ArticlePDF Available

Composition, biological properties and therapeutic effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L). A review

Authors:

Abstract

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a shrub of the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. The material used for herbal purposes includes lavender flowers (Lavandula flores) containing essential oil (3%), anthocyanins, phytosterols, sugars, minerals, and tannins. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of lavender is variable and depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, propagation, and morphological features. The essential oil contains over 300 chemical compounds. The dominant components are linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, acetate lavandulol, oci-mene, and cineole. Lavender essential oil has good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and a significant positive effect on the digestive and nervous systems. Lavender extract prevents dementia and may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, while lavender hydrolate is recommended for the treatment of skin problems and burns.
Vol. 60 No. 2 2014

DOI: 10.2478/hepo-2014-0010
Composition, biological properties and therapeutic effects of lavender
(Lavandula angustifolia L.). A review
RENATA PRUSINOWSKA*, KRZYSZTOF B. ŚMIGIELSKI
Institute of General Food Chemistry
Łódź University of Technology
Stefanowskiego 4/10
90-924 Łódź, Poland
*corresponding author: phone: +4842 6313424,
e-mail: renata.prusinowska@p.lodz.pl
Summary
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a shrub of the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediter-
ranean region. The material used for herbal purposes includes lavender flowers (Lavandula
flores) containing essential oil (3%), anthocyanins, phytosterols, sugars, minerals, and tan-
nins. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of lavender is vari-
able and depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, propagation, and
morphological features. The essential oil contains over 300 chemical compounds. The
dominant components are linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, acetate lavandulol, oci-
mene, and cineole. Lavender essential oil has good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities
and a significant positive effect on the digestive and nervous systems. Lavender extract
prevents dementia and may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, while lavender hydrolate is
recommended for the treatment of skin problems and burns.
 lavender, Lavandula angustifolia, herbs, essential oils, phytotherapy, secondary plant
metabolites

The active compounds present in herbs exhibit multidirectional phytothera-
peutic activity and are used in the treatment of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular,
respiratory, and urinary infections, as well as in chronic diseases of children and
REWIEV ARTICLE
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
57
Vol. 60 No. 2 2014
Composition, biological properties and therapeutic effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.). A review
elderly people. Furthermore, they exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic,
and antioxidant activity, and also regulate digestive activity. Due to the biologi-
cally active substances present in them, herbs have antimicrobial, antioxidant,
and therapeutic properties, and may be extensively used, as they are effective as
synthetic drugs.
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a plant with a number of beneficial proper-
ties for the human body. Besides its application in herbal treatment, lavender
is widely used in the cosmetic, perfume, food, and aromatherapeutic industries
[1,2].

Lavender, also known as medicinal lavender, true lavender, or common laven-
der (Lavandula angustifolia, L. officinalis, L. vera), is an evergreen perennial plant.
Lavender is native to the Mediterranean region (France, Spain, Andorra, and Italy),
but is grown in many other countries of the world, including Poland [3,4]. The
name lavender comes from the Latin verb lavo, lavare and means to wash or to
clean. Lavender has been known from ancient times, as evidenced by work of
Dioscorides entitled “De Materia Medica,” which praises its medicinal properties.
The Romans used lavender as a bath additive, and in the Middle Ages it was one
of the most valuable essential oil plants used in perfume and soap making. It was
also used both as a food additive and a laxative.
Lavender grows to a height of 40–60 cm and forms compact, regular clumps.
The lower part of stem is woody, while the upper part is green. Lavender has
linear or lanceolate leaves with curled edges and a highly branched fibrous root
system. Silver-green lavender leaves are covered with tomentum, which protects
them from strong sunshine, wind, and excessive water loss. Lavender flowers
grow in spikes, arranged in circles (3–5 flowers per circle) in the top part of the
stem. They are of pale violet color, although, varieties with white flowers (Alba
and Nana Alba) and pink flowers (Rosea) have also been bred [5].
Lavender (L. angustifolia) grows on well-drained, fertile and lime soils. It grows
best in full sun with wind protection. In subsequent years of cultivation, lavender
may be fertilized with manure or chemical fertilizers, but care should be taken
not to acidify the soil or introduce too much nitrogen, as this causes excessive
gain in the green parts with a simultaneous reduction in inflorescence. In Poland,
lavender is not entirely hard to frost, so it needs a good cover for the winter [6].
Plants may be propagated generatively from seeds or vegetatively from soft
and hard wood cuttings, or through tissue culture. Lavender shrubs are regu-
larly pruned in order to stimulate plant growth and to promote flowering. The
flowering period lasts from July to August. Harvesting should be carried out on
dry, sunny days. Flowers should be collected before opening, dried in bundles in
shaded and well-ventilated places. The plant portions used for herbal purposes
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
58
R. Prusinowska, KB. Śmigielski
are flowers (Flos Lavandulae) or flowering aerial parts (Herba Lavandulae), and the
material used for essential oil production consists of fresh or dried tops of flower-
ing plants [5].

Lavender (L. angustifolia) contains essential oil, anthocyanins, phytosterols, sug-
ars, minerals, coumaric acid, glycolic acid, valeric acid, ursolic acid, herniarin,
coumarin and tannins [5].
The content of macronutrients differs depending on lavender variety [7]. Potas-
sium levels range from 17.7 g×kg-1 dry matter (d.m.) for the Munstead variety to
23.9 g×kg-1 d.m. for Lavender Lady. Climatic conditions have a significant impact
on the amount of calcium in lavender grown in Romania, the average value is
2.13 g Ca per 1 kg d.m. [8], while in Pakistan it is 10.50 g Ca per kg d.m. [9]. In
turn, the Blue River variety has a calcium content of 8.10 g×kg-1 d.m., and the
Munstead variety 13.8 g×kg-1 d.m. Lavender is characterized by low levels of
magnesium (from 1.40 g×kg-1 d.m. for Lavender Lady to 3.60 g×kg-1 d.m. for
Munstead) and sodium (from 0.11 g×kg-1 d.m. for Munstead to 0.15 g×kg-1 d.m.
for Lavender Lady). The studies by Colceru-Mihul et al. [8] and Adnan et al. [9] also
confirmed the low content of these elements, from 2.19 g to 4.25 g Mg per kg
d.m., and 0.37 g Na per kg d.m.
