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How Infographic should be evaluated?

Conference Paper

How Infographic should be evaluated?

Abstract and Figures

With a little time and too much information to learn, Infographics were used to support as data visualization. Visual communication is communication through visual aids. Visual communication is more effective than reading and hearing information. There are so many infographics for everything; however, how can we know which one has a good or not so good design. The aim of the paper is to clarify the evaluation approach of infographic in many aspects and methods. The paper presents the definition and the uses of infographic in the introduction section. The types of infographics are mentioned with the examples. The trendy multimedia and interactive infographic are introduced. The most important part of the paper is the evaluation approach, which will be addressed with the questions and discussion for infographic developer. The recommendation for infographic designing will be concluded in the last section of the paper.
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ICIT 2015 The 7
th
International Conference on Information Technology
doi:10.15849/icit.2015.0100 © ICIT 2015 (http://icit.zuj.edu.jo/ICIT15)
How Infographic should be evaluated?
Waralak V. Siricharoen
School of Science and Technology
University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce
Bangkok, Thailand
Waralak_von@utcc.ac.th
Nattanun Siricharoen
Faculty of Communication Arts
Huachiew Chalermprakiet University
Samutprakarn, Thailand
Nattanun2004@yahoo.com
AbstractWith a little time and too much information to learn, Infographics were used to support as data visualization. Visual
communication is communication through visual aids. Visual communication is more effective than reading and hearing information.
There are so many infographics for everything; however, how can we know which one has a good or not so good design. The aim of the
paper is to clarify the evaluation approach of infographic in many aspects and methods. The paper presents the definition and the uses
of infographic in the introduction section. The types of infographics are mentioned with the examples. The trendy multimedia and
interactive infographic are introduced. The most important part of the paper is the evaluation approach, which will be addressed with
the questions and discussion for infographic developer. The recommendation for infographic designing will be concluded in the last
section of the paper.
Keywords- Infographic, Data Visualization, Information Visualization, Infographic Evaluation
I. INTRODUCTION
Infographic is data visualizations that present complex
information quickly and clearly [1]. As mentioned by
Visual.ly, data visualization includes signs, photos, maps,
graphics and charts, it presents complex data. The
infographic is part of data visualization. The foundation of
infographics is composed of three major parts. They are
Visual, Content and Knowledge. Visual representations of
data, information, and/or knowledge are:
(1) Visual elements colors, graphics, signs, icons,
maps, etc.
(2) Content elements facts, statistics, texts, references,
time frames, etc.
(3) Knowledge conclusion to express the stories or
messages [1].
The infographic design is very significant. The
designing process of infographic can help understand and
implement the principles of the designs better than
designing the web or documents as well. Nevertheless,
graphics could fast persuade readers to disregard the article
[2]. Now almost everyone is using infographics, such as
companies, educators, non-profits organization, etc. The
reasons why we need infographics are to communicate a
message, to present large amount of information in a
compressed and easy way to understand, to expose the data,
to determine cause-effect relations, and to classify
relationships among data, and to observe changes or trends
in data [3]. The tools help integrate these three main
components to form nice and well-designed infographics
[2]. Importance of infographics are making information
more appealing, showing valuable ideas, attention-grabbing,
easier to understand, being more persuasive, memorable,
easily relay information [4]. The tools help integrate these
three main components (Visual, Contents and Knowledge)
to form nice and well-designed infographics. The word
“infographic” according to the book of Krum [23]
mentioned (based on the data from Google Insights for
Search) shows that the last two years (2010-2012) the
clearly growth in searching for “infographicterm has been
recognized.
II. TYPES OF INFOGRAPHICS
In general, there is the accepted standard in the medium
towards exploring new formats based on web mash-ups and
data visualization, but not often they aim to make up a space
for public debate that provides readers more than just only
one platform. Arabic numerals are preferable in
infographics; the heading of table should be underlined and
centered above them. Human mind can recognize visual
information much more successful. With today’s
technology, infographics can also be transformed to
animated images for the website version [5]. There are many
articles and papers mentioned the types of infographics.
