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A Validated Questionnaire for Quantifying Skin Oiliness

  • Baumann Cosmetic and Research Institute

Abstract and Figures

Increased sebum production is a common skin complaint and plays an important role in acne and oily scalp conditions. To choose the correct skin care products, which mostly are marketed for dry, oily or normal skin, the consumer must self assess their skin type. Studies show that individuals incorrectly self assess their sebum secretion levels. In order to be able to correctly determine skin oiliness, we have developed a six-item skin oiliness scale (SOS) that correlates with sebumeter measurements. The resulting correlation was .54, which was significantly different from zero (p < .01). This result indicates a strong relationship between the SOS scores and the associated sebumeter measurements. This easy to administer questionnaire to accurately determine skin oiliness can be useful in screening and recruiting patients for research trials, performing outcome research, and recommending skin care products and procedures. Our study shows that this skin oiliness scale is an accurate way to identify and quantify skin oiliness.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 2014, 4, 78-84
Published Online March 2014 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Baumann, L.S., Penfield, R.D., Clarke, J.L. and Duque, D.K. (2014) A Validated Questionnaire for
Quantifying Skin Oiliness. Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications, 4, 78-84.
A Validated Questionnaire for Quantifying
Skin Oiliness
Leslie S. Baumann1, Randall D. Penfield2, Jennifer L. Clarke3, Deysi K. Duque4
1University of Miami Cosmetic Medicine and Research Institute, University of Miami, Miami Beach, USA
2Department of Educational and Psychological Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, USA
3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Miami, Miami, USA
4Department of Clinical Research, Baumann Cosmetic & Research Institute, Miami, USA
Received 29 January 2014; revised 25 February 2014; accepted 5 March 2014
Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Increased sebum production is a common skin complaint and plays an important role in acne and
oily scalp conditions. To choose the correct skin care products, which mostly are marketed for dry,
oily or normal skin, the consumer must self-assess their skin type. Studies show that individuals
incorrectly self-assess their sebum secretion levels. In order to be able to correctly determine skin
oiliness, we have developed a six-item skin oiliness scale (SOS) that correlates with sebumeter
measurements. The resulting correlation was 0.54, which was significantly different from zero (p
< 0.01). This result indicates a strong relationship between the SOS scores and the associated se-
bumeter measurements. This is easy to administer questionnaire to accurately determine skin oi-
liness and can be useful in screening and recruiting patients for research trials, performing out-
come research, and recommending skin care products and procedures. Our study shows that this
skin oiliness scale is an accurate way to identify and quantify skin oiliness.
Skin Oiliness Scale; Oily Facial Skin; Skin Oiliness Quantification; Measuring Skin Oiliness
1. Introduction
Increased sebum secretion is a common cosmetic complaint but, in addition, plays an important role in acne and
oily scalp conditions. Skin care products are often marketed to three separate skin types: dry, oily or normal,
leaving the consumer to determine whether their skin is oily, dry or normal. Several studies have shown that in-
dividuals incorrectly assess their sebum secretion levels [1].
L. S. Baumann et al.
One study enrolled 94 Korean women and asked them to rate their skin type as oily, dry or normal. The se-
bumeter was then used to measure sebum secretion on 4 sites of the face. The results showed that the subjective
skin type did not match the amount of sebum secreted, and that subjects underestimated their skin’s sebum pro-
duction. In some cases, those who believed that their skin type was dry, actually had “oily skin” as determined
by the sebumeter [2]. A subject’s estimation of their skin type is subject to many biases, and seasonal variations
in sebum secretion can confuse the issue [3]. We have developed a questionnaire that asks a series of historical
and subjective questions that have been found to correlate with sebumeter measurements. These questions offer
a method of determining skin oiliness that can be used to screen candidates for research studies or to provide
skin care advice and recommendations.
The Baumann Skin Type Indicator (BSTI) consists of a questionnaire about 4 main factors of the skin: 1) oily
vs. dry, 2) sensitive vs. resistant, 3) pigmented vs. non-pigmented, and 4) wrinkled vs. tight [4]. A numerical
score is derived from the questionnaire that places an individual into a distinct skin classification within 16 skin
types based on these four parameters. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the O (oily) sec-
tion questions of the BSTI could successfully discriminate between individuals with high and low sebum secre-
tion rates as determined by the sebumeter measurements.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Instrument Development
The development and validation of the SOS followed standard measurement procedures, as outlined in Crocker
and Algina, and Osterlind [5] [6]. The construction of the SOS began with the development of an initial pool of
items measuring skin oiliness. This pool of items was reviewed by an expert panel to determine whether the
content of each item was appropriate for the measurement of oiliness. Based on the recommendations of the ex-
pert panel, the initial pool of items was revised accordingly to a preliminary pool of 11 items (Table 1). The
number of response options for each item was either four or five, depending on the item. The pool of 11 items
was pilot tested using a sample of 400 respondents.
