal and self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. However, no review to date has explored factors that exacerbate and mitigate this relationship. This systematic review concerns research on factors that influence the impact of cyberbullying on suicidal and self-harm behaviors. Four bibliographic databases were explored and references in included articles were searched. We identified 727 articles and retained 66 that met inclusion criteria. Research has identified multiple risk factors which have been associated with increased suicide risk in general (mental health problems, substance abuse, loneliness, stress, sexual orientation/gender identity issues and violent behaviors). Others risk factors more specific to cyberbullying were: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Intellectual and Developmental Disorders, obesity, having asthma and severity of cyberbullying. Fewer studies concern protective factors. School connectedness, restrictive style of parenting, parental support, life satisfaction, having a healthy diet, personal skills and having family dinners were associated with less risk of suicidal and self-harm behaviors following cyberbullying. These protective factors suggest prevention strategies to reduce the impacts of cyberbullying by teaching better personal skills, promoting school social connections and proposing family interventions. More research is needed including exploration of the differential impacts of different forms of cyberbullying, and evaluations of the impacts of programs to increase personal skills, improve family relationships and foster school connectedness to reducing suicidal and self-harm behaviors in this vulnerable population.
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Cyberbullying is a new, alarming, and evil phenomenon closely connected with relational changes that new technologies are causing in contemporary society. It consists in using the internet to harass, threaten, and harm individuals who are the weakest and most vulnerable. Victims of cyberbullying are mightily children and adolescents. In fact, young people are immersed in new digital technologies and use them without knowing their implications. In fact, there isn't the internet for children and the internet for adults. Both adults and children use the same devices, tools, and ways of communicating and interacting.
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To determine the prevalence of bullying in Brazilian schools and analyze its association with physical activity and body image, data were collected from 51.192 students. Boys are more frequently bullied (7.2%) and they also bully more than girls ( p ⩽ 0.01). Regarding body image, 26 percent of the girls considered themselves thin or very thin ( p ⩽ 0.01). For boys, we observed associations between the variable of being treated well by classmates and race. Bullying was associated to mother’s education. The data show the need for cross-sector actions based on educational policies and practices that can reduce and prevent bullying in schools.
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We examined the impact of COVID-19 on bullying prevalence rates in a sample of 6578 Canadian students in Grades 4 to 12. To account for school changes associated with the pandemic, students were randomized at the school level into two conditions: (1) the pre-COVID-19 condition, assessing bullying prevalence rates retrospectively before the pandemic, and (2) the current condition, assessing rates during the pandemic. Results indicated that students reported far higher rates of bullying involvement before the pandemic than during the pandemic across all forms of bullying (general, physical, verbal, and social), except for cyber bullying, where differences in rates were less pronounced. Despite anti-Asian rhetoric during the pandemic, no difference was found between East Asian Canadian and White students on bullying victimization. Finally, our validity checks largely confirmed previous published patterns in both conditions: (1) girls were more likely to report being bullied than boys, (2) boys were more likely to report bullying others than girls, (3) elementary school students reported higher bullying involvement than secondary school students, and (4) gender diverse and LGTBQ + students reported being bullied at higher rates than students who identified as gender binary or heterosexual. These results highlight that the pandemic may have mitigated bullying rates, prompting the need to consider retaining some of the educational reforms used to reduce the spread of the virus that could foster caring interpersonal relationships at school such as reduced class sizes, increased supervision, and blended learning.
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Recently, research on homophobic bullying has increased. School is a relevant environment in which many bullying experiences take place. This study provides a systematic literature review that examines homophobic bullying at schools by collecting information about its prevalence, school-related predictors and consequences. We considered documents that focused on the study of homophobic bullying in the school context, and provided empirical information on the prevalence, frequency of homophobic bullying or the analysis of some school-related predictor factors or consequences. Ninety documents met the criteria and were, therefore, reviewed. Most studies used samples of adolescents. Their design was based on quantitative methodologies, and they mostly focused on the prevalence and school-related protective and risk factors, such as peer group and social support, followed by school belonging. Some consequences of homophobic bullying are negative academic outcomes, truancy and school belonging. The findings from these studies also provide information about useful strategies, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators. This review may better guide prevention in the education field.