They are the followings: Ashton [6] said that at least we had
many types of infographics coming in all shapes and sizes
[7]. The followings are the main types of infographics:
The Visual Article (Figure 1)
The Flow chart (Figure 2)
Useful attraction (Figure 3)
Number, The Timeline (Figure 4)
Data Visualization(statistical based) (Figure 5)
The Compare & Contrast (VS: Versus”) (Figure 6)
The Photo (Figure 7)
How-to (process oriented) (Figure 8)
Research Results(Figure 9)
Did-You-Know? (Figure 10)
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Figure 1. Example of visual story infographic
1
(Titanic)
Figure 2. Example of the flow chart infographic
2
(How
Affiliate Marketing Works)
Figure 3. Example of useful attraction infographic
3
(Travel
Like an Athlete)
Figure 4. Example of number, the Timeline infographic
4
(Google Search Timeline)
Figure 5. Example of data visualization infographic
5
(Technology is the key)
1
http://thumbnails-visually.netdna-
ssl.com/titanic_521df2c4be587_w1500.png
2
http://designwebkit.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Affiliate-
Marketing-flowchart.jpg
3
http://www.jaunted.com/files/6193/Travel_Like_an_Athlete
COMPLETE.jpg
4
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-
JMta3XWwP1M/UkSAUDID_ZI/AAAAAAAAAqs/H_JBg0HOaa8/s16
00/Screen+Shot+2013-09-26+at+11.40.10+AM.png
5
http://bluehatmarketing.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/infographics-
and-data-visualisation-image1.png
Figure 6. Example of VS infographic
6
Figure 7. Example of the photo infographic
7
(Wedding
Infographic)
Figure 8. Example of how-to (process oriented) infographic
8
(Tie Instruction)
Figure 9. Example of Research Results infographic
9
(Top
Employers South Africa 2014)
Figure 10. Example of “Did-You-Know?” infographic
10
(Winter Type Statistics)
6
http://www.pardot.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Marketing-
Scientists-vs-Marketing-Artists.png
7
http://fc03.deviantart.net/fs70/i/2013/142/f/b/wedding_infographic_
design_by_darkstalkerr-d66603e.jpg
8
http://mlhart.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/tie.jpg
9
http://www.top-
employers.com/PageFiles/6501/Top%20Employers%20South%20Africa
%20Research%20Results%202013%20Infographic.png
10
http://thumbnails-visually.netdna-ssl.com/did-you-
know_50ffd4e64bf9d_w1500.jpg
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Figure 11. The way to present data in infographic [22]
To create an infographic, one needs the creativity and
aesthetic. The infographic creators sometimes have to act as
artists. Because the main purpose of infographic is to make
people summarize information quickly in the world full of
flooding information. Infographic is not made for
entertaining only but it should conclude the main
ideas/products/services. The infographic creators should
consider the foremost structure, accuracy, reliability, depth,
and functionality and then think about decoration. The
infographic creators must think about whether the
decoration is required at all or what type of infographic
would appropriate for presenting the main idea. This is not
that infographics should not be beautiful. On the other hand,
if infographic has been made in order to draw readers and
make them feel attracted in contents. If decoration can be
the obstacle for readers to understand the main idea of the
infographic, possibly the aesthetic or elegance may not be
needed.
Linda [8] said in her presentation on website
slideshare.com that the infographics need analyzing,
evaluation, and creation. To present the huge information in
a large set of data, graphs and statistical chart or
geographical context to a story with a map need to be
applied. These are data visualization tools. The pattern is
hidden behind the complexity of tabular forms of numbers
and data. The pattern became visible when a human brain
can recognize it. The human brain can easily remember
things in picture better than texts. The well-built and
reasonable presentation of information, graphics, charts,
maps and colors are what make infographics noticeable and
attract the audience successfully [9]. In Figure 11, it shows
the guideline of how creators create the type of graphs or
charts to present or emphasize the different situations. For
example, if the creator would like to see the relationships
among the data points, the suitable graph or chart type
would scatter plot, matrix chart, and network diagram. Line
graph, stack graph, and pathway should be used for tracking
rises and falls over time. Bar chart, bubble chart, and block
histogram are tools for comparing different values with
correctness, and a choropleth map is a tool for
distinguishing the comparative occurrence of phenomena in
an area and can illustrate the piece in the whole map. Good
graphics are not just displays; audience can extract
information from, but devices to explore information with
[10].