Using the data obtained in the pilot testing, the SOS was calibrated using the partial credit model [7], which
provided a model-based approach for the measurement of skin oiliness. The PCM approach was deemed prefer-
able to a true-score model approach because of its utility in examining item quality and the measurement prop-
erties of the scale [8] [9]. The PCM calibration yielded adequate fit (weighted mean squared errors, or infit,
ranged from 0.7 to 1.26). The correlation of each item to the resulting trait estimate for each person (i.e. point-
biserial correlation, which serves as a measure of item discrimination) ranged between 0.47 and 0.74. While
these results indicated that all items displayed acceptable measurement properties, consideration of the relative
performance of the items (i.e. according to fit and discrimination) allowed the research team to select the items
that displayed the strongest psychometric properties, and thus would lead to scores having the highest level of
reliability and validity.
Based on the results of the initial pilot test described above, five items were selected from the initial pool of
11 items such that the selected items displayed the strongest measurement properties (discrimination, fit, and
content representation). The five selected items, in addition to one newly created item (How often do you wash
your face?), formed the final six-item SOS. The six items of the SOS are displayed in Table 2. The decision to
use only six items was based on several factors: a) a relatively short scale was sought to increase the user-
friendliness and utility of the SOS; b) through consideration of the PCM results of the initial pilot test, it was
determined that six items would yield a reliability of approximately 0.8; and c) content review of the six items
by an expert panel indicated that these items sufficiently covered the outcomes associated with skin oiliness, and
thus provided initial evidence of validity for scores obtained from the six-item SOS. To obtain internal structure
and criterion-related validity evidence [6] of the scores obtained from the six-item SOS, a validation study was
conducted in which 100 individuals were administered the SOS along with six sebumeter measurements (three
sebumeter measurements were taken 45 minutes and three sebumeter measurements were taken 60 minutes fol-
lowing face washing).
2.2. Sample Population and Data Collection
In the pilot testing of the initial bank of 11 items, 400 male and female study participants were recruited to par-
ticipate in the survey between July and November, 2005 (Table 3). Participants were patients at the Dermatolo-
L. S. Baumann et al.
Table 1. Pool of 11 questions about skin oiliness production.
Baumann Skin Type Questionnaire
After washing your face, dont apply any moisturizer, sunscreen, toner, powder or other products. Two to three
hours later, look in a mirror under bright lights. Your forehead and cheeks feel or appear:
a) Very rough, flaky, or ashy
b) Tight
c) No reflection of light, and well hydrated
d) Shiny with reflection of bright light
In photos, your face appears shiny:
a) Never, or youve never noticed shine
b) Sometimes
c) Frequently
d) Always
Two to three hours after applying make-up foundation (also known as base) but no powder, your make-up appears:
a) Flaky or caked in wrinkles
b) Smooth
c) Shiny
d) Streaked and shiny
e) I do not wear facial foundation
When in a low humidity environment, if you don't use moisturizers or sunscreen, your facial skin:
a) Feels very dry, or cracks
b) Feels tight
c) Feels normal
d) Looks shiny or I never feel that I need moisturizer
e) Don’t know
Look in a magnifying mirror. How many large pores, the size of the end of a pin or greater, do you have?
a) None
b) A few in the T-zone (forehead and nose) only
c) Many
d) Tons!
e) Don’t know (Note: please look again and only answer “e” if you cannot determine this.)
You would characterize your facial skin as:
a) Dry
b) Normal
c) Combination
d) Oily
When you use soap that suds, bubbles, and foams vigorously, your facial skin:
a) Feels dry, or cracks
b) Feels slightly dry but does not crack
c) Feels normal
d) Feels oily
e) I do not use soap or other foaming cleansers (If this is because they make your skin dry, pick “a.”)
If not moisturized, your facial skin feels tight:
a) Always
b) Sometimes
c) Rarely
d) Never
You have clogged pores (black heads or white heads):
a) Never
b) Rarely
c) Sometimes
d) Always
Your face is oily in the “T-zone” (forehead and nose)
a) Never
b) Sometimes
c) Frequently
d) Always
Two to three hours after applying moisturizer your cheeks are:
a) Very rough, flaky or ashy
b) Smooth
c) Slightly shiny
d) Shiny and slick; or I do not use moisturizer
L. S. Baumann et al.
Table 2. Questions with highest correlation with sebumeter measurement.
After washing your face, don’t apply any moisturizer, sunscreen, toner, powder, or other products.
