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Teacher emotions in the classroom: Associations with students’ engagement, classroom discipline and the interpersonal teacher-student relationship

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The present study explores teacher emotions, in particular how they are predicted by students’ behaviour and the interpersonal aspect of the teacher-student relationship (TSR). One hundred thirty-two secondary teachers participated in a quantitative study relying on self-report questionnaire data. Based on the model of teacher emotions by Frenzel (2014), teachers rated their experienced joy, anger and anxiety during classroom instruction (dependent variable). Students’ motivational behaviour (= engagement), socio-emotional behaviour (= discipline in class) and relational behaviour (= closeness; interpersonal TSR) were assessed as the independent variables. Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs served as a control variable. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the interpersonal relationship formed between teachers and students was the strongest predictor for teachers’ joy (positive relation) and anxiety (negative relation), whereas lack of discipline in class best predicted teachers’ anger experiences. Students’ engagement also proved a significant predictor of teacher emotions. The results suggest that interpersonal TSR plays a particularly important role in teachers’ emotional experiences in class.
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Teacher emotions in the classroom: associations
with students engagement, classroom discipline
and the interpersonal teacher-student relationship
Gerda Hagenauer & Tina Hascher & Simone E. Volet
Received: 29 September 2014 /Revised: 23 February 2015 /Accepted: 2 March 2015
#
Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, Portugal and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
2015
Abstract The present study explores teacher emotions, in particular how they are predicted by
students behaviour and the interpersonal aspect of the teacher-student relationship (TSR). One
hundred thirty-two secondary teachers participated in a quantitative study relying on self-report
questionnaire data. Based on the model of teacher emotions by Frenzel (2014), teachers rated their
experienced joy , anger and anxiety during classroom instruction (dependent variable). Students
motivational behaviour (= engagement), socio-emotional behaviour (= discipline in class) and
relational behaviour (= closeness; interpersonal TSR) were assessed as the independent variables.
Teachers self-efficacy beliefs served as a control variable. Hierarchical regression analysis
revealed that the interpersonal relationship formed between teachers and students was the strongest
predictor for teachers joy (positive relation) and anxiety (negative relation), whereas lack of
discipline in class best predicted teachers anger experiences. Students engagement also proved a
significant predictor of teacher emotions. The results suggest that interpersonal TSR plays a
particularly important role in teachers emotional experiences in class.
Keywords Teacher emotion
.
Teacher-student relationship
.
Classroom management
.
Teacher wellbeing
Introduction
Emotions in education have been recognized as significant antecedents of students learning
and achievement (Glaeser-Zikuda et al. 2013;Hascher2010; Järve 2011;Newberryetal.
Eur J Psychol Educ
DOI 10.1007/s10212-015-0250-0
G. Hagenauer (*)
:
T. Hascher
Institute of Educational Science, Department of Research on School, Learning and Instruction,
University of Bern, Fabrikstrasse 8, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
e-mail: gerda.hagenauer@edu.unibe.ch
T. Hasche r
e-mail: tina.hascher@edu.unibe.ch
S. E. Volet
School of Education, Murdoch University, South Street 90, Murdoch, Perth, Australia
e-mail: s.volet@murdoch.edu.au
2013; Pekrun and Linnenbrink-Garcia 2014; Schutz and Pekrun 2007). Although the topic is
attracting increasing interest in educational research (e.g. Schutz and Zembylas 2011), the
empirical evidence on teacher emotions is not extensive (Frenzel 2014). Studies on teacher
emotions suggest that teaching is an emotional endeavour (Hargreaves 1998, 2000), and that
teachers emotions correlate with their wellbeing and the quality of their teaching (Brackett
et al. 2013;DayandGu2011; Frenzel 2014; Frenzel et al. 2011). The same has been shown in
the higher education context: Trigwell (2012) and Postareff and Lindblom-Ylänne (201 1)
found a link between teachers positive emotions and student-centred approaches to teaching.
Thus, the identification of factors influencing teacher emotions at school can make a signif-
icant contribution towards determining how to support teachers wellbeing and teaching
quality.
The present study explores the antecedents of teacher emotions, focusing on
student behaviour in the classroom and the interpersonal relationship that is form ed
between teachers and students. Previous studies have shown that students behaviour
in the context of teacher-student interactions can be crucial to teacher emotions (e.g.
Frenzel et al. 2011), yet the impact of the interpersonal teacher-student relationship
(TSR) and its significance for teachers and their emotions has to date been largely
neglected in research (Klassen et al. 2012; Spilt et al. 2011). Consequently, the
present study contributes to the research strands on teacher emotions and TSR in
the classroom by simultaneously investigating the predictive power of students
behaviour and the quality of TSR on teacher emotions.
A conceptual model of teacher emotions
The conceptual framework for the present study is underpinned by Frenzels model of teacher
emotions (2014), which defines emotions from an appraisal theoretical perspective (Ellsworth
and Scherer 2003; Scherer 2004). Frenzels appraisal model implies that the emotional
response of an actor depends on his or her evaluation of the situation. Classroom goals and
their attainment or non-attainment appear to be particularly significant in the appraisal process.
Frenzel (2014) and Frenzel et al. (2011) argued that teachers follow different teaching goals,
observe the behaviour of students related to their goals and then appraise this behaviour (e.g. in
terms of goal attainment), which contributes to their respective emotions. For example, if a
teacher judges a situation as goal congruent (i.e. students are motivationally engaged; see also
the research on teacher motivation by Mansfield and Beltman 2014) and manageable (sec-
ondary appraisal; Lazarus 1999), it is likely that positive emotions would be experienced (e.g.
satisfaction or joy; Schutz et al. 2011).
Control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), or transactional stress theory (Lazarus 1999), posits
that, in terms of the perception of manageability of a situation, the self-efficacy beliefs of
teachers play an important role. Self-efficacy beliefs refer to individuals beliefs about their
capabilities to successfully carry out a particular course of action (Klassen et al. 2009
, p. 67).
Previous studies have shown that teachers self-efficacy is related to affective variables, for
example, teachers emotional exhaustion (Skaalvik and Skaalvik 2010)orjobsatisfaction
(Klassen and Chiu 2010; Vieluf et al. 2013).
According to the model of Frenzel (2014), four main teaching goals and the
respective student behaviour are identified: (1) achievement behaviour, (2) motivation-
al behaviour, (3) social-emotional behaviou r and (4) relational behaviour. The model
was introduced by Frenzel and colleagues in 2011 and comprised the first three modes
of goal-relevant student behaviour. It was extended by Frenzel in 2014 by the addition
of a fourth dimension of the relational aspect, which incorporates recent research
G. Hagenauer et al.
findings that have addressed more explicitly the social dimension of teacher motiva-
tion (e.g. Butler 2012).