III INTERACTIVE, MULTIMEDIA AND VIDEO
INFOGRAPHICS
Creating the graphical representation of complex
datasets makes it easier to be understood; this is called data
visualizations and infographics. One original infographic
project is Paris Metro by Harry Beck [14]. The meaning of
Harry Beck's map design in 1933 (Figure 12, 13) is widely
familiar as one of the Graphic and Information Designs, and
became a main persuasion to the underground maps of the
world. In year 2009, Mark Ovenden wrote the book called,
Transit Maps of the World”, in which he mentioned the
map of Harry Beck.
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s
Figure 12.& 13. The old maps used as the infographic.
Nowadays everything is interactive; including
interactive infographics which allow the users to interact
with the information. They need designers and programmers
to create and allow the users to explore the information
themselves. One of well-established interactive infographics
has been created by news organization like CNN. For
example, the CNN Ecosphere uses WebGL to create data
visualization; in addition, since the social networking is very
well known for everyone, the interactive infographic can
help spread the infographic.
The effort for creating good interactive infographics is
greatly increasing, nowadays many web-based data
visualization tools are making it easier to create interactive
infographics, but they still require great effort especially
when multiple datasets are being compared [15]. The
information can change over time and that can create the
interactivities in infographics. The interesting
Interactive/Video Infographics sites are as follows:
http://www.dipity.com/ (create an interactive
online timeline)
http://www.tableausoftware.com/public/community
(live metric tracking)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/interactives/def
ault.stm
http://www.coolinfographics.com/blog/tag/video
http://youtu.be/d0zION8xjbM
http://vimeo.com/9602282
More and more interactive infographics have been used
widely, they are very catchy and improving user-
experiences [11]. Some of the most engaging infographics
are actually interactive pieces created in Flash or HTML5.
More detailed information can be discovered by clicking
any words or pictures. The interactivity of the feature is
joined with the immediacy and interest that the topic
generated combined to create a very successful piece of link
attraction [12].
The multimedia infographic allows some interactivity,
and the users have an ability to browse the infographic
which offers a virtual connection to the content. New
technologies can and do encourage designers and visual
communicators. Video infographic offers another engaging
format for infographics [13]. This will include imaging
multiple panes of static or animated infographics with a
voice over to tell a story. The impact is more. The moving
images are very attractive and they prevent our
concentration to deviate [12]. The advantages of animated
infographics are: The benefits of animated infographics
11
:
They are static but particularly ground-breaking and eyes
catchy. They facilitate to clarify the difficult and complex
idea for examples in medical and health issues. They can be
plugged to the blogs and website where static infographics
are submitted. In video infographic, the animated text can
move towards flying in and out. It will easily receive the
main message together with adding to that visuals,
background music and sounds. Moreover, the font and its
size are very significant. The text must be very clear to the
viewers’ eyes and the font has fair readability. Animated
interactive infographics will happen to common by using
Flash or HTML5 in websites; it makes infographics much
more interesting same as video infographics.
III. CREATING INFOGRAPHICS
The first way to create an infographic is to hire a
designer or agency to create it. This is to make sure that the
infographic is visually independent of others and
representatives of the brand. Nevertheless, it can be
expensive. In the old days we could create infographic using
paper, pen, pencils, makers, and rulers. Alternatively, today
we use computer software to build nice infographic, which
is both faster and easier and even more attractive and
multicolored [16]. A different way is to find the suitable
websites that offer portfolios or templates of infographic, or
information on hiring designers. There are two methods in
order to create the proper infographic [1].