Two to three hours later, look in a mirror under bright lights. Your forehead and cheeks feel or appear:
a) Very rough, flaky, or ashy
b) Tight
c) Well hydrated with no reflection of light
d) Shiny with reflection of bright light
You would characterize your facial skin as:
a) Dry
b) Normal
c) Combination
d) Oily
Your face is oily in the T-zone (forehead and nose):
a) Never
b) Sometimes
c) Frequently
d) Always
You have clogged pores (blackheads or whiteheads):
a. Never
b. Rarely
c. Sometimes
d. Always
Your face is oily in the T-zone (forehead and nose):
a) Never
b) 5 or more hours after washing
c) 2 - 4 hours after washing
d) 1 hour after washing
e) All day
How many times a day do you wash your face?
a) I do not wash my face every day
b) 1 time
c) 2 times
d) 3 times
e) 4 or more
Table 3. Demographic characteristics of initial pilot test participants.
Demographic Characteristics N (%)
≤45 220 (55.6)
>46 176 (44.4)
Male 108 (27.0)
Female 292 (73.0)
White Non-Hispanic 174 (43.6)
African American 63 (15.8)
Hispanic 136 (34.1)
Asian 26 (6.5)
gy Clinic at the Edelman Building of the University of Miami medical campus. Two trained interviewers were
assigned to intercept all clinic patients as they entered the waiting room of the clinic. Participation in the survey
was entirely voluntary. Informed consent was obtained before the survey was given to the respondents. Once
L. S. Baumann et al.
enrolled, demographic information and a dermatological history were obtained by the two interviewers. Next,
the study participants were given the survey and asked to complete the Baumann Skin Type Indicator (BSTI)
questionnaire, version 1 [4]. The 11 items measuring skin oiliness were contained within the first section of the
BSTI. Females were much more likely to complete the survey than males. The racial composition of the sample
was predominantly White, non-Hispanic and Hispanic (Table 3). The surveys were collected, prior to the par-
ticipants regularly scheduled dermatology consult performed by an expert dermatologist. The collected data
were entered into an SPSS file. The present study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and
Ethics Committee of the University of Miami. This study was conducted according to all the Declaration of Hel-
sinki Principles. Participants or their legal guardians gave their written informed consent.
The validation study conducted on the final six-item SOS involved 100 participants. The racial composition
of the sample was predominantly White non-Hispanic and Hispanic females (Table 4). The surveys were col-
lected prior to the participants regularly scheduled dermatology consult performed by an expert dermatologist.
The collected data were entered into an SPSS file. Sebumeter measurements were taken from the chin in most
cases, and in two bearded males from the forehead respectively at 45 minutes and 60 minutes.
2.3. Statistical Analysis
Descriptive statistical analyses of sample demographic information were conducted using SPSS, as was calcula-
tion of the corrected item-total correlation coefficient and Chronbach’s alpha as an estimate of SOS score relia-
bility. The partial credit model analyses used for the initial sample of 400 individuals responding to the initial
bank of 11 items were conducted using Winsteps [10].
3. Results
A six-item SOS was developed (Table 5) and validated using standard measurement procedures, as outlined in
Crocker and Algina, and Osterlind [5] [6]. A final validation and reliability study using a sample of 100 indi-
viduals was conducted to establish whether the SOS provides reliable and valid measures of skin oiliness. The
obtained mean and standard deviation for each of the six items are also presented in Table 5.
Criterion-related evidence of validity for the SOS scores was obtained through consideration of the correla-
tion between the SOS scores and the average of six sebumeter readings taken at 45 minutes and 60 minutes
(three at each time point) post face-washing. The resulting correlation was 0.54, which was significantly differ-
ent from zero (p < 0.01). This result indicates a strong relationship between the SOS scores and the associated
sebumeter measurements. A scatterplot showing the bivariate distribution of the SOS scores and the average se-
bumeter readings is shown in Figure 1.
Table 4. Demographic characteristics of validation study participants.
Demographic Characteristics N (%)
≤45 29 (29.0%)
>46 71 (71.0 %)
Male 4 (4.0)
Female 96 (96.0)
White Non-Hispanic 58 (58.0)
African American 3 (3.0)
Hispanic 37 (37.0)
Asian 2 (2.0)
L. S. Baumann et al.
Figure 1. A scatterplot displaying the bivariate distribution of SOS scores and
average sebumeter score.
Table 5. Mean and standard deviation of the responses to the SOS.
Item Mean SD
1. After
washing your face… your forehead and cheeks feel or appear 2.59 0.97
2. You would characterize your facial skin as
··· 2.59 0.94
. How frequently is your face oily in the T-zone? 2.50 0.95
4. How often do you have clogged pores?
2.98 0.94
5. How soon
is your face oily in the T-zone after washing? 2.70 1.33
6. How many times a day do you wash your face?
2.98 0.51
a. Baumann skin type questionnaire (Part One: Oily vs. Dry).
