Neuropsychology of fear and loathing

MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, 15 Chaucer Road, Cambridge CB2 2EF, UK.
Nature reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.43). 06/2001; 2(5). DOI: 10.1038/35072584
Source: PubMed


For over 60 years, ideas about emotion in neuroscience and psychology have been dominated by a debate on whether emotion can be encompassed within a single, unifying model. In neuroscience, this approach is epitomized by the limbic system theory and, in psychology, by dimensional models of emotion. Comparative research has gradually eroded the limbic model, and some scientists have proposed that certain individual emotions are represented separately in the brain. Evidence from humans consistent with this approach has recently been obtained by studies indicating that signals of fear and disgust are processed by distinct neural substrates. We review this research and its implications for theories of emotion.

    • "Importantly, autonomic activation, which is essential for nausea perception (LaCount et al., 2011), appears to be modulated by the IC (Sclocco et al., 2014). The IC also plays a central role in the processing of disgust-related facial expressions (seeCalder, Lawrence, & Young, 2001) and the experience of disgust in response to nauseating stimuli (Calder et al., 2007). Therefore, these studies demonstrate the importance of the IC in several aspects of nausea and disgust. "
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    • "For instance, individuals who suffered from frontotemporal dementia are more likely to lose the ability of recognizing anger, fear, disgust and other negative emotions (Kumfor et al., 2011). Specifically speaking, fear is related to amygdaloid nucleus, disgust is connected with insula and globus pallidus , as well as anger is associated with the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (Murphy, Nimmo-Smith & Lawrence, 2003; Calder, Lawrence & Young, 2001), through stimulating different areas of each subcortical structure of the central nervous system (CNS), then it causes individuals to display different kinds of emotional behaviors. The latest research conclusion also supports this explanation (Cheng, Lu, Zhu, Chen & Gao, 2015), which found that the risky decision-making behaviors of subjects with cognitive-impairment existed a certain difference, the risky decision-making ability of whom is restrained in various degrees. "
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