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A Pilot Clinical Trial on L-Carnitine Supplementation in Combination with Motivation Training: Effects on Weight Management in Healthy Volunteers

Authors:
  • Lonza Japan Ltd.,
Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2013, 4, 222-231
doi:10.4236/fns.2013.42030 Published Online February 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/fns)
A Pilot Clinical Trial on L-Carnitine Supplementation in
Combination with Motivation Training: Effects on Weight
Management in Healthy Volunteers
Satoshi Odo1, Koji Tanabe1, Masamitsu Yamauchi2
1Lonza Japan Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Home Economics, Registered Dietitians Section, Aichi Gakusen University, Oka-
zaki, Japan.
Email: Satoshi.odo@lonza.com
Received December 4th, 2012; revised January 9th, 2013; accepted January 16th, 2013
ABSTRACT
A 4-week low dosage (500 mg/day) L-carnitine supplementation in combination with motivation training was carried
out in 24 overweight (BMI 25.8 - 26.6 kg/m2) Japanese males in the course of a double-blind randomized pla-
cebo-controlled study. L-carnitine motivated group showed significant body weight loss and a decrement of serum
triglyceride level vs. the non-motivated placebo group. Serum adiponectin levels increased in both L-carnitine supple-
mented groups. The beneficial effects of L-carnitine were amplified by motivation training. For clinical evaluation of
supplements, whose efficacy is potentially affected by inter-individual life style variability, supportive motivation
training might be advisable for future clinical trials.
Keywords: L-Carnitine; Weight Management; Motivation Training; Carnipure™
1. Introduction
Prevalence of obesity among adults in Japan was 3.9% in
2009, compared to nearly 34% for the United States [1].
However, according to national health and nutrition sur-
vey in Japan in 2007, prevalence of obesity is increasing
in males regardless of age group compared with the sta-
tistics of 1986 and 1996. Additionally, among the 40 - 74
years old, one in two men and one in five women were
strongly suspected to have either metabolic syndrome or
prodromal metabolic syndrome [2].
Drugs approved for long-term management of obesity
are very few [3,4] they have limited long-term effective-
ness, and they have also significant side effects such as
hypertension and insomnia for sibutramine [5] and diar-
rhea and flatulence for orlistat [6,7]. On the other hand,
long term administration of L-carnitine for fighting of
obesity is considered safe [8] in comparison to the pre-
viously mentioned medications.
L-carnitine (L-3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethylaminobutyrate)
was discovered more than 100 years ago [9,10]. More
and more new research is conducted on L-carnitine [11,
12]. Among many other functions, L-carnitine is crucial
for beta-oxidation, facilitating the transport of long-
chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane
[13,14], as well as moving the waste products such as
poorly metabolizable acyl groups from mitochondria to
the cytoplasm [15]. Recent research shows that L-car-
nitine possesses antioxidant capacity and protects plasma
components against oxidative damage [16,17].
For long time, L-carnitine has been marketed as a die-
tary supplement to improve body composition and in-
crease athletic performance [11]. Wutzke and Lorenz
have shown that L-carnitine supplementation led to a
significant increase in 13C-fat oxidation, whereas protein
synthesis and breakdown rates remained unchanged in
slightly overweight subjects [18]. This was confirmed by
a recent study by Wall and coworkers, who found an
increase in lipid utilization due to carnitine supplementa-
tion in exercising humans [12]. According to Pekala et
al., L-carnitine and its esters have been proposed as a
treatment for many conditions, including obesity [19].
Most available results arise from studies which em-
ployed daily dosages that were higher than those used as
dietary supplements; e.g. more than 1000 mg per day.
One of the reasons that high dosages were often used in
the clinical studies may be the difficulty to obtain clear
results of L-carnitine effects due to its indigenous exis-
tence in the subjects. Moreover, energy metabolism is
easily affected by individual life styles such as daily diet
and physical activities, which may bias the effects of L-
carnitine supplementation.
The pilot study presented here was designed to evalu-
ate effects of low dose L-carnitine supplementation (500
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. FNS
A Pilot Clinical Trial on L-Carnitine Supplementation in Combination with Motivation Training:
Effects on Weight Management in Healthy Volunteers
223
mg per day) on weight loss and other energy metabo-
lism-related parameters. Special focus is directed to the
influence of concomitant motivation training on the out-
come parameters of the study.
Modern weight loss programs comprise a combination
of supplementation with weight-reducing agents and mo-
tivation trainings in order to promote changes in life style
with regard to eating habits and physical activity that
may support the weight-reducing effects [20-23].
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design
The trial was designed as a double-blind randomized
placebo controlled study. All subjects provided written
informed consent before screening. The study protocol
was approved by Shiba Palace Clinic Ethics Committee.
The study was conducted from September 2009 to De-
cember 2009 including subject recruitment and data pro-
cessing in SOUKEN (Institute of General Health De-
velopment Co., Ltd.).
97 male (20 - 60 years [yrs]) Japanese subjects were
screened. 24 male subjects (BMI: 25 - 28 kg/m2, triglyc-
erides [TG]: 150 - 350 mg/dL, waist circumference: 85 -
100 cm, without exercising habit) were allocated to two
classes: L-carnitine group (C) (760 mg of L-carnitine tar-
trate = 500 mg L-carnitine for 4 weeks) and placebo
group (NC). Subjects were instructed to ingest 4 cap-
sules/day with water after breakfast. Lonza Japan Ltd.
provided CarnipureTM (L-carnitine L-tartrate), and pla-
cebo (cellulose) capsules.
Each class was divided in two groups: motivated (M)
and non motivated (NM). Motivation training included a
face-to-face 30 min session with the principal investiga-
tor at the baseline visit, where the subjects were informed
about L-carnitine and its metabolic functions. Further-
more, subjects learned about the beneficial effect of
weight loss on the risk of metabolic diseases. Subjects
were encouraged to perform daily physical activities like
“taking stairs” instead of “using escalators”. Furthermore,
it was recommended to reduce calorie intake to 1500 -
1800 kcal by taking light meals. Subjects were instructed
to use pedometers (step counters) throughout the day to
keep record of their physical activity, and to monitor
their body weight using bathroom scales provided to
them. Both step count and weight were recorded by each
subject of the motivated groups on a daily basis. Fur-
thermore, subjects were instructed to report food intake
on the 7 days before start of supplementation and on the
7 days prior to the last visit. After 2 weeks, a 15 min fol-
low up interview was held to review and reconfirm the
previous instructions. The interviews were conducted in
double blinded manner in terms of L-carnitine ingestion.
At baseline and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the
following assessments were performed: body fat content
was determined by bioelectrical impedance measurement
(In Body 3.2, BIOSPACE Co., Ltd., Korea), basal meta-
bolic rate was measured with a gas analyser (Vmax29s,
Sensor Medics Co.). In addition blood analyses were per-
formed (see below under Laboratory Assessment).
In the motivated group (M), energy intake, body weight,
and amount of physical activity were monitored. Energy
intake was calculated from a web diet survey (including a
hearing survey with Excel Eiyo-kun Ver. 4. 5 Kenpaku-
sha Ltd., a diet monitoring software). The amount of ex-
ercise was surveyed by continuous pedometer measure-
ments.
