ArticlePDF Available

Anti-diabetic effects of cold and hot extracted virgin coconut oil



Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been shown to possess insulinotropic effects shown in isolated perfused mouse islet with hypolipidemic effects. Hot extracted virgin coconut oil (HEVCO) has been shown to possess better antioxidant properties than cold extracted virgin coconut oil (CEVCO). These properties were exploited to study the anti-diabetic effects of HEVCO and CEVCO in diabetic rats. Four groups 8 rats each, first group served as non-diabetic control remaining groups were made diabetic and force fed with 2ml alcoholic extracts of commercial coconut oil (CCO), CEVCO and HEVCO for 21 days. Blood glucose once in 5 days, body weight gain, food intake once in a week and water intake and urine output daily, were monitored. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 21 days. The results indicated HEVCO reduced blood glucose and lipids viz total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High density lipoproteins (HDL), Low and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL+ VLDL) and thiobarbutyric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased the antioxidant status by elevating activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration and decresed lipid peroxidation in liver than CEVCO. These beneficial effects may be attributed to increased polyphenolic and other antioxidants content present in HEVCO.
Vol.1, No.4, 118-123 (2011)
opyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus
Anti-diabetic effects of cold and hot extracted virgin
coconut oil
Mahadevappa Siddalingaswamy1*, Arunchand Rayaorth2, Farhath Khanum1
1Biochemistry & Nutrition Discipline, Defense Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, India;
*Corresponding Author:
2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kannur University, Kannur, Kerala, India.
Received 15 July 2011; revised 24 August 2011; accepted 5 September 2011.
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been shown to po-
ssess insulinotropic effects shown in isolated
perfused mouse islet with hypolipidemic effects.
Hot extracted virgin coconut oil (HEVCO) has
been shown to possess better antioxidant pro-
perties than cold extracted virgin coconut oil
(CEVCO). These properties were exploited to st-
udy the anti-diabetic effects of HEVCO and CE-
VCO in diabetic rats. Four groups 8 rats each,
first group served as non-diabetic control re-
maining groups were made diabetic and force
fed with 2 ml alcoholic extracts of commercial
coconut oil (CCO), CEVCO and HEVCO for 21
days. Blood glucose once in 5 days, body wei-
ght gain, food intake once in a week and water
intake and urine output daily, were monitored.
Animals were sacrificed at the end of 21 days.
The results indicated HEVCO reduced blood gl-
ucose and lipids viz total cholesterol (TC), tri-
glycerides (TG), Low and Very Low Density Li-
poprotein (LDL + VLDL) and thiobarbutyric acid
reactive substances (TBARS) increased the an-
tioxidant status by elevating activities of anti-
oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase
(SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-
Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration and de-
creased lipid peroxidation in liver than CEVCO.
These beneficial effects may be attributed to in-
creased polyphenolic and other antioxidants
content present in HEVCO.
Keywords: Anti-Diabetic; HEVCO; CEVCO; CCO;
Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic; Antioxidant Enzymes
Diabetes a metabolic disorder is spreading like an epi-
demic disease and India appears to be the capital. Major
causes of diabetes are consider to be, imbalanced food
habits, change in life style, obesity, lack of physical acti-
vity, uncontrolled oxidative stress, genetic defects etc.
Coconut oil is one of the primary sources of energy, in
tropical countries like costal India, Srilanka, Philippines,
and Indonesia [1]. The oil holds high place of respect in
ayurvedic medicine in India. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) a
preparation of coconut oil without harsh processing such
as refining, hydrogenation, deodorization, bleaching etc
may retain native bioactive compounds present in it [2].
VCO extracted in cold and hot conditions shown to be
rich in polyphenols. Lauric acid, present in coconut oil
has been shown to possess insulino tropic properties in
isolated perfused mouse islet model but not proven in
diabetic animals [3]. It has been shown that hot extracted
virgin coconut oil (HEVCO) possess better antioxidant
potency than cold extracted virgin coconut oil (CEVCO)
[4,5]. These two oils have been shown to inhibit lipo-
protein oxidation with hypolipidemic effects [6]. In dia-
betic patients antioxidants may play a vital role in im-
proving insulin response to the loaded glucose and may
reduce insulin resistance [7]. However information re-
garding the anti-diabetic effects of CEVCO and HEVCO
with their insulino tropic and hypolipidemic properties is
not reported in animal model to the best of our knowl-
edge. Hence experiments were carried out to study the
anti-diabetic effects of CEVCO and HEVCO in strepto-
zotosin induced diabetic rats.
CEVCO and HEVCO were prepared according to the
described method [4]. CEVCO: Matured coconut milk
was prepared by hand pressing the scraped coconut flesh
and squeezed through multi folded mull cloth. The milk
was chilled to 283˚K for 10h to solidify the oil. The
aqueous layer was discarded and the oil was allowed to
stand at 303˚K until it dissolved completely. The mixture
was further centrifuged and the oil layer was separated.
M. Siddalingaswamy et al. / Journal of Diabetes Mellitus 1 (2011) 118-123
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at
HEVCO: Coconut milk emulsion was heated to 373 -
393˚K for 60 minutes until water in the emulsion was
completely evaporated. Commercial coconut oil (CCO)
CEVCO and HEVCO were extracted thrice with metha-
nol (1:4 V: V) and evaporated over a flash evaporator.