It has been found that the amount of trace elements depends on the variety. Zinc
levels ranges from 23.0 to 106.27 mg×kg-1 d.m. [8,9]. The study of Adaszyńska et
al. [7] also confirmed the high content of this micronutrient: from 25.7 mg×kg-1
d.m. for Lavender Lady to 39.2 mg×kg-1 d.m. for Ellagance Purple. The presence
of copper amounts to 7.2–11.1 mg×kg-1 d.m. and that of manganese to 9.6–18.0
mg×kg-1 d.m. for the Munstead and Lavender Lady varieties, respectively. The
highest content of iron has been found in Ellagance Purple (489 mg×kg-1 d.m.)
while the smallest in Munstead (137 mg×kg-1 d.m).

The most valuable substance isolated from lavender (L. angustifolia) is essential
oil (tab. 1), found in oil glands located on the surface of the calyx, in the furrows
between fine hairs. Essential oil is present in amounts from 2% to 3%. It is obtained
by hydrodistillation or steam distillation; it is yellow and has an intense floral-
herbal lavender scent with a delicate hint of fruit and wood [4, 5, 10, 11].
The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of lavender (L.
angustifolia) depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, propa-
gation, and morphological characteristics [12]. The essential oil consists of over
300 chemical compounds, the main ones are linalool (from 9.3% to 68.8%) and
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
59
Vol. 60 No. 2 2014
Composition, biological properties and therapeutic effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.). A review
linalyl acetate (from 1.2% to 59.4%). The near infrared spectrometry (NIR) profiles
of the essential oil from fresh and dried lavender flowers grown in Poland are
closest to those of the essential oil from French lavender (the matching rates are
90.39% for fresh lavender and 97.65% for dried lavender) [13].
The quality of essential oil of lavender depends both on the high content of
linalool and linalyl acetate and their mutual proportions (higher than 1). The pre-
dominant compounds include borneol, α-terpineol, terpinene-4-ol, lavandulol ac-
etate, as well as caryophyllene and linalool oxides. The main class of compounds
consists of oxygenated monoterpenes (73.8%), with the greatest fraction of mono-
terpene alcohols (36%) [13]. The high concentration of lavandulol and lavandulol
acetate gives a distinctive herbal-rosy scent, while the fragrance is adversely af-
fected by ocimene, cineol, camphor, and terpinen-4-ol [12].
According to Lawrence [12], the fragrance of this essential oil is determined
mainly by the presence of alcohols and their esters with acetic acid. The fresh,
green herbal-floral tone rises due to the presence of (Z)-hex-3-enol and its ester;
the herbal scent and the earthy aroma are produced by oct-1-en-3-ol and its ester;
the fruity-fatty scent due to the presence of butyl and hexyl esters: linalool, la-
vandulol, and their esters (linalool acetate and lavandulol acetate) are responsible
for fresh, floral smell; monoterpene aldehydes and ketones generate the herbal
flavor; the sweet aromatic note is attributable to santalene derivatives and ses-
quiterpenes. The presence of pyridine affects fragrance modifications. The price
of lavender essential oil is high and due to this fact it is often falsified by adding
cheaper Lavandula latifolia essential oil or a hybrid of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia,
or by the addition of synthetic chemicals.
The process of steam distillation of essential oils lead to the formation of by-
products called hydrolates [14,15]. Hydrolates, also known as hydrosols or herbal
water, consist of water from the plant material and process water. Depending on
their final volume (variant), hydrolates have an intense herbal aroma, a sweet floral-
herbal lavender scent, or a barely perceptible lavender aroma. The total content of
volatile organic compounds in hydrolates ranges from 24.83 to 97.23 mg/100 ml
hydrolate [16]. The main chemical compounds are linalool (39%), α-terpineol (15%),
and coumarin (7%). The hydrolates lack in linalyl acetate, a chemical compound
present in a large amounts (1.2%–59.4%) in the essential oil of lavender.
The study by Śmigielski et al. [13] has shown that while drying, lavender (L.
angustifolia) losses of more than 40% of its essential oils. However, if fresh lavender
is dried in a fluidized bed, in a closed circuit system containing a drying agent
and a heat exchanger, the dried product produces more volatile and biologically
active substances at a predetermined humidity and condensed water from the
plant, called Fluidolat [17, 18]. This biologically active and innovative product is
completely lost in processing using conventional technologies. The fragrance of
lavender fluidolates is similar to the hydrolate aroma, but more intense and floral.
The content of volatile organic compounds in fluidolates depends on the degree
of material drying and ranges from 120.62 to 180.26 mg/100 ml fluidolate. The
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
60
R. Prusinowska, KB. Śmigielski
dominant compounds are linalool (65.2%–79.2%), terpinen-4-ol (6.3%–16.4%) and
lavandulol (0.8%–4.4%). The main group of compounds consists of oxygen deriva-
tives of monoterpene hydrocarbons (80%–91%), including monoterpene alcohols
(47%–61%). Fluidolates also lack in linalyl acetate.

Main compounds in essential oils of lavender (L. angustifolia) [10, 12, 13]
No. Compound Bulgaria Italy France Poland
[%] [%] [%] [%]
1 Ocimene 6.8–7.7 0.2–18.1 1.9–2.9
2 Cineol 2.1–3.0 0.02–0.2 0–3.4 0.2–0.5
3 Camphor < 0.5 0.3–0.6 0–0.5 0.2–0.3
4 Linalool 30.1–33.7 33.3–42.2 9.3–68.8 27.3–34.7
5 Linalyl acetate 35.2–37.6 37.8–41.2 1.2–59.4 19.7–22.4
6 Terpinen-4-ol 4.5–5.8 2.8–3.6 0.1–13.5 1.1–2.0
7 Lavandulol 0–4.3 0.6–0.8
8 Lavandulol acetate 0.3–21.6 4.5–5.7

Lavender (L. angustifolia) flowers, buds and leaves are edible and used to flavor
broths and jellies (not consumed as a raw material). Lavender scent effectively de-
ters moths and flies, so the plant is placed in closets and drawers. This insecticidal
activity has been confirmed by the studies of Perrucci et al. [19] and O’Brien [20].