Internal structure evidence of validity was obtained through consideration of the corrected item-total correla-
tion coefficients for each item. The values of the corrected item-total correlation exceeded 0.45 for all items,
with the exception of item 6 for which the value was 0.24. The relatively low discrimination of item 6 was likely
attributable to the small variability in the responses (SD = 0.51) to the item (i.e. most responded as washing their
face two times per day). Despite the seemingly low discrimination of item 6, its inclusion in the SOS was
deemed to be important in order for the SOS to yield scores that would distinguish between individuals with
moderately oily and very oily skin. Reliability of the obtained SOS scores was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha,
which yielded a value of 0.78. This level of reliability is within acceptable levels for low-stakes scales of this
nature, and ensures that the SOS provides consistent measures of skin oiliness.
4. Discussion
The results presented in Table 4 and Figure 1 show that the SOS scores are as valid as sebumeter scores to help
determine skin oiliness. Patients with oily skin may have an increased incidence of acne, a decreased incidence
of dry skin, and due to large amounts of vitamin E in sebum, may have reduced rates of skin cancer and pho-
toaging. For these reasons, an easy to administer questionnaire to accurately determine skin oiliness can be use-
ful in screening and recruiting patients for research trials, performing outcome research, and recommending skin
care products and procedures. The SOS provides an inexpensive mechanism for measuring not just whether an
individual’s skin is oily, but also how oily the skin is. It can be clearly seen that SOS scores can provide an ac-
curate qualitative measure of skin oiliness.
L. S. Baumann et al.
Studies cited above have shown that asking patients if they have dry, oily or normal skin, does not correspond
with sebumeter ratings. We have shown that a series of methodically designed questions does indeed correlate
with sebumeter measurements. The questions must be used exactly as seen above in Table 1 in order to be valid,
as other versions of the questions that have been studied over the last 5 years have been shown to have less va-
lidity. Similar studies that have developed oily skin questionnaires have included different questions from those
of the SOS. For instance, the oily skin questionnaire developed by Segot-Chicq et al. [11] focuses on people’s
perception, behavioral and emotional circumstances about their skin oiliness. The SOS, in contrast, tries to avoid
preconceptions about whether someone’s skin is oily or dry and presents more in-depth questions that are spe-
cific to the degree of oiliness. It allows patients to select multiple choice answers that are appropriate for each
scenario and provides detailed and accurate information about the most predominant skin oiliness factors.
5. Conclusion
In the past, questions evaluating a patient’s subjective perception of skin oiliness were not found to correlate
with sebumeter measurements. In many instances, it is important to determine a patient’s level of sebum secre-
tion, and a sebumeter is not always available. The findings of this study indicate that the six oily skin directed
questions of the BSTI have the ability to classify individuals based on levels of sebum secretion. This can be
used to recommend skin care products, to provide data in research trials and to divide patients into distinct
groups based on sebum production in situations where a sebumeter is not accessible.
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(2007) Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Evaluate How a Cosmetic Product for Oily Skin Is Able to
Improve Well-Being in Women. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 9, 1181-1186.
... This system creates 16 possible skin phenotypes (Table 1) [21]. It applies to all ethnicities, ages, and genders, and is defined by a validated questionnaire (64-item questionnaire) called The Baumann Skin Type Indicator (BSTI) [22][23][24]. The Baumann Skin Type is calculated by a software that assigns a letter to which parameter and if applicable, a subtype of sensitive skin. ...
... This questionnaire has been validated regarding skin oiliness. Reliability (using Cronbach's alpha) and criterion validity (by correlation with Sebumeter ® readings) were established in a sample of 100 individuals [24]. The questionnaire also proved to be valid among all ethnicities and in various geographic locations [22]. ...
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Skin type classification is important because it provides guidance for professionals and consumers to recommend and select the most appropriate cosmetic products and skin care protocols and it is also important in clinical research. Several methods have been proposed for classifying skin typologies such as non-invasive bioengineering tools (examples: Corneometer® and Sebumeter®), visual and tactile methods (subjective methods that evaluate skin appearance, texture, temperature, and abnormalities), artificial intelligence-based tools and instruments (examples: visual rating scales, and self-report instruments). Examples of known visual rating scales used to classify skin aging are the Griffiths Photonumeric Scale, the Glogau Scale, and the SCINEXA Scale. The Fitzpatrick Skin Phototype Classification and the Baumann Skin Type System are some of the self-report instruments used for skin type classification. Despite the diversity of methods to classify skin type and degree of skin aging, data on instruments are scarce and not adequately compiled. Validation in larger samples and with individuals of different ethnicities and geographic locations is needed to promote a more universal use. Visual rating scales and instruments are interesting tools that allow the skin to be promptly and efficiently examined, without using costly or complex equipment, and are very useful in a clinical or self-assessment context.