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Background LGBTQ+ youth have higher rates of self-harm and suicide than cisgender, heterosexual peers. Less is known about prevalence of risks within these populations. Objectives The first systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prevalence of risks among young people throughout the LGBTQ+ umbrella with experiences across the dimension of self-harm, suicidal ideation and suicide behaviour; and how they may differ between LGBTQ+ umbrella groups. Data sources MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science searches were run to identify quantitative research papers (database inception to 31 st January, 2020). Study eligibility criteria Articles included were empirical quantitative studies, which examined risks associated with self-harm, suicidal ideation or suicidal behaviour in LGBTQ+ young people (12–25 years). Synthesis methods 2457 articles were identified for screening which was completed by two independent reviewers. 104 studies met inclusion criteria of which 40 had data which could be meta-analysed in a meaningful way. This analysis represents victimisation and mental health difficulties as risks among LGBTQ+ youth with self-harm and suicide experiences. Random-effects modelling was used for the main analyses with planned subgroup analyses. Results Victimisation and mental health were key risk factors across the dimension self-harm and suicide identified through all analyses. A pooled prevalence of 0.36 was indicated for victimisation and 0.39 for mental health difficulties within LGBTQ+ young people with experiences of self-harm or suicide. Odds ratios were calculated which demonstrated particularly high levels of victimisation (3.74) and mental health difficulties (2.67) when compared to cisgender, heterosexual counterparts who also had these experiences. Conclusions Victimisation and mental health difficulties are highly prevalent among LGBTQ+ youth with experiences of self-harm and suicide. Due to inconsistency of reporting, further risk synthesis is limited. Given the global inclusion of studies, these results can be considered across countries and inform policy and suicide prevention initiatives. PROSPERO registration number CRD42019130037.
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Cet article documente l’émergence de la militance autour des enjeux sociaux concernant les jeunes LGBTQ, en analysant les récits de huit militants ayant eu une implication communautaire en lien avec ces enjeux au cours des années 1990 et 2000. Les principaux enjeux soulevés sont les expériences de victimisation vécues par les jeunes et l’absence de ressources à leur intention. Les stratégies d’action s’orientent vers la mise en place d’organismes par et pour les jeunes et de regroupements des organisations jeunesse LGBTQ. Elles comprennent aussi des interventions de sensibilisation dans les écoles et des actions directes associant l’art et la performance. Ces militants font un bilan positif de leurs actions. Les organisations constituées autour des enjeux touchant les jeunes LGBTQ ont su établir leur légitimité et développer des collaborations avec des partenaires communautaires, institutionnels et gouvernementaux.
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Although research suggests that LGBTQ youth are at risk for victimization at school, it remains unclear just how much more likely they are to be victimized relative to heterosexual or cisgender youth, or the conditions under which their risks for victimization are highest. Accordingly, we conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between LGBTQ identification and school victimization. Multilevel analysis of 276 effect size estimates, from 55 studies, revealed a moderate overall mean effect size (r = .155). Moderator analyses indicated the relationship was stronger for transgender youth, homophobic victimization, and students in the Western United States; and weaker for questioning youth. We conclude with recommendations for policy and future research, and suggest that theories of victimization be broadened to better explain the risks that LGBTQ students face.
Research
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Rapport de recension des écrits sur les indicateurs d’inclusion et d’exclusion des personnes LGBTQ+.
Research
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Literature Review Report on the indicators of inclusion and exclusion of LGBTQ+ people
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Despite considerable public and scholarly debate about the role of social media in self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs), no comprehensive, quantitative synthesis of this literature has previously been undertaken. The current systematic review and meta-analysis examines associations between social media use and SITBs, including suicidal ideation, suicide plans, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). A range of social media behaviors and experiences were identified, including cybervictimization and perpetration, exposure to and generation of SITB-related content, problematic or addictive use, sexting, social media importance, and frequency of use. A systematic search of PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL, and the references of prior reviews yielded 61 eligible studies. Results largely suggested medium effect sizes for associations between the social media constructs and SITBs examined. The majority of studies identified focused on cybervictimization, and results suggested stronger positive associations between cybervictimization and suicidal ideation and attempts for adolescents compared to adults. No evidence emerged for associations between frequency of social media use and SITBs; however, studies on this topic were limited. Overall, findings highlight the utility of examining specific social media behaviors and experiences, and point to the need for more research in this area.