Polyphenols [8], DPPH radical scavenging activity [9]
and Fatty acid composition [6] were determined in
2.1. Animal Experiment
Animal experiment was carried out as per guidelines
of Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. 32 male Wis-
tar albino rats reared at Defence Food Research Labora-
tory, Mysore, India, with body wt 140 - 150 g were se-
lected based on uniform food intake and weight gain
were maintained with standard laboratory conditions.
The animals were divided into 4 groups of 8 rats, the
first group being non-diabetic control. Remaining 3 gr-
oups were made diabetic by injecting streptozotocin in
biological saline intraperitoneally (55 mg/kg body wt.).
Second, the diabetic control group was force fed with 2
ml extract of CCO. Third and fourth groups were force
fed with 2 ml CEVCO and HEVCO extracts per rat per
day after fasting from 9 AM to11AM. The animals were
fed adlibitum with synthetic diet (Table 1). The experi-
mental duration was for three weeks. Food intake and
body wt gain were monitored weekly while, water intake
and urine output daily. The blood glucose levels were
monitored 5 days once, by obtaining blood samples from
tail vain, after overnight fasting, with standard kit pur-
chased from M/s Krest Biochemical’s, Bombay, India.
At the end, animals were sacrificed, after overnight fast-
ing, by survical dislocation. Blood samples were col-
lected directly from heart, an aliquot was transferred into
heparinized centrifuge tube to obtain plasma (centri-
fuged at 1000 rpm for 5 min) and analyzed for glucose,
urea, creatinine total cholesterol (TC) triglycerides (TG)
and high density lipoprotein (HDL)) with standard kits
marketed by M/s Krest Biochemicals, Bombay, India.
Table 1. Composition of the diet.
Ingredients Quantity (per 100 g)
Casein 20
Coconut oil 9
Mineral mixture USP XIV* 4
Vitamin mix** 2
Shark liver oil 1
α-tocopherol 0.01
Corn starch 63.99
*Purchased from Sisco Research Laboratory, Mumbai, India; **Prepared as
per Indian Standards I.S.7481 (1975).
Low density lipoprotein + very low density lipoprotein
(LDL + VLDL) content was calculated by subtracting
high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol from TC.
Thiobarbutyric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were
assayed in both blood and liver according to Ohkania et
al., [10] and Girroti et al. [11]. Whole blood was ana-
lyzed for haemoglobin, total white and, red blood counts
and plate let counts (Sysmex model KX-21 Trans Asia).
The organs namely liver, kidney and heart were removed
and weighed. Liver and kidney samples were analyzed
for antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase
(SOD), [12] catalase [13], and glutathione peroxidase
(GSH-Px) [14] and glutathione (GSH) [15].
2.2. Test of Significance
The data were subjected to ANOVA by “graph pad
prism software” the results mentioned were significant at
p < 0.05.
3.1. Total Polyphonic, Radical Scavenging
Polyphenolic and radical scavenging activity were high
in HEVCO than CEVCO and CCO (Table 2, Figure 1).
3.2. Fatty Acid Composition
There was no change in the concentration of fatty acids
in all the three oils namely CCO, CEVCO and HEVCO
(Table 3).
Table 2. Polyphenolic concentration.
SAMPLE Concentration
CCO# 64 ± 5
CEVCO## 75 ± 7
HEVCO### 242 ± 13
Figure 1. Free radical scavenging activity of coconut oils by
DPPH assay.
M. Siddalingaswamy et al. / Journal of Diabetes Mellitus 1 (2011) 118-123
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at
3.3. Effect on Food Intake Body Weight
Water Intake Urine Output and Liver,
Heart and Kidney Weights
Increased food intake with body weight loss was ob-
served in all the diabetic groups. Lowest weight loss was
observed in HEVCO. Higher weight loss was observed
in CCO group with no change in water intake urine out-
put and liver, heart and kidney weights (Table 4).
3.4. Effect on Blood Glucose
Gradual decrease in blood glucose was observed in all
the 3 groups of animals. CCO extract was able to decr-
ease the blood glucose from 381mg to 318 mg during 3
weeks (4%, 11% and 16% at the end of 1st, 2nd and 3rd
week respectively). Significant decrease in CCO extract
fed was observed at the end of 2nd week and remained
unchanged up to 3rd week. In CEVCO group significant
decrease from 1st and 2nd week was observed but with no
change at the end of 3rd week. (The percent decreased
was 21%, 33% and 39% at the end of 1st, 2nd and 3rd
week respectively). HEVCO group decreased the blood
glucose 21% (p < 0.05) 33% and 47% at the end of 1st,
2nd and 3rd week respectively Complete inhibition of
lipid peroxidation was observed in HEVCO group but
was marginal decrease (not significant) was observed in
CE-VCO group and CCO (Tables 5 and 7).
Table 3. Effect of different extracts of coconut oils on Food
intake, body weight, water intake and urine output.