The concept of interpersonal TSR introduced in this study is similar to what has been
defined by Frenzel (2014) as relational behaviour. However, in the present study, the term
interpersonal TSR extends Frenzels relational behaviour in order to capture the way in
which interpersonal relationships, i.e. the affective bond built between students and
teachers, go beyond observable student behaviour. Whilst observable relational behaviour
of students (e.g. friendly smiles to a teacher) contributes to the formation of TSR,
interpersonal TSR is a product of the interaction of teacher and student behaviour over
time (Spilt et al. 2011).
Teacher emotions in the classroom and student classroom behaviour
Teachers experience a range of emotions during their work (Frenzel 2014;Kelleretal.2014),
which are triggered by multiple factors and their interplay (Schutz 2014). Teacher emotions
typically unfold in interaction with their environment (Day and Gu 2014). Teachers interact
with different people in their work (e.g. colleagues, parents), but interactions with their
students seem to be the most powerful in terms of evoking positive or negative emotions, as
(mostly qualitative) empirical studies have shown (e.g. Sutton and Wheatley 2003). For
example, teachers in the study of OConnor (2006) described their big moments (p. 125)
in terms of emotionality in teaching resulting from interaction sequences with students. This
finding was confirmed i n several other studies (Demetriou et al. 2009; Galant 2013;
Hargreaves 1998, 2000; Oplatka 2007;Sutton2007; Williams-Johnson et al. 2008;
Zembylas 2002).
Research has shown that primary and secondary teachers emotions are strongly
connected to positive interactions with their students (e.g. a breakthrough of a learner,
showing appreciation of the teachers work), evoking responses such as joy and satisfac-
tion (Hargreaves 2000). Conversely, in terms of negative emotions, a recent study by
Chang (2013) showed that negative emotions of teachers (e.g. anger and frustration) were
frequently related to students misbehaviour or lack of classroom discipline, which
increased the risk for burnout over time (Tsouloupas et al. 2010). Classroom discipline
problems have also been found to be one of the main predictors of teacher stress (Abel
and Sewell 1999;McCarthyetal.2015) and also impede on teacher enthusiasm (Kunter
et al. 2011). Frenzel et al. (2011) found a positive correlation between discipline in the
classroom and teacher enjoyment, whilst the correlation was negative for anger (Sutton
2007) and anxiety. The same correlational pattern occurred for student motivation, whilst
there was no significant association between student performance and teacher emotions
(Frenzel et al. 201 1). This corresponds with findings of previous studies in motivation and
the TSR, indicating that student engagement was more significant for teachers positive
relationship with students than students achievement level (e.g. Juvonen
2006; Skinner
and Belmont 1993; Tal and Babad 1990).
Teacher emotions in the classroom and the quality of the interpersonal teacher-student
relationship
Based on the assumption that positive and secure relationships are of fundamental
importance for human functioning, since it reflects the basic need to belong (e.g.
Baumeister and Leary 199 5; Cassidy and Shaver 2008; Deci and Ryan 2002), the
quality of TSR is expected to contribute to teacher emotions and satisfaction in the
Teacher emotions
job. Whilst the empirical evidence on the significance of TSR for students learning
and achievement is extensive (for r eviews, see Cornelius-White 200 7;Roordaetal.
2011), only a few studies have pointed to the relevance of TSR for teacher emotions in
their work, and these studies rely mostly on qualitative (interview) data (e.g. den Brok
et al. 2013; Harg reaves 2000).
Given the significantly differing roles of students and teachers, the concepts emerging from
TSR research into students perspectives cannot be simply transferred to teachers. Similarly,
Urdan (2014) argued that conceptualisations, and derived methodologies for the study of
student motivation could not simply be transferred to the study of teacher motivation (e.g.
achievement goal theory). Thus, the concept of TSR from a teachers perspective requires
clarification.
TSR is a multidimensional construct. It is formed on different dimensions, including
interpersonal and professional (Hagenauer and Volet 2014). Hagenauer and Volet referred
to these two dimensions of TSR as affective and support. The support dimension
represents the professional relationship (e.g. students and teachers mutually contribute to a
supportive learning and teaching environment), and the affective dimension incorporates the
interpersonal or affective connecti on that is formed between teachers and students,
reflecting the degree of affiliation (e.g. warm, caring, trusting relationships; Newberry
and Davis 2008). In the present study, the focus is placed on the latter and its significance
for teacher emotions. Similarly to that of den Brok et al. (2013), the term interpersonal
TSR is used in this study to distinguish it clearly from the professional TSR. In
attachment theory approaches, the interpersonal dimension of TSR is frequently coined as
closeness (e.g. Pianta 2001; Bergin and Bergin 2009). As Riley (2009, 201 1)observed,
the interpersonal TSR can be considered as an attachment dyad, acknowledging that
teachers are not only caregivers but also care-seekers in the TSR. The research of
Hargreaves (2000) showed that the interpersonal TSR frequently evoked emotions in
teachers, and that the primary school environment held higher likelihood of positive
emotions as primary education structurally allows for stronger interpersonal emotional
bonds. These stronger bonds in primary education were also revealed in the Australian
study of Riley (2009) that applied an attachment theory approach (see also L ynch and
Cicchetti 1997 for a study of students perspective). One reason this study focused on
secondary teachers was to explore for effects of possibly weaker bonds between students
and teachers, on teacher emotions.
The present study
Given the paucity of research on the antecedents of teacher emotions, as well as on the
association between TSR and teacher-related outcome variables (Klassen et al. 2012; Spilt
et al. 2011), the current study aimed to link these two research strands by examining the extent
to which perceived student behaviour and the interpersonal TSR predict teacher emotions
during instruction. Based on the model of teacher emotions by Frenzel (2014)aswellasonthe
more general notion that the quality of relationships is fundamental for subjective wellbeing
(e.g. Baumeister and Leary 1995), we expected that goal-conducive student behaviour as well
as a positive interpersonal TSR would be related positively to positive and negatively to
negative teacher emotions.
More concretely, as displayed in Fig. 1, we hypo thesized that students
engagement
in the classroom (= motivational behaviour) and a positive interpe rsonal TSR (=
G. Hagenauer et al.
relational behaviour) would be positively associated with joy, and negatively w ith
anxiety and anger, whilst the reverse association was expected for the negative
indicator lack of discipline in class (= social-emotional behaviour). Self-efficacy
beliefs of teachers were treated as a control variable, as emotions are influenced by
the control cognitions of the teachers (see control-value theory, Pekrun 2006), in o rder
to asses s the adjusted association betwe en student behaviour variab les and teacher
emotions.