Infusions and tinctures of lavender flowers have sedative and analgesic proper-
ties. Lavender tincture is thought to alleviate depression, headaches, and anxiety,
which has been confirmed by the study of Akhondzadeh et al. [21]. Lavender
extract administered to rats prevented dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease
[22], and a cytotoxic study of the effects of the extract on lung cancer showed the
inhibition of carcinogenic cell growth [23].
Lavender essential oil is used in perfume, cosmetics and household chemicals.
It is present in toilet water, eau de cologne, lotions, and after-shaves, giving them
a strong top note, while imparts a scent of freshness and purity to household
cleaning preparations. Many well-known cosmetic companies, such as Avon,
Procter and Gamble, and Aloe Vera sell product with a lavender aroma.
The essential oil of lavender (L. angustifolia) has antibacterial activity at doses of
4.0–9.0 mg/ml [24]. The study of Mayaud et al. [25] confirmed its antimicrobial ef-
fects at concentrations of 0.94%–10% against 65 bacterial strains (the effectiveness
against Gram-positive bacteria was higher than against Gram-negative). Lavender
essential oil has an inhibitory effect on the growth of S. enteritidis, K. pneumoniae,
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
61
Vol. 60 No. 2 2014
Composition, biological properties and therapeutic effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.). A review
E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, and A. niger [26]. Essential oils from plants
of the genus Lavandula exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities. The es-
sential oil of Lavandula dentata has an inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria,
including Salmonella, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, E. coli, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes.
In turn, the essential oil of L. bipinnata exhibits antibacterial properties (against
E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. subtilis) and antifungal properties (against A.
niger, P. notatum, C. albicans) at concentrations of 0.5–2.0 µg×ml-1 for bacteria and
2.0–4.0 µg×ml-1 for fungi [27]. Lavender essential oil shows high activity against
Gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli,
P. aeruginosa), and inhibits their growth at concentrations of 0.6 or 1.0 µl×ml-1,
depending on the strain (Prusinowska, unpublished).
In Poland, the essential oil of lavender (L. angustifolia) has been investigated in
terms of antimicrobial activity. It has been found that the essential oil is active
against yeasts and molds such as Candida sp., A. niger, and P. expansum, with the
MIC 2.5–3 times lower than that for bacteria. Lavender hydrolates also exhibit
antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis, Candida sp.,
and A. niger (Prusinowska, unpublished).
Essential oils have antioxidant properties protecting cells against the harmful
impact of free radicals. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil of lavender was
shown by Dapkevicius et al. [28]. Economou et al. [29] demonstrated the inhibi-
tory effect of this oil on fat oxidation reactions and lipid peroxidation in a linoleic
acid model system [30]. Chia-Wen Lin et al. [31] used DPPH to study the antioxi-
dant properties of the essential oil of lavender (L. angustifolia), and, in particular,
its ability to inactivate free radicals. The value of 15.18 ± 0.009% at a concentra-
tion of 5 g×l-1 indicates properties comparable with the essential oils of lime and
marjoram. In contrast, Viuda-Martos et al. reported a significantly lower ability of
the essential oil to inactivate free radicals at a similar concentration (4.11%) [32].
Studies testing the ability of this essential oil to reduce 50% DPPH radicals led to
divergent results with values ranging from 289 µg×ml-1 [33] to 48.7 mg×ml-1 [32].
A study on the essential oil obtained from lavender grown in Poland determined
this value to be IC50 = 338.0 ml×ml-1 (Prusinowska, unpublished).
According to Buchbauer et al. [34], some components of essential oils, such
as linalool and terpineol, have an effect on the central nervous system, weaken-
ing the physical activity of humans and animals, reducing anxiety, and facilitating
sleep. In mice and rats, a systemic administration of lavender essential oil also
promotes sleepiness [35]. In a study of brain waves, 40 healthy adults showed
increased activity of βwaves and did better in math tests following inhalation of
the essential oil of lavender. In turn, patients have been reported to feel relaxed
and exhibit a positive attitude to life, which was accompanied by drowsiness [36].
Experiments conducted in humans in order to examine the soporific prop-
erties of lavender have shown that lavender oil aromatherapy leads to longer
sleeping times, and, in the case of patients requiring hypnosis, results in a re-
duced use of drugs [37]. A clinical study on a group of 245 individuals showed
that 72% of patients inhaling lavender oil experienced sound sleep, as compared
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
62
R. Prusinowska, KB. Śmigielski
to only 11% in the control group. Four out of five patients subjected to the treat-
ment reported a general feeling of well-being, in contrast to only 25% in the
control group [38].
Lavender (L. angustifolia) also exhibits anxiolytic activity, as confirmed by a study
conducted on pigs. A marked reduction in the incidence and severity of motion
sickness (as measured by the concentration of cortisol in saliva) was observed in
animals when the floor of the vehicle was covered by lavender [39]. In a random-
ized clinical trial conducted in 122 patients in critical condition, it was found that
essential oil aromatherapy decreased anxiety, as compared to patients receiving
a massage without aromatherapy and those who rested. There was no difference
in blood pressure and state of respiratory tract between the two groups of pa-
tients [40]. A study involving the waiting room of a dental surgery has shown that
aromatherapy with lavender essential oil reduces their anxiety related to the ex-
pected unpleasant sensations [41]. Yamada et al. [42] demonstrated that lavender
essential oil administered by inhalation or intraperitoneally blocks convulsions
caused by pentylenetetrazol or nicotine.
The essential oil of lavender also has an antispasmodic effect by increasing the
levels of messenger cAMP, but the exact mechanism of this is unclear [43]. The
in vitro studies have proven this essential oil to have analgesic activity [44], and
experiments on rabbits have revealed its anesthetic properties [45]. Massage with
lavender essential oil reduced the need for pain relievers among young patients
with HIV, and in some cases removed pain completely [46].
Inhalation of lavender essential oil by rabbits has contributed to reduced con-
tent of cholesterol and atherosclerosis in aorta, but had no effect cholesterol
levels in serum [47]. Studies have shown that inhalation of the essential oil of
lavender causes a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lowers
the heart rate [48]. Lavender essential oil helps in the treatment of digestive dis-
orders, regulates bowel movements and the biliary tract, also prevents against
flatulence. Studies on rats have shown that inhalation of lavender essential oil can
increase bile secretion [49] and restore normal activity of the oxidative enzymes
involved in catabolism [50]. In the guinea pig, the essential oil of lavender was
found to be a smooth muscle relaxant inhibiting the contractile response of ace-
tylcholine and histamine [51, 52].