Groups Food intake
(g/21 days)
Wat e r
Urine output
Control Non
diabetic 13.4 ± 1.4a 22.5 ± 1.5 38.5 ± 6.5a 42.5 ± 1.5a
Control diabetic 22.6 ± 1.7b –28.5 ± 4.5a 104.5 ± 5.5b 112 ± 3b
CEVCO# 21.7 ± 1.5b –19.5 ± 3.2b 87 ± 2.5b 109.5 ± 6.3b
HEVCO## 21.1 ± 1.13b –11.5 ± 0.2c 89 ± 5.2b 95.6 ± 4.6b
Values are mean of ± SD of 8 rats; Values bearing different superscripts in
the same column are significantly different (p < 0.05).
Table 4. Effect of different extracts of different virgin coconut
oils on organ weight.
Organ weight (g)
Liver Kidney Heart
Control non diabetic 3.44 ± 0.52 0.80 ± 0.10 0.35 ± 0.02
Control diabetic 4.45 ± 0.79 0.98 ± 0.12 0.36 ± 0.04
CEVCO# 3.82 ± 0.5 0.77 ± 0.08 0.36 ± 0.06
HEVCO## 3.73 ± 0.43 0.73 ± 0.09 0.38 ± 0.01
Values are mean of ± SD of 8 rats.
3.5. Effect on Blood Lipids
Diabetes increased TC and TG levels (70% and 25%)
with respect to non diabetic control. The increased lipid
levels were brought down to non diabetic control with
HEVCO feeding. CEVCO and CCO had no significant
effect. HDL levels remained unchanged. Significant in-
crease in the concentration of urea was observed in dia-
betic group which was brought down to normal with
HEVCO extract feeding (Table 7).
3.6. Effect of Antioxidant Enzymes,
Glutathione Concentration and Lipid
Peroxidation in Liver
Activities of all the enzymes decreased significantly
in diabetic control animals with an increase in lipid per-
oxidation. The decrease in activities of catalase, SOD,
GSH-Px was 54%, 69% and 54% respectively. The decr-
ease in the activities of these enzymes with CEVCO
were 33%, 55% and 18% and 9%, 41% and 8% with res-
pect to HEVCO group HEVCO fed animals maintained
catalase and GSH-Px activity to that of non-diabetic con-
trol. The glutathione concentration was also reduced from
12.64 to 8.36 mmol (33%) in diabetic control but in-
creased in HEVCO group than CEVCO and CCO groups.
Lipid peroxidation was effectively inhibited by both the
Table 5. Effect of different extracts of different virgin coconut
oils on plasma glucose.
5th day 10th day 15th day 21st day
Control Non
diabetic 84 ± 9 82 ± 4 75 ± 08 79 ± 4
diabetic 381 ± 24a 367 ± 19a 339 ± 18b
328 ± 12b
CEVCO## 444 ± 32a348 ± 28b
295 ± 2c
273 ± 1c
HEVCO### 485 ± 22a386 ± 20b
325 ± 18c
256 ± 09d
Values are mean of ± SD of 8 rats; Values bearing different superscripts in
the same row are significantly different (p < 0.05).
Table 6. Fatty acid composition of CCO, CEVCO and HEVCO
Caprilic 5.8 6.3 6.2
Capric 6.3 7.3 7.1
Lauric 47.8 48.6 47.9
Myristic 17.2 15.9 16.7
Palmitic 8.2 7.7 7.9
Stearic 3.1 2.9 2.8
Linoleic 1.94 1.79 2.1
Linolenic ND ND ND
M. Siddalingaswamy et al. / Journal of Diabetes Mellitus 1 (2011) 118-123
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. accessible at
extract (p < 0.05). The increase in lipid peroxidation
(151%) was brought down to 64% and 27% with HEVCO
and CEVCO (Table 8).
3.7. Effect on AO Enzymes in Kidney
The activities of catalase, SOD and GSH-Px decreased
by 61%, 54% and 65% respectively in diabetic control.
The decrease was only 23%, 43% and 17% in CEVCO
and 17%, 45% and 3% in HEVCO group. Glutathione
concentration was decrease by 38% in diabetic control
group. Non diabetic control group and HEVCO group
had same GSH concentration. Increased lipid peroxida-
tion (69%) was brought down efficiently by HEVCO to
32 % (Table 9). All haematological parameters remained
unchanged in all the groups (Table 10).
Diabetes, a silent killer, with many metabolic disorders
is spreading like an epidemic disease. Anti-diabetic drugs
for a longer period may have undesirable effects. In ad-
dition affordability for a common man on long run could
be an economical burden and may affect the economy of
both developed and underdeveloped countries. In this
context natural anti-diabetic foods with least ill effects
and low cost are most desirable.
It has been reported that lauric acid in coconut oil has
insulino tropic properties but reported in isolated islet of
mouse [3]. Kapila et al. [4] have demonstrated HEVCO
fed animals had better antioxidant status than CEVCO
due to high polyphenolic (PP) content. Medium chain
fatty acids and TG with these fatty acids metabolizes fast
and may assist in preventing obesity and stimulate
weight loss in diabetic obese patients [16].
The fatty acid present may not be packaged into lipo-
protein and do not circulate in the blood string which is
true in vegetable fat. Antioxidant may enhance the sensi-
tivity to insulin or otherwise may also reduce insulin re-
sistance and injury to pancreatic beta cells by scavenging
reactive oxygen species (ROS) in diabetic patients.
These observations made us to exploit the advantages of
CEVCO and HEVCO for their anti-diabetic effects.