Method
Participants
One hundred thirty-two teachers participated in the study (65.6 % female, n=86;
34.4 % male, n=45). They all taught in high-track secondary schools in Austria.
Stemming from 11 different schools, a range between 2 and 31 teachers from each
school participated voluntarily in this study. The m ean age was 47.12 years (min=25,
max=62 years). The majority of the teachers were experienced teachers with a mean
of 20.56 years of experience in the job (min=0.5 years to max=43 years); 69 % of
the p articipating teachers were full-time e mployed. On average, the classroom size in
high-track schools was about 25 students per class.
Fig. 1 Conceptual model tested in the present study
Teacher emotions
Measures
Based on the findings of Kunter et al. (2011) that teacher enthusiasm can vary significantly
between classrooms, teachers in the present study were asked to focus on one classroom when
answering the items concerning the classroom conditions. This was deemed necessary in order
to capture the possibility of high variation of the quality of teacher-student interactions and,
thus, teacher emotions between classrooms (student populations). Accordingly, teachers were
invited to nominate a classroom that was of high relevance to them (goal relevance of the
situation as a key appraisal evoking positive or negative emotions; Frenzel 2014;Lazarus
1999). Relevance was operationalized in terms of the frequency of interactions with and
responsibility for this particular group of students. The order of how the choice should be
made was suggested to the teachers ((1) class teacher, (2) major subject area, (3) minor
subject area). This led to the following classroom selection when responding to the items:
40 % of the teachers focused on the classroom in which they were the class teacher (also
called form teacher in the UK or homeroom teacher in the USA); another 27 %
referred to a class of students where they taught one of the major subject areas (Language
of Instruction, Mathematics or First Foreign Language); and 32 % referred to classrooms in
which they taught a minor subject area (e.g. Biology, Arts), thus where they typically
taught fewer lessons per week per class. Furthermore and as requested, all teachers focused
on a class of students from lower secondary education (grades 5 to 8). Finally, 14.5 % of
the teachers focused in their responses on teaching experiences in grade 5, 23.7 % in grade
6, 29.8 % in grade 7 and 32.1 % in grade 8.
Self-efficacy beliefs were measured on a group-unspecific level. The scales used in this
study are fully described in the next paragraph. All responses were from 1=strongly disagree
to 4=strongly agree.
Teacher emotions
Frenzel et al.s(2010) questionnaire was used to measure teachers joy, anger and anxiety during
instruction. The joy scale contained four items (e.g. I enjoy teaching these students; α=0.93);
anger , three items (e.g. I often feel annoyed while teaching these students; α=0.85), and
anxiety, four items (e.g. I feel tense and nervous while teaching these students; α=0.81).
Teachers self-efficacy
We attempted to measure self-efficacy as a multidimensional construct, as suggested by several
prior studies (e.g. TSES: Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy 2001 or NTSES: Skaalvik and
Skaalvik 2007). The instrument used for the present study captured three dimensions of teachers
self-efficacy: self-efficacy in teaching content, self-efficacy in classroom management and self-
efficacy in r elationship building. The first two dimensions were measured using scales that
combined items from the German scale on teachers self-efficacy de veloped by Jerusalem et al.
(2009) as well as items of the internationally well-known scale of Woolfolk and Hoy (1990). The
scale measuring self-efficacy in teaching content contained four items (α=0.72; e.g. Iam
confident that my teaching style is effective and that students learn a lot in my class)andthe
scale measuring self-ef ficac y in classroo m management, three items (α=0.86; e.g., If a student
becomes disruptive and noisy in my class, I feel assured that I know some techniques to redirect
him/her quickly). In contrast, the scale to measure self-efficacy in relationship building was
newly developed for the present study, as this dimension has not been treated as independent in
prior research. This original scale contained five items (α=0.84; e.g. It is easy for me to connect
G. Hagenauer et al.
well with my students; Even if my students behave reserved, I am able to shape positive
relationships with them ). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal component analysis
and varimax rotation with Kaiser normalization confirmed the proposed three-factor structure
(relationship building, teaching, classroom management) accounting for 65 % of explained
variance, in total. Items factor loadings and commonalities were satisfactory.
Teachers perception of student behaviour
As aforementioned, student behaviour was differentiated regarding its motivational, social-
emotional and relational aspect. A closeness scale, adapted from Ang (2005)andPianta
(2001), measured students relational behaviour reflecting the interpersonal TSR. Recently,
Klassen et al. (2013) have developed a similar scale called social engagement, a sub-scale of
the Engaged Teacher Scale. However, whilst the scale of Klassen et al. focuses on teacher
behaviour that contributes to establish a positive interpersonal TSR (= energy that is invested
in establishing relationships; e.g. In class, I am empathic towards my students), the scale in
our study measures the outcome, namely the quality of the perceived TSR.
Students motivational behaviour was assessed by the scale students engagement in the
classroom (SARAC; adapted from Wellborn and Connell n.d.) and students socio-emotional
behaviour by the scale lack of discipline in class (adapted from Baumert et al. 2008).
Altogether, there were 15 items: five measuring the latent construct of closeness (e.g. I dont
feel connected to the students in this class; reverse coded; I like the students in this class), six
addressing students engagement in the classroom (e.g. In this clas s, the students work as hard as
they can) and four assessing lack of discipline in class (e.g. In this class, students chat a lot).
EFA with principal component analysis and varimax rotation with Kaiser normalization
were applied to test for the factor structure. The proposed three-factor solution could be
confirmed accounting for 70 % of explained variance, in total. All items factor loadings were
above 0.68 and loaded distinctly on one single factor (see Table 1).
Table 1 Factor loadings resulting
from EFA
Factor 1: student
engagement
Factor 2:
closeness
Factor 3: lack
of discipline
Eng1 0.83 0.31 0.05
Eng2 0.80 0.24 0.14.
Eng3 0.77 0.14 0.23
Eng4 0.71 0.29 0.32
Eng5 0.69 0.30 0.23
Eng6 0.69 0.25 0.29
Clos1 0.16 0.84 0.1 1
Clos2 0.20 0.72 0.33
Clos3 0.39 0.71 0.26
Clos4 0.37 0.70 0.21
Clos5 0.41 0.68 0.23
L_dis1 0.23 0.23 0.81
L_dis2 0.12 0.24 0.80
L_dis3 0.29 0.27 0.80
L_dis4 0.22 0.1 1 0.78
Teacher emotions
In order to empirically test the factor structure of the model of Frenzel (2014), a
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with the software Mplus (Muthén
and M uthén 19982012). A three-factor model was compared to a one-factor and a
two-factor model. The one-factor model tested the one-dimensional way of assessing
student behaviour (= o ne general factor), whilst the t wo-factor model explored wheth-
er it would be sensible to combine the indicators of student engagement and lack of
discipline into one single dimension, whilst keeping closeness a s a distinct indicator.
