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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the type of motivation of Yoga and Pilates practitioners. These are believed to be two branches of fitness. To test the type of motivation that animate the practitioners, we used the Self Motivation Scale 28 (SMS 28), designed by Pelletier & al. and applied it to a group of 29 female practitioners of Yoga and 29 female practitioners of Pilates, along with a demographic survey. The results indicate that the objectives of the practitioners are muscle tone and correct posture and the main motivation is intrinsic knowledge.
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DOI: 10.1515/tperj -2015-0020
Motivation in practicing Yoga & Pilates
and satisfying the need for self-knowledge
Simona PETRACOVSCHI1
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the type of motivation of Yoga and Pilates practitioners. These are believed to be
two branches of fitness. To test the type of motivation that animate the practitioners, we used the Self Motivation Scale
28 (SMS 28), designed by Pelletier & al. and applied it to a group of 29 female practitioners of Yoga and 29 female
practitioners of Pilates, along with a demographic survey. The results indicate that the objectives of the practitioners are
muscle tone and correct posture and the main motivation is intrinsic knowledge.
Key words: fitness, yoga, Pilates, needs, satisfaction, knowledge;
Rezumat
Scopul acestei cercetări este de a analiza tipul de motivație al practicantelor de Yoga și Pilates, două ramuri ale
fitnessului. Pentru a testa tipul de motivație al practicantelor, am utilizat Self Motivatiăn Scale(SMS 28) conceput de
Pelletier și colaboratorii și l-am aplicat unui grup de 29 de practicante de Yoga și altui grup de 29 de practicante de
Pilates, împreună cu un chestionar demographic. Rezultatele ne indică faptul că pe lângă obiectivele ce țin de tonifierea
musculară și postura corectă, participantele la studiu sunt motivate în primul rând de cunoașterea instrinsecă.
Cuvinte cheie: fitness, yoga, Pilates, nevoi, satisfacție, cunoaștere
1 Associate Professor PhD, West University of Timișoara, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, e-mail: simona.petracovschi@e-uvt.ro
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Introduction
In recent years, physical activities different from the
usual branches of aerobics (step, dance, tae-bo etc.)
such as Yoga and Pilates have spread among the
fitness centers in Romania. If in The United States,
Yoga had an unexpected increase in popularity in the
past decade (Saper & al, 2004) whether in health
and fitness centers or private studios and thus
allowed the development of various styles of yoga
(Bikram, Ashtanga, etc.), in Romania this activity has
a hard time developing in the fitness industry.
Pilates however developed in the '20s as a method
and even if it has a decades of history, only in recent
years did it develop a lot and is known as a form of
fitness but also as a holistic form of maintaining
health. Pilates is described by practitioners as “a
unique method of physical fitness that uses a
combination of muscle strengthening, lengthening
and breathing to develop trunk muscles and restore
muscle balance” (1, 3, 11, 12, 16). Some studies (2,
10) emphasizes that Pilates exercises are suitable
for all ages, all body types and fitness abilities due to
the modifiable nature of the movements (11, 14,
15).
Generally speaking, aerobic activities mainly have a
female audience and a smaller number of
participants based on the fact that these activities
do not have a direct effect on weight loss or rapid
physical sculpting, which are the main objectives of
the fitness practitioners (9). However, the
practitioners who are turning to Yoga and Pilates
pursue other objectives such as body posture, joint
mobility, muscle flexibility, mental relaxation.
The motivation for this kind of practices can be
defined as the process by which a practitioner uses
the available resources of time, talent and energy to
practice and perform activities in order to achieve an
anticipated positive effect associated with success
and avoidance of failure (8). Motivation also varies.
If at aerobics one can observe that people are
motivated by visible results related to improved
physical appearance (17) at Yoga and Pilates the
motivation is regarding a state of wellbeing.