It is clear from the present study that HEVCO had bet-
ter PP content and radical scavenging activity than CE-
VCO (Figure 1, Table 2), agrees very well reported lit-
erature [4]. Increased PP content in HEVCO could be
due to increased release of bounded PP with heat proc-
essing. The fatty acid composition remained unchanged
in all the three oils (Table 6). In addition lauric acid with
insulinotropic properties may have synergistic effects in
combination with PP in reducing blood sugar [7]. Better
hypoglycemic effect was observed in HEVCO (47%) than
CEVCO (39%) (p < 0.05) with same lauric acid content
suggests the vital role of PP in protecting the pancreatic
beta cells from apoptosis which is possible in diabetic
condition due to enhanced formation of ROS. Better hy-
poglycemic effect of CEVCO than CCO could be due to
available bioactive molecules retained by manual proc-
essing [17] (Table 5). The availability and concentration
of these molecules may be more in HEVCO and CE-
VCO than CCO. However, CCO has also reduced blood
glucose significantly could be due to lauric acid. Increa-
sed food intake, water intake and urine output are well-
established diabetic symptoms, were not altered signifi-
cantly. May be by increasing the quantity of extracts these
complication could be prevented. However body weight
loss was effectively prevented by HEVCO than CEVCO
and was due to better hypoglycemic effect (Table 3 ).
Table 7. Effect of different extracts of different virgin coconut oils on serum lipids and urea.
Groups TC (mg/dl) TC (mg/dl) HDL (mg/dl) LDL + VLDL
(mg/dl) TBARS (µ mol/dl) Urea (mg/dl)
non diabetic 68.9 ± 3.8a 131.2 ± 6.9a 33.8 ± 2.8 a 30.3 ± 2.9a 58.72 ± 2.8a 16.8 ± 2.5a
Control diabetic 118.6 ± 5.4b 164.6 ± 8.2b 49.6 ± 3.4b 69.8 ± 5.2b 94.62 ± 8.2b 24.8 ± 2.5b
CEVCO# 99.9 ± 8.9b 152.7 ± 4.8b 48.9 ± 4.1b 52.5 ± 4.1c 78.2 ± 6.6c 25.7 ± 3.5b
HEVCO## 76.5 ± 2.4a 136 ± 5.7a 40.5 ± 2.5b 32.3 ± 2.9a 60.1 ± 3.9a 15.6 ± 5.2a
Values are mean of ± SD of 8 rats; Values bearing different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (p < 0.05).
Table 8. Effect of different extracts of different virgin coconut oils on liver antioxidants enzymes and lipid peroxidation.
Group Catalase* × 103 SOD** × 102 GSH-Px** GSH µ mol/g TBARS × 10–8 mol/g
Control non diabetic 0.93 ± 0.08a 0.937 ± 0.06a 0.89 ± 0.02a 12.64 ± 7.6a 0.741 ± 0.03a
Control diabetic 0.4 ± 0.03b 0.285 ± 0.03b 0.41 ± 0.02b 8.36 ± 0.38b 1.86 ± 0.05b
CEVCO# 0.626 ± 0.04c 0.419 ± 0.02c 0.73 ± 0.05c 9.48 ± 0.69c 1.215 ± 0.06c
HEVCO## 0.85 ± 0.02a 0.545 ± 0.02c 0.82 ± 0.03a 10.39 ± 0.78a 1.15 ± 0.6c
Values are mean of ±SD of 8 rats; Values bearing different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (p < 0.05); *ΔA of 0.1/min/mg protein;
**Units/min/mg protein.
M. Siddalingaswamy et al. / Journal of Diabetes Mellitus 1 (2011) 118-123
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at
Table 9. Effect of different extracts of different virgin coconut oils on kidney antioxidants enzymes and lipid peroxidation.
Group Catalase* × 103 SOD** × 102 GSH-Px
** TBARS ×10–8 mol/g µ mol/g GSH
Control Non diabetic 0.47 ± 0.003a 0.97 ± 0.04a 0.52 ± 0.02a 0.34 ± 0.07a 3.92 ± 0.44a
Control diabetic 0.18 ± 0.004b 0.44 ± 0.06 b 0.18 ± 0.002b 1.105 ± 0.1b 2.42 ± 0.52b
CEVCO# 0.36
± 0.005c 0.53 ± 0.01b 0.40 ± 0.03c 1.082 ± 0.03b 2.91 ± 0.27c
HEVCO## 0.39 ± 0.003c 0.54 ± 0.02b 0.54 ± 0.03a 0.752 ± 0.01c 3.77 ± 0.47a
Values are mean of ±SD of 8 rats; Values bearing different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (p < 0.05); *ΔA of 0.1/min/mg protein;
**Units/min/mg protein.
Table 10. Effect of different extracts of different virgin coco-
nut oils on hematological parameters.
Hemoglobin WBC count RBC count Platelet
Control Non
diabetic 17.5 ± 1.6 6500 ± 385 9.56 ± 2.8 8.1 ± 1.2
Control diabetic 16.7 ± 1.5 7200 ± 250 9.25 ± 1.2 6.9 ± 1.5
CEVCO# 16 ± 0.8 8700 ± 550 9.1 ± 1.5 7.1 ± 1.1
HEVCO## 16.2 ± 0.9 7500 ± 550 9.43 ± 2.1 7.6 ± 1.5
Values are mean of ± SD of 8 rats.