Subjects were fasting 12 hours prior to each visit. No
beverages or food other than mineral water were allowed
until blood was drawn on the measurement day. Subjects
were prohibited to take any kinds of dietary supplements
or functional foods which claim to modify fat or energy
metabolism throughout the study. Subjects were asked to
avoid irregular activities (lack of sleep, excessive eating
or drinking, etc.).
After 2 weeks and after 4 weeks of supplementation,
15 minutes interviews were held to assess subject com-
pliance and monitor potential adverse events.
This study was implemented in adherence with the
guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki.
2.2. Laboratory Assessment
The following parameters were measured in the whole
blood: white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hae-
moglobin, haematokrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV),
mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscu-
lar haemoglobin concentration and the platelet count.
In the serum the following was measured: total cho-
lesterol, TG, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol,
high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, adiponectin,
urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, aspartate aminotrans-
ferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase,
serum insulin, sodium, potassium and chlorine.
One parameter was measured in the plasma: blood
glucose.
One parameter was measured in haemolysate: HbA1c.
All measurements were carried out at the research la-
boratory of BML, Inc. 5-21-3 Sendagaya, Shibuya-ku,
Tokyo 151-0051 Japan.
2.3. Statistical Analysis
Subjects were randomized so that the means of neutral
fat, BMI, peripheral waist circumference, and age
screened were as close as possible between all groups.
The values of all parameters are presented as the mean ±
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A Pilot Clinical Trial on L-Carnitine Supplementation in Combination with Motivation Training:
Effects on Weight Management in Healthy Volunteers
224
standard deviation. 3 subjects were excluded from the
statistical evaluation. Any unavailable data for any rea-
son were processed as missed data.
All analyses were carried out using SPSS (IBM) Ver.
16. Effects of supplementation (value after 4 weeks)
were tested versus baseline data. Furthermore, effect of
L-carnitine supplementation with and without motivation
training was tested versus the respective placebo group.
Correlated t-test was applied at “baseline” and “after 4
weeks” within each group, and Tukey’s test was applied
between groups at “baseline” and “after 4 weeks” on all
variables.
3. Results
3.1. Baseline Values
The present study is a randomized, placebo-controlled
double blind clinical trial to study the effect of 4 weeks
intake of low dose (500 mg/day) L-carnitine in combi-
nation with motivation training on body weight and body
composition. Of the 24 subjects who entered into the
study, all subjects completed the 4 weeks administration,
but only 21 were included in the subsequent evaluation. 3
subjects were excluded from the analysis for violation of
one inclusion criterion, as they led extraordinary life-
styles being night workers. The demographic characteris-
tics of the study population at baseline are presented in
Table 1. Subjects were randomized so that the means of
serum TG levels (216 - 228 mg/dL), BMI (25.8 - 26.6
kg/m2), peripheral waist circumference (93.3 - 99.2 cm),
and age (40.2 - 44.4 yr) were as close as possible be-
tween groups. However, body weight was higher in the
L-carnitine-motivated group than in the other 3 groups at
baseline (see Table 2).
3.2. Effect of Motivation Training on Life Style
Although subjects were motivated to keep daily calorie
intake between 1500 and 1,800 kcal, energy intake of
most of the subjects exceeded 2500 kcal/day. Energy
Table 1. Baseline demographic characteristics of the sub-
jects (n = 21).
L-carnitine Placebo
Motivated
group
Non-motivated
group
Motivated
group
Non-motivated
group
Number of
subjects 5 6 5 5
Age (year44.4 ± 3.5 43.3 ± 8.2 40.2 ± 4.8 43.4 ± 6.5
Height (cm) 175.7 ± 3.8 168.5 ± 5.1 169.5 ± 3.2 169.9 ± 5.8
mean ± SD.
intake did not change significantly during the intervene-
tion and was not different between groups (Table 3). In
both motivated groups, average step count increased be-
tween baseline (C/M = 5934; NC/M = 5199) and 4 weeks
(C/M = 8617; NC/M = 6872). However, both increases
were not found to be statistically significant.
3.3. Effect of Intervention on Body Weight and
Body Composition
The L-carnitine motivated group showed a significant
decrease in body weight (baseline: 82.0 ± 2.2, 4 weeks:
80.9 ± 1.8 kg, p = 0.007) within 4 weeks of intervention,
while body weight increased or remained constant in all
other groups (see Table 2). The body weight change was
significantly different between the L-carnitine motivated
group and the placebo non-motivated group (p = 0.0019;
see Figure 1). As shown in Figure 2, body weight de-
creased in all subjects in the L-carnitine motivated group,
in contrast to all other 3 groups.
BMI decreased significantly in L-carnitine motivated
group (from 26.6 kg/m2 at baseline to 26.2 kg/m2 after 4
weeks), whereas it remained the same or even slightly
increased in other 3 groups (see Table 2).
No significant changes were observed in body fat mass,
muscle mass and basal metabolism.
3.4. Effect of Intervention on Blood Lipids
The L-carnitine motivated group showed the largest de-
crease in serum TG levels (baseline 218 ± 45 mg/dL, 4
weeks 145 ± 42 mg/dL) among all other groups (see Ta-
ble 4 and Figure 3). TG levels were statistically signifi-
cantly lower in the L-carnitine motivated group than in
the placebo non-motivated group at 4 weeks after intake
(p = 0.03). Changes in triglyceride levels were signifi-
cantly different between L-carnitine motivated group as
well as L-carnitine non-motivated group and placebo
non-motivated group (p = 0.014 and 0.0223, respectively,
Figure 3). On individual level shown on Figure 4, TG
changes were observed with some similarities to those on
body weight patterns (Figure 2).
Cholesterol levels did not change significantly, but
showed positive trends in the L-carnitine motivated group:
Total cholesterol decreased slightly in the L-carnitine
motivated group (2 mg/dL), in comparison to all other
groups which showed mild to moderate increases (up to
+22 mg/dL in the placebo non-motivated group).
LDL cholesterol remained constant in the L-carnitine
motivated group but increased in all other groups. The
increase reached statistical significance only in the pla-
cebo non-motivated group.
HDL cholesterol did not change significantly in any of
the groups.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. FNS
A Pilot Clinical Trial on L-Carnitine Supplementation in Combination with Motivation Training:
Effects on Weight Management in Healthy Volunteers
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. FNS
225
Table 2. Comparison of body weight and body composition between the 4 groups at baseline and after 4 weeks (n = 21).