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Background:School bullying has become a global concern for the public as well as a fierce battlefield for educational psychologists. And sexual minority youth (SMY) may experience minority stress, a chronic form of stress engendered by negative social experiences such as stigmatization, that is known to impact adversely mental health and well-being. Under the specific cultural background of China, few scholars associate sexual orientation with campus bullying, as well as depression and anxiety symptoms. But in fact, China's sexual minority adolescences face no less difficulties than any sexual minority in the world. Methods:From April to July 2018, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among senior high school students in Hunan Province, China. A total of 3934 subjects were investigated by multi-stage cluster random sampling. Traditional bullying victimization was surveyed via the suffering subscale of Chinese version of Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ). Cyber school bullying was surveyed via a question. The Chinese version of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Chinese version of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) were used to screen depression and anxiety symptoms of participants. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between sexual orientation and types of bullying victimization , depression and anxiety symptoms. Results:Bisexuality accounted for the highest proportion of victims of traditional bullying only and cyber bullying only, at 10.2% and 4.8%, respectively. Homosexuality accounts for the highest proportion of combined bullying, at 18.2%. Homosexuality(OR: 5.833; 95% CI: 3.045 to 11.176), bisexuality(OR: 2.831; 95% CI: 1.354 to 5.923)and uncertainty of sexual orientation(OR: 2.206; 95% CI: 1.435 to 3.392) were significantly associated with combined bullying. The bisexual group has the highest rate of depression(40.1%) and anxiety(38.1%) symptoms. Compared to heterosexual group, bisexual group has the highest risk of depression(OR: 2.349; 95% CI: 1.664 to 3.316) and anxiety(OR: 3.049; 95% CI: 2.150 to 4.324) symptoms. Conclusions: Homosexuals are at the greatest risk of becoming victims of double bullying(traditional bullying and cyberbullying)and bisexuals are at the greatest risk of depression and anxiety symptoms.
Article
African American heterosexual and sexual minority (SM) adolescents report widespread bullying victimization (BV), which is associated with poorer psychosocial functioning. However, studies examining potential protective factors that moderate this association are limited. Using data from a cross-sectional study conducted in Chicago, we examined the association between BV and psychosocial functioning among a sample of heterosexual (n = 475) and SM (n = 105) African American adolescents and examined whether four empirically-supported protective factors moderated these associations. Among SM adolescents, having close parents was protective against psychosomatic symptoms for those who reported high BV and having caring teachers was protective against substance use for those who reported both high and low BV. Among heterosexual adolescents, having close parents was protective against substance use for those who reported high BV but having high neighborhood support exacerbated the risk of developing psychosomatic symptoms for those who reported high BV. Implications for school and parental-based interventions are discussed.
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Objectif Cette étude descriptive compare la prévalence de la détresse psychologique élevée et des troubles mentaux dans la population à faible revenu à celle de la population à revenu plus élevé du Canada. Méthodes Les données ont été recueillies dans le cadre de l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes – Santé mentale et bien-être (ESCC cycle 1.2), réalisée auprès de 36 984 Canadiens âgés de 15 ans et plus. La population à faible revenu (définie par la Mesure de faible revenu) a constitué 17,9 % (n = 6 620) de cet échantillon. On a utilisé l’échelle de Kessler K-10 pour mesurer la détresse psychologique, et l’entrevue CIDI pour évaluer les troubles mentaux. Résultats Un Canadien sur 5 a déclaré éprouver une grande détresse psychologique, et 1 sur 10, souffrir d’au moins un des cinq troubles mentaux étudiés ou de dépendance à une substance. Les femmes, les célibataires, les personnes séparées ou divorcées, les non-immigrants et les Autochtones ont été plus nombreux à déclarer souffrir de détresse psychologique, de troubles mentaux ou d’abus de substances. Les taux déclarés de détresse psychologique, de troubles mentaux ou d’abus de substances ont été beaucoup plus élevés chez les populations à faible revenu, et les différences mesurées étaient statistiquement cohérentes dans la plupart des catégories sociodémographiques. Conclusion Cette étude permet de mieux cerner les populations vulnérables en matière de santé mentale, susceptibles de bénéficier des programmes de prévention de la maladie et de promotion de la santé.