Hyperlipidemia and elevated oxidative stress due to dia-
betes may lead to cardiac complications in diabetic pa-
tients. It has been reported that VCO reduces blood lip-
ids even under normal condition [5]. VCO rich in me-
dium chain triglycerides metabolizes quickly thus accu-
mulation of fat is inhibited [16,18]. In the present study
TC, TG and LDL+VLDL level reached the control in
HEVCO group whereas CEVCO reduced only LDL +
VLDL levels. It has been shown antioxidants reduce TG
[19] correlates well with the observations made in the
present study since HEVCO had better PP content than
CEVCO. It may also be possible that other vital antioxi-
dant vitamins present in these oils due to no saponifica-
tion may have role in reducing lipids [17]. Antioxidants
present in HEVCO, may also have a role in regulating
cholesterol synthesis by regulating HMG CoA reductase
activity. [20]. CEVCO with lesser PP content has re-
duced marginally but not significantly both TC and TG.
Lipid peroxidation in blood was also efficiently brought
down by HEVCO and CEVCO. Decreased blood glu-
cose, lipid peroxidation with hypolipidemic effects is de-
sirable in diabetic patients. Urea and creatinine levels as-
sess the kidney function. Creatinine levels did not show
any change (data not presented) but urea levels in
HEVCO group was similar to that of control non diabe-
tic animals suggesting less disturbed protein catabolism
(Table 7).
SOD, catalase and GSH-Px constitute mutually sup-
portive and defensive agents against reactive oxygen sp-
ecies (ROS). Decrease in the activity of these enzymes
in liver may indicate increased production of free radi-
cals. Activity of these enzymes particularly catalase and
glutathione peroxidase reached the non-diabetic level with
HEVCO and increased significantly with CEVCO. He-
patic lipid peroxidation was also effectively inhibited by
both the extracts indicating better anti-diabetic effects of
HEVCO and CEVCO (Table 8).
Decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes in kidney
were reversed with both the extracts. The activities of GSH-
Px the animal fed with HEVCO reached the control val-
ues suggesting better antioxidant properties (Table 9).
A study conducted by Nevin et al. [5], has shown the
VCO, compared with coconut and peanut oil in both in
vitro and in vivo enhanced the activities of antioxidant
enzymes and reduced lipid peroxidation in normal rats.
In this study similar observations were made in diabetic
animals may be attributed to quantity and bioavailability
of antioxidant sin HEVCO.
Thus the study has clearly demonstrated the anti-dia-
betic effects of VCO and HEVCO for the first time. The
overall effect of HEVCO was better than CEVCO in en-
hancing the antioxidant status, reducing the blood glu-
cose and lipid levels. The better health benefits of HE-
VCO may be attributed to its higher PP content and also
possible increased bioavailability of nutrients.
The authors have declared that there is no conflict of
The authors are thankful to Dr. A. S. Bawa, Director, Defence Food
Research Laboratory for his constant encouragement in carrying out
this research. We would like to thank Mrs. S. Sukanya, for typing the
[1] Fife, B. (2005) Coconut cures: Preventing and treating
common health problems with coconut. Piccadilly Books,
Ltd., London, 184-185.
[2] Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N. and Yagi, K. (1979) Assay of
M. Siddalingaswamy et al. / Journal of Diabetes Mellitus 1 (2011) 118-123
Copyright © 2011 SciRes. Openly accessible at
lipid peroxidation in animal tissue by thiobarbutyric acid
reaction. Analytical Biochemistry, 95, 351-358.
[3] Girotti, A.W. and Thomas, I.P. (1984) Damage effects of
oxygen radicals on resealed erythrocyte ghosts. The Jour-
nal of Biological Chemistry, 259, 1744-1752.
[4] Flohe, L. and Otting, F. (1984) Superoxide assay. Meth-
ods in Enzymology, 105, 93-104.
[5] Cohen, G., Dembiec, C. and Marens, J. (1970) Measure-
ment of catalase activity in tissue extracts. Analytical
Biochemistry, 34, 30-38.
[6] Weiss, C., Maker, H.S. and Lehrer, G.M. (1980) Sensitive
fluormetric assays for glutathione peroxidase and reduc-
tase. Analytical Biochemistry, 106, 512-516.
[7] Ellman, G.L. (1958) A colorimetric method for low con-
centration of mercaptons. Archives of Biochemistry and
Biophysics, 74, 443-450.
[8] St-Onge, M.P., Ross, R., Parsons, W.D. and Jones, P.J.
(2003) Medium chain—Triglycerides increases energy
expenses and decreases adiposity in over weight men.
Obesity Research, 11, 395-402. doi:10.1038/oby.2003.53
[9] Khor, H.T, Rajendran, R. and Gopalakrishnan, M. (1998)
The role of unsaponifiable components in the lypidemic
property of olive oil. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 4,
[10] Han, J., Hamilton, J.A., Kirkland, J.L., Corkey, B.E.,
Guo, W. (2003) Medium chain oil reduces fat mass and
down regulates expression of adipogenic genes in rats.
Obesity Research, 11, 734-744.