... Sebum production was assessed through the validated SOS (skin oiliness scale) questionnaire [14], which was filled out following subject questioning at baseline (day 0) and after 28 days. The questionnaire contains six items which, depending on the given answer, each receive from 1 to 5 points. ...
... Sebum production, the main characteristic of oily skin, is quantified using a validated, six-item questionnaire [14]. There was a significant two-point decrease in the average SOS score at day 28, thus confirming the seboregulatory properties of the two topical products. ...
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Oily, acne-prone skin is a common skin type which may be monitored in vivo using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of RCM in evaluating the effectiveness of a topical combination of alpha- and beta-hydroxy acids, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial molecules, and Herculane thermal water on acne-prone skin. Thirty-five subjects with oily, acne-prone skin were prescribed topical combination products and were evaluated by clinical, Wood’s lamp, and RCM imaging at baseline and after 28 days. At 28 days, the RCM-evaluated number of dilated infundibula, infundibula filled with keratotic material, and infundibula with thickened bright borders, as well as the density of the inflammatory infiltrate, were significantly decreased. Wood’s light images at 28 days showed a significantly reduced number of C. acnes-colonized infundibula, and both the median area and the intensity of the red-orange fluorescence were decreased. The reduction in the clinical score was concurrent with the improvement in the RCM parameters, suggesting that this non-invasive imaging technique is appropriate for efficiency evaluations of topical acne treatments.
... Kulit berminyak memiliki kandungan sebum tinggi dan menjadi tempat paling ideal untuk berkembangnya koloni P. acnes, sehingga sering dijumpai AV pada seseorang yang memiliki kulit berminyak dibandingkan kulit kering. 3,8 Kulit dengan tingkat kebersihan yang minim dapat menimbulkan AV. 9 Tinjauan sistematik review dari 11 studi didapatkan hasil bahwa AV dapat sembuh dengan menjaga kebersihan wajah. 3 Konsep higiene wajah adalah dengan cara mengurangi kotoran dan sebum tanpa menghilangkan lipid barrier kulit dan memiliki tujuan untuk mencegah perkembangan koloni P. acnes. ...
... 11 Penelitian ini didukung suatu penelitian di Amerika Serikat yang menunjukkan hasil bahwa terdapat 56% responden dengan tipe kulit berminyak mengalami AV dibandingkan responden dengan jenis kulit kering. 8 Pada kulit kering terdapat gangguan di stratum korneum yang menyebabkan meningkatnya evaporasi cairan melalui kulit, sehingga kulit semakin mudah mengalami hiperkeratinisasi folikuler epidermal. Faktor utama penyebab jerawat ada empat, yaitu: produksi sebum berlebihan, hiperkeratinisasi lapisan epidermal kulit, aktivitas bakteri P.acnes, dan inflamasi. ...
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Acne vulgaris (AV) is a chronic skin disease in polysebaceous unit.The incidence of AV in Indonesia is 48-52%. Skin type and facial skin hygiene are triggers for AV. This disease is often complained to adolescents and become quite serious health problems. Someone with oily skin and lack of facial hygiene that can increase the AV phenomenon. Therefore, it is necessary to attend about skin types and facial hygiene to prevent the occurrence of AV in adolescents.It Is todetermine relationship between skin type and facial skin hygiene in teenager aged withtheexistence of AV inSMKMuhammadiyah2Malang.It use observational analytic study with cross sectional approach. Thesubjects were all students of SMKMuhammadiyah2Malang in academic year 2019/2020 who didn’t gettreatment AV from doctor. SamplingbyStratified Random Sampling, and found 79 respondents. Analyzed by Chi-squareand logistic regression.According to theChi-square test showed, other was a relationship between skin type (p=0.00) and facial hygiene (p=0.00) with AV. The logistic regression results showed thatskintype hadan effect (p=0.001) on AV with 54 times greater chance ofoilyskin type being exposed toAV.There’s relationship between skin type and facial skin hygiene in teenageraged withtheexistence ofAV inSMKMuhammadiyah2Malang.
... Men and women aged 18-40 years with seborrhea were eligible to enroll in this study. Seborrhea was defined by the criteria that were adapted from Baumann et al, 16 which contained the following items: (a) the face was shinny with light reflection, especially on the forehead and cheeks 3 hours after face washing, without applying any products; (b) subject characterized his/her facial skin as oily or combination skin; (c) subject started to feel that his/her face was oily 1 hour after face washing; (d) subject washed his/ her face more than twice daily; and (e) subject had clogged pores on the face. All subjects were interviewed by trained investigators (CK and NT) according to the questions listed in the questionnaire to ensure that all subjects had a clear understanding before performing a self-evaluation. ...