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In this article the author reviews research evidence on the prevalence of mental disorders in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) and shows, using meta-analyses, that LGBs have a higher prevalence of mental disorders than heterosexuals. The author offers a conceptual framework for understanding this excess in prevalence of disorder in terms of minority stress— explaining that stigma, prejudice, and discrimination create a hostile and stressful social environment that causes mental health problems. The model describes stress processes, including the experience of prejudice events, expectations of rejection, hiding and concealing, internalized homophobia, and ameliorative coping processes. This conceptual framework is the basis for the review of research evidence, suggestions for future research directions, and exploration of public policy implications.
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The present qualitative study explored the perceptions of this group of adolescents regarding what technology they use, what they view as constructive uses of technology, and their perceptions of cyberbullying and cybervictimization. A total of 18 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents participated in semistructured interviews. Many of the participants indicated that they use texting and social networking forms of technology, while few reported engaging with gaming technology. Results indicated technology provided support for this sample of LGB youth who might otherwise feel more isolated and/or depressed in relation to their heterosexually identified peers. In addition, this sample reported sexual orientation and revenge as reasons why students were targets of cyberbullying. These findings were consistent with prior research with non-LGB samples. Grounded in moral disengagement theory, the findings and implications of this study were interpreted within the context of prior research on technology use as well as the literature on bullying and cyberbullying.
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Bullying involvement in any form can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for adolescents. For programs and policies to best safeguard youth, it is important to understand prevalence of bullying across cyber and traditional contexts. We conducted a thorough review of the literature and identified 80 studies that reported corresponding prevalence rates for cyber and traditional bullying and/or aggression in adolescents. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated, and measurement features were entered as moderators to explain variation in prevalence rates and in traditional–cyber correlations within the sample of studies. Prevalence rates for cyber bullying were lower than for traditional bullying, and cyber and traditional bullying were highly correlated. A number of measurement features moderated variability in bullying prevalence; whereas a focus on traditional relational aggression increased correlations between cyber and traditional aggressions. In our meta-analytic review, traditional bullying was twice as common as cyber bullying. Cyber and traditional bullying were also highly correlated, suggesting that polyaggression involvement should be a primary target for interventions and policy. Results of moderation analyses highlight the need for greater consensus in measurement approaches for both cyber and traditional bullying.
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Cyberbullying is the deliberate and repeated misuse of communication technology by an individual or group to threaten or harm others. Guided largely by the communication skills deficiency model and previous research on cyberbullying, this study examins the effects of several predictor variables (i.e., verbal aggression, sex, risky behaviors, parental monitoring, parental limits, technology use, and scope of Internet activities) on cyberbullying perpetration. A total of 1,606 incoming freshmen at a large southwestern university completed an online survey measuring all predictor and dependent variables under investigation. Overall, 35% of these individuals reported that they had cyberbullied at least one person during their senior year of high school. Results indicated that verbal aggression, risky behaviors, and cyberbullying victimization emerged as significant predictors of cyberbullying perpetration. These results have important theoretical and practical implications for those interested in developing cyberbullying prevention interventions.
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Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among youths of sexual minorities. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among youths of sexual minorities and model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. A community sample of 300 youths of sexual minorities aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equation model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. 60.7% of the sample reported at least one form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. The results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on the well-being of youths of sexual minorities.
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Although the Internet has transformed the way our world operates, it has also served as a venue for cyberbullying, a serious form of misbehavior among youth. With many of today's youth experiencing acts of cyberbullying, a growing body of literature has begun to document the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of this behavior, but the literature is highly fragmented and lacks theoretical focus. Therefore, our purpose in the present article is to provide a critical review of the existing cyberbullying research. The general aggression model is proposed as a useful theoretical framework from which to understand this phenomenon. Additionally, results from a meta-analytic review are presented to highlight the size of the relationships between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, as well as relationships between cyberbullying and other meaningful behavioral and psychological variables. Mixed effects meta-analysis results indicate that among the strongest associations with cyberbullying perpetration were normative beliefs about aggression and moral disengagement, and the strongest associations with cyberbullying victimization were stress and suicidal ideation. Several methodological and sample characteristics served as moderators of these relationships. Limitations of the meta-analysis include issues dealing with causality or directionality of these associations as well as generalizability for those meta-analytic estimates that are based on smaller sets of studies (k < 5). Finally, the present results uncover important areas for future research. We provide a relevant agenda, including the need for understanding the incremental impact of cyberbullying (over and above traditional bullying) on key behavioral and psychological outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Young people continue to endure school-yard bullying and harassment. In our era of advanced information and communication technologies, however, a new variation has emerged: we now live in the age of cyberbullying. The current study explores the frequency of cyberbullying and its impact on the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered (LGBT), and allied youth. Participants in this national study comprised middle school and high school students between the ages of 11 and 18 years old who identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or with a same-sex attraction, or as a LGBT-allied youth. Participants represented 40 of the 50 United States.