1. Build entirely online with infographic website (such
as www.visual.ly and www.easel.ly)
Advantages: easy, quicker, graphics and creation
tools provided for you, publish and share
Disadvantages: limited data input, limited
template and design choices, may not be higher for printing,
maybe restricted to their website
2. Use image editing software to build infographics
(MS Excel, MS PowerPoint or Publisher, Photoshop, and
other open source software, such as Paint.Net, Gimp,
Inscape, Photoshop Express, Pixlr, Sumopaint, Creately)
and also there are many Apple and Android application
(Apps) to create the infographic. Then host it online
Advantages: more design freedom, build it high-
resolution for print, use it/output it many formats, host it
online easily
Disadvantages: more work, requires a little
knowledge of image editing/design principles, find sources
for hosting/sharing
Nonetheless, if we need to build the infographic for
specific purpose, here is the first start. Krauss suggested a
very useful nine-step process to create the infographic [1] as
follows:
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www.inforgraphicdesignteam.com
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1. Gather your data (need numbers from more than once
recourses)
2. Determine your purpose
3. Plan your infographic (outline or flow chart)
4. Start laying out your plan with software or an online
tool (graphics or photos)
5. Evaluate your data
6. Find the best way in a visual representation(type of
charts, and cite data properly)
7. Apply a color scheme & choose fonts
8. Step back and evaluate it, get feedback and edit
9. Caution about the copyright, cite your sources for data,
and don’t use any image off the web.
There are a number of tools available for creating
infographics. Some are more user-friendly than others.
Several sites that can be used to visualize information. An
incomplete sentence Because of the ability to capture
attention and convey information in a straightforward
manner, infogr.ams have exploded in use and popularity.
Students must be able to understand and analyze
information presented in this manner. Production of
infographics also demonstrates a student’s expertise of
advanced cognitive skills, technical skills, and familiarity
with varied literacies. The widespread use of infographics
arises and with emerging technologies influencing the
definition and requirements of “literacy” for current and
future students and teachers. They need to embrace new
forms of presenting information and use it efficiently.
Things that have to be taken to consideration for the
infographic are as follows:
1. What are infographic? definition, purpose, types
2. Are there any standards for infographics? Next
generation science standards, ISTE standards-S
National Research Council.
3. Why do we use infographics? Require analysis an
interpretation, format aids comprehension, visual
learners.
4. What are tools for creating the infographics? Ease.ly,
Visua.ly, Infogr.am, Piktochart.
5. What goes into infographics, what to consider when
using or creating?
6. How do we evaluate infographics?
IV. EVALUATING APPROACH
Anyone can create an infographic and put it on the web.
Not all infographics are good or accurate; it is like when we
want to validate or evaluate a website. So we should
validate an infographic carefully before using it. The
downside of infographic is that data can be skewed and/or
have a margin of error which would make the data
irrelevant. Data is constantly changing on a daily basis, so
the information presented could be outdated [1]. Although
data visualizations and infographics can be created
improperly; putting in too much information (or not
enough), using inappropriate types for the information
provided, and unsuitable charts or graphs and other failures
are common. To avoid sharing some poorly designed
infographics, the audience needs evaluation and checking-
questions. The things that we have to consider for
infographics in general are: audience, evaluation, purpose,
design and bias, readability, interactivity, and social sharing.
Usually in order to evaluate how well an infographic
designs and creates, there are some of discussion questions
[10] to guide how creator thinks and discusses as follows:
Questions about the information:
What is useful about putting information in this
format?
What different pieces of information are included
on this poster?
What information was included in this poster that
allows non-science people to understand the
content?
Write an abstract about what it is about (two or
three sentences that highlights the purpose of the
infographic.)
What is the infographic about? What story is being
told?
Does it have a clear and meaningful title? What
kind of headlines, intro copy, and labels could it
include to make it meaningful for a broad
audience?
Does it tell a story? What are the most important or
surprising points in the data?
What do the data mean?
Are there sources for the data? Visit the sources?
Are they valid websites/sources?
Does it tell a story? What are the most important or
surprising points in the data?
Could we go beyond what is currently presented?
Can we provide a better context for the data?