The practitioners will be influenced in their choices
by their dominant behavior, which can be divided in
three categories representing the sphere of
motivation: extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation
and amotivation (5, 6, 7). Compared to intrinsic
motivation, extrinsic is a lower form of motivation.
Intrinsic motivation is the solid basis on which one
can build performance, while extrinsic motivation will
overlap with this later on in the process to complete
successful outcome. Generally speaking, intrinsic
motivation refers to engaging in an activity because
that specific activity gives you satisfaction and
pleasure through its content (5). When a person is
intrinsically motivated, he/she will act on his/her
own initiative, without expecting material rewards
(7).
Practitioners of various branches and disciplines of
fitness can also be fitted in this category based on
the fact that they find it interesting and want to learn
and know more about the discipline or branch
practiced. Intrinsic motivation can be divided into
three distinct types (18): intrinsic motivation of
knowledge, of development and of stimulation.
In what fitness disciplines are concerned, intrinsic
motivation of knowledge can be associated with
certain aspects such as exploration( what the body
can do, physical limitations as well as self and
senses limitation), the curiosity towards a new
discipline and new approaches and achieving goals
(fighting stress, finding new coping methods, mental
relaxation). We can also include in this category the
motivation to learn, to know or to understand what
you practice. It can be defined as an activity done for
the pleasure and satisfaction you have while you
learn, know or try to understand something new (5)
like these disciplines or the way in which the body
perceives and feels the physical exercise.
The intrinsic motivation of development can be
defined as engaging in an activity for the pleasure
and satisfaction felt when you are trying to
accomplish or create something (7). If in aerobics
and aerobic effort we count on releasing endorphins
after an intense exercise sessions, in Yoga and
Pilates we rely on a state of flow (4).
The intrinsic motivation of stimulation may occur in
fitness activities where sensory pleasures are felt
during the isometric contraction or while performing
gestures and movements with a particular aesthetic.
Extrinsic motivation corresponds to a behavior that
is not self-determined, a behavior that must be
determined externally through rewards. There are
several types of external determination that may be
on either a lower or higher scale of self-
determination (14). These are: external control,
introjected and regulation by identifying the
behavior. External regulation refers to a behavior
that is influenced by external factors (i.e. material) or
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by rules/constraints. Introjected controls refers to
those individuals who feel an internal pressure such
as guilt or anxiety, the pressure to be in shape; they
feel ashamed and they blame themselves when they
are not in shape and do not have good result or miss
classes. Regulation by identifying behavior can be
seen the individuals who consider that practicing
this disciplines contributes to their personal
development and it also helps them in other branch
of their lives. In general it fights stress and it
develops self-regulation which has effects on
everyday life and on the job.
Amotivation can be defined as the lack of
correspondence between an individual’s action s
and the results of his/her actions and generally
leads to stop practicing these disciplines.
The research purpose is to analyze the way in which
the Yoga and Pilates practitioners (female) are
motivated. Because Yoga and Pilates have
established themselves in the past couple of years
as branches of fitness in Romania as well and
because they are competing in fitness and wellness
centers with other aerobics classes we want to
analyze the type of motivation which determines the
practitioners’ choices. The benefits of practicing
Yoga and Pilates are related to a state of wellbeing
rather than to fast body sculpting and idea body
shape in Yoga and Pilates is the lean, tone and
flexible woman with an optimal physical condition.
The hypothesis of the research:
Yoga and Pilates offer a new dimension to the
practice of physical exercises and satisfy various
needs and pleasures. Learning new techniques that
lead to body perfection and experienced sensations
satisfy the need for knowledge of practitioners.
Methodology
Material used
The study is conducted on a total of 58 female
practitioners, 29 practitioners of Yoga and 29
practitioners of Pilates of two different fitness
centers from Timisoara. The practitioners are aged
between 16 and 58 years with an average of 33,17
(for Yoga) and 32.17 (for Pilates). The average
weight of the practitioners is 55.67 kg (for Pilates)
and 56.71 (for Yoga) and the average height is 165
cm for Yoga and 164 cm for Plates.