Background: Seborrhea is linked to several medical and mental conditions. Although it is common, effective agents and the standardized sebum level for seborrhea are not elucidated. Aims: To determine the efficacy of chitosan particles (CP) formulation on controlling sebum secretion, its extended effects on skin redness and texture after combining with proretinal nanoparticles (CP-PRN), and a correlation of the clinical grading with sebum levels that affect mental health. Patients/methods: A four-week clinical trial with forty subjects was conducted. Subjects applied either CP formulation or CP-PRN during nighttime. Objective measurements including sebum levels, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin corneometry, skin redness, and texture were analyzed. Subjects completed a self-assessment clinical grading of skin oiliness at every visit. Results: Both CP and CP-PRN significantly decreased sebum levels (P ≤ .01) at week 4 compared to baseline. CP also resulted in significant decreases in TEWL (P ≤ .05) and skin corneometry (P ≤ .05) throughout the study. A significant improvement in skin redness was observed with CP-PRN (P ≤ .01). A moderate correlation between the clinical grading and sebum levels was detected (coefficient of 0.5, P ≤ .001), with a sebum level of 106 μg cm-2 indicating emotional discomfort. One subject experienced local irritation with the CP-PRN. Mild pruritic symptoms were reported in both groups. Conclusions: Chitosan particles exhibited an interesting anti-sebum effect. It could be combined with PRN to extend benefits without losing the sebum controlling effect. The clinical grading may be useful in practice due to a modest correlation with sebum levels.
...  Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) ( Table 4). [9,11]  Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) ( Table 4). [10,11]  Number of oil absorbing pads used ...
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An open label clinical study was carried out to screen the efficacy and safety of an oil control moisturizer containing Policosanol, Aloe vera extract and Niacinamide as its active ingredients. The volunteers of either sex were asked to apply the oil control moisturizer on the face in a circular motion, on cheeks, forehead & Ala of nose once a day for a period of 2 weeks. These volunteers were examined prior to entry into the study and later at seven days interval. Adverse effects, if any, due to application of the oil control moisturizer were noted down. Efficacy of the oil control moisturizer was assessed on the basis of changes in the oiliness and moisturizing effect. Results indicated that the oil control moisturizer was efficacious and was well tolerated. It did not lead to any adverse effects. Aim: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Oil Control Moisturiser in subjects with excess facial oiliness. Methods: An open label, Phase III clinical trial, evaluating 17 subjects consisted of 3 sessions: baseline, Day 7 and Day 14 for follow up assessments with application of Oil control moisturiser once daily for a period of 2 weeks. Subjects were asked to fill out Oily Skin Self-Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) survey at the first, second and third sessions. At each visit, the cosmetic appearance of the facial skin was scored and usage of oil pads to wipe out oiliness was recorded for efficacy evaluation. Results: The Oil Control Moisturiser showed significant difference in every efficacy parameter at different time points from baseline to end of study as measured by number of oil pads used. From this study, it was evident that application of oil control moisturizer has no serious adverse effects. When applied over a period of 2 weeks, it showed beneficial effects in the form of reduction in shine on skin, improved skin softness, smoothness and moisturizing effect. Overall results were satisfying to the study subjects. Subjects felt that applying oil control moisturizer was beneficial. No subjects experienced any adverse events. Conclusions: Fourteen subjects completed the study. Significant control in the oiliness of skin was seen at the end of the study. Application of this oil control moisturizer is beneficial for oily skin to control excess oiliness of the skin. Product compliance was also good.
Background: A better understanding of skin lipidomics and its alteration under treatment administration might offer therapeutic solutions for seborrhea. Aims: To quantitatively and qualitatively explore the lipid-modifying effect of the moisturizer containing licochalcone A, 1,2-decanediol, L-carnitine, and salicylic acid (LDCS) in seborrhea participants with and without acne vulgaris (AV). Patients/methods: We conducted an open-label explorative study on 20 seborrhea participants (10 AV and 10 non-AV). All participants applied LDCS for 8 weeks with the addition of benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel and adapalene 0.1%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel in AV. Skin surface lipid (SSL) assessments were performed biweekly, using Sebumeter® and lipid-absorbent Sebutapes® to collect forehead SSL for profile analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: SSL amount significantly decreased since week 2 in AV (P-value=0.0124) and week 6 in non-AV (P-value=0.0098), respectively. Twenty-two important SSLs were annotated from GC-MS analysis, comprising 19 free fatty acids, cholesterol, squalene, and glycerol. There was a significant reduction in 5 and 13 lipid components in AV and non-AV groups, respectively. Conclusion: LDCS, either alone or with topical acne treatment, demonstrated substantial sebusuppressive and lipid-modifying effects among seborrhea participants.