[11] Balasubramanyan, P., Parit, L. and Venugopal, P.M. (1998)
Protective effects of carrot against Lindane induced hypa-
totoxicity in rats. Phytotherapy Research, 12, 434-436.
[12] Bureau of Product Standards (BPS) (2004) Philippine
national standard. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO), Philippines.
[13] Lee, S.H., Jeong, T. Young, Parth, Y.B., Kwong, Y.C.,
Choi, M.S. and Bole, S.H. (1999) Hypocholestremic ef-
fect of hesperedin mediated by inhibition of 3 hydroxy 3
methyl glutoryl coenzyme A reductase and acyl coen-
zyme A cholesterol acyl transferase in rats. Nutrition Re-
search, 19, 1245-1258.
[14] Garfinkel M., Lee, S. and Opara, E.C. (1992) Insulino-
tropic potency of lauric acid: A metabolic rational for
medium chain fatty acids (MCF) in TPN formation.
Journal of Surgical Research, 52, 328-333.
[15] Saneviratane, K.N., Hapurachch, C.D. and Ekanayake, S.
(2009) Comparision of the phenolic dependant antioxi-
dant properties of coconut oil extracted under cold and
hot conditions. Food Chemistry, 114, 1444-1449.
[16] Nevin, K.G. and Rajamohan, T. (2004) Beneficial effects
of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro
LDL oxidation. Clinical Biochemistry, 37, 830-835.
[17] Nevin, K.G. and Rajamohan, T. (2006) Virgin coconut oil
supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats,
Food Chemistry, 99, 260-266.
[18] Evans, J.L. (2007) Antioxidants: Do they have a role in
the treatment of insulin resistance. Indian Journal of
Medical Research, 125, 355-372.
[19] Perry, N.B., Bergess, E.J. and Glennic, V.I. (2001) Echi-
nacca standardization: Analytical methods for phenolic
compounds and typical levels in medicinal species.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 1702-
1706. doi:10.1021/jf001331y
[20] Hetono, T., Kagania, H., Yasuhara, T. and Okuda, T. (1988)
Two new flavonoids and other constituents in licorice
roots: Their relative astringency and radical scavenging
effects. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 36, 2090-
... where the test animals were conditioned to experience hyperglycemia with different inducers 11 . ...
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Currently, the treatment of diabetes mellitus uses synthetic or chemical drugs and natural ingredients such as virgin coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is extracted with minimal heating and no chemical purification process. This study aims to obtain data on the impact of VCO as an antidiabetic obtained from several research journals. This literature study uses a narrative review method obtained from the Google Scholar, Pubmed, and Science Direct databases. The results of this study indicate that VCO can be used as an alternative to lowering blood glucose levels because it has antidiabetic activity. Medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) lauric acid in VCO can stimulate insulin production in pancreatic beta cells. This study concludes that virgin coconut oil can potentially reduce blood sugar levels.
... Its antibacterial qualities can aid in the battle against Candida infection and stomach discomfort (Laureles et al., 2000;Khunnamwong et al., 2015). The antioxidant in coconut oil may reduce insulin resistance and harm to pancreatic beta cells in diabetics by scavenging reactive oxygen species "ROS" (Siddalingaswamy et al., 2011). ...
Full-text available
The present study aims to study the effect of vitamin D (Vit D) or / and coconut oil (Coc) on the splenic histological changes of diabetic adult mice induced by STZ. The mice were divided into 7 groups, and the experimental duration was 4 weeks. GpI: control group without any treatments; GpII&GpIII: non-diabetic groups orally received Vit D in a dose of 500 IU (6.25 ml)/kg b.w/d or Coc in a dose of 7.5 ml /kg b.w/d; GpIV: diabetic group injected i.p. with a single dose of STZ (200 mg/kg bw); Gps V,VI &VII: administration of Vit D or Coc or both together to diabetic group. The results recorded: GpII&GpIII no significant changes in the blood glucose (BG), insulin&splenic weight levels. GpIV had a significant increase in BG, significant decrease in insulin & splenic weight values. GpV recorded a modest decrease in BG, and a modest rise in insulin & a marked splenic weight atrophy; while GpVI or GpVII registered a marked decrease in BG, a rise in insulin levels & a marked splenic weight increment. Histologically, the splenic sections of control or non-diabetic mice received either Vit D or Coc demonstrated normal structure of the splenocytes. GpIV showed great numbers of giant cells, disarrangement and interference of red and white pulps, and dilated congested blood vessels. Little improvement was seen in GpV while GpVI or GpVII showed a marked improvement in the splenic tissues. In conclusion, diabetic mice received either Coc or co-dministered with Vit D demonstrated strong anti-hyperglycemic effects to recovery the glucose and insulin rates to typical levels, and restored the splenic weight and histological architecture to normal status than those given Vit D alone.
... Extraction of the VCO was done by heating fermented coconut milk to remove water completely (Siddalingaswamy et al., 2011). The protein was coagulated by slow heating at 60 0 C in VCO cooker and releasing the oil that was separated from pertinacious residue through filtering with muslin cloth and the remaining residue was further heated to remove more oil until water was completely evaporated (Srivastava et al., 2016). ...