Of the 58 practitioners, 24 are married with children
and 34 are not married. In both cases the majority of
the practitioners are employed with a higher
education diploma (83% Yoga and 76% Pilates).
After calculating the body mass index (BMI) one can
see that of all the Yoga practitioners not one was
overweight and most of them fell within a normal
BMI (18,5-24,9 kg/m²) only two with an index lower
than normal. The same situation can be seen at
Pilates, the majority of practitioners falling in the
normal BMI and only four with an index lower than
normal.
Method used
As data collecting method, we used two surveys: a
demographic survey with a total of 16 items (age,
gender, weight, studies, occupation etc.) and the
second one was “The Sport Motivation Scale” (SMS
28) developed by Pelletier et al. (13). The latter one
has a total of 28 items and for variable responses,
we used the Likert scale from 1 to 7, 1 being “does
not correspond at all”, 4 being “moderately
corresponds” , 5-6 being “ corresponds a lot” and 7
being “corresponds precisely”
Results
Top objectives of Yoga and Pilates practitioners
The reasons for which people decide to practice
fitness (in various forms) are generally pragmatic
things such as health, physical condition, weight loss
and body beauty. Even if Yoga and Pilates offer
something completely different than the other
branches of fitness, especially the dynamic ones
(aerobic, step etc.) one can see that the main reason
for the study group, for Yoga and Pilates is acquiring
a toned body, that can provide a beautiful straight
posture. The Yoga and Pilates woman type is
different from the aerobic one, where the forms are
full and round (predominantly white muscle fiber
development), whereas In Pilates-Yoga the body is
lean and dry (predominantly red muscle fiber
development). However there are differences in the
percentage level of importance allotted to toning
between Pilates practitioners (72, 41%) and Yoga
practitioners (44, 82%). The positions done in
Pilates, especially the “power house” as well as the
Yoga asana allow the involvement of small muscle
groups that are hard to reach in Aerobics, where one
generally works the main muscle groups.
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In Yoga, on a tie with toning is relaxation (44, 82%),
which for Pilates ranks no 2.)Slow execution of
asana and maintaining the position for a certain
period of time, along with the music help attain a
state of relaxation. The type of isometric contraction
correlated with exhalation allows a proper
oxygenation of the body establishing a state of
relaxation at the end of the session. The final state
of well-being is a complex combination between
physical effort, breathing alternating with physical
and mental relaxation.
Table 1. Top objectives of Yoga and Pilates practitioners
NO. OBJECTIVES
Y
OGA
Y
OGA RANKING
PILATES PILATES
RANKING
1. Weight loss 37.93%
3
37.93% 3
2. Muscle tone 44.82%
1
72.41% 1
3. Relaxation 44.82%
1
41.37% 2
4. Breathing improvement 17.23%
5
10.34% 7
5. Joint mobility development 34.48%
4
37.93% 3
6. Muscle resistance development 34.48%
4
31.03% 5
7. Muscle flexibility development 37.93%
3
20.68% 6
8. Maintaining optimum physical condition
41.37%
2
34.48% 4
9. Spending free time effectively/in a useful wa
y
3.44%
6
6.89% 8
10. Socializing 3.44%
6
6.89% 8
Table 2. Motivation of Yoga and Pilates practitioners (female)
No. Types of motivation
Y
oga
Pilates
t
test Pearson
x
x
t
r
1. Intrinsic motivation -
t
o know 4.89
4.65
0.24, p˃0.05 .76**
2. Intrinsic motivation -
t
o accomplish 4.78
4.12
0.53, p˃0.05 .01
3. Intrinsic motivation-
t
o experience stimulation
4.54
4.31
0.28, p˃0.05 .92***
4. Extrinsic motivation - identified 3.04
3.21
0.85, p˃0.05 .99***
5. Extrinsic motivation - introjected 4.27
4.74
0.18, p˃0.05 .14
6. Extrinsic motivation - external regulation
2.45
2.7
0.18, p˃0.05 .14
7. Amotivation 1,.77
2.02
0.06, p˃0.05 .39
Maintaining an optimal physical condition through
Yoga is the 2nd reason for which the practitioners
choose this discipline (41.37%) whereas for Pilates
practitioners it only ranks 4th (34.48%).