Lavender is considered to be both an aphrodisiac and a good remedy for hair
growth. Gruss and Hirsch [53] conducted clinical trials on a group of 31 men
who inhaled 30 different scents and found that the lavender aroma and pumpkin
dough caused the largest increase in blood flow to the penis by 40% as com-
pared to the control. This indicates the potential use of odoriferous substances
for the treatment of sexual disorders. Essential oil of lavender is also good for
hair growth – a group of 86 patients with alopecia areata was subjected to mas-
sage with essential oils, including lavender, for seven weeks, which was found to
improve hair growth in almost half of the patients [54].
Lavender hydrolates have not only refreshing and calming properties but also
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
63
Vol. 60 No. 2 2014
Composition, biological properties and therapeutic effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.). A review
help to treat insomnia and headaches. They are recommended for skin conditions
and burns [24, 26, 55]. Both hydrolates and fluidolates of lavender can be success-
fully used in natural and organic cosmetic products. It is expected that fluidolates
may have similar properties, judging by their chemical composition, but research
in this area is still ongoing.
Presented literature review indicates that both lavender (L. angustifolia) and
its secondary metabolites have multidirectional biological activity. Our research
has shown that lavender grown in Poland is a valuable plant resource with chemi-
cal and biological properties similar to French lavender, and thus should attract
greater interest among local herb producers.
It seems that modern medicine should pay attention to the synergistic action
of plant secondary metabolites and synthetic drugs, as they may help solve many
problems, including microbial resistance to synthetic antibiotics.

1. Shellie R, Mondello L, Marriott P, Dugo G. Characterization of lavender essential oils by using gas
chromatography-mass spectroscopy with correlation of linear retention indices and comparison with
comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 2002; 970:225-234.
2. Śmigielski K, Sikora M, Majewska M, Raj A. The application of essentials oils to natural and organic
cosmetics. Pol J Cosmetology 2008; 11:89-107.
3. Boelens MH. Chemical and sensory evaluation of Lavandula Oils. Perf Flav 1995; 20:23-25.
4. Śmigielski K, Raj A, Krosowiak K, Gruska R. Chemical composition of the essentials oil of Lavandula
angustifolia cultivated in Poland. J Essent Oil Bearing Plants 2009; 12(3):338-347.
5. Góra J, Lis A. Najcenniejsze olejki eteryczne, 2005
6. http://kawon.com.pl/
7. Adaszyńska M, Swarcewicz M, Dobrowolska A. Skład chemiczny i mineralny różnych odmian lawendy
wąskolistnej (Lavandula augustifolia). Prog Plant Prot 2011; 51(1):15-20.
8. Colceru-Mihul S, Armatu A, Draghici E, Nita S. Studies concerning the relationship between essential
elements content and myorelaxant effect of three vegetal selective fractions. Romanian Biotechnol Lett
2009; 14(6):4792– 4797.
9. Adnan M, Hussain J, Tahir M, Shinwari Z. Proximate and nutrient composition of medicinal plants of
humid and sub-humid regions in north-west Pakistan. J Med Plants Res 2010; 4(4):339–345.
10. Ognyanov I. Bulgarian lavender and Bulgarian lavender oil. Perf Flav 1983-1984; 8(6):29-41.
11. Stajkov W. The Lavender – processing to lavender products in Bulgaria. Farmachim, Sofia 1984.
12. Lawrence BM. Progress in essential oils, lavender oils. Perf Flav 1993; 18(1):58-61.
13. Śmigielski K, Prusinowska R, Raj A, Sikora M, Wolińska K, Gruska R. Effect of drying on the composition
of essential oil from Lavandula angustifolia. J Ess Oil Bearning Plants 2011; 14(5):532–542.
14. Rajeswara Rao B, Kaul P, Bhattacharya A, Rajput D. Comparative Chemical Composition of Steam-
Distilled and Water-Soluble Essential Oils of South American Marigold (Tagetes minuta L.). J Essent Oil
Res 2006; (18):622-626.
15. Edris AE. Identification and absolute quantification of the major water-soluble aroma components
isolated from the hydrosols of some aromatic plants. J Essent Oil Bear Plants 2009; 12(2):155-161.
16. Śmigielski K, Prusinowska R, Krosowiak K, Sikora M. Comparison of qualitative an quantitative chemical
composition of hydrolate and essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). J Ess Oil Res 2013,
25(4):291-299.
17. Śmigielski K, Sikora M, Stawczyk JA, Piątkowski M, Krosowiak K. Zgłoszenie patentowe Sposób suszenia
świeżych surowców roślinnych. UP RP P-392734.
18. Śmigielski K, Sikora M, Stawczyk JA, Piątkowski M, Krosowiak K. Znak użytkowy Urząd Patentowy RP
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
64
R. Prusinowska, KB. Śmigielski
Z-375390 „Fluidolat”.
19. Perrucci S, Cioni PL, Flamini G, Morelli I, Macchioni G. Acaricidal agents of natural origin against
Psoroptes cuniculi. Parassitologia 1994; 36:269-71.
20. O’Brien DJ. Treatment of psoroptic mange with reference to epidemiology and history. Vet Parasitol
1999; 83:177-85.
21. Akhondzadeh S, Kashani L, Fotouhi A, Jarvandi S, Mobaseri M, Moin M, Khani M, Jamshidi AH, Baghalian
K, Taghizadeh M. Comparison of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. tincture and imipramine in the treatment
of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized trial. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharm. &
Biolog. Psychiatry.2003;27(1):123-7.
22. Kashani MS, Tavirani MR, Talaei SA, Salami M. Aqueous extract of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)
improves the spatial performance of a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurosci Bull 2011; 27(2):99-
106.
23. Shou-Dong S, Chang-Xu C, Ji-Shu Q, Ming-Hua S. Study on antitumor effect of Lavender angustifolia
extract. Food Sci Technol 2009; 2: 213-215.