Full-text available
Fermentation to produce Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) through induced and spontaneous fermentation and screening for the antimicrobial property of the oil produced against Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in this study. Matured coconut was processed to obtain coconut milk. The milk was subjected to induced fermentation using 1.25 % of overnight broth culture of Lactobacillus plantarum adjusted to 0.5 and 1.0% Macfarland for 24 and 48 hours. Spontaneous fermentation of the coconut milk was carried out for the same period. The resulting oil was tested for its antimicrobial property against S. aureus and the physicochemical property was also determined. The results show that induced fermentation with 1 % Macfarland of L. plantarum for 48 hours recovered more oil, (10.6 %) as compared to other fermentation methods. Oil recovered at 48 hours from induced fermentation with 0.5 % Macfarland of L. plantarum was found to be moderately potent against S. aureus with 8 mm in diameter of zone of inhibition. The physicochemical parameters tested revealed free fatty acid content ranging from 0.14 to 0.22 %, the iodine value (IV) ranges from 4.11 to 4.18 gl2 /100g fats, the peroxide value (PV) ranges from 0.72 to 0.87 meqoxygen/kg, the saponification value ranges between 250.67 to 259.67 mg KOH/g oil and acid value ranges from 0.03 to 0.08. In conclusion, induced fermentation with L. plantarum at 1 % Macfarland for 48 hours yielded more oil and it is effective for VCO production. The oil produced after 48 hours through induced fermentation was effective against S. aureus and the physicochemical parameter of the VCO generally conformed to standard requirements.
... VCO extracted using the hot process has higher polyphenols and antioxidant properties, which in turn have high hypoglycemic and insulinotropic properties compared to the VCO obtained from cold processes. Also, VCO extracted using both methods inhibited lipoprotein oxidation with hypolipidemic effects (Siddalingaswamy et al., 2011). Rahmawati et al. (2020) reported that the MCFAs in VCO are responsible for lowering the blood glucose level as they are directly absorbed into cells and then into the mitochondria, and thus, with the increase in metabolism, cells work more efficiently to form new cells and replace damaged cells more quickly. ...
Full-text available
The coconut palm is aptly described as the "tree of life" because of its myriad of uses and diversified value added products. Coconut and its derivatives are considered to be an emerging functional food. It is also called a "miracle food". In recent years, there have been conflicting reports regarding the consumption of coconut oil and its health benefits. In this backdrop, our article systematically analyses the antimicrobial, oral protective, and anti-diabetic effects of coconut products in light of the recent scientific literature. Numerous scientific reports have highlighted that coconut oil has antimicrobial properties improving oral hygiene. Although its anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effects are backed by emerging scientific literature, many questions remain unanswered. In general, the consumption of coconut oil has many beneficial effects; nevertheless, long-term clinical trials are warranted. Indeed, the exploration of coconut phytochemicals, clinical trials, and epidemiological studies unleashes the true therapeutic prospects of coconut and its derivatives. At this juncture, we suggest shifting our research focus from the fatty acid composition of coconut oil towards the characterization of other phytochemicals such as polyphenols, phytosterols, etc., the conduct of clinical trials and epidemiological studies to unleash the true potential of coconut products.
... HEVCO was found to be more beneficial than cold extracted virgin coconut oil (CEVCO) in terms of enhancing antioxidant profile, lowering blood glucose, and lowering lipid levels. HEVCO has a higher polyphenolic profile and possibly higher nutrient bioavailability, both of which may contribute to HEVCO's improved health advantages [22] . VCO (10 mg/kg body) weight alters hyperglycemia and enhances glucose tolerance possibly by its antioxidant effect which in return results in improved insulin secretion [23] . ...
Full-text available
Cocos nucifera (L.), (C. nucifera) Arecaceae, also called the coconut tree, is probably the widely most extensively dispersed fruit plant and supplies all the necessities of life. It is an important economic plant that feeds a million people. All the parts of coconut plant are extensively used for religious practices, culinary purposes, for making household equipment’s and is also used as traditional medicine. The goal of the review is to provide an insight into its phytochemical profile and its therapeutic potential in metabolic diseases. The plant as a whole possess plethora of uses such as, neuroprotective activity, antidiabetic activity, anticancer activity, antihypertensive and lipid lowering activity. Various study reports its safety in preclinical and clinical setup.
... In hot extraction process, coagulation of milk proteins and destabilization of milk emulsion occurs due to heat followed by evaporation of the milk. Subsequently, through filtering, Class A oil is obtained, and with further reheating of the residue, Class B oil is recovered (Siddalingaswamy et al., 2011;Ravindra, 2017;Srivastara et al., 2016). In copra pressing, dried coconut meat is crushed for oil extraction using traditional chekkis and rotary ghanis, expellers and hydraulic presses; especially, in India and Sri Lanka (APCC, 2009;Gopala et al., 2010). ...
... Asam laurat, merupakan komponen terbesar VCO, yang merupakan asam lemak rantai sedang sehingga dapat diabsorpsi langsung kedalam sel untuk secara cepat diubah menjadi energy dan resirkulasi asam laurat kedalam hepar akan melepaskan tambahan energi (Enig, 2004). Asam laurat juga diketahui meningkatkan insulin pada percobaan in vitro (Siddalingaswamy et al., 2011). Sistem pertahanan tubuh juga mampu dipertahankan dengan pemberian VCO (Iranloye et al., 2013 Bobot badan tikus hiperglikemik terbesar terdapat pada perlakuan VCO dibanding perlakuan olive oil dan minyak buah merah. ...