Weight loss ranks 3rd for both practices (37.93%).
Even if the body mass index proves that no
practitioner is overweight, every woman wants a
leaner silhouette. Sometimes due to lack of
knowledge and understanding of one’s own body
and its possibilities of development and shaping, the
ideal woman remains linked to the thickness of the
fat tissues.
Regarding mobility both Yoga and Pilates address
joint mobility and muscle flexibility, physical qualities
that are addressed less in aerobic. In addition to
good posture, performing the positions and asana
with a high degree of joint mobility and muscle
flexibility gives a different body allure. Yoga
practitioners rank flexibility development 3rd
(37.93%) and joint mobility 4th (34.48%) while
Pilates practitioners rank joint mobility 3rd (37.93%)
and muscle flexibility 6th (20.68%). The differences
in muscle flexibility can be explained by the very
essence of the two practices: regulation (through
muscle contraction and positions) in Pilates and
openness and fluidity (through asana) in Yoga.
Breathing still remains a rather complex to perform
and understand element; as proof of that it only
ranks 5th for Yoga (17.23%) and 7th for Pilates
(10.34%). This difference can be explained by the
different structure the lessons have; in Yoga we have
the last part which focuses on mental relaxation that
is done through pranayama and here the
practitioners understand that the amount of oxygen
dosage has a significant contribution to becoming
relaxed and achieving the state of flow, which exists
in Pilates but is acquired by execution rather than by
mental relaxation.
Linking inspiration and exhalation with muscle
contraction and relaxation but also the extensive
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apnea phases will be understood and perfected only
in years of practice. Often in Yoga, practicing
Pranayama without knowledge leads to poor
oxygenation of the brain and hence forth appears
different states far beyond relaxation, which is the
general objective. However fitness centers tend to
avoid this, which is not the case of Yoga schools.
As you can see, both socializing and spending time
in a useful way rank lowest for Pilates practitioners
and 6th for Yoga practitioners. The practitioners have
various goals and track their fulfillment.
Motivation of Yoga and Pilates practitioners (female)
One can see that in terms of intrinsic motivation of
knowledge it ranks highest for both Yoga and Pilates.
Wanting to know better the different things that
these activities offer is the main motivation for which
the practitioners are attracted to practicing these
disciplines. Sport practices are not meant to only
offer health, wellbeing and beauty advantages,
things that can be visibly perceived, but in the case
of Pilates and Yoga to offer a way for insight and
knowledge. Aside from the fact that both have a
particular short or long-term history, that proves that
they withstood time, unlike Aerobic which has a
recent past, they have allowed the development of
deeper needs, such as knowledge.
The intrinsic motivation of achieving is well
represented In yoga as well as in Pilates. Both have
numerous asana and positions combinations and
link elements that allow evolution from beginner to
advanced along with the evolution of the feeling of
competence and movement accomplishment.
The intrinsic motivation of stimulation as well the
other two types of intrinsic motivation is very well
represented in Yoga and Pilates without any
significant differences. Both allow new experiences,
experience pleasures and sensations. The isometric
contraction produces different sensations that
produce sweat, pain and incite resistance.
As far as extrinsic motivation of identification is
concerned, there are no significant differences
between the motivation of Yoga practitioners and
Pilates practitioners. With an average response of
3.04, the practitioners identify themselves with Yoga
in a moderate way. The same can be observed for
the Pilates practitioners (3, 21) and this could be
explained by the fact that both disciplines were
included in fitness centers where the offer is very
diverse and most of the time the practitioners
alternate these practices to achieve different goals.