24. Soković M, Marin PD, Brkić D, Van Griensven LJL. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of
essential oils of ten aromatic plants against human pathogenic bacteria. Food 1(1), x-y. Global Science
Book 2007.
25. Mayaud L, Carricajo A, Zhiri A, Aubert G. Comparison of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of
13 essential oils against strains with varying sensitivity to Antibiotics. Soc Appl Microbiol Let Appl
Microbiol 2008; 47:167–173.
26. Stanojević L, Stanković M, Cakić M, Nikolić V, Nikolić L, Ilić D, Radulović N. The effect of hydrodistillation
techniques on yield, kinetics, composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from flowers of
Lavandula officinalis L. Hemijska Industrija 2011; 65(4):455–463.
27. Hanamanthagouda MA, Kakkalameli SB, Naik PM, Nagella P, Seetharamareddy, HR, Murthy HN. Essential
oils of Lavandula bipinnata and their antimicrobial activities. Food Chem 2010; 118:836–839.
28. Dapkevicius A, Venskutonis R, Van Beek TA, Linssen JPH. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained by
different isolation procedures from some aromatic herbs grown in Lithuania. J Sci Food Agricult 1998;
77:140-146.
29. Economou KD, Oreopoulou V, Thomopoulos CD. Antioxidant activity of some plant extracts of the
family Labiatae. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 1991; 68:109–113.
30. Lu Hui, Li He, Lu Huan, Li Xiao Lan, Zhou Ai Guo. Chemical composition of lavender essential oil and
its antioxidant activity and inhibition against rhinitis related bacteria. African J Microbiol Res 2010;
4(4):309-313.
31. Chia-Wen Lin, Chia-Wen Yu, Sung-Chuan Wu, Kuang-Hway Yih. DPPH free-radical scavenging activity,
total phenolic contents and chemical composition analysis of fourty-two kinds of essential oils. J Food
Drug Anal 2009; 17(5):386-395.
32. Viuda-Martos M, Mohamady MA, Fernández-López J, Abd ElRazik KA, Omer EA, Pérez-Alvarez JA,
Sendra E. In vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essentials oils obtained from Egyptian
aromatic plants. Food Control 2011; 22:1715-1722.
33. Hussain AI, Anwar F, Iqbal T, Bhatti IA, Antioxidant attributes of four Lamiaceae essential oils. Pakistan
J Botany 2011; 43(2):1315-1321.
34. Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Jager W, Dietrich H, Plank C. Aromatherapy: evidence for sedative effects of
the essential oil of lavender after inhalation. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung. Section C. J Biosciences
1991; 46(11-12):1067-1072.
35. Guillemain J, Rousseau A, Delaveau P. Neurosedative effects of essential oil of lavandula angustifolia
Mill. Ann Pharmac Franc 1989; 47:337-343.
36. Diego M, Jones N. Aromatherapy positively affects mood, EEG patterns of math computations. Int J
Neurosci 1998; 96:217-224.
37. Wolfe N, Herzberg J. Can aromatherapy oils promote sleep in severely demented patients? [2]. Int J
Geriatric Psychiatry 1996; 11:926-927.
38. Hudson R. Use of lavender in a long-term elderly ward. Nursing Times 1995; 91:12.
39. Bradshaw RH, Marchant JN, Meredith MJ, Broom DM. Effects of lavender straw on stress and travel
sickness in pigs. J Altern Complement Med 1998; 4:271-275.
40. Dunn C, Sleep J, Collett D. Sensing an improvement: an experimental study to evaluate the use of
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
65
Vol. 60 No. 2 2014
Composition, biological properties and therapeutic effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia L.). A review
aromatherapy, massage and periods of rest in an intensive care unit. J Adv Nurs 1995; 21:34-40.
41. Kritsidima M, Newton T, Asimakopoulou K. The effects of lavender scent on dental patient anxiety
levels: a cluster randomised-controlled trial. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010; 38(1):83-87.
42. Yamada K, Mimaki Y, Sashida Y. Anticonvulsive effects of inhaling lavender oil vapour. Biol Pharm Bull
1994; 17:359-360.
43. Lis-Balchin M, Hart S. Studies on the mode of action of the essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia
P. Miller). Phytother Res 1999; 13:540-542.
44. Skoglund L, Jorkjed L. Postoperative pain experience after gingivectomies using different combinations
of local anaesthetic agents and periodontal dressings. J Clin Periodontol 1991; 18:204-209.
45. Ghelardini C, Galeotti N. Salvatore G, Mazzanti G. Local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil of
Lavandula angustifolia. Planta Med 1999; 65:700-3.
46. Styles J. The use of aromatherapy in hospitalized children with HIV. Complement Ther Nurs 1997;
3:16-20.
47. Nikolaevskii VV, Kononova NS, Pertsovskii AI, Shinkarchuk IF. Effect of essential oils on the course of
experimental atherosclerosis. Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia Eksperimentalnaia Terapiia 1990; 5:52-53.
48. Romine IJ, Bush AM, Geist CR. Lavender aromatherapy in recovery from exercise. Percept Mot Skills
1999; 88:756-8.
49. Gruncharov V. Clinico-experimental study on the choleretic and cholagogic action of Bulgarian lavender
oil. Vutr Boles 1973; 12:90-6.
50. Yurkova O. Vegetable aromatic substances influence on oxidative-retoration enzymes state in chronic
experimen with animals. Fiziol Zh 1999; 45:40-43.
51. Lis-Balchin M, Hart SA. preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle
in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 1997; 58:183-7.
52. Lis-Balchin M, Hart S. Studies on the Mode of Action of the Essential Oil of Lavender (Lavandula
angustifolia P. Miller). Phytother Res 1999; 13:540–542.
53. Hirsch A, Gruss J. Human male sexual response to olfactory stimuli. J Neurol Orthop Med Surg 1999;
19:14-19.
54. Hay IC, Jamieson M, Ormerod AD. Randomized trial of aromatherapy: successful treatment for alopecia
areata. Arch Dermatol 1998; 134:1349-1352.