Are there spelling or grammar errors? (if there are
errors, chances are there are errors in the data)
Questions about aesthetics of text, photo, object, and color:
How are colors used differently in each one? Are
some colors more powerful than others?
How are objects displayed on each one? Do sizes
of the objects matter in presentation the proposed
information?
How could colors, sizes, and kinds of objects be
used to give the wrong impression about people
away from the data?
Can we emphasize them by some means?
How do the words support or distract from the
message?
How are colors used differently in each one? Are
some colors more powerful than others?
What other variables should be gathered/analyzed
if we want to give an accurate portrait of the topic
the graphic covers?
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Questions about the overall assessment:
Make notes about what you notice and like/don't
like about the infographics.
Is it legible? Can you read it and make sense of it?
Can you sum up the point or message in two
sentences or less?
Who is the author? Is there any credit or
information to identify the author as reputable?
Is this infographic really “functional” in the sense
of facilitating basic, predictable tasks (comparing,
relating variables, etc.)?
Questions about the charts or graphs types:
Why would this be better than just showing the
formulas or using just a bar graph?
Color and graphics? Are they legible and easy to
read?
Lynda.com mentioned in the tutorial video about the
five attributes of great infographic, they are contrast,
hierarchy, accuracy, relevance, and truth [19]. University of
Mary Washington, infographics blog presented the idea of
characteristics of an effective infographic [20] in [1] show
the summaries four main categories were identified:
Usefulness, Legibility, Design and Aesthetics.
Usefulness: Easy to understand, Clear purpose, Reliable
data (sources cited), Informative viewer
learns something.
Legibility: Easy to read, Color scheme should not hinder
ability to read, Graphs/diagrams labeled
appropriately, Font choice, size and color used
to make legible.
Design: Graphics should reflect purpose and audience,
Graphics are good quality, not distracting and
consistent, Space used effectively (no excess
clutter), Appropriate use contrast and color.
Aesthetics: Easy to follow, overall design facilitates
understanding, Hierarchy/organization of data.
Also we can create those questions as the questionnaire
or form filled. The example of infographic evaluation form
is shown in Figure 14.
Figure 14. The example of evaluation form
12
for Alice in wonderland infographic
12
http://www.surveymonkey.com/r/?sm=zFaXDdelKIWwOD5c HeTAIQ %3d%3d
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IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Infographics present information in a limited space and
an artistic format. They are able to quickly pass on facts and
keep the readers reading it. They give important
data/information and are enjoyable to read and understand.
Infographics become popular in web 2.0, because they are
data in graphic illustrative form which makes it easier for
readers to look at and digest [17] in [18]. Infographics show
how the advertising of data and information can be
ordered/arranged and offered to integrate the summarize
ideas [21]. For the website, with the advanced technology,
infographic can be integrated with multimedia concept by
adding together the sound and motion. However, as
mentioned in [16] and [12], infographics are not a substitute
when we do not have real information/facts. It means that
ethical issue is very important, always use the actual data;
they should be done without estimating at or making up data
to add the missing information. Animated interactive
infographics will happen to common by using HTML5 in
websites; it makes infographics much more interesting.
Considering the infographic as a tool for helping human
extend capacities beyond the brain limitation, physical tools
like tangible things can help human life easier, such as
Notebook [22], Mobile Phone, etc. Non-physical tools (or
sets of tools and practices), for instance statistical data and
the scientific method, developed for helping the audience
look beyond what would normally see, and to overcome
biases and some negative habits of mind. The same is true
for great visual displays of information.
When constructing an infographic, one must consider
how best to get across the information and the purpose.
Elements of design factor into this; the visuals need to
support the information and should not detract from it. The
purpose of the infographic informs how information is
presented (i.e. statistically, linearly, and procedurally) as
well as the images used. When people interact with
infographics in two primary ways which are as consumers
and as creators of learning (or cognitive processes) measure
when human is ready to move from a consumer to a creator.