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Background: Seborrhea is a skin condition characterized by abundant production of sebum associated with typical dermatological conditions such as rosacea and acne. Little is known about the prevalence of seborrhea and the frequency of concurrent skin diseases in the general population. Objective: To investigate the epidemiology and comorbidity of seborrhea in the adolescent and adult working population. Methods: In large-scale examinations by dermatologists in 343 German companies, the seborrheic skin type and the occurrence of skin findings were documented electronically. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of further skin diseases were computed. Logistic regression analyses were conducted for each disease using seborrhea as dependent variable. Results: A total of 48,630 employees were examined. About 6.0% showed seborrhea (6.6% in men, 5.4% in women). Seborrhea strongly predicted acne (OR 3.59; CI 3.18-4.05), trichilemmal cysts (OR 1.99; CI 1.25-3.18) and rosacea (OR 1.45; CI 1.17-1.81). Regression analyses controlling for age, gender and phototype confirmed significant associations of seborrhea with acne and rosacea. Conclusion: Only a minor proportion of the working population shows meaningful seborrheic skin. However, this condition predicts distinct skin diseases and thus needs attention, in particular, with respect to consulting and secondary prevention.
Introduction: Seborrhea or oily skin has been one of the most common complaints affecting both men and women physically and psychologically. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from the alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Due to its positively charged nature, chitosan can effectively bind to lipids. Therefore, chitosan nanoparticle (CN) formulation may benefit in the reduction of skin sebum. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CN formulation in the reduction of skin sebum. Method: The study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 24 participants aged 18-40 years with clinical seborrhea. Participants were randomly assigned to apply the CN and gum (CN-G) or placebo (gum alone) twice daily for 4 weeks. Sebum level, corneometry, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and clinical seborrhea grading were evaluated at baseline and week 2 and 4. Results: In the T-zone, sebum levels in the CN-G group were significantly lower than the placebo group at week 4 (p = 0.043), while for the U-zone, sebum levels were not different between groups. There were no statistical differences in corneometry and TEWL at any visit. Although the clinical seborrhea grading in CN-G was lower, it was not significantly different from the placebo. A few cases reported mild and self-limiting scaling and acneiform eruption. Conclusion: The CN-G gel could significantly reduce sebum levels on seborrhea patients with acceptable safety profiles.
The approach to treat photoaging, acne, pigmentary disorders, and other skin cosmetic complaints has expanded beyond a one-stage treatment to now include combined dermatological procedures. And both preparatory cosmetic therapy and posttreatment cosmeceutical therapy are fundamental to improving and maintaining results, preventing further skin damage, and avoiding unaesthetic outcome.
Patients with skin of color have similar skin care needs as lighter-skin patients. However, they are less likely to use sun protection on a daily basis, which leads to an increased risk of dyschromia, skin cancer, and other disorders. This article discusses the importance of a correct and consistent skin care regimen and the various cutaneous issues that should be considered when prescribing a skin care regimen for patients with darker skin types. Adopting a standardized methodology to identify affordable, efficacious products and to streamline the process of skin-type diagnosis, skin care regimen prescribing, patient communication, and staff education will result in improved patient outcomes and increased patient satisfaction. (C) 2016 Frontline Medical Communications
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Facial skin is usually classified as dry, normal, and oily in the cosmetics field. However, there is no standard objective method for classifying facial skin. We measured sebum excretion with Sebumeter at four sites on the face. Based on the amount of sebum secretion, we reclassified skin type according to the guidelines provided by the manufacturer. The mean of sebum excretion (mean facial sebum excretion; MFSE) was also calculated. People secrete varying amounts of sebum at different skin sites. Reclassification of skin type based on sebum secretion revealed that most participants underestimated the amount of facial sebum excretion. When sebum secretion amounts were compared, a statistically significant difference was apparent between the oily and dry skin types. However, there were no statistical differences between oily and normal, and normal and dry skin. We showed that subjective skin type does not match the amount of sebum secreted. Thus, this simple and subjective classification is of very limited use and it should be re-evaluated by using an objective and standardized measuring tool.
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Differences of skin type and pH between subjects with and without acne have not been investigated. In addition, the relationship between sebum secretion and pH in these populations has not been determined. This study assessed the differences in objective and subjective skin types between these two groups. Secondly, this study evaluated the difference in pH on five facial areas (forehead, nose, chin, right and left cheeks) between the two populations. Lastly, the relationship between pH and sebum secretion was analyzed in each population. Sebum casual levels (CL) of the five facial areas in 36 Koreans with acne and 47 Koreans without acne were measured by using a Sebumeter SM 815® and subjects were classified into objective skin types by CL. Subjects reported the type of skin they believed they had, which determined the subjective skin type. The pH levels of the five facial areas were measured by the Skin-pH-Meter PH 905®. Data were assessed with adequate statistical tests depending on data type and distribution. Among the five areas, the nose of the subjects with acne showed a significantly higher CL, compared to the subjects without acne. This difference in CL on the nose resulted in the difference in CL on the T-zone and mean facial sebum excretions (MFSE). Although CL differed, objective skin types did not differ between the two groups (P > 0.05), but the subjective skin types differed significantly (P = 0.001). In addition, the objective skin types were significantly different than the subjective skin types in subjects with acne (P = 0.001), whereas the two skin types did not differ in subjects without acne. Subjects with acne actually overestimated their skin types and stated their skin types were “oilier” than they were. In respect to pH, none of the five areas differed significantly between the two groups. Among the five sites in subjects with acne, CL showed a significant negative correlation with pH on the left (r 2 = 0.12) and right (r 2 = 0.15) cheeks, which resulted in a significant negative correlation on the U-zone (r 2 = 0.14). In contrast, in subjects without acne, there was a significant negative correlation between CL and pH on the forehead (r 2 = 0.10) and chin (r 2 = 0.16), which led to a significant negative correlation on the T-zone (r 2 = 0.14).