55. Catty S. Hydrosols. The next Aromatherapy. Healing Arts Press. Rochester Vermont 2004:9–100, 2001.
LAWENDA WĄSKOLISTNA (LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA) – LECZNICZA SIŁA NATURY. PRZEGLĄD
RENATA PRUSINOWSKA*, KRZYSZTOF B. ŚMIGIELSKI
Wydział Biotechnologii i Nauk o Żywności
Politechnika Łódzka
ul. Stefanowskiego 4/10
90-924 Łódź
*autor, do którego należy kierować korespondencję: tel.: +4842 6313424, e-mail:
renata.prusinowska@p.lodz.pl
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
66
R. Prusinowska, KB. Śmigielski
Streszczenie
Lawenda wąskolistna (Lavandula angustifolia) to krzewiasta roślina z rodziny
jasnotowatych (Lamiaceae), pochodząca z terenów basenu Morza Śródziemnego.
Surowcem zielarskim są kwiaty lawendy (Lavandula flores), zawierające olejek ete-
ryczny (do 3%), antocyjany, fitosterole, cukry, związki mineralne i garbniki. Skład
jakościowy i ilościowy olejku eterycznego z lawendy jest zmienny i zależy od
genotypu, miejsca uprawy, warunków klimatycznych, sposobu rozmnażania i cech
morfologicznych. W olejku eterycznym wstępuje ponad 300 związków chemicz-
nych, składnikami dominującymi są linalol, octan linalilu, terpinen-4-ol, octan la-
wandulolu, ocymen oraz cyneol. Olejek eteryczny charakteryzuje dobra aktyw-
ność przeciwdrobnoustrojowa i antyoksydacyjna oraz wyraźny pozytywny wpływ
na układ trawienny i nerwowy. Ekstrakt z lawendy przeciwdziałała otępieniu oraz
może wpływać hamująco na rozwój komórek rakowych, zaś hydrolat lawendowy
zalecany jest w leczeniu problemów skórnych i poparzeń.
 lawenda wąskolistna, Lavandula angustifolia, ziołolecznictwo, olejek eteryczny,
fitoterapia, wtórne metabolity roślinne
Unauthenticated
Download Date | 9/24/15 11:32 PM
... Lavandula officinalis; Lamiaceae family), is an aromatic plant native to the Mediterranean region. Analgesic, antiinflammatory, sedative, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and dementia-preventing properties of this plant have been reported in previous research (12,13,14,15). Lavender is widely distributed in Iran and commonly known as "ostokhoddous", and is traditionally used to treat digestive problems, cough, and inflammation (16). ...
Article
Background and purpose: Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy. Vincristine is prescribed to treat a variety of carcinomas, including lymphoma and leukemia, and may cause progressive peripheral neuropathy due to the damage of microtubules and mitochondria of neurons and affects inflammatory processes. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Lavandula angustifolia hydroalcoholic extract (LHE) of aerial part on vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in a rat model. Experimental approach: Neuropathy was induced in rats by daily intraperitoneal administration of vincristine (0.1 mg/kg for 2 weeks). Following the induction of neuropathy, animals were treated with the LHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) or pregabalin (20 mg/kg, IP) for 2 weeks, and their responses to vincristine-induced hyperalgesia and locomotor impairment were measured. Findings/Results: LHE, at the dose of 400 mg/kg, showed analgesic effects in response to thermal hyperalgesia, tactile allodynia, and gait impairment. Also, pregabalin (20 mg/kg, IP) improved the symptoms of vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions and implications: According to the results, we can conclude that LHE alleviates neuropathic symptoms of vincristine and the effect is probably related to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extract.
... In addition to the use of lavender in herbal medicine, it is widely used in cosmetics, perfume, food, and aromatherapy industries. 12 The main components of lavender are identified as volatile oils (Linalole), Limonene, Perillyl alcohol, Linalile acetate, Cis smine, Terpene, coumarin tannin, caffeic acid, and camphor. However, the relative levels of each of these compounds vary in different species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Lavender is considered as one of the medicinal plants to manage stress. Although many preliminary studies evaluated the effect of lavender on individuals’ stress level, to the best of our knowledge, we did not find a study that summarizes the results. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate the Pooled effect of lavender on the stress level of individuals using systematic review and meta-analysis. Method A systematic literature review based on PRISMA 2020 was performed on the SID, MagIran, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science (WoS) databases, and Google Scholar motor engine using related MeSH/Emtree and ‎Free Text words,‎ including “Lavender*”, “Lavandula*”, “Stress*”, “Stress Disorders, Traumatic”, and “Stress, Psychological” with no time limitation until August 2021. The quality assessment of studies was performed using JBI checklist. Heterogeneity among studies was quantified using I² index and Random Effects model was used to combine the data and perform the meta-analysis. Results In the initial search, 1520 articles were found. After excluding the irrelevant studies, finally, 21 articles with a sample size of 791 in the intervention group and 804 in the control group were included in the meta-analysis. As a result of combining the studies, stress score after using lavender in the intervention group showed a significant decrease of 0.63 ± 0.13 (95% CI) more than that in the control group (P˂0.001). The results of subgroup analysis demonstrated that the highest standardized mean difference (SMD) before and after the intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group was related to L. angustifolia species with 0.73 ± 0.22, student groups with 2.27±1.34, and diagnostic tool of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) with 0.82±0.42, indicating that the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P˂0.001). Conclusion The results of the present study revealed that lavender significantly reduces individuals’ stress. Therefore, it seems that the use of lavender can be considered as a part of a stress treatment program.
... The qualitative and quantitative composition of lavender essential oil depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, and morphological features (Prusinowska and Śmigielski, 2014). The quality of this oil depends on the high content of these major compounds and their mutual proportions (higher than 1) (Prusinowska and Śmigielski, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sayada et al.: Evaluation of a botanical insecticide, lavender (Lavandula angustifolia (M.)) essential oil as toxicant, repellent and antifeedant against lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica (F.))-1301-APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 20(2): 1301-1324. Abstract. In this study, the chemical composition of Lavandula angustifolia (Miller.1768) have been determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Then, we have evaluated the fumigant toxicity, the repellent and antifeedant properties, and also the effects on some biomarkers of essential oil extracted from L. angustifolia on adult of Rhyzopertha dominica (F. 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). GC-MS analysis showed that this oil contains 56 compounds with linalool (20.42%) and linalyl acetate (13.24%) as the major components. This essential oil was found to exhibit insecticidal activity depending on the concentration and exposure period. In addition, the obtained results revealed an increase in the percent repellency. The enzymatic measurements showed a neurotoxic activity as evidenced by an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In addition, we observe a stimulation of the detoxification system as showed by an increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and a decrease in gluthatione (GSH) rate. Lastly, essential oil was investigated on nutritional indices. Results showed a decrease in the relative growth rate, relative consumption rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food, and an increase in feeding deterrent index, accompanied by a decrease in digestive enzymes tested, α-amylase and protease in treated series when compared with control.