Humans must be able to remember and understand
information before they are able to analyze or evaluate and
finally synthesize or create it. Additionally, there are
certain skills necessary to create an infographic, both
technical and literacy-based. We can see from all the
questions for infographic evaluation that there are many
questions about what information and data should be used
and they have to be correct. The presentation should be only
beautiful and attractive, but that is a secondary component
of their quality. They are, above all, accurate [10]. Every
single detail is double-checked and reviewed by experts;
every line, patch, and shade of color has a meaning and a
function. So the evaluation is matter because it can help
creating the good infographic and make it easier for the
audience/user/people to understand the main idea of the
infographic.
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... Most importantly, they can be used as stand-alone communication tools that do not require additional search of information and are easy to disseminate (Joosten, 2012;Toth, 2013). Typically, infographics are made of two types of components, i.e. content (texts, facts, data and knowledge) and visual elements (graphics, colors, icons and signs) (Siricharoen and Siricharoen, 2015). They represent multimodal compositions for meaning making, including visual information, language, colours, layout and typography (Fragou and Papadopoulou, 2020). ...
... Alqudah et al. (2019) concluded that presenting lecture material in infographics increased students' perception and positively affected their interaction. Overall, students were satisfied with the tasks including infographics (Siricharoen and Siricharoen, 2015). ...
... Overall, the cases reviewed confirmed that students are satisfied with tasks with a focus on creating infographics, which goes in line with the findings indicated by Siricharoen and Siricharoen (2015). By calling such tasks novel, students demonstrate greater engagement. ...
Article
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In education, infographics may be used to promote active learning and engage learners in the creation of more diverse learning artefacts. This study aims to analyze the application of infographics in higher education. The authors conducted a scoping review of the scientific articles to analyze the use of infographics across a variety of university subjects. The findings revealed that the most frequent educational practices were those that merged both ready-made infographics and students' hands-on experience in creating their own infographics. Such learning activities facilitated the learning of the subject-related material and helped students to advance with the creation of this popular form of modern communication. The tasks including infographics also represented an enhanced mission of higher education as students were given opportunities to develop a number of personal and career readiness skills and capabilities simultaneously, such as digital, visual and information literacy, critical thinking, creativity, communication and collaboration skills. The educational recommendations and technological solutions proposed might diversify teaching and learning practices in higher education.
... In most cases, infographics merge three types of elements: visual (graphics, colors, icons, signs), content (texts, facts, data), and knowledge [1]. The design of infographics can range from a simple layout of illustrations to complex sets of interactive animations. ...
... The use of infographics may yield many benefits within the higher education sector. Educators agree that students are highly satisfied with the tasks of analyzing and creating infographics [1]. When the course material is presented in the form of infographics, it is easier for students to learn and memorize it [3]. ...
... In most cases, infographics merge three types of elements: visual (graphics, colors, icons, signs), content (texts, facts, data), and knowledge [1]. The design of infographics can range from a simple layout of illustrations to complex sets of interactive animations. ...
... The use of infographics may yield many benefits within the higher education sector. Educators agree that students are highly satisfied with the tasks of analyzing and creating infographics [1]. When the course material is presented in the form of infographics, it is easier for students to learn and memorize it [3]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Infographics are purposively designed sets of illustrations, texts, images and data visualizations to tell a complete story (Krum, 2013). Being 30 times more likely read than text (Long, 2014), they have become very popular in many fields, including higher education. While in education, two main directions are towards more active learning methods and creation of more diverse learning artefacts (Cope & Kalantzis, 2017), the integration of infographics might serve both purposes. What educators may lack are either technological solutions for the creation infographics or educational ideas for their use in formal education. Responding to this, the current study explored both technological tools for the creation of infographics and educational practices of using of them in higher education. The objectives were: i) to explore freely available infographic tools, and ii) to disclose educational practices including the use of infographics across a variety of disciplines. The authors applied both the scoping review (Levac et al., 2010) of scholarly literature and additionally reviewed freely available web-based platforms for the creation of infographics. The results showed that there is a great diversity of web-based tools for the creation of infographics. While the first group of tools is primarily designed for the creation of infographics (e.g., Zanifesto, Adioma, VisualizeMe, Venngage and Easel.ly), the second group of tools allows a wider range of visualization forms (e.g., Draw.io, Genially, Visme, Creately, Canva, Piktochart, Infogram and Kinzaa). In many cases, the use of such tools for data visualization does not require any prior training, as the process of making an infographic is semi-automated. They provide pre-designed and visually attractive templates, thus making the development of visual literacy enjoyable by students. On the other hand, the infographic tools require considerable amount of cognitive efforts while dealing with textual information. The third group of infographic making tools are universal graphic editing tools (e.g., Adobe Illustrator, Paint.NET, Adobe Photoshop, Google Drawings and Google Charts). Moreover, the review of the empirical studies including the use of infographics revealed that educational practices range from a simple immersion into a single assignment of creating an infographic, to iterative learning during the same course so that students get enough development of visual literacy through the creation of this visual form. The study illustrates the efficacy of infographics not only in developing visual literacy but also in enhancing overall student learning and satisfaction in higher education. The proposed technological solutions and educational recommendations may simplify the design of university learning and teaching practices and encourage future research into this area.