The three-factor model was the conceptually derived model. As shown in Table 2,the
three-factor solution presented the best fit, which supported the theoretically based
model. This model is displayed in Fig. 1. Reliability analysis also revealed satisfac-
tory internal consistencies for the derived three factors (student engagement, α=0.91;
lack of discipline, α=0.88; closeness, α=0.87). Thus, the three-factor model of TSR
was used f or data analysis (Fig. 2).
Table 2 Model comparison
resulting from CFA
3-factor model 1-factor model 2-factor model
χ
2
(df) 134.528 (87) 384.33 (90) 315.36 (89)
χ
2
/df 1.55 4.27 3.54
CFI 0.96 0.76 0.81
TLI 0.95 0.72 0.78
RMSEA 0.06 0.16 0.14
SRMR 0.05 0.09 0.09
Fig. 2 Three-factor modelresults of CFA
G. Hagenauer et al.
Results
Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations
Descriptive statistics for all variables are presented in Table 3. In term s of emotions,
the mean was highest for joy, followed by anger and anxiety. There were strong
intercorrelations between teacher emotions and factors of student behaviour in the
classroom, whilst the correlations were lower with self-efficacy beliefs. As expected,
joy correlated negatively with anger and anxiety, whilst it correlated positively with
student engagement and closeness and negatively with lack of discipline in the
classroom. An independent t test showed no significant difference between male and
female teachers in their em otional experiences ( joy: t(12 9)=0.42, p=0.67; anxiety:
t(129)=0.34, p=0.73; anger: t(129)=0.29, p=0.76 ). Correlations between te achers
years of teaching experience and emotions also resulted in non-significant results
(p>0.05).
We also tested for mean differences between the three groups (homeroom teacher,
teacher of a major subjec t area and teacher of a minor subject area) of teachers
perspective, in terms of teacher emotions and student behaviour that were assessed as
classroom specific. Significant differences were found for experience of joy, closeness
and student engagement. Homeroom teachers (group 1) experienced significantly more
joy (F 2, 131=6 .70, p=0.002; η
2
=0.09; M
1
=3.46, SD
1
=0.53; M
3
=2.96, SD
3
=0.83),
as well as a greater extent of closeness to their students (F 2, 131=7.91, p=0.001;
η
2
=0.11; M
1
=3.80, SD
1
=0.28; M
3
=3.44, SD
3
=0.60)andalsoreportedmorestudent
engagement (F 2, 131=5.96, p =0.003; η
2
=0.08; M
1
=3.18, SD
1
=0.57; M
3
=2.78,
Table 3 Intercorrelations, means and standard deviations
Joy Anxiety Anger SE_RB SE_ET SE_CM ENG L_DIS CLOS
Joy 0.65*** 0.71*** 0.32*** 0.43*** 0.33*** 0.72*** 0.61*** 0.80***
Anxiety 0.67*** 0.34*** 0.28** 0.40*** 0.54*** 0.58*** 0.64***
Anger 0.20* 0.19* 0.23** 0.61*** 0.74*** 0.65***
SE_RB 0.56*** 0.58*** 0.22* 0.11 0.28***
SE_ET 0.56*** 0.27** 0.19* 0.21*
SE_CM 0.28** 0.31*** 0.28**
ENG 0.51*** 0.69***
L_DIS 0.56***
CLOS
M 3.21 1.44 1.95 3.27 3.13 3.12 2.94 2.42 3.59
SD 0.71 0.62 0.81 0.49 0.42 0.62 0.66 0.85 0.52
Scale min=1, max=4
SE_RB self-efficacy in relationship building, SE_ET self-efficacy in effective teaching of content, SE_CM self-
efficacy in classroom management, ENG student engagement, L_DIS lack of discipline in class, CLOS closeness
***p<0.001; **p<0.01; *p<0.05;
+
p<0.10
Teacher emotions
SD
3
=0.64) in comparison to teachers who taught minor subject areas (group 3). On a
descriptive level, homeroo m teachers also scored lowest on anger, anxiety and lack of
discipline in class; however, the three groups were not sign ificantly d ifferent in regard
to these e xperiences (p>0.05).
Predicting teacher emotions
In order to test the assumption that student motivational, socio-emotional and relational (TSR)
behaviour predicts teacher emotions, hierarchical regression analyses were applied for the
criterion variables of joy, anxiety and anger (see Table 4). Self-efficacy was used as a control
variable, which is displayed in model 1. Since previous studies have shown that students
engagement or lack of engagement predicts teacher emotions (Frenzel et al. 2011), these
indicators were accounted for in model 2. Finally, model 3 also considered the interpersonal
Table 4 Results of hierarchical regression analyses predicting teacher emotions
Joy Anxiety Anger
bSEBβ bSEBβ bSEBβ
Model 1
Constant 0.73 0.46 3.15*** 0.41 3.39*** 0.57
SE_RB 0.12 0.15 0.08 0.20 0.13 0.16 0.13 0.19 0.08
SE_ET 0.56** 0.17 0.33** 0.05 0.16 0.03 0.12 0.21 0.06
SE_CM 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.29** 0.1 1 0.29** 0.20 0.15 0.15
Model 2
Constant 0.96* 0.40 2.49*** 0.43 1.81*** 0.46
SE_RB 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.25* 0.11 0.19* 0.24 0.12 0.15*
SE_ET 0.39** 0.12 0.23** 0.05 0.13 0.03 0.04 0.14 0.02
SE_CM 0.12 0.08 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.11
ENG 0.54*** 0.07 0.49*** 0.26*** 0.07 0.28** 0.37*** 0.08 0.30***
L_DIS 0.28*** 0.05 0.33*** 0.29*** 0.06 0.39*** 0.58*** 0.06 0.62***
Model 3
Constant 0.81* 0.40 3.53*** 0.50 2.69***
SE_RB 0.01 0.09 0.01 0.17 0.11 0.13 0.17 0.12 0.10
SE_ET 0.47*** 0.10 0.27*** 0.01 0.12 0.01 0.01 0.13 0.01
SE_CM 0.1 1 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.14 0.09 0.11
ENG 0.25*** 0.07 0.23*** 0.09 0.09 0.09
0.22* 0.09 0.18*
L_DIS 0.15** 0.05 0.18** 0.21*** 0.06 0.29*** 0.52*** 0.06 0.54***
CLOS 0.70*** 0.09 0.51*** 0.41*** 0.12 0.34*** 0.35** 0.12 0.22**
R
2
model 1 0.20*** 0.17*** 0.06*
R
2
model 2 0.65*** 0.47*** 0.64***
R
2
model 3 0.77*** 0.52*** 0.66***
R
2
change is highly significant (p<0.001) for all comparisons, except between steps 2 and 3 for anger
SE_RB self-efficacy in relationship building, SE_ET self-efficacy in effective teaching of content, SE_CM self-
efficacy in classroom management, ENG student engagement, L_DIS lack of discipline in class, CLOS closeness