Article
A 3-arm, parallel group, randomized clinical trial examines the effect of aromatherapy through inhalation and foot massage on blood pressure and stress response in patients with essential hypertension. Lavender oil reduced blood pressure, heart rate, serum cortisol, and subjective anxiety in hypertensive patients.
Article
Lipid composition and oxidative stability of Gouda-type cheese, with and without lavender flower powder as a flavouring ingredient, was evaluated during 30 days of maturation at 14 °C. Triacylglycerols represented the main lipid fraction, followed by diacylglycerols, cholesterol, free fatty acids, and monoacylglycerols, and generally, there were no significant changes in their content with ripening time. Saturated fatty acids prevailed in cheese fats, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, with palmitic, oleic, myristic, and stearic acids as the main ones. The fatty acid profile was not significantly influenced by ageing, regardless of cheese assortment. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased with ripening time in control cheese and had a V-shape behaviour in lavender cheese, while peroxide value did not change substantially in both cheeses. Supplementation of milk used in Gouda-type cheese making with lavender flower powder (0.5 g L⁻¹) did not significantly interfere with lipolytic and oxidative processes.
Article
Full-text available
Herbicide resistance due to the increasing reliance on herbicides is a near-term challenge for the world’s agriculture. This has led to a desire to develop new herbicides with a novel mode of action, to address resistance in weed species. Lamiaceae, a large dicotyledonous plant family, is very well known for the multitudinous pharmacological and toxicological properties of its member species. Moreover, many species of this family are significant for their allelopathic activity in natural and laboratory settings. Thus, plants in Lamiaceae have the potential to be sources of alternative herbicides. However, gaps in our knowledge need to be addressed prior to adopting these allelopathic activities in agriculture. Therefore, we review the existing state of knowledge about the Lamiaceae family, the reported allelopathic properties of plant extracts, and their isolated allelochemicals under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions. In addition, we offer a perspective on existing challenges and future opportunities for adopting the allelopathic properties of Lamiaceae plant species for green agriculture.
Article
Full-text available
Background The current investigation aims to green synthesized the zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs) using Lavandula angustifolia extract by microwave technique and its protoscolicidal effects alone and combined with albendazole against hydatid cyst protoscoleces. Methods Different concentrations of the ZnNPs (50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) alone and combined with albendazole (ALZ, 100 μg/ml) were treated with hydatid cyst protoscoleces obtained from liver of infected sheep for 5–60 min in vitro and ex vivo. Eosin exclusion examination was used to assess the viability of protoscoleces. The induction of apoptosis in hydatid cyst protoscoleces was assessed by measurement of the Caspase-3 activity of protoscoleces treated with various concentrations of ZnNPs. Results The size of green synthesized ZnNPs was ranged from 30 to 80 nm, most of these nanoparticles were between 50 and 60 nm in size. In vitro, the highest scolicidal effect of ZnNPs was observed at the concentration of 200 μg/ml, where it killed 81.6% of protoscolices. While the combination of these nanoparticles with ALZ, especially at the concentration of 200 μg/ml, completely killed the protoscolices after 10 minutes’ exposure. However, compared to in vitro assay, the drugs tested took longer to show their protoscolicidal effect. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, ZnNPs particularly in combination with albendazole displayed the potent protoscolicidal in vitro and ex vivo as an intraperitoneal model of administration of agents to hydatid cyst treatment; nevertheless, additional investigations are mandatory to evaluate the efficacy and safety Zn NPs as a favorable protoscolicidal agent in clinical setting.
Article
Since silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently found in many commercial products, knowledge of their toxicity in yeast cells is essential. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus are very similar to those of higher organisms such as mammals. Therefore, the cytotoxicity information obtained from these organisms can be related in a first approximation to human beings. In the present study, the Lavandula angustifolia plant extract was used as a reducing-stabilizing agent in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. AgNPs cytotoxicity was evaluated in the yeast strains Kluyveromyces marxianus OFF1 and SLP1, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MC4 and W303 by growth assay and colorimetric assay (MTT). The AgNPs were characterized by different techniques such as ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The DPPH test showed an 80% antioxidant potential in the extract of the Lavandula angustifolia plant and showed a decrease in free radicals attributed to the reduction reaction of Ag⁺ to AgNPs. SEM and TEM showed AgNPs obtained with an average size of 18 nm and two types of morphologies, spherical and triangular. XRD patterns showed Ag solids with the fcc crystal structure. FTIR spectroscopies in conjunction with NMR confirmed that glycosylated flavonoids were responsible for the stabilization and reduction of NPs. A significant result from this study is that AgNPs did not show cytotoxicity on cell viability and growth inhibition on Kluyveromyces marxianus OFF1 and SLP1 strains, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae MC4 and W303. However, it was verified that those of the genus Kluyveromyces marxianus presented greater resistance to growth and cell viability.
Chapter
Full-text available
Tıbbi ve aromatik bitkiler ile yapılmış güncel kromatografik analizler yer almaktadır. Ayrıca kromatografi ile ilgili bilgilendirmler bulunmaktadır
Article
Full-text available
New cultivars of lavender adapted to arid steppe conditions were developed by the Institute of Rice of Ukrainian National Academy of Agrarian Sciences (NAAS). This work is a part of the characterization process of the new cultivars. The chemical composition of the essential oil of the seven new Lavandula angustifolia and eight new Lavandula x intermedia cultivars was investigated and compared. In total, 71 different compounds were identified. Linalool and linalool acetate were the main components in both species in ranges of 26.14–57.07% and 9.08–24.45%, respectively. They were followed by terpinen-4-ol (2.16–22.44%), lavandulyl acetate (2.12–10.23%), and lavandulol (1.30–3.14) in the case of L. angustifolia and camphor (10.11–12.55%), borneol (5.49–8.71%), and eucalyptol (0.47–7.41%) in the case of L. x intermedia. The oils had a valuable terpene profile—a high linalool content and the substantial presence of lavandulol and its ester. Nevertheless, they did not comply with the industry standards, mostly due to high levels of terpinene-4-ol. Evidently, a high content of terpinen-4-ol is a characteristic feature of L. angustifolia oils bred in Ukraine. Additionally, the LA3 cultivar yielded an oil with some of the highest linalool contents reported in the literature. Statistical analysis and literature data allowed for the comparative analysis of the gathered data. MANOVA, PCA, and HCA marked caryophyllene oxide as another potential differentiating compound between studied species.