... É grande a influência das novas tecnologias na sociedade contemporânea, no que se refere ao desenvolvimento das Tecnologias Digitais de Informação e Comunicação (TDIC) e à internet, pois na atualidade as informações são simultâneas, as conversas ocorrem em tempo real, gerando, assim, uma nova maneira de se conceber o espaço, o tempo, bem como as relações entre as pessoas, as identidades, as fronteiras, enfim, a realidade social, cultural, política etc. (SILVA, 1999). ...
... A study by Siricharoen and Siricharoen (2015) has mentioned that there are five characteristics of the Infographics that should be used for evaluation; clarity, the hierarchy of elements, accuracy, relevance, and finally integrity. On the other hand, the University of Mary Washington (UMW) identified four key features of an effective Infographics (UMW, 2011): ...
Research
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The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a study of utilizing Infographics for learning purposes among a group of library and information science students at New Valley University. The paper also explores the effect of different types of Infographics on students' cognitive skills. To explore the effect of Infographics, the study employed an experimental approach and questionnaire as an assistant tool to collect data. A sample of (99) participants was selected to elucidate how Infographics affected their cognitive skills. The analysis of the data revealed that the participants had different levels of perception and remembering as a result of being exposed to different types of teaching materials. The data showed that motion Infographics had produced the best results in perception and remembering of information. The results also indicate that static Infographics have produced close results and ranked on the second level, while the text-only approach produced fewer levels of comprehension and recall of information. This study was conducted with library science students to find the suitability of Infographics in the teaching process. However, the adoption of such an approach in other disciplines may produce different results. This study contributes to the field by expanding our understanding of how the modern teaching approach could help in achieving better results in library science.
Article
Full-text available
Effectiveness of teaching-learning process relies on various components such as; Teachers' communication, Teachers' planning and preparedness, adopted methods of teaching, teaching-learning resources being used, quality of interactions allowed in the classrooms, etc. And many more other factors may be included in this list. Out of these, teaching-learning resources and tools provide plenty of opportunities to interact the student effectively. There are diversified types of teaching-learning resources are being utilizing in the process of communicating and transacting the content. As an advent of and advancement in ICT its horizon is widening day by day. Infographics is one of the promising teaching-learning tools that are preferred and using so oftenly in teaching-learning process especially in the era of online teaching-learning. Researchers, through this article, tried to provide a conceptual framework of Infographics by presenting comprehensive overview on its concept, components, types, uses & effectiveness, online infographics tools, and criteria for designing an effective infographics tool. This study has the implication for teachers, teacher-educators, students, parents, administrators, curriculum designer and researchers.