***p<0.001; **p<0.01; *p<0.05;
+
p<0.10
G. Hagenauer et al.
aspects of TSRnamely closeness. Closeness was entered last in the model, as this indicator
has mostly been neglected in research on teacher emotions to date. We wanted to investigate if
closeness contributed above and beyond students classroom engagement, to teacher emotions
(= incremental validity).
As the results show, the explained variance significantly increased from model 1 to
model 2 and further from model 2 to model 3. The strongest predictor of teachers joy
and anxiety was found to be closeness, whilst anger was best predicted by a lack of
discipline in class. Lack of discipline in class also emerged as a significant negative
predictor of teachers joy and as a s ignificant positive predictor for anxiety. Joy was
further predicted by students engagement in class, as was anger (negative association).
Contrary to expectations, self-efficacy beliefs were not significantly related to anger
and anxiety when simultaneously considering the relationship variables in the model,
but self-efficacy beliefs in teaching content contributed to teachers accounts of joy in
class.
Discussion
The purpose of this study was to explore the predictors of teacher emotions in the classroom.
Particular attention was given to the role of student behaviour and to the question of whether,
and how, the interpersonal TSRassessed as teachers perception of closeness with their
studentswas related to teacher emotions during instruction. T eacher self-efficacy beliefs and
their relationship with the students classroom behaviour and the interpersonal TSR were also
considered.
The results of the hi erarchical regression analysi s confirmed that the quality of the
relationship between teachers and students was significantly related to teachers emotional
experiences during instruction. Closeness, reflecting the positive interpersonal relationship
between students and teachers, was particularly important for teachers experience of joy in the
classroom, but was also a significant predictor of teachers anger and anxiety. Teachers who
felt connected with their students were more likely to report joy and less frequently anxiety and
anger. In accordance with attachment theory (Cassidy and Shaver 2008), positive interpersonal
relationships reflect security and, thus, do not only play an important role for students, but
appear to function as antecedent of teachers emotional wellbeing as well. This is also
consistent with recent research on teacher resilience (Day and Gu 2014,p.90),which
revealed that pleasant, close and warm relationships with students form an integral part of the
work context that contributes to teachers successful coping in the teaching profession.
Furthermore and consistent with previous research (Chang 2013; Frenzel et al. 2011;
Tsouloupas et al. 2010), students engagement and discipline emerged as significant predictors
of teacher joy, anxiety and anger. Teachers anger, in particular, was associated with students
lack of discipline in class. As argued by Chang and Davis (2011), students misbehaviour in
the classroom represents a threat to their [teachers] instructional or management goals (p.
102), which is strongly connected to negative emotions. Research by Liljestrom et al. (2007)
and Sutton (2007) has demonstrated that teachers anger is dominantly student directed and not
self directed. In keeping with the findings of the present research, teachers
anger was evoked
particularly if students misbehaved or did not engage in learning. In the long term, frequently
occurring negative feelings of teachers can lead to compassion fatigue, a concept that was
introduced by Chang and Davis (2011, p. 120) and which is conceptually linked with
depersonalization (Durr et al. 2014; Hakanen et al. 2006). If teaching is experienced
negatively in many situations, teachers run the risk of being alienated from students, which
Teacher emotions
may decrease teaching quality, deteriorate the teacher-student relationship further and enhance
the likelihood of developing burnout symptoms.
Interestingly, and contrary to our expectations, self-efficacy beliefs predicted teachers joy,
but were not found to be relevant negative predictors of teachers anger and anxiety, after TSR
variables were entered into the model. The general low impact of self-efficacy beliefs on teacher
emotions might be partly caused by the fact that emotions were assessed on a class-specific
level, whilst self-efficacy beliefs were measured on a class-unspecific level. Since teachers self-
efficacy beliefs may also be sensitive to specific classroom experiences, future research should
further explore the issue of context sensitivity in self-efficacy beliefs by assessing them as
classroom as well as subject-area specific, similarly to emotion research (Goetz et al. 2006).
The different predictive power of self-efficacy beliefs on teacher emotions might also be
traced back to differences in the impact of classroom context on distinct teacher emotions. Joy
might be triggered directly either by the activity of teaching (teaching is fun)orbythe
teaching content (biology is exciting), as found in research on teacher enthusiasm (Kunter
et al. 201 1). In contrast, anger appears more dependent on the classroom context and teacher-
student interactions. This is consistent with the research of Frenzel and Goetz (2007)using
diaries, which showed that the experience of anger varied more between classrooms than joy.
Thus, anger might be a context-dependent emotion to a stronger degree (e.g. through different
levels of student misbehaviour in different classrooms) than joy, which might be more bound
to content and teacher characteristics, such as teaching enthusiasm or self-efficacy in teaching.
These findings highlight the crucial role of the context in teacher emotion, a finding that
parallels research on the domain specificity (Goetz et al. 2006) and situation specificity
(Becker et al. 2014) of students learning emotions. In the present study, this was addressed
by investigating class-specific emotional experiences, rather than general emotions in teaching.
In terms of the conceptual model of teacher emotions developed by Frenzel (2014), the
present study explored many of the proposed predictors. However, future studies should
include the other predictor variables addressed in the model. First, the achievement level of
students needs to be accounted for. Second, the dimension socio-emotional behaviour of
students should also include a measure of students socio-emotional behaviour directed to
their classmates. This is because it is reasonable to assume that teacher emotions are not only
affected by students social behaviour directed towards them (e.g. by being disciplined, polite
or showing disrespect towards the teacher), but also by the social behaviour displayed between
students (e.g. being supportive of each other or excluding classmates).