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This article reviews research on psychosocial and health outcomes associated with peer victimization related to adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity or expression. Using four electronic databases and supplementary methods, we identified 39 relevant studies. These studies were published between 1995 and 2012 and conducted in 12 different countries. The studies were diverse in terms of their approaches to sampling participants, assessing participants' sexual orientation, operationalizing peer victimization, and with regard to the psychosocial and health outcomes studied in relation to peer victimization. Despite the methodological diversity across studies, there is fairly strong evidence that peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is associated with a diminished sense of school belonging and higher levels of depressive symptoms; findings regarding the relationship between peer victimization and suicidality have been more mixed. Peer victimization related to sexual orientation and gender identity or expression is also associated with disruptions in educational trajectories, traumatic stress, and alcohol and substance use. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed.
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This study finds that, compared with straight-identified youth, youth who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) are at greater risk of suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, victimization by peers, and elevated levels of unexcused absences from school. Results disaggregated by LGBTQ subgroups reveal heterogeneity within the broad LGBTQ group, with bisexual youth appearing to be particularly at risk. Also, although the risk gaps in school belongingness and unexcused absences are significant in high school, we find that these gaps are significantly greater in middle school, suggesting heightened early risk for LGBTQ-identified students. By raising awareness of educational inequities related to LGBTQ identification, this study lays the descriptive groundwork for interventions aimed at improving psychological and educational outcomes for these students.
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This study examined associations among depression, suicidal behaviors, and bullying and victimization experiences in 1491 high school students using data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results demonstrated that depression mediated the association between bullying/victimization and suicide attempts, but differently for males and females. Specifically, depression mediated the link between traditional victimization and suicide attempts similarly across gender, whereas depression mediated the link between cyber victimization and suicide attempts only for females. Similarly, depression mediated the link between traditional bullying and suicide attempts for females only. Depression did not mediate the link between cyberbullying and suicide attempts for either gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, including the importance of greater detection of depression among students involved in bullying, and the need for a suicide prevention and intervention component in anti-bullying programs. Findings suggest that bullying prevention efforts be extended from middle school students to include high school students.
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The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale survey study conducted at 5 high schools. They were matched to a comparison sample of their heterosexual peers. Sexual minority adolescents reported more externalizing behaviors and depression symptoms than heterosexual youth. Compared to their heterosexual peers, sexual minority youth reported more sexual harassment, more bullying, less closeness with their mothers, and less companionship with their best friends. There were no significant differences between gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning adolescents. Overall, both victimization and social support mediated the link between sexual orientation and psychosocial symptoms. Among sexual minority youth, the link between social support and externalizing was mediated by experiences of peer victimization. These findings highlight the contextual risk and protective factors associated with non-heterosexual sexual orientation in accounting for the emotional and behavioral problems in this population.
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The aims of this study were to examine reciprocal longitudinal associations between exposure to workplace bullying and symptoms of psychological distress and to investigate how self-labeled victimization from bullying explains the effects of bullying on health. Logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the longitudinal relationships between workplace bullying and psychological distress in a representative cohort sample of 1775 Norwegian employees. The time-lag between baseline and follow-up was two years. Exposure to bullying behavior was measured with the revised version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire. Perceived victimization from bullying was measured by a single self-labeling question. Psychological distress was measured with the 25-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist. All variables were measured at both baseline and follow-up. After adjustment for psychological distress at baseline, exposure to bullying behavior [odds ratio (OR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07-2.62) was found to predict subsequent psychological distress. This effect of bullying behaviors disappeared when victimization from bullying (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.17-5.22) was entered into the regression. Both psychological distress (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.64-3.80) and victimization (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.42-4.81) at baseline were associated with increased risks of being a target of bullying behaviors at follow-up. Psychological distress (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.39-4.52) and bullying behaviors (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.39-4.52) at follow-up were associated with victimization. The mutual relationship between bullying and psychological distress indicates a vicious circle where bullying and distress reinforce their own negative effects. This highlights the importance of early interventions to stop workplace bullying and provide treatment options to employees with psychological distress.