Article
In interactive media environments, while an interaction occurs between users and objects, a communication also occurs. As a result, interaction acts as a communication and enters into a relationship related to interaction in design in the area where communication exists. Innovations in computer and communication technologies have caused the concept of interaction to expand and spread to the center of life, and this has enabled this concept to be discussed under different headings. Interactive infographics, one of these titles, are environments that provide the user with the opportunity to present more information and at the same time provide them with control over the data, aiming to quickly understand the information presented to them. The design process is important in constructing the interaction in a healthy and understandable way, in terms of revealing a functional study according to the perception level of the target audience. Along with this process, the gestalt principles used in the creation of the design play an important role in creating an effective and efficient design environment where users can associate different elements in the design environment with each other. In this study, first of all, gestalt perception principles and design development process in interaction design were emphasized and the interactive infographic applications discussed were evaluated in the light of these principles and interaction design process. It is aimed to reveal the importance of the design development process and gestalt perception principles in interactive infographics, at this point, it is thought that the study will contribute to the literature.
Chapter
This paper considers the conceptual design scopes of infographics. The particular emphasis is on the integration of infographics into the training process of foreign language teachers-to-be. A creative potential of infographics for developing a communicative competence is analyzed. During the research study aimed at identifying awareness of bachelor students of Herzen state pedagogical university about the impact and application of infographics to enhance foreign language teaching. The article focuses on the competence-based approach, and the components of foreign language communicative competence are delineated. It has been revealed that using of infographics in the context of the competence approach makes the process of learning foreign languages practice-oriented and promotes the formation of the necessary skills for foreign language communication. The giving example of infographics provides with formation of a receptive type of speech activity. The data collected via quantitative methodology with a set of questionnaire as the main instrument which has undergone the content validity. The results of survey demonstrate students’ opinions about creation a rich environment to foreign language learning through infographics. The results obtained allow making a conclusion about methodological validity and technological relevance of infographics and it can be considered a means of enhancement the pedagogical excellence of foreign language teachers.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Infographics were used to support the work of journalism back in 1980s. It may be used to accommodate newsletters, newspapers, magazines, and reports. Now the infographics have been applied for telling the story. Additionally, the changing lifestyle in digital age, data and information need to be quicker and easier processed. People scan for the headlines and graphics (usually in pictures, graphs, charts) that attract their interest. They spend less time to consider whether it is worth further reading. Multimedia infographic can be created in 3D to make it more appreciative than regular illustrative pictures and text, especially for the difficult and complicated contents. For the people who need to communicate quickly; the spoken or printed account is sometimes too difficult for understanding. This paper includes the history, importance, and benefit of infographics in general and introduces the tools for making infographics efficiently. The suggestive guidelines of infographics creation are also addressed.
Article
Infographics were used to support the work of journalism back in 1980s. It may be used to accommodate newsletters, newspapers, magazines, and reports. Now the infographics have been applied for telling the story. Additionally, the changing lifestyle in digital age, data and information need to be quicker and easier processed. People scan for the headlines and graphics (usually in pictures, graphs, charts) that draw their interest. They spend less time to consider whether it is worth further reading. Interactive, Multimedia and Video infographics can be created in 3D to make it more appreciative than regular illustrative pictures and text, especially for the difficult and complicated contents. For the people who need to communicate quickly; the spoken or printed account is sometimes too difficult for understanding. With infographics can escalate the growth of e-entrepreneurship, they will be very useful as the well-organized, easy-to-understand, eye-catchy, and shareability marketing tools. The suggestive guidelines of infographics creation are also addressed. This paper also includes the history, importance, and benefit of infographics in general and introduces the tools for making infographics professionally.
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To improve quality of care, it is essential for hospital systems to find the most efficient, flexible, comprehensible, and robust means to organize and display patient information to physicians [1]. Due to the complexity of patient information and the restrictions on sharing real world problems that arise from real world information, creating and implementing information systems for clinical support is difficult. Lessons from human-computer interaction design can mitigate time and cost while ameliorating the functionality and understandability of the system. This paper describes the design of the problem list currently in development at the Regenstrief Institute for Health Care Informatics. Specifically, we delineate the exploration of goals and requirements for the patient problem list, its design conceptualization, and the evolution of the final product, a rich, interactive infographic that displays far more digestible information than is possible with more conventional methods.
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