The extrinsic motivation of introjection is moderately
correlated to the women’s motivation for practicing
Yoga and Pilates. Generally the practitioners have a
strict schedule that must be kept to otherwise not
participating might bring remorse. In order to feel
good and to stay in shape one must practice Yoga
and Pilates.
The extrinsic motivation of regulation is very little
correlated. Women that practice Yoga and Pilates do
not do this to obey general practices; these are not
considered a trend in Romania and they don’t really
do it to comply with the rest of the world. On the
contrary, most of the times it arouses suspicion,
especially in the case of Yoga – which may be
associated with esoteric or spiritual practices or
sectarianism. In Pilates things are not that
complicated but they still show originality.
As for amotivation, it is not encountered among
practitioners of either Yoga or Pilates
Conclusions
As one can see, the answers given by Yoga and
Pilates practitioners are generally moderate, which
proves that these disciplines are still practiced with
reluctance and that these newly emerged branches
of fitness in Romania mark the transition from the”
object” woman that sculpts her body to the “subject
“woman for which it is more important to feel good
about her body, to know her body’s limits and to
know her body and to try to be in harmony with
herself.
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... Purpose and context of the studies Twenty-eight studies (31.8%) explicitly examined facilitators or barriers to yoga participation such as perceived benefits or outcomes of yoga (Atkinson & Permuth-Levine, 2009;Halsall et al., 2016;Kishida et al., 2018;Lovas, 2011;Park et al., 2016a;Park et al., 2016b;Ross et al., 2013;Ross et al., 2014;Silva & Rosado, 2019;Villate, 2015;Walter, 2018;Wertman et al., 2016), motives or reasons for participation (Lewis, 2008;Lian et al., 2017;Park et al., 2016a;Park et al., 2016b;Park et al., 2019;Petracovschi, 2014;Quilty et al., 2013;Scott, 2012;Shiraishi, 2013;Telles et al., 2017;Wertman et al., 2016), barriers to participation or adherence (Atkinson & Permuth-Levine, 2009;Dayananda et al., 2014;Marques, 2018;Quilty et al., 2013;Spadola et al., 2017;Wertman et al., 2016), yoga use and practice characteristics (Harden et al., 2019;Marques, 2018;Penman, 2008;Penman et al., 2012;Quilty et al., 2013;Birdee et al., 2008;Cramer et al., 2016;Stussman et al., 2015;Cramer et al., 2018;Evans et al., 2018), experiences in yoga (Halsall et al., 2016;Sneed, 2018;Villate, 2015), perceptions or beliefs about yoga (Marques, 2018;Sivaramakrishnan et al., 2017;Sohl et al., 2011), and determinants or facilitators (Eggleston, 2009;Eggleston et al., 2011;Spadola et al., 2017). The rest of the studies (60 studies /68.2%) did not explicitly investigate barriers or facilitators for yoga participation but reported relevant data. ...
... Fifteen studies (17.0%) were grounded in motivational or behavioural theories. These included the Health Belief Model (Atkinson & Permuth-Levine, 2009), Life Course Theory (Henrichsen-Schrembs, 2008; Henrichsen-Schrembs & Versteeg, 2011), combined Health Belief Model and Life Course Theory (Wertman et al., 2016), Theory of Planned Behaviour (Eggleston, 2009;Eggleston et al., 2011;Gulizia, 2015), Self-Determination Theory (Lian et al., 2017;Petracovschi, 2014;Scott, 2012;Zajac & Schier, 2011), Sport Commitment Model (Lian et al., 2017), Biopsychosocial Model (Patel et al., 2011), Trans-Theoretical Model (Scott, 2012, Social-Contextual Model (Spadola et al., 2017), and Serious Leisure (Bowers & Cheer, 2017;Patterson et al., 2016). A few studies proposed potential yogaspecific models for understanding yoga participation and outcomes. ...