L-carnitine Placebo
Motivated group Non-motivated group Motivated group Non-motivated group
Number of subjects 5 6 5 5
Baseline 82.0 ± 2.2 73.4 ± 3.6 75.3 ± 1.6 76.2 ± 6.4
Body weight (kg) 4 weeks 80.9 ± 1.8ab 73.6 ± 3.4 75.3 ± 1.4 76.9 ± 6.1
Baseline 26.6 ± 1.1 25.8 ± 0.6 26.2 ± 1.0 26.4 ± 0.6
Body mass index (kg/m2) 4 weeks 26.2 ± 1.0c 25.9 ± 0.6 26.2 ± 1.1 26.6 ± 0.5
Baseline 58.7 ± 3.0 53.6 ± 4.4 54.3 ± 3.3 56.5 ± 4.6
Muscle mass (kg) 4 weeks 58.0 ± 2.7 53.8 ± 3.7 54.6 ± 2.5 56.8 ± 4.5
Baseline 20.1 ± 2.4 16.8 ± 1.4 17.9 ± 2.6 16.5 ± 2.1
Body fat mass(kg) 4 weeks 19.7 ± 2.4 16.6 ± 1.0 17.6 ± 2.5 17.0 ± 1.9
Baseline 1590 ± 59 1512 ± 147 1546 ± 94 1566 ± 161
Basal metabolism (kcal/day) 4 weeks 1575 ± 48 1517 ± 128 1552 ± 82 1571 ± 160
Baseline 99.2 ± 3.4 93.3 ± 3.2 95.5 ± 4.9 94.7 ± 6.3
Waist (cm) 4 weeks 97.9 ± 2.3 94.2 ± 3.5 94.5 ± 4.4 95.2 ± 6.6
mean ± SD; a: p < 0.01, for change from baseline at 4 weeks; b: p < 0.05, for L-carnitine motivated group versus L-carnitine non-motivated group; c: p < 0.05,
for change from baseline at 4 weeks. Within each group, correlated t-test was applied at “baseline” and “after”; Tukey’s test was applied between every two
group at “baseline” and “after 4 weeks”.
Table 3. Energy intake and step count in the motivated
groups at baseline and after 4 weeks (n = 21).
L-carnitine Placebo
Motivated group Motivated group
Number of subjects 5 5
Baseline 1940 ± 307 2138 ± 576
Calories (kcal)
4 weeks 2079 ± 215 2125 ± 413
Baseline 5934 ± 2367 5199 ± 2473
Step count (step)
4 weeks 8617 ± 2883 6872 ± 1375
mean ± SD.
Figure 2. Individual body weight changes between baseline
and 4 weeks. C/M: L-carnitine/Motivated; C/NM: L-carni-
tine/Non-motivated; NC/M: Placebo/Motivated; NC/NM: Pla-
cebo/Non-motivated. Values are means ± SD; n = 21.
3.5. Effect of Intervention on Metabolic
Parameters
Adiponectin was significantly higher in the L-carnitine
motivated group at 4 weeks after intake compared to
baseline (baseline: 7.54 ± 2.44, 4 weeks: 8.72 ± 2.15
µg/mL, p = 0.04; see Table 5). However, this increase
was not statistically significant compared to placebo or
-carnitine non-motivated group. Adiponectin levels
Figure 1. Average body weight change between baseline and
4 weeks. C/M: L-carnitine/Motivated; C/NM: L-carnitine/
Non-motivated; NC/M: Placebo/Motivated; NC/NM: Pla-
cebo/Non-motivated. Values are means ± SD; n = 21. L
A Pilot Clinical Trial on L-Carnitine Supplementation in Combination with Motivation Training:
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226
Table 4. Lipid profile between the 4 groups at baseline and after 4 weeks (n = 21).
L-carnitine Placebo
Motivated group Non-motivated group Motivated group Non-motivated group
Number of subjects 5 6 5 5
Baseline 218 ± 45 228 ± 33 216 ± 64 220 ± 79
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 4 weeks 145 ± 42a 187 ± 38 183 ± 51 265 ± 108
Baseline 215 ± 31 218 ± 32 232 ± 32 209 ± 28
Total Cholesterol (mg/dL) 4 weeks 213 ± 36 221 ± 30 237 ± 30 231 ± 36
Baseline 126 ± 22 128 ± 18 147 ± 30 125 ± 29
LDL Cholesterol (mg/dL) 4 weeks 129 ± 24 138 ± 24 154 ± 25 141 ± 38b
Baseline 57.4 ± 14.3 50.3 ± 18.8 48.2 ± 3.6 46.4 ± 10.9
HDL Cholesterol (mg/dL) 4 weeks 61.0 ± 14.0 50.2 ± 12.6 50.8 ± 6.0 47.2 ± 10.8
mean ± SD; a: p < 0.05, for L-carnitine motivated group versus placebo non-motivated group; b: p < 0.05, for change from baseline at 4 weeks; Within
each group, correlated t-test was applied at “baseline” and “after 4 weeks”; Tukey’s test was applied between every two group at “ baseline” and “after 4
weeks”.
Table 5. Metabolic parameters between the 4 groups at baseline, and after 4 weeks (n = 21).
L-carnitine Placebo
Motivated group Non-motivated group Motivated group Non-motivated group
Number of subjects 5 6 5 5
Baseline 7.54 ± 2.44 6.32 ± 3.74 6.52 ± 1.75 5.68 ± 1.26
Total adiponectin (μg/mL) 4 weeks 8.72 ± 2.15a 6.93 ± 4.60 6.08 ± 1.48 6.24 ± 0.33
Baseline 99.2 ± 3.7 97.2 ± 4.5 99.8 ± 9.1 95.8 ± 4.3
Blood glucose (mg/dL) 4 weeks 98.6 ± 2.7 98.7 ± 11.2 96.2 ± 4.4 100.0 ± 4.0
Baseline 5.10 ± 0.29 5.07 ± 0.28 4.72 ± 0.24 4.78 ± 0.19
HbA1c (%) 4 weeks 5.12 ± 0.26 5.10 ± 0.28 4.72 ± 0.29 4.82 ± 0.24
Baseline 7.94 ± 2.16 6.17 ± 1.80 10.70 ± 10.20 5.96 ± 2.44
Insulin (μU/mL) 4 weeks 8.46 ± 1.92 13.10 ± 7.00a,c 5.44 ± 1.58 10.70 ± 3.70b
mean ± SD; a: p < 0.05, for change from baseline at 4 weeks; b: p < 0.01, for change from baseline at 4 weeks; c: p < 0.05, for L-carnitine non-motivated group
versus placebo motivated group; Within each group, correlated t-test was applied at “baseline” and “after 4 weeks”; Tukey’s test was applied between every two
group at “baseline” and “after 4 weeks”.
Figure 3. Average changes in serum triglyceride levels be-
tween baseline and 4 weeks. C/M: L-carnitine/Motivated; C/
NM: L-carnitine/Non-motivated; NC/M: Placebo/Motivated;
NC/NM: Placebo/Non-motivated. Values are means ± SD; n =
21.
Figure 4. Individual changes in serum triglyceride levels be-
tween baseline and 4 weeks. C/M: L-carnitine/Motivated,
C/NM: L-carnitine/Non-motivated; NC/M: Placebo/Moti-
vated; NC/NM: Placebo/Non-motivated. Values are means ±
SD; n = 21.
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A Pilot Clinical Trial on L-Carnitine Supplementation in Combination with Motivation Training:
Effects on Weight Management in Healthy Volunteers
227
showed an increase in all subjects in the L-carnitine mo-
tivated group, in contrast to the diversified results of all
other 3 groups.
No clinically or statistically significant changes were
observed in levels of glucose and HbA1c across the dif-
ferent groups. Insulin levels showed large fluctuations
and increased statistically significantly in both carnitine
and placebo non-motivated groups compared to baseline
(p = 0.038 and p = 0.006, respectively). Insulin levels
were statistically significantly higher in the L-carnitine
non-motivated group compared to placebo motivated
group at 4 weeks (p = 0.047).
3.6. Effect of Intervention on Safety Parameters
Slight changes were observed in white blood cell count,
MCV, MCH, platelet count and plasma urea nitrogen.