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of essential oils of four Lamiaceae plants i.e. Pogostemon cablin, Lavandula angustifolia, Melissa officinalis, and Salvia officinalis native to Pakistan. The essential oil contents from the aerial parts of P. cablin, L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and S. officinalis were found to be 1.98, 0.58, 0.25 and 0.46%, respectively. The principal chemical constituent established in P. cablin L. angustifolia, M. officinalis, and S. officinalis essential oils, were patchouli alcohol, linalool, citronellal, and 1,8-cineol, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH ●), percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bleaching β-carotene in linoleic acid system. The essential oils possessed appreciable antioxidant and radical scavenging activities revealing potential for therapeutic applications.
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition of essential oils and hydrolate from dried lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia) was determined. Organic compounds were isolated from the hydrolate by the liquid–liquid (LLE) method. Optimal conditions for LLE (pentane, five extraction cycles, 40 mL, salting out [5% NaCl]) were determined by the Taguchi method. As many as forty-seven compounds were identified both in the essential oil (Oe) and in the essential oil isolated during the preparation of hydrolate (OeH), representing 94.9% of the content of Oe and 95.7% of OeH. The main compounds in OeH and Oe are: linalool (24.6% and 24.9%, respectively), linalyl acetate (14.4% and 18.0%, respectively) and borneol (6.2% and 6.3%, respectively). The most abundant compounds are oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes (74.3% Oe, 73.4% OeH), including monoterpene alcohols (40.5% Oe, 38.0% OeH). In the hydrolate (H), twenty-four compounds, representing 83.8% of its composition, were identified. The main ingredients are: linalool (26.5%) and borneol (9.0%). Also here, oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes predominate (78.1%), consisting mainly of alcohol monoterpenes (50.7%). In the hydrolate, the presence of acetate linalyl, monoterpenes, or sesquiterpenes was not found. Quantitative analysis of Oe, OeH and H was conducted for selected chemical compounds.
Article
Flowering shoot biomass of field-grown South American marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) was hydrodistilled in Clevenger-type apparatus, steam-distilled in a field distillation unit and the distillation water was collected. Chemical profiles of hydrodistilled, steam-distilled and water-soluble (recovered from the distillation water of field distillation unit employing hexane as the solvent) essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The solubility of T. minuta oil in cold water at room temperature (30 degrees C), in hot water (80 degrees C) and the efficiencies of hydrodistillation and hexane methods for isolating dissolved oil in water were studied under laboratory conditions. The solubility of the oil ranged from 0.11% in cold water to 0.15% in hot water. Hydrodistillation recovered 33.3-36.7% of dissolved oil in hot water and 55.0-60.0% of dissolved oil in cold water. Hexane extraction recovered 82.7-83.3% of dissolved oil in hot water and 90.0-90.5% of dissolved oil in cold water. Hydrodistilled and steam-distilled oils were richer in mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the water-soluble oil was richer in oxygenated monoterpenes (83.1-93.5%). Hydrodistilled and steam-distilled oils contained (Z)-beta-ocimene (13.6-42.2%), dihydrotagetone + (E)-beta-ocimene (14.8-30.3%), (Z)-tagetone (7.1-11.9%), (Z)-ocimenone (3.7-5.9%) and (E)-ocimenone (1.8-12.7%) as their major constituents. The main components of the water-soluble oil were: dihydrotagetone + (E)-beta-ocimene (3.9-6.8%), (Z)tagetone (6.2-7.9%), (E)-ocimenone (10.7-13.0%) and geraniol + linalyl acetate (47.5-52.0%).
Article
Forty-two commonly used essential oils were investigated for the antioxidant capabilities by DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents and photochemiluminescence (PCL) assay. At the concentration of 5 mg/mL, cinnamon bark (91.4 ± 0.002%), origanum (86.66 ± 0.008%) and thyme wild (52.54 ± 0.016%) were shown to own the strongest DPPH free-radical scavenging activity. Their total phenolic contents were 658.40 ± 4.383, 1107.20 ± 0.768 and 275.50 ± 0.607 (μg GAE / 5 mg essential oil), respectively. To compare with the standard reference BHA (μg/mL), their EC50 were in the order: BHA (25.11 μg/mL) < cinnamon bark (90.63 μg/mL) <origanum (751.51 μg/mL). The photochemiluminescence assay was also employed to investigate the antioxidative capabilities of lipid-soluble substances (ACL). The results were as follow: cinnamon bark (133.9 ± 0.26 μmol trolox/g) > origanum (62.63 ± 1.73 μmol trolox/g) > theme wild (5.88 ± 0.16 μmol trolox/g). The chemical compositions of cinnamon bark, origanum and thyme wild were analyzed by GC-MS and followed by DPPH free-radical scavenging activity assay to confirm that eugenol, carvacrol and thymol were the major compositions contributing the antioxidative capabilities of the essential oils.
Article
In this study we assessed the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Lavender essential oil. The antioxidant and antibacterial capacity of test sample was assayed by a linoleic acid system and conventional method of bacterial growth inhibition. The results demonstrated that the essential oil consisted of 1, 5-Dimethyl-1-vinyl-4-hexenyl but yrate as the most abundant component (43.73%), followed by 1, 3, 7-Octatriene, 3,7-dimethyl- (25.10%), Eucalyptol (7.32%), and Camphor (3.79%). Lavender essential oil display the stronger antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system and good antibacterial activity against four rhinitis-related bacteria including staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus ascoformans, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.