... Self-development through yoga was charted in 59 studies (67.0%), and included both personal (58 studies/65.9%) (Acebedo, 2012;Ameli, 2017;Atkinson & Permuth-Levine, 2009;Atkinson, 2010;Batacharya, 2010;Brasch, 2019;Brems, 2015;Bryan, 2012;Chen et al., 2007;Ford, 2018;Francesconi, 2017;Giovengo-Gurrera, 2018;Grace, 2016;Halsall et al., 2016;Hasselle-Newcombe, 2005;Henrichsen-Schrembs, 2008;Henrichsen-Schrembs & Versteeg, 2011;Hirsch, 2009;Hong, 2016;Huffman, 2015;Humberstone & Cutler-Riddick, 2015;Humberstone & Stuart, 2016;Jagannathan et al., 2012;Kidd & Eatough, 2017;Kishida et al., 2018;Konecki, 2006;Langøien, 2012Langøien, , 2013Lea, 2009;Lea et al., 2016;Leledaki, 2014;Lewis, 2008;Lian et al., 2017;Moorman, 2013;Myers, 2017;Park et al., 2016a;Park et al., 2016b;Patterson et al., 2016;Penman, 2008;Penman et al., 2012;Petracovschi, 2014;Pittoello, 2016;Popovic, 2010Popovic, , 2012Ross et al., 2013;Ross et al., 2014;Scott, 2012;Seldin, 2012;Shestopal, 1999;Siegel et al., 2016;Silva & Rosado, 2019;Sivaramakrishnan et al., 2017;Smith & Atencio, 2017;Sneed, 2018;Taylor, 2016;Valente & Marotta, 2005;Villate, 2015;Voltz, 2018;Walter, 2018;Werner, 2017;Wertman et al., 2016;Wiggins, 2018;Yang, 2017;Ylönen, 2010Ylönen, , 2012Cramer et al., 2016;Stussman et al., 2015;Cramer et al., 2018;Evans et al., 2018) and professional development (11 studies/12.5%) (Acebedo, 2012;Cowen, 2010;Ford, 2018;Giovengo-Gurrera, 2018;Hirsch, 2009;Hong, 2016;Huffman, 2015;Lewis, 2008;Pittoello, 2016;Taylor, 2016;Valente & Marotta, 2005). ...
Barriers and facilitators for participating in sports and exercise may vary across different types of activities. Yoga, a comprehensive discipline originating in India, has increasingly gained a place among the physical activities on offer in modern-day society, where it is usually practiced in the form of physical postures, breath regulation and relaxation. Despite its increasing popularity and many potential health benefits, the uptake of yoga is quite low and appears mostly restricted to certain population subgroups. To elucidate factors affecting uptake, this scoping review aims to identify the range of facilitators and barriers for yoga participation in the general adult population. Eighty-eight studies mentioning factors facilitating or hindering yoga participation were identified from 10 electronic databases. Findings corresponding to study and participant characteristics were summarised quantitatively, while findings referring to facilitators and barriers were organised qualitatively using thematic analysis. Results identified facilitators and barriers in addition to those reported for conventional forms of physical activity (e.g. perceived mind–body-spiritual benefits, negative impressions of yoga). These may reflect additional features of yoga beyond exercise and will need further exploration. Understanding the different facilitators and barriers for yoga participation may be useful to enhance the promotion of yoga and consequently increase its uptake.
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UniversitC du QuCbec B MontrCal A new measure of motivation toward sport has been developed in French, namely the Echelle de Motivation vis-h-vis les Sports. Two studies were conducted to translate and validate this new measure in English. The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) consists of seven subscales that measure three types of Intrinsic Motivation (IM; IM to Know, IM to Accomplish Things, and IM to Experience Stimulation), three forms of regulation for Extrinsic Motivation (Identified, Introjected, and External), and Amotivation. The first study con-firmed the factor structure of the scale and revealed a satisfactory level of internal consistency. Correlations among the subscales revealed a simplex pattern confirming the self-determination continuum and the construct valid-ity of the scale. Gender differences were similar to those obtained with the French-Canadian version. The more self-determined forms of motivation were associated with more positive responses on related consequences. In a second study, the SMS was administered on two occasions and revealed adequate test-retest reliability.