In addition, our results showed that teachers mean level of joy was relatively high,
whilst in comparison, anger and in particular anxiety were notably lower. This is
consistent with previous studies, which reported similar differences in positive and
negative teacher emotions (Frenzel and Goetz 2007; Keller et al. 2014). Frenzel
(2014), as well as Liljestrom et al. (2007), posited that anger might be underestimated
given its incompatibility with prevalent teaching norms (e.g. caring for students). The
same may be said about teachers report of anxiety. Another poss ible explanation is
theselectivityofthesampleinthepresent study, which comprised a majority of
experienced teachers. Ria et al. (2003) found that experienced teachers (= more than
5 years of teaching experience) were less emotionally challenged than beginning
teachers, particularly with respect to anxiety.
Interestingly, our results also revealed that homeroom or form teachers experienced more
joy, a better interpersonal relationship to students, as well as more student engagement in the
classroom, compared to teachers who teach in minor subject areas. These findings could be
explained by the fact that homeroom or form teachers typically spend extended time with their
students, and this creates opportunities to get to know students better and develop positive
G. Hagenauer et al.
teacher-student relationships. In turn, it connects to joy experiences as already shown in
previous studies on primary school teachers (Hargreaves 2000).
The findings of the presented study should be interpreted with caution due to three
methodological limitations. First, the use of self-report questionnaires to assess teacher
emotions enhances the possibility of eliciting socially desirable responses. In relation to this,
there seems to be some inconsistency in the literature in the finding that teachers report more
positive than negative emotions but at the same time report burnoutwhich includes the
dimension of emotional exhaustion”—as a frequently occurring phenomenon in the teaching
occupation (Urdan 2014, p. 240). This apparent contradiction might be traced to the two
aforementioned potential explanations, or alternatively from a methodological perspective, to
the use of self-report measures and/or to the second limitation in teacher emotion research to
date, which is the participation of selected samples of volunteers. This was also the case in our
study, which surveyed a sample of predominantly high motivated and experienced teachers,
inherently expected to display lower levels of anxiety. This issue may point to a bias in the
literature, as it is reasonable to expect that teachers who are struggling in the profession are
unlikely to volunteer their participation in research that addresses a sensitive topic that is
connected to ones self-worth. In order to get a more comprehensive understanding of the
nature of teachers emotional experiences, future research will need to come up with strategies
for attracting teachers with diverse experiences. As this requires a trusting relationship between
teachers and researchers in order for teachers to feel safe participating, a mixed-methods
approach, incorporating small-scale studies and person-centred research, might be a fruitful
addition to a quantitative assessment of teacher emotions (e.g. Scott and Sutton 2009).
A third limitation pertains to the cross-sectional design of the study, which prevents
drawing any conclusions about causal relationship between the variables. As teacher
emotions are dynamically linked to the context in which they emerge, reciprocal
relations between TSR and emotions have to be assumed ( Frenzel et al. 2011). The
interplay of factors could only be assessed by using longitudinal and/or experimental
approaches as well as by including situated data (e.g. observations) that allow for the
study of teacher-student interactions in real time (e.g. Nolen et a l. 2014;Turnerand
Fulmer 2013).
Future studies should address possible interaction effects between the variables, e.g.
teachers with better interpersonal relationships with students, and with higher self-
efficacy beliefs, might appraise students lack of discipline as less threatening in com-
parison to their counterparts with poorer relationships with students, and lower self-
efficacy (Chang and Davis 2011). Additionally, research needs to examine how a positive
interpersonal TSR develops over time, and what t eaching techn iques or behaviours are
conducive to this process. Humanistic approaches to education (Rogers et al. 2014)as
well as research on emotional intelligence in the classroom (e.g. Mortiboys 2012)might
provide fruitful theoretical grounding for exploring t his research question (e.g. by
assessing teachers active listening skills or empathy; see, for example, the work on
teacher engagement by Klassen et al. (2013)).
Conclusion
The results of this study indicate that student behaviour, the interpersonal TSR, and teacher
emotions are strongly related. The ability to manage classrooms accordingly and to form
positive interpersonal relationships with students can thus be regarded as important factors of
teacher emotional wellbeing in the job. In turn, one can assume that teachers positive
Teacher emotions
emotions are likely to induce students positive emotions as some recent studies have already
shown (Becker et al. 2014; Frenzel et al. 2009) and referred to as emotional contagion
(Fischer 2007). Therefore, positive teacher emotions may not only be essential for the
wellbeing of teachers but they may also affect students wellbeing and, in turn, learning in
class.
These results lead to the conclusion that teachers ability to connect well with students can
be regarded as an important skill to target in professional development. Whilst strategies that
affect the professional aspects of the TSR (e.g. classroom management; motivating students
which affects student engagement) are already explicitly addressed in teacher competence
models, such as the one introduced by the COACTIV study of Baumert and Kunter (2013),
instructional strategies that aim at fostering the interpersonal TSR have been largely
overlooked in teacher education curricula. As Jennings and Greenberg (2009,p.495)have
observed, the current educational system appears to assume that teachers have the requisite
SEC [socio-emotional competence] to create a warm and nurturing learning environment, be
emotionally responsive to students, form supportive and collaborative relationships with
difficult and demanding parents []. In fact, (socio)-emotional competence can be regarded
as a competence cluster that requires training just like other teacher competencies. There is
emerging evidence that TSR issues tend to evoke tensions and dilemmas accompanied by
various emotions, particularly in beginning teachers, which reflects insecurity in regard to
relationship issues (Pillen et al. 2013).
Thus, reflecting on social interaction in the classroom and its accompanied emotions should
be an important component of teacher pre- and in-service education programmes, with a view
to develop and enhance teachers (socio)-emotional competence (Garner 2010; Jennings and
Greenberg 2009).
Acknowledgments This research was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): J 3164-G17.
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Teacher emotions
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Gerda Hagenauer, Institute of Educational Science, Department of Research on School, Learning and Instruction,
University of Bern, Fabrikstrasse 8, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland; Email: gerda.hagenauer@edu.unibe.ch
Current themes of research:
Emotions and motivation in learning and teaching at school and in higher education; teacher-student relationship;
mixed methods in educational research
Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education:
Hagenauer, G., & Volet, S. E. (2014). Student-teacher relationship at university: an important yet under-
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Tina Hascher, Institute of Educational Science, Department of Research on School, Learning and Instruction,
University of Bern, Fabrikstrasse 8, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland; Email: tina.hascher@edu.unibe.ch
Current themes of research:
Emotional and motivational aspects of learning and teaching; wellbeing in school; teacher education
Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education:
Hagenauer, G. & Hascher, T. (2014). Early adolescents enjoyment experienced in learning situations at school
and its relation to student achievement. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 2(2), 2030.
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Simone Volet, School of Education, Murdoch University, South Street 90, Murdoch, Perth, Australia. E-mail:
s.volet@murdoch.edu.au.