Written in an accessible style, this book facilitates a deep understanding of the Rasch model. Authors Bond and Fox review the crucial properties of the Rasch model and demonstrate its use with a wide range of examples including the measurement of educational achievement, human development, attitudes, and medical rehabilitation. A glossary and numerous illustrations further aid the reader's understanding. The authors demonstrate how to apply Rasch analysis and prepare readers to perform their own analyses and interpret the results. Updated throughout, highlights of the Second Edition include: a new CD that features an introductory version of the latest Winsteps program and the data files for the book's examples, preprogrammed to run using Winsteps;, a new chapter on invariance that highlights the parallels between physical and human science measurement;, a new appendix on analyzing data to help those new to Rasch analysis;, more explanation of the key concepts and item characteristic curves;, a new empirical example with data sets demonstrates the many facets of the Rasch model and other new examples; and an increased focus on issues related to unidimensionality, multidimensionality, and the Rasch factor analysis of residuals. Applying the Rasch Model is intended for researchers and practitioners in psychology, especially developmental psychologists, education, health care, medical rehabilitation, business, government, and those interested in measuring attitude, ability, and/or performance. The book is an excellent text for use in courses on advanced research methods, measurement, or quantitative analysis. Significant knowledge of statistics is not required. © 2007 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
A unidimensional latent trait model for responses scored in two or more ordered categories is developed. This “Partial Credit” model is a member of the family of latent trait models which share the property of parameter separability and so permit “specifically objective” comparisons of persons and items. The model can be viewed as an extension of Andrich's Rating Scale model to situations in which ordered response alternatives are free to vary in number and structure from item to item. The difference between the parameters in this model and the “category boundaries” in Samejima's Graded Response model is demonstrated. An unconditional maximum likelihood procedure for estimating the model parameters is developed.
Facial sebum secretions are known to change under various circumstances. Facial skin types have been categorized as oily, normal, dry, and combination types. However, these have been evaluated subjectively by individuals to date, and no objective accepted standard measurement method exists. The combination skin type is most common, but its definition is vaguer than the definitions of the other skin types. We measured facial sebum secretions with Sebumeter. Sebum secretions were measured at five sites of the face seasonally for a year, in the same volunteers. Using the data obtained we developed a set of rules to define the combination skin type. Regional differences in sebum secretion were confirmed. Sebum secretions on forehead, nose, and chin were higher than on both cheeks. Summer was found to be the highest sebum-secreting season, and seasonal variations were found in the T- and U-zones. A mismatch of skin type in the T- and U-zones in more than two seasons appears to be close to subjective ratings of what is described as the 'combination' skin type. We showed that the face shows definitive regional and seasonal variations in sebum secretion. To define the combination skin type, seasonal variations in sebum secretion should be considered in addition to regional variations.
Skin diseases are known to negatively affect self-image and to have detrimental psychosocial effects. Oily skin is a cosmetic skin problem that women often describe as 'invalidating'. To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the psychological and psychosocial effects of oily skin condition in women and the outcome of a targeted cosmetic skincare treatment. We developed and validated a concise 18-item questionnaire [oily skin self-image questionnaire (OSSIQ)] to assess perception, behavioural, and emotional consequences associated with oily skin condition. The questionnaire was then used to assess the effects of a skincare treatment for oily skin and compare them with sebum level measurements. The 18-item questionnaire clearly distinguished the oily skin group from the control group. Responsiveness, reliability, and construct validity showed satisfactory performance. The questionnaire provided a relevant assessment of the psychological benefits associated with the skincare programme. The OSSIQ is a valid tool that can be used to monitor the benefits of cosmetic skincare treatments.
Modern Measurement: Theory, Principles, and Applications of Mental Appraisal
  • S J Osterlind
Osterlind, S.J. (2006) Modern Measurement: Theory, Principles, and Applications of Mental Appraisal. Pearson, Upper Saddle River, 492.