However, these changes were not clinically relevant and
were not confined to a certain treatment group. The re-
sults from the complete blood count are presented in Ta-
ble 6. Markers of renal function and liver function are
shown in Table 7. Both L-carnitine and placebo were
well tolerated in all subjects.
Table 6. Complete blood count between the 4 groups at baseline and after 4 weeks (n = 21).
L-carnitine Placebo
Motivated group Non-motivated group Motivated group Non-motivated group
Number of subjects 5 6 5 5
Baseline 7458 ± 2261 6243 ± 1743 4784 ± 1020 5536 ± 1422
White blood cells (×100/μL)
4 weeks 5770 ± 1069 7027 ± 2818 4886 ± 1280 6032 ± 1256a
Baseline 498 ± 18 519 ± 19 513 ± 19 486 ± 20
Red blood cells (×104/μL) 4 weeks 509 ± 25 522 ± 31 512 ± 30 508 ± 14
Baseline 15.4 ± 0.8 15.4 ± 0.7 15.7 ± 0.4 14.8 ± 0.8
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 4 weeks 15.7 ± 0.9 15.5 ± 0.9 15.6 ± 1.1 15.7 ± 0.6
Baseline 45.6 ± 2.3 47.2 ± 2.2 46.8 ± 2.4 44.4 ± 1.6
Hematocrit (%) 4 weeks 46.1 ± 2.2 46.4 ± 2.3 46.2 ± 2.2 45.9 ± 1.0
Baseline 23.0 ± 4.8 24.6 ± 3.9 21.7 ± 4.9 25.2 ± 7.4
Platelet count (×104/μL) 4 weeks 25.3 ± 6.2 26.3 ± 3.1 23.4 ± 5.7b 25.3 ± 7.0
mean ± SD; a: p < 0.05, for change from baseline at 4 weeks; b: p < 0.05, for change from baseline at 4 weeks; Within each group, correlated t-test was applied
at “baseline” and “after 4 weeks”; Tukey’s test was applied between every two group at “baseline”and “after 4 weeks”.
Table 7. Markers of liver and renal functions between the 4 groups at baseline and after 4 weeks (n = 21).
L-carnitine Placebo
Motivated group Non-motivated group Motivated group Non-motivated group
Number of Subjects 5 6 5 5
Baseline 0.82 ± 0.13 0.79 ± 0.04 0.84 ± 0.10 0.83 ± 0.07
Creatinine (mg/dL) 4 weeks 0.81 ± 0.16 0.79 ± 0.06 0.79 ± 0.10 0.79 ± 0.03
Baseline 6.78 ± 0.78 6.35 ± 0.65 6.56 ± 0.88 6.92 ± 0.49
Uric Acid (mg/dL)
4 weeks 6.78 ± 1.65 6.33 ± 1.16 6.42 ± 0.70 6.88 ± 1.01
Baseline 12.1 ± 2.4 13.1 ± 2.3 13.7 ± 3.7 13.0 ± 4.2
Urea Nitrogen (mg/dL) 4 weeks 16.2 ± 4.9 13.3 ± 2.3 13.5 ± 1.0 15.0 ± 3.9a
Baseline 22.4 ± 4.2 26.5 ± 4.7 22.4 ± 5.4 23.2 ± 3.7
AST (U/L) 4 weeks 22.2 ± 4.0 27.2 ± 8.8 20.2 ± 4.8 25.4 ± 6.4
Baseline 28.2 ± 9.7 39.3 ± 16.3 20.6 ± 6.3 23.6 ± 8.4
ALT (U/L)
4 weeks 27.4 ± 7.8 42.3 ± 21.8 18.2 ± 6.3 32.0 ± 17.6
Baseline 51.4 ± 20.5 46.2 ± 24.7 32.6 ± 9.7 39.2 ± 12.1
γ-GT (U/L) 4 weeks 49.6 ± 31.5 47.2 ± 23.2 31.4 ± 10.2 58.0 ± 38.5
mean ± SD; a: p < 0.05, for change from baseline at 4 weeks; Within each group, correlated t-test was applied at “baseline” and “after 4 weeks”; Tukey’s test
as applied between every two group at “baseline” and “after 4 weeks”. w
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Effects on Weight Management in Healthy Volunteers
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4. Discussion
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the
effect of supplementation with 500 mg of L-carnitine per
day for 4 weeks on weight management and energy
metabolism related parameters in healthy human sub-
jects with and without supportive motivation training.
Although several previous studies have examined L-
carnitine supplementation, this is the first study to
report in depth on the effect of low dosage L-carnitine
ingestion in combination with motivation training on
body weight.
The L-carnitine motivated group showed significant
body weight loss of 1.10 kg compared to an increase in
weight of +0.7 kg in the placebo non-motivated group (p =
0.0019; Figure 1). However, no statistically significant
effect of L-carnitine supplementation was observed in the
non-motivated group. This is in line with previous stu-
dies. Villani et al. found no significant changes in body
weight in moderately obese women after supplemen-
tation with 4 g of L-carnitine over 8 weeks [24]. Supple-
mentation with 2 g of L-carnitine for 3 months in
slightly overweight diabetic patients did not affect BMI
[25].
It should be noticed that the described study was per-
formed during late fall and winter between September
and December 2009. Ma et al. showed that caloric intake,
physical activity and subsequently body weight vary
seasonally, with mean body weight peaking in winter
[26]. This might have also factored into the increase of
body weight in the placebo non-motivated group. Despite
this seasonal effect on body weight, subjects in the L-
carnitine motivated group in our study showed signi-
ficant weight loss.
Motivation training comprised information about the
beneficial effects of weight loss on the risk of metabolic
diseases in face-to-face meetings with the medical in-
structor as well as instructions to monitor physical
activity levels and dietary intake. Participation in the
motivation training led to a significant increase of
physical activity: In both the placebo motivated and the
L-carnitine motivated group, the number of steps in-
creased by +1673 steps and +2683 steps, respectively.
Energy intake was not significantly affected by moti-
vation training of the subjects. The administration of
L-carnitine in combination with enhanced physical
exercise may have led to the observed reduction of body
weight by increasing the rate of fat oxidation. Previous
studies on both normal and overweight subjects have
shown that supplementation with L-carnitine increases
fat oxidation [18,27]. Therefore, a reduction of body fat
mass may be expected in the L-carnitine motivated
group. Although a slight decrease of body fat mass was
observed, this change was not statistically significant.
However, the short duration of the study may have pre-
vented a significant effect.
Both the L-carnitine motivated group and the L-
carnitine non-motivated group showed a significant drop
in serum TG levels compared to the placebo non-mo-
tivated group (Figure 3). Figure 5 demonstrates the
beneficial effect of a combination of L-carnitine supple-
mentation and motivation on serum TG, decreasing their
level below 150 mg/dL in 3 out of 5 subjects eliminating,
hence, a common risk factor for metabolic syndrome [28].
The beneficial effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipids
has been documented in several studies [29]. Mala-
guarnera et al. showed that supplementation with 2 g of
L-carnitine for 3 months significantly reduced TG from
3.31 ± 0.35 to 2.30 ± 0.31 mmol/L in diabetic patients,
which is equivalent to a drop about 88.4 mg/dL. This is
in the same range as the TG change observed in our study.