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I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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Since the fall of Communism, Romania has experienced massive social, political and economic changes. The emergence of new social groups -the new rich and the new poor -has made the social spectrum much more diversified than it was under Communism. Class identities now manifest themselves in new patterns of consumption and in the conduct of different lifestyles. Questions of individual and collective identity -of who I am and to which social group I belong -are being reformulated in terms of new identity models. The present article deals with one of these new identity models: the modern woman. In particular, I examine the cultural construction of femininity and among Romanian practitioners of aerobics. The theme of the modern woman will be approached by describing the interrelationship between the ways in which women talk about their looks and their perceptions of alternative female roles. My analysis is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Bucharest in the autumn of 1994. The fieldwork, a study of new body activities in Bucharest, focused particularly on aerobics clubs and beauty clinics. In studying the presentational status of the body in a society with new possibilities of consumption, my objective was to examine how processes of relocating oneself in a changing world are reflected in body practices and investments in one's looks. Interviews and participant-observation were carried out in three Bucharest aerobics clubs and in a newly opened beauty salon. The majority of my informants were higher educated middle-class women between 18 and 45 years of age. After returning to Denmark, I conducted a short fieldwork with Danish women practicing aerobics in a Copenhagen fitness club, data which will enter into my forthcoming M.A. thesis in anthropology.
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Until the mid-1980s the Pilates Method of exercise was little known outside the world of dance but has grown in popularity rapidly in the last decade: coming out of obscurity. Pilates method is much more than a list of exercises. It is a way of connecting and conditioning the whole being-body and mind. This article traces its history in context and examines the initial principles of the method, with the beginnings of modern developments.
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Pilates has gained momentum and attention in the past 5 years as a modality for improving flexibility, strength and mind-body awareness. What is not revealed, however, is the scientific basis for this practice. The two-fold purpose of this review was to (1) critically appraise published research on Pilates in healthy adults and (2) propose future research options for this method in healthy adults. An extensive literature search was conducted, using Pilates as the search word. A total of 277 articles were found. Thirty-nine articles and abstracts were published in refereed, professional journals, of which there were only three clinical trials in healthy adults. The strengths of these three clinical trials were the (1) use of established measurements for stated outcomes and (2) documented need for research in this area. The weaknesses were (1) lack of true experimental designs, (2) small sample sizes, and (3) lack of a defined method of Pilates. There is cautious support for the effectiveness of Pilates in improving flexibility, abdominal and lumbo-pelvic stability and muscular activity, primarily due to a lack of sound research methodology surrounding each study. Utilizing a true experimental design and stating the Pilates method utilized can strengthen and improve future Pilates research in healthy adults.
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explicate a theory of motivational regulation in schools / describe attempts to empirically verify it / offer evidence concerning what factors influence it and . . . ground the discussion in more general theories of motivation and development achievement and its motivations / reconceptualizing extrinsic motives: the continuum of internalization / internalization and achievement in schools / self-regulation in elementary school children / relative autonomy index / teacher and parent influences on self-regulation / internalization, development, and social context (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Professionals in theater, athletics, and rehabilitation settings have integrated Pilates-based exercise into their practice. The Pilates method of exercise claims to have several benefits including improving posture and improving balance; however, there are few studies to support these statements. We studied the effects of Pilates-based exercise on dynamic balance in healthy adults. A certified Pilates instructor conducted all exercise sessions. After completing 10 Pilates-based exercise sessions a significant change (P=.01) in dynamic balance was found in the functional reach test (FRT) mean scores in the exercise group (n=17). The control group (n=17) demonstrated no significant change (P=.54). The results suggest that Pilates-based exercise improved dynamic balance as measured by the FRT in healthy adults.