Current themes of research:
Self and social regulation of learning. Cognitive, motivational and emotional aspects of learning and teaching.
Collaborative learning processes. Cultural issues in higher education.
Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education:
Khosa, D. & Volet, S. E. (2014). Cognitive activity and metacognitive regulation during collaborative learning:
Can it explain differences in conceptual understanding? Metacognition and Learning, 9 (3), 287307.
Hagenauer, G., & Volet, S.E. (2014). Student-teacher relationship at university: An important yet under-
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perspective. Educational Psychologist, 44 (4), 215226.
Teacher emotions
... Emotions and therefore the concept of emotional competence are of practical relevance for teachers, which is why the general appearance, antecedents, and associations of teacher emotions received a lot of attention in research over the last decade (e.g., Becker et al., 2015;Buri c & Frenzel, 2019;Frenzel et al., 2015;Frenzel et al., 2020;Hagenauer et al., 2015;Keller et al., 2014;. Emotions can be conceptualized as either shortlived states or as stable traits (e.g., Buri c and , and some important teacher emotions are enjoyment, pride, anger, and anxiety (Frenzel, 2014), whose occurrence and intensity can be associated with important teacher variables, such as teacher selfefficacy (Dicke et al., 2015;Lauermann & K€ onig, 2016) and instructional quality , and with teachers' mental health (e.g., Chang, 2013;Taxer et al., 2019). ...
... Scherer (2009) and Scherer and Moors (2019) identified relevant cognitions preceding or accompanying emotions such as the relevance, the implications, the normative significance, and the coping potential associated with a present stimulus. Based on the assumptions of the appraisal theory underlying these models of emotion generation, some researchers have started to investigate relevant cognitions in teachers, particularly goal relevance and goal attainment (Frenzel et al., 2020), and coping potential regarding classroom discipline and self-efficacy expectations (Hagenauer et al., 2015), which might be relevant for teachers' emotion regulation in the classroom. ...
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Teachers' emotional competence predicts teachers' mental health and the teacher-student relationship. Therefore, training pre-service teachers' emotional competence seems important. In the present study, we evaluated a training of emotional competence comprising elements of emotion knowledge, emotion awareness, and emotion regulation training. We report on data of 186 participants and compared 71 trained subjects to two comparison groups. We found some effects of the training on both self-estimated and objectively measured emotion regulation ability. These effects remained stable over time. Furthermore , we found that the in-situation emotion insecurity decreased only in the training group. Future implications of these results are discussed.
... However, it is not always evident for teachers to build a positive, close relationship with each child. Teachers experience both positive (e.g., joy, connectedness) and negative (e.g., anger, helplessness) emotions in relationships with children (Hargreaves, 2000;Cross and Hong, 2012;Hagenauer et al., 2015;de Ruiter et al., 2019;Frenzel et al., 2020). These emotions strongly impact teachers' interactions with their children: joyful expressions tend to serve as an invitation for positive interactions, whereas anger may invoke a willingness to control the child's behavior (Frenzel et al., 2009). ...
... Students who have a close relationship with their teacher for instance hold more positive attitudes toward school, achieve better in class, and are more likely to develop positive peer relations (Roorda et al., 2017Ansari et al., 2020a), while students who have a conflictual relationship with their teacher are at risk for negative outcomes and the amplification of initial internalizing and externalizing problems (Roorda et al., 2014;Ansari et al., 2020a;. Likewise, close teacher-student relationships contribute to teachers' self-efficacy, sense of personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and professional motivation (Hagenauer et al., 2015;Corbin et al., 2019;Aboagye et al., 2020), whereas conflictual relationships are an important source of teacher stress and are predictive of burnout symptoms such as emotional exhaustion (Milatz et al., 2015;Corbin et al., 2019;Ansari et al., 2020b). In sum, both teachers and students profit from close relationships, while both suffer from conflictual relationships. ...
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More than 20 years have passed since the publication of Pianta (2001) on the quality of the teacher-student relationship. Since then, several attempts have been made to elaborate theoretically the concept of teacher-student relationship quality and to provide empirical evidence of the impact that good teacher-student relationship quality might have on academic achievement, student psychological adjustment, and classroom climate. The teacher has been recognized as a “psychological parent” and defined as a secure base and safe heaven, following attachment theory (Verschueren and Koomen, 2012, 2021; Prino et al., 2022; Spilt et al., 2022). Several studies have shown that a relationship with the teacher characterized by affection, closeness, and respect predicts more favorable developmental outcomes and better adjustment to the classroom context in any school setting (Roorda et al., 2011, 2017; Longobardi et al., 2019, 2021; Lin et al., 2022). However, after 20 years, we saw the need to synthesize the current literature on the topic of teacher-learner relationship quality and to promote a collection of studies that provide new insights, ideas, and reflections to advance the research field and overcome current limitations. In this Research Topic, 16 publications were collected from different parts of the world. The Research Topic includes two literature reviews, several empirical works, some of which aim to develop and validate instruments to measure the quality of the teacher-student relationship, and others to promote new knowledge about the effects and mechanisms of action of the quality of the teacher-learner relationship on the psychological development and adjustment processes of children and adolescents. In addition, the Research Topic includes a contribution on possible intervention strategies on the quality of teacher-student relationship.
... On the other hand, there is also a relationship between students' attitudes and teachers' emotions. In the study of Hagenauer et al. (2015), students' engagement and discipline were found to be significant predictors of teacher emotions, including joy, anxiety, and anger, and teachers' negative experiences in teaching may increase the likelihood of teachers' alienation and burnout while decreasing the quality of teaching and teacher-student relations. When other challenges were considered, it was observed that teachers mentioned some challenges related to parents, including uninvolved parenting, raising children in an unh appy environment resulting in student misbehavior, and excessively intervening with teachers' decisions and practices. ...
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The purpose of this study is to determine perspectives of teachers about classroom climate by investigating teachers' descriptions of a positive classroom climate, their practices towards a positive classroom climate, the challenges they encounter in creating a positive classroom climate, and their suggestions for a positive classroom climate. The research adopted a case study design. The study group consisted of 45 teachers and the data was collected via a questionnaire form which was composed of four open-ended questions. Based on the content analysis, sub-categories and categories were identified for each sub-problem and frequencies were reported. Findings showed that teachers regarded classroom climate as a multidimensional construct and their descriptions of a positive classroom climate included a wide range of interrelated in-class and out-class variables. It was also determined that teachers substantially focused on the instructional practices in order to enhance the classroom climate. The most frequency encountered challenge was related to students’ disinterest that was followed by uninvolved parenting. For a better classroom climate, teachers suggested improvements in terms of all stakeholders, instructional practices, social, emotional and physical environment and rules. Findings were discussed based on previous research and suggestions were offered for further studies.