Malaguarnera et al. also observed positive effects of
L-carnitine supplementation on total cholesterol, LDL
and HDL cholesterol levels [25]. This has not been
demonstrated in our study, where cholesterol values did
not change significantly. This may be due to the smaller
number of the participating subjects, the lower utilized
dose of L-carnitine, or the shorter duration of the trial (4
weeks). Also, in our study, no diet restriction was applied,
in contrast to the low-fat and high-fiber diet in the com-
parative study.
In our study, adiponectin levels were increased in the
L-carnitine motivated group at the end of the treatment
period compared to baseline levels (+1.18 µg/ml; p =
0.04). A similar trend was observed in the L-carnitine
non-motivated group (+0.61 µg/ml), however, this
change was not statistically significant. Adiponectin is a
peptide hormone produced in the adipocytes, and its
levels are inversely related to the fat mass of the body[30].
Administration of adiponectin has been associated
Figure 5. Individual serum triglyceride level at 0 w () and
4 w (). Dotted line (150 mg/dL) shows the critical level for
triglycerides as critical risk factor of metabolic syndrome,
indicating an amelioration of the risk factor in the L-car-
nitine motivated group.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. FNS
A Pilot Clinical Trial on L-Carnitine Supplementation in Combination with Motivation Training:
Effects on Weight Management in Healthy Volunteers
229
with reduction of plasma glucose levels and increase of
insulin sensitivity. Therefore, an increase of adiponectin
levels is regarded as beneficial with respect to risk fac-
tors of metabolic syndrome [30].
Several studies evaluating changes in adiponectin le-
vels which occurred during weight reduction resulting
from various treatments did not have consistent results
[30,31]. Weight loss per se seems not to have an effect
on adiponectin levels. In a study by Silva, de Almeida,
and Feoli, weight loss achieved with a low-calorie diet
plus exercise increased adiponectin levels in the range of
18% - 48% [32]. An increase in adiponectin levels oc-
curred also in a study on the effects of acetyl-L-carnitine
(a naturally occurring carnitine derivate, which is dea-
cetylated to L-carnitine after ingestion) in subjects at in-
creased cardiovascular risk [33]. Supplementation with 2
g/d acetyl-L-carnitine for 24 weeks (equivalent to 1.6 g
L-carnitine) induced an increase of adiponectin by 27%
compared to an increase about 15% observed in the L-
carnitine motivated group in our study.
Elevated adiponectin serum levels could be explained
by the hypothesis that an improved oxidation of free fatty
acids might be associated with a secondary increase in
adiponectin expression [34].
Insulin levels showed large variations in our study.
The observed significant increases cannot be attributed to
either L-carnitine supplementation or motivation training
and may have been influenced by other non-controlled
parameters.
Our study demonstrates that the efficacy of a weight
loss program may be strongly influenced by motivation
training. For all parameters that showed significant changes
during the treatment (body weight, triglycerides, and adi-
ponectin levels), stronger effects were observed in the
L-carntine motivated group than in the L-carnitine non-
motivated group. This is supported by the study of Unick
et al. who investigated the influence of a telephone
motivation program on the achievement of weight loss in
overweight and obese women [35]. It turned out that the
number of telephone calls was a strong predictor of weight
loss success.
Several countries have recently started health pro-
grams to achieve lifestyle changes in order to support
weight loss and prevent metabolic diseases [36,37]. Our
results substantiate the beneficial effect of motivation
training on the efficacy of weight loss programs. Also for
the clinical examination of the efficacy of dietary supple-
ments, which may be affected by inter-individual life
style variability, the implementation of motivation train-
ing may be advisable to obtain more pronounced effects
of the intervention.
Supplementation of L-carnitine is considered safe for
doses up to 15 g/d in healthy men [38]. Therefore,
markers of hepatic and renal function as well as blood
hematology in Japanese men after daily ingestion of a
dose of L-carnitine of 500 mg/d for 4 weeks showed no
abnormalities as expected.
There were some limitations to this pilot study. The
main limitation concerns the small number of subjects.
This may be a crucial limitation that weakens the sig-
nificance of the results, although the observed changes
do signify a beneficial effect of L-carnitine supplemen-
tation in combination with motivation training. We tried
to equally allocate subjects to each group, but 3 subjects
were excluded for violation of the inclusion criteria.
Furthermore, the relatively short duration of this clinical
trial (4 weeks) and the utilized low dose of L-carnitine
may explain the lack of significance in the achieved
changes in many of the assessed parameters. L-carnitine
seems to induce a slow but consistent increase of muscle
carnitine stores. A recent study by Wall et al. has shown,
that an increase in muscle carnitine is observed after 12
weeks of supplementation, which reaches statistical sig-
nificance only after 24 weeks [12]. Therefore, it can be
assumed that the effect of L-carnitine on body weight
and serum lipids will be more pronounced in a study of a
longer duration.
Low dosage L-carnitine combined with motivation
may have a beneficial effect on several metabolic syn-
drome risk parameters, including TG and adiponectin,
which could offer a safe, low cost, and easily applicable
strategy targeting weight loss in overweight humans.
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... Besides exercise, nutrition is one of the important cofactors to achieve peak performance and improve the health status of an individual. Ergogenic aid supplements are essential to improve sports performance as well as for weight loss and health maintenance (Odo et al. 2013). L-carnitine has gained a lot of popularity in the health food products sector as a weight-loss dietary supplement in the treatment of obesity (Pekala et al. 2011). ...
... In addition, the enhancement of fat-oxidation induced by L-carnitine would generate more ATP for energy production. It is generally known that exercise could enhance bone health status (Ooi, Rabindarjeet & Harbindarjeet, 2009). Lei & Chuan (2015 reported that 2 years of L-carnitine supplementation could enhance bone mineral density in men. ...
... It is well reported that oral L-carnitine supplement has a low absorption rate and bioavailability of L-carnitine from oral supplements of 500-6000 mg doses ranges from 14 to 18% of the total dose (Rebouche, 2004), hence, only a small amount can be absorbed from the body. Regarding the aspect of bone health status measurements, physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) are primarily related to the mechanisms of mechanical loading that impose on the skeleton (Zernicke et al., 2006;Ooi et al., 2009). High impact loading can have a greater influence on bone mass and tend to be effective in osteogenic stimuli. ...
Article
ARTICLE DETAILS This article aimed to determine effects of 12 weeks of combined L-carnitine supplementation and moderate-intensity exercise on cardiovascular markers and bone health status in overweight and obese individuals. Sixty-eight participants (mean age: 29.03 ± 6.02 years old) were divided into control (C), L-carnitine supplement (S), exercise (E), combined L-carnitine and exercise (SE) groups. Participants in S and SE groups consumed 1 tablet of 1000mg L-carnitine daily. Participants in E and SE groups performed 30 minutes of brisk walking (50% HRmax), and continued with 10 to 20 minutes of Tabata exercise per session, 3 times per week. After 12 weeks of intervention, there were significant reduction in body weight (p< 0.05), body mass index (p< 0.05), fat percentage (p< 0.05), fat mass (p< 0.05), and increases fat free mass (p< 0.01) in S, E and SE groups. Regarding waist to hip ratio, blood glucose and total cholesterol, only E and SE groups showed improvements (p<0.05) and the greatest reduction was observed in SE group. No significant changes in insulin resistance in any groups. Additionally, S, E and SE groups also showed enhancement in both dominant and non-dominant radial and tibial speed of sound (p< 0.05) within and between the groups. .