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In this study, a questionnaire (Cyberbullying Questionnaire, CBQ) was developed to assess the prevalence of numerous modalities of cyberbullying (CB) in adolescents. The association of CB with the use of other forms of violence, exposure to violence, acceptance and rejection by peers was also examined. In the study, participants were 1431 adolescents, aged between 12 and17years (726 girls and 682 boys). The adolescents responded to the CBQ, measures of reactive and proactive aggression, exposure to violence, justification of the use of violence, and perceived social support of peers. Sociometric measures were also used to assess the use of direct and relational aggression and the degree of acceptance and rejection by peers. The results revealed excellent psychometric properties for the CBQ. Of the adolescents, 44.1% responded affirmatively to at least one act of CB. Boys used CB to greater extent than girls. Lastly, CB was significantly associated with the use of proactive aggression, justification of violence, exposure to violence, and less perceived social support of friends.
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Using data from a regional census of high school students, we have documented the prevalence of cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and their associations with psychological distress. In the fall of 2008, 20,406 ninth- through twelfth-grade students in MetroWest Massachusetts completed surveys assessing their bullying victimization and psychological distress, including depressive symptoms, self-injury, and suicidality. A total of 15.8% of students reported cyberbullying and 25.9% reported school bullying in the past 12 months. A majority (59.7%) of cyberbullying victims were also school bullying victims; 36.3% of school bullying victims were also cyberbullying victims. Victimization was higher among nonheterosexually identified youths. Victims report lower school performance and school attachment. Controlled analyses indicated that distress was highest among victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] were from 4.38 for depressive symptoms to 5.35 for suicide attempts requiring medical treatment). Victims of either form of bullying alone also reported elevated levels of distress. Our findings confirm the need for prevention efforts that address both forms of bullying and their relation to school performance and mental health.
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Cyber-bullying (i.e., bullying via electronic means) has emerged as a new form of bullying that presents unique challenges to those victimised. Recent studies have demonstrated that there is a significant conceptual and practical overlap between both types of bullying such that most young people who are cyber-bullied also tend to be bullied by more traditional methods. Despite the overlap between traditional and cyber forms of bullying, it remains unclear if being a victim of cyber-bullying has the same negative consequences as being a victim of traditional bullying. The current study investigated associations between cyber versus traditional bullying and depressive symptoms in 374 and 1320 students from Switzerland and Australia respectively (52% female; Age: M = 13.8, SD = 1.0). All participants completed a bullying questionnaire (assessing perpetration and victimisation of traditional and cyber forms of bullying behaviour) in addition to scales on depressive symptoms. Across both samples, traditional victims and bully-victims reported more depressive symptoms than bullies and non-involved children. Importantly, victims of cyber-bullying reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms, even when controlling for the involvement in traditional bullying/victimisation. Overall, cyber-victimisation emerged as an additional risk factor for depressive symptoms in adolescents involved in bullying.
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The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between cyberbullying and mental health problems among a multiethnic sample of high school students in Hawai'i. A University-Community partnership was established to direct the research. Using a mixed-methods approach, we explored violence among Asian and Pacific Islander youth. In the first phase, focus groups were conducted to identify areas of youth concern and develop survey questions. Responses from 677 high school students on interpersonal youth violence and risk and protective factors were utilized in this study. More than 1 in 2 youth (56.1%) had been victims of cyberbullying in the last year. Filipino and Samoan youth were more likely to report feeling badly about themselves as a result of cyberbullying. While cyberbullying and mental health problems varied by sex and ethnicity, we found that cyberbullying is widespread with serious potential consequences among Asian and Pacific Islander youth. A multifaceted approach is needed to reduce and prevent cyberbullying. School, family and community programs that strengthen positive relationships and promote safe use of technology provide promise for reducing cyberbullying.
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