... -begeisterung neben anderen Kriterien eine zentrale Rolle spielt (Baumert und Kunter 2006;Frenzel et al. 2008;Keller et al. 2013;Keller et al. 2014a;Becker et al. 2014, Hagenauer et al. 2015 Bei den Studien stehen vor allem der Lernzuwachs, aber auch das Schülerinteresse und das Selbstkonzept im Zentrum des Erkenntnisinteresses. ...
... Aside from this, relational goals, through their emphasis on developing personal and caring interrelations with students, have been found to foster positive, joyful emotional experiences in school (Wang et al., 2016) and higher education teachers . This stands in line with the notion that the quality of student-teacher interactions is an important social factor contributing to teachers' (emotional) well-being (Hagenauer et al., 2015;Kiltz et al., 2020). Surprisingly, relational goals have also been found to be positively related to shame and boredom in higher education teaching )-providing first indication that while relational goals might be helpful for instructional quality, they might also entail emotional costs, warranting further investigation. ...
Article
Prior research has demonstrated that achievement goals for teaching matter for student learning and teacher experiences. While previous studies have primarily focused on how goals differ between individuals, educational theorists and practitioners have proposed that investigating variation within individuals may be more suitable for explaining their daily experiences. To investigate the magnitude of within-person variation in goals, we distinguished between temporal variability and context specificity and tested their relevance for differences in emotional experiences when teaching. One-hundred-and-eight higher education teachers participated with 213 courses and 949 consecutive course sessions across an average of five weeks. Before each session, they reported their current achievement goals, and directly afterwards, the emotions they experienced throughout the respective session. We used multilevel analyses to investigate sources of variation in these constructs. Results indicated that between half and two thirds of the variability in goal pursuit could be attributed to a stable-general fraction (between-level: different teachers), and that goal pursuit also had substantial amounts of variable-general (different semester weeks of the teachers), stable-specific (different courses of the teachers), and variable-specific (remaining session variance) fractions. Variability in emotions could also be attributed to these four fractions to a substantial extent, with the stable-general fraction being lower than for the goals. Further, emotions were systematically related to achievement goals, with different effects being observable for the different levels. Taken together, these findings contribute to a better understanding of how to conceptualize and assess achievement goals for teaching and how they are intertwined with emotions.
... For example, Baumrind's studies of parenting styles show that the most adaptive parenting style for children combines both parental demandingness (rules, discipline) and responsiveness (warmth and acceptance) (Baumrind, 1991;Maccoby & Martin, 1983). These findings are also concomitant with the results of many recent studies showing the importance of establishing meaningful relationships between students and their teachers for both parties as on one hand, they benefit students' emotional well-being through supporting important aspects such as achievement emotions or self-concept of ability, and on the other, they support teachers' emotional wellbeing, thus lessening stressful feelings that often accompany negative behavior management (e.g., Clem et al., 2021;Freund et al., 2022;Hagenauer et al., 2015). Positive relationships have been central to classroom and behavior management strategies for several years now (Gaudreau et al., 2015) and it is interesting to see the way they are taken into account by students when evaluating different aspects of the social learning environment. ...
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Behavior management in the classroom is well known for being a challenge and a source of stress for preservice and experienced teachers alike. This means it may not only impact teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs, but teachers’ efficacy perceived by their students too, engendering effects on the social learning environment and vice-versa. This article aims at taking a step towards a better understanding of which aspects of the social learning environment preservice teachers and their students take into account when positioning themselves on behavior management efficacy. It then goes onto exploring how students’ perception of teacher efficacy in behavior management varies across classes and how it interacts with the social learning environment through a two-level model analysis. Results showed that the social learning environment’s dimensions are associated with the perception of teacher efficacy by students. On one hand, students perceive that efficacy in behavior management is linked to the social learning environment and therefore expect that an efficient teacher in this area will be able to create a healthy relationship with appropriate rules and class organization. On the other, when it comes to preservice teachers, findings seem to show the importance of the training program and how it supports self-efficacy beliefs throughout first teaching experiences as results go in the direction of confirming that these beliefs stabilize fairly early on, because unlike the students, the preservice teachers seem to take other aspects than the learning environment into account while evaluating their self-efficacy regarding behavior management. Finally, this research adds yet another element to the observation that effective behavior management within the classroom requires a positive relationship between teachers and their students. In addition, the way rules and organization are taken into account by students demonstrates the need for a proactive approach in which teachers’ expectations are clear.
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Based on the Shanghai TALIS 2018 database, this study discusses how school job characteristics impact teachers’ job satisfaction under the framework of the job demands-resources model. The main findings are as follows: (1) Job demands (JDs) negatively predict teachers’ job satisfaction, and work pressure plays a completely mediating role in this path. (2) Job resources positively predict teachers’ job satisfaction. (3) Only the organizational type of job resources can mitigate the negative impact of JDs on teachers’ job satisfaction, and for such job resource types, teachers would own the highest level of job satisfaction in the school environment with a combination of high job demands and high job resources. The above findings confirm the importance of improving school management practices and optimizing the combination of work resources and demands to improve teachers’ job satisfaction.KeywordsJob Demands-Resources model (JD-R model)Job satisfactionJob pressureTALIS 2018
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Background: Prior research mainly focussed on the impact of the teacher-student relationship on teachers emotions and wellbeing. Current data shows a relationship between the quality of the teacher-student relationship and children's mental health. Unfortunately, it has not yet been investigated whether meaningful experiences with teachers also have an impact on students' well-being and whether an effect can still be found in adulthood. This work examines the impact of meaningful experiences with teachers during childhood and adolescence on the well-being of adults. Methods: The data in this study was collected by using a questionnaire. The current well-being of the participants was assessed with measures of life satisfaction, resilience, anxiety, stress, depressiveness, and self-esteem. Also, participants were asked to briefly write about their most meaningful experiences with teachers and rate them regarding their valence. These experiences were categorized into seven categories using a summarizing content analysis. We then conducted a statistical analysis with the data obtained. Results: The results showed a highly significant correlation between the participants' self-esteem and the valence ratings of their experiences. Furthermore, the experience category had a substantial effect on individual self-esteem. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relationship exists between the well-being of adults and their experiences with teachers during childhood and adolescence. Conclusion: The results of this study call for a reflective, fair, authentic, and empathetic approach to students. Accordingly, teachers should be intensively trained to establish a relationship with their students that is characterized by appreciation and empathy.