... Rout of L-carnitine administration has done orally in all of the studies. Selected studies enrolled subjects with suspected acute myocardial infarction (56), diabetes (15), cirrhotic patients (17), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (49), hypothyroidism (18), hyperthyroidism (57), hemodialysis patients (19), hepatic encephalopathy (16,50,52), chronic hepatitis C (49,50,54) and healthy subjects (20,53,55). Included studies carried out in different countries such as Italy (16,17,48e50,52,54,57), Iran (15,53), Japan (19,20), Croatia (55), South Korea (18) and India (56). ...
... Selected studies enrolled subjects with suspected acute myocardial infarction (56), diabetes (15), cirrhotic patients (17), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (49), hypothyroidism (18), hyperthyroidism (57), hemodialysis patients (19), hepatic encephalopathy (16,50,52), chronic hepatitis C (49,50,54) and healthy subjects (20,53,55). Included studies carried out in different countries such as Italy (16,17,48e50,52,54,57), Iran (15,53), Japan (19,20), Croatia (55), South Korea (18) and India (56). Some studies enrolled only males (20,53) and females (57) and the rest of included studies involved both genders (15e19,48e50,52,54e56). ...
... Included studies carried out in different countries such as Italy (16,17,48e50,52,54,57), Iran (15,53), Japan (19,20), Croatia (55), South Korea (18) and India (56). Some studies enrolled only males (20,53) and females (57) and the rest of included studies involved both genders (15e19,48e50,52,54e56). In addition, the studies performed in subjects with different baseline BMI; six studies carried out in subjects under 25 kg/m 2 (17e19,53,55), 5 studies over than 25 kg/m 2 (15,20,48e50,54) and 5 study did not report BMI (16,50,52,56,57). ...
Article
Background and aim Possible Hepato-protective effects of L-carnitine have been reported in previous studies. Present study was conducted to systematically review the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on liver enzymes. Methods The following databases were searched up to December 2018: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane library. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on liver enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were included. Pooled effect size measured using random effect model (Dersimonian-Liard). Results A total of 16 studies (including 1025 participants) were included in the present meta-analysis. Pooled analysis indicated that L-carnitine supplementation significantly decreased ALT (weighted mean difference (WMD): −10.729 IU/L, 95% CI: −13.787, −7.672, p <0.001; I² = 95.9%), AST (WMD: −7.149 IU/L, 95% CI: −9.202, −5.096, p <0.001; I² = 93.5%) and GGT (WMD: −7.395: IU/L, 95% CI: −9.171, −5.619, p <0.001; I² = 80.1%). Subgroup analysis revealed that effect of L-carnitine supplementation on liver enzymes was not significant in normal weight and healthy subjects. Baseline BMI and health status were the potential source of heterogeneity. Conclusion L-carnitine supplementation showed beneficial hepato-protective effects on circulating liver enzymes.
... Selected studies enrolled subjects with diabetes [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] hemodialysis patients [40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], chronic hepatitis C [49] nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [50], non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [51] dyslipidemia [52] hypothyroidism [53] osteoarthritis [54,55] pemphigus vulgaris [56] rapid muscle fatigue [57], polycystic ovary syndrome [58,59], bipolar patients [60], narcolepsy patient [28], healthy [61][62][63][64][65][66][67] and obese participants [17,68,69]. Included studies were carried out in different countries including Iran [17, 29, 41, 43, 46-48, 51, 54-56, 58, 59, 68, 69], Italy [31-33, 35, 37, 39, 49, 50, 57, 64], Japan [28,44,45,65], USA [30,40], UK [38,67], South Korea [53], Portugal [61], Croatia [62], Turkey [42], New Zealand [60], Egypt [34], Lebanon [52], China [36], England [63], Australia [66]. ...
... Selected studies enrolled subjects with diabetes [29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] hemodialysis patients [40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], chronic hepatitis C [49] nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [50], non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [51] dyslipidemia [52] hypothyroidism [53] osteoarthritis [54,55] pemphigus vulgaris [56] rapid muscle fatigue [57], polycystic ovary syndrome [58,59], bipolar patients [60], narcolepsy patient [28], healthy [61][62][63][64][65][66][67] and obese participants [17,68,69]. Included studies were carried out in different countries including Iran [17, 29, 41, 43, 46-48, 51, 54-56, 58, 59, 68, 69], Italy [31-33, 35, 37, 39, 49, 50, 57, 64], Japan [28,44,45,65], USA [30,40], UK [38,67], South Korea [53], Portugal [61], Croatia [62], Turkey [42], New Zealand [60], Egypt [34], Lebanon [52], China [36], England [63], Australia [66]. ...
... Some studies enrolled only males [52,65,67,68] and females [17,29,54,55,58,59,63,66,69] and the rest involved both genders [28, 30-51, 53, 56, 57, 60-62, 64]. In addition, studies performed in subjects with different baseline BMI; 13 studies carried out in subjects normal weight subjects (BMI > 24.9 kg/m 2) [28, 41-44, 46-48, 53, 62, 64, 66, 67]), 15 studies in overweight subjects 25 kg/m 2 <BMI<29.9 ...
Article
Despite preclinical studies demonstrating the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation for weight management, findings in clinical setting are contradictory. Electronic bibliographical databases were systematically searched up to February 2019 with no limitation in language, including Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library. Clinical trials registry platform were also searched. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which reported an effect of L-carnitine supplementation on obesity-related indices were included. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was estimated using a random-effect model (DerSimonian-Laird method). Eventually 43 eligible RCTs were included for quantitative analysis. Meta-analysis results revealed that L-carnitine supplementation significantly decreased weight (WMD: -1.129 kg, 95% CI: -1.590, -0.669; I2: 63.4), body mass index (BMI) (WMD: -0.359 kg/m2, 95% CI: -0.552, -0.167; I2:85.2) and fat mass (WMD: -1.158 kg, 95% CI: -1.763, -0.554, I2:15.5). However, L-carnitine supplementation did not change body fat percentage (WMD: -0.874 %, 95% CI: -1.890, 0.142, I2:98.2) or waist circumference (WMD: -0.883 mg/dl, 95% CI: -1.770, 0.004, I2:74.8). L-carnitine supplementation changed weight (r = -0.98) and BMI (r = -0.67) in a non-linear fashion based on carnitine dosage and BMI according to trial duration (r = -0.04). Interestingly subgroup analysis revealed that L-carnitine showed anti-obesity effects only in overweight and obese subjects; L-carnitine decreased weight, and BMI alone when combined with other lifestyle modifications. Anthropometric indexes were not changed following L-carnitine supplementation among patients' undergoing hemodialysis. Our study revealed that L-carnitine supplementation might have a positive effects in achieving an improved body weight and BMI especially in overweight and obese subjects.
... l-carnitine was orally administered and the intervention dose ranged between 500 and 4000 mg/day. For the control groups, ten trials used placebo controls [36,37,40,45,[80][81][82][83][84][85], five trials did not prescribe any treatment [41][42][43][44]78], and three trials used drugs such as interferon-α, ribavirin, and entecavir, in which participants in the intervention group also received these drugs in addition to l-carnitine [39,48,79]. The majority of trials included either gender, with the age ranging from 18 to 85 years. ...
... Two trials were done in hemodialysis patients [41,42], one study included participants with hypothyroidism [45], cystic acne patients [36] and thyroid patients [81]. One study was conducted in obese women [43], three trials included healthy participants [40,83,84] and one study included patients with suspected acute myocardial infraction [85]. The characteristics of the included studies are detailed in Table 2. ...
... Two trials included information about allocation concealment [83,86]. Four studies were considered to be a low risk of bias regarding blinding of participants and personnel [37,40,[80][81][82][83][84][85][86]. In the majority of included trials, the blinding of outcome assessment was unclear. ...
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Background and aims l-carnitine supplementation is proposed to reduce liver enzymes levels; however, previous findings were equivocal. The current systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were performed to assess the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on serum levels of enzymes mainly produced by liver [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP)]. Methods Online databases as well as the reference lists of relevant studies were searched from inception up to June 2019. The risk of bias in individual studies was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Data were pooled using the random-effects model and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results In total, 18 RCTs (1161 participants) met the eligibility criteria. l-carnitine supplementation dose ranged from 500 to 4000 mg/day. l-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced serum ALT (MD = − 8.65 IU/L, 95% CI − 13.40, − 3.90), AST (MD = − 8.52 IU/L, 95% CI − 12.16, − 4.89), and GGTP (MD = − 8.80 IU/L, 95% CI − 13.67, − 3.92) levels. The subgroup analysis showed that l-carnitine might be more effective in reducing the enzymes when supplemented in higher doses (≥ 2000 mg/day), for longer durations (> 12 weeks), and among patients with liver diseases. The meta-evidence was graded as “moderate” for ALT and AST, and “low” for GGTP according to NutriGrade scoring system. Conclusion l-carnitine supplementation significantly improves circulating ALT, AST and GGTP levels; therefore, it might positively affect liver function, especially among patients with liver diseases. Further high-quality RCTs are recommended to confirm our results.
... Moreover, increased serum adiponectin was detected in participants who ingested 500 mg L-Carnitine supplementation (Odo, Tanabe and Yamauchi, 2013). Adiponectin, the so-called "fat-burning molecule", can stimulate fatty acid oxidation in muscle, improve insulin sensitivity of liver and muscle and other target organs, as well as regulate peripheral glucose metabolism, which ultimately induce decreased body weight (Forny-Germano, De Felice and Do Nascimento Vieira, 2019). ...
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Latar belakang: Obesitas telah menjadi masalah yang serius di seluruh dunia. Meskipun kampanye dan rekomendasi terkait modifikasi gaya hidup sudah ditegakkan, tren obesitas masih cukup meningkat. Selain modifikasi gaya hidup, suplementasi makanan tampaknya memiliki efek penurunan berat badan yang menjanjikan. Salah satu suplemen makanan paling populer adalah L-Carnitine. Tujuan: Untuk mengeksplorasi peran suplementasi L-Carnitine dalam memengaruhi berat badan, khususnya pada individu yang sehat dan obesitas. Ulasan: L-karnitin memiliki peran penting dalam metabolisme asam lemak rantai panjang di mitokondria. Konsumsi 500 mg sampai 1 g suplemen L-Carnitine dalam 12 minggu terbukti menurunkan berat badan di antara peserta dengan status gizi gemuk dan obesitas. Suplementasi L-Carnitine juga memiliki efek yang signifikan pada penurunan massa lemak pada subjek dengan status gizi normal dan obesitas. Kesimpulan: Suplementasi L-Carnitine menunjukkan hasil pada penurunan berat badan dan pengurangan massa lemak terutama pada individu dengan status gizi gemuk dan obesitas yang melakukan latihan fisik dan menjalani pembatasan kalori. ABSTRACT Background: Obesity has become a serious problem worldwide. Despite established lifestyle modification campaign and recommendation, obesity trend remains increasing. In addition to lifestyle modification, dietary supplementation seemingly has a promising weight-reduction effect. One of the most popular dietary supplement is L-Carnitine. Objectives: This study aimed to comprehend potential roles of L-Carnitine supplementation on weight loss, specifically in healthy, overweight, and obese individuals. Discussion: L-Carnitine plays a key role in long-chain fatty acid metabolism in mitochondria. The consumption of 500 mg to 1 g of L-Carnitine supplementation within 12 weeks was shown to decrease weight among overweight and obese participants. Moreover, L-Carnitine supplementation has a significant and direct effect on fat mass reduction in subjects with normal BMI and obesity. Conclusions: L-Carnitine supplementation may show results in weight loss and fat mass reduction especially among obese and overweight individuals who performed physical exercise and underwent calorie restricted diet.
... On the other hand, most of the l-carnitine-related clinical trials were implemented with more than 2,000 mg of daily dosages as exemplified above (4-6, 13, 14). We conducted a 4-wk double-blinded, randomized, and controlled human clinical test with a low dosage, 500 mg/d, of l-carnitine supplementation and observed a significant reduction in moderately high levels of serum triglycerides and body weight loss; additionally, subjects received motivation training during the trial (15). The study suggested that even the small dose of l-carnitine had positive effects on fat utilization when accompanied by proactive improvements in meals and moderate exercise during daily activities over 4 wk. ...
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The acute metabolic effect of low dosages of L-carnitine under fat-mobilizing conditions was investigated. Healthy subjects (Study 1: n=5; Study 2: n=6) were asked to fast overnight. Then, 30 min of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer was performed after supplementation, followed by a 3.5-h sedentary recovery phase. The following ingestion patterns were used: Study 1 (i) noningestion, (ii) 750 mg of L-carnitine (LC), and (iii) 750 mg of LC+50 g of carbohydrate (CHO); Study 2 (iv) noningestion, (v) 500 mg of LC, (vi) 30 mg of CoQ10, and (vii) 500 mg of LC+30 mg of CoQ10. The energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (npRQ) were measured during the pre-exercise, postexercise, and recovery periods. Serum free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, total carnitine (Study 1 and 2), and ketone bodies (Study 2) were measured. The 750 mg LC treatment significantly facilitated fat oxidation during the recovery phases (p<0.05) without elevating EE. The higher fat oxidation associated with LC was completely suppressed by CHO. CoQ10 affected neither npRQ nor EE. npRQ was significantly correlated with the serum total ketone bodies (R=−0.68, p<0.001) and acetylcarnitine (R=−0.61-−0.70, p<0.001). The highest correlation was found between acetylcarnitine and total ketone bodies immediately after exercise (R=0.85, p<0.001). In conclusion, LC enhanced liver fat utilization and ketogenesis in an acute manner without stimulating EE under fat-mobilizing conditions.
... D levels and adiponectin and elucidated a significant dose-response relationship between Vitamin D3 supplementation and adiponectin levels. On the other side, LC was shown to enhance adiponectin secretion in nondiabetic subjects and diabetic rats [93] .Consistently, the beneficial effects of LC in a diabetic model was suggested to be related to its increment to adiponectin levels [35] . From the above overmentioned data, we may speculate that the effect of Vit. ...
... Many different drugs are available and induce effect of weight reduction via suppressing appetite, promoting excretion, and hindering absorption, such as bupropion, L-carnitine, and orlistat [38][39][40]. Due to the influence of drug mechanisms, most drugs cause side effects such as diarrhea, fecal incontinence, depression, or addiction. People must also continue to take the medicines to maintain weight loss, and a rebound in weight gain can also occur if people withdraw the medicines. ...
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With rapid economic development, the prevalence of obesity has increased remarkably worldwide. Obesity can induce a variety of metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease, which significantly endanger the health and welfare of individuals. Brown and beige fat tissues play an important role in thermogenesis in mammals. Recent studies have shown that follistatin (FST) can potentially induce the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). In this study, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were injected with follistatin for one week to explore the effects of follistatin on browning and metabolism and to determine the mechanism. The results showed that follistatin suppressed obesity caused by a high-fat diet and increased insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure, and subcutaneous fat browning. The beneficial effects remained even after a period of withdrawal. Follistatin promoted secretion of irisin from subcutaneous fat via the AMPK-PGC1α-irisin signal pathway, which induces browning of WAT, and activated the insulin pathway in beige fat thereby promoting metabolism.
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Background and aim: l-carnitine has an important role in fatty acid metabolism and could therefore act as an adjuvant agent in the improvement of dyslipidemia. The purpose of present systematic review and meta-analysis was to critically assess the efficacy of l-carnitine supplementation on lipid profiles. Methods and results: We performed a systematic search of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the following databases: Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, The Cochrane Library. Mean difference (MD) of any effect was calculated using a random-effects model. In total, there were 55 eligible RCTs included with 58 arms, and meta-analysis revealed that l-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC) (56 arms-MD: -8.53 mg/dl, 95% CI: -13.46, -3.6, I2: 93%), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (47 arms-MD: -5.48 mg/dl, 95% CI: -8.49, -2.47, I2: 94.5) and triglyceride (TG) (56 arms-MD: -9.44 mg/dl, 95% CI: -16.02, -2.87, I2: 91.8). It also increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (51 arms-MD:1.64 mg/dl, 95% CI:0.54, 2.75, I2: 92.2). l-carnitine supplementation reduced TC in non-linear fashion based on dosage (r = 21.11). Meta-regression analysis indicated a linear relationship between dose of l-carnitine and absolute change in TC (p = 0.029) and LDL-C (p = 0.013). Subgroup analyses showed that l-carnitine supplementation did not change TC, LDL-C and TG in patients under hemodialysis treatment. Intravenous l-carnitine and lower doses (>2 g/day) had no effect on TC, LDL-C and triglycerides. Conclusion: l-carnitine supplementation at doses above 2 g/d has favorable effects on patients' lipid profiles, but is modulated on participant health and route of administration.
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Obesity, with its comorbidities, is a major public health problem. Population-based surveys estimate 2 of every 3 U.S. adults are overweight or obese. Despite billions of dollars spent annually on weight loss attempts, recidivism is high and long-term results are disappointing. In simplest terms, weight loss and maintenance depend on energy balance, and a combination of increased energy expenditure by exercise and decreased energy intake through caloric restriction is the mainstay of behavioral interventions. Many individuals successfully lose 5%-10% of body weight through behavioral approaches and thereby significantly improve health. Similar success occurs with some weight loss prescriptions, although evidence for successful weight loss with over-the-counter medications and supplements is weak. Commercial weight loss programs have helped many individuals achieve their goals, although few programs have been carefully evaluated and compared, limiting recommendations of one program over another. For the very obese, bariatric surgery is an option that leads to significant weight loss and improved health, although risks must be carefully weighed. Lifestyle changes, including regular physical activity, healthy food choices, and portion control, must be adopted, regardless of the weight loss approach, which requires ongoing support. Patients can best decide the appropriate approach working with a multidisciplinary team, including their health care provider and experts in nutrition, exercise, and behavioral intervention.
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The prevalence of obesity and associated illnesses is continuously rising in industrialized countries. As a preventive measure, the Lower Austria Health Insurance Fund, together with the Institute of Social Medicine of the Medical University Vienna has launched the weight reduction program "Slim without Diet (SWD)". The Program's aim is to change the participants' eating and exercise habits. The methodical approach is to enhance the individual's self-control so that participants are able to identify, break, and modify false behavior patterns. During this project, the data from 4,053 individuals were descriptively evaluated by using the statistical program SPSS (Version 15). The scientifically recommended target group regarding Body Mass Index and age was reached and the weight reduction success rate is comparable to similar programs. Follow-up checks of the project carried out 6 and 12 months after the end of the intervention phase showed that participants were able to maintain an average weight loss of 4.26 kg compared to their weight at program-start. The participants who follow the therapy recommendations achieved significantly higher weight loss and weight reduction also correlates with the number of attended group sessions (p < 0.001). The attendance frequency at the follow-up checks, however, shows a decreasing tendency of up to 75 percent. The results show that there is need to develop new methods to increase motivation and compliance of the participants to achieve long-term success. A first trial in this direction was to implement an additional module - participants had the chance of ongoing contacts after the group sessions have finished. The results until now show that a possible participation in the follow-ups is not significantly affected by ongoing contacts.
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L-Carnitine is an endogenous molecule involved in fatty acid metabolism, biosynthesized within the human body using amino acids: L-lysine and L-methionine, as substrates. L-Carnitine can also be found in many foods, but red meats, such as beef and lamb, are the best choices for adding carnitine into the diet. Good carnitine sources also include fish, poultry and milk. Essentially, L-carnitine transports the chains of fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix, thus allowing the cells to break down fat and get energy from the stored fat reserves. Recent studies have started to shed light on the beneficial effects of L-carnitine when used in various clinical therapies. Because L-carnitine and its esters help reduce oxidative stress, they have been proposed as a treatment for many conditions, i.e. heart failure, angina and weight loss. For other conditions, such as fatigue or improving exercise performance, L-carnitine appears safe but does not seem to have a significant effect. The presented review of the literature suggests that continued studies are required before L-carnitine administration could be recommended as a routine procedure in the noted disorders. Further research is warranted in order to evaluate the biochemical, pharmacological, and physiological determinants of the response to carnitine supplementation, as well as to determine the potential benefits of carnitine supplements in selected categories of individuals who do not have fatty acid oxidation defects.
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To update outcomes of the Diet-Exercise-Activity-Lifestyle (DEAL) program, a clinic-based diabetes prevention intervention. Changes in weight, fasting blood glucose, and 2-hour glucose after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated in patients who enrolled in the DEAL program between January 2007 and August 2009. The 221 qualified participants had a mean age of 62 years, weight of 87.4 kg, body mass index of 31.2 kg/m², fasting glucose level of 109 mg/dL, and 2-hour glucose value of 138 mg/dL. Among the program participants, 67% were women and 88% were white; 56% had isolated impaired fasting glucose, 5% had impaired glucose tolerance only, and 39% had both. The 6-month follow-up medical appointment was kept by 72% of program participants, but only 56% attended the 12-month visit. By 6 months after baseline, 59% had significantly lower fasting glucose concentrations, 59% had improvement in 2-hour glucose levels, and 61% had weight loss. Nearly 40%, however, were nonresponders and had increased fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and weight by 6 months. By the 12-month visit, significant declines in fasting glucose (P<.001), 2-hour glucose (P<.001), and weight (P = .008) occurred in comparison with baseline values; however, no significant changes occurred in these measures between the 6- and 12-month visits (P>.30 for all). Most DEAL participants showed improvement in glucose levels and weight, but some patients exhibited worsening glucose intolerance. Factors underlying nonresponse need to be identified. Ongoing experience and analysis should help revise the DEAL program so that outcomes for all participating patients will improve.
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