Olive oil, VCO, dan minyak buah merah memiliki manfaat sebagai antidiabetik karena ketiga minyak tersebut mengandung antioksidan yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan respon ketiga minyak tersebut terhadap persentase penurunan kadar glukosa darah, berat badan dan diameter sel hepatosit tikus jantan (Rattus norvegicus) hiperglikemik. Lima belas ekor tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus) jantan dengan umur sekitar 2 bulan digunakan sebagai hewan uji. Induksi aloksan sebesar 150 mg per kg BB tikus secara intraperitonial dilakukan untuk mendapatkan tikus hiperglikemik. Design penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap, dengan tiga perlakuan dan lima ulangan, yaitu P1 merupakan perlakuan dengan VCO 0,2 ml per BB tikus, P2 merupakan perlakuan dengan olive oil 0,2 ml per BB serta P3 merupakan perlakuan dengan minyak buah merah sebanyak 0,2 ml per BB tikus per hari. Perlakuan diberikan secara oral selama empat minggu, data yang didapat dianalisa dengan ANOVA dan uji lanjut dengan uji LSD. Hasil yang didapat menunjukkan bahwa rerata persentase penurunan kadar glukosa darah dan bobot badan pada P1 berbeda nyata dengan P2 dan P3 (p<0.05), sedang diameter sel hepatosit tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata antar perlakuan (p>0.05), sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa VCO lebih potensial sebagai antidiabetik dibanding olive oil dan minyak buah merah
The coconut palm belongs to the Arecaceae family, which is distinct from other fruits, known for its versatility. Fresh coconut products are valuable for many food preparations owing to their nutritional and flavour properties. For example, tender coconut yields coconut water, a refreshing nutritious drink that provides good nutrients including electrolytes and other interesting compounds. The mature coconut meat which is rich in fat and protein, aids in coconut milk extraction and is a major component in the wet and dry process of oil extraction. Coconut milk has market potential owing to its increasing applications in food and beverage industries. Coconut is also known for its by-product namely coconut flour, which is rich in protein and dietary fiber, could be used in the preparation of functional foods. The different methods involved in the oil extraction process which helps in more efficient oil recovery were discussed briefly. The nutritional health-promoting functional role of coconut water and virgin coconut oil is highlighted in review paper.
With the increase in the world population, the demand for edible oils is increasing. The recommended intake of edible oils by the World Health Organization is 20-25 kilograms/year, and their intake in impoverished countries is far below the recommended level. Therefore, edible oils not only need to meet the sharply increasing demand of consumers but also need improved quality and diversity. A systematic summary of the extraction, refining, identification of adulteration, digestion and absorption fate and application of edible oils from plants is essential for their further extensive and safe application. Therefore, the sustainable extraction, refining and adulteration identification methods of oils should be summarized. In addition, cooking and digestion processes can affect the composition and quality of oils, and the stability and bioavailability of edible oils need to be improved. This review provides a timely reference for the rational development and design of new types of oils. However, based on current research results, the physical and chemical properties of edible oils from different plant sources, varieties and producing areas need to be compared and classified in the future.
Almost all part of coconut fruit has been industrially utilized. Coconut coir activated carbon and cooking oil are just a few examples. The health benefits of coconut oil are discussed in this chapter. Coconut oil contains some fatty acids such as lauric acid and antioxidants, which have biological activity on health. The extraction process is categorized as wet and dry extraction. Dry extraction produces refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) coconut oil, while wet extraction produces virgin coconut oil (VCO). Community coconut plantations are characterized by low productivity and underdeveloped plantation management. The production problem faced by the small coconut oil industry is the fluctuating price of raw coconut meat. Coconut farmers tend to sell copra to meet the demands of large companies. Coconut economic development can be achieved through increased productivity and high-value derivative products such as health and energy products.
Full-text available
The antioxidant activities of coconut oil extracted under hot and cold conditions were compared. The coconut oil extracted under hot conditions (HECO) contained more phenolic substances than the coconut oil extracted under cold conditions (CECO). The antioxidant potential of HECO was higher than that of CECO as demonstrated by DPPH assay, deoxyribose assay and in vivo assay of serum antioxidant capacity. It is the common belief that virgin coconut oil extracted under cold conditions preserves several thermally unstable antioxidants and, as a result, better beneficial qualities can be expected for virgin coconut oil. However, high temperatures used in the hot extraction of coconut oil favour the incorporation of more thermally stable phenolic antioxidants into coconut oil. Therefore, the consumption of HECO may result in the better improvement of antioxidant related health benefits compared with the consumption of CECO.
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) directly extracted from fresh coconut meat at 50°C temperature was tested for its effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels in male Sprague–Dawley rats, compared to copra oil (CO) and groundnut oil (GO) as control. Oils were fed to rats for 45 days along with a semi-synthetic diet and after the experimental period various biochemical parameters were done. Individual fatty acid analyses of VCO and CO were done using gas chromatography. Effect of polyphenol fraction isolated from the oils was also tested for the ability to prevent in vitro microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4. The results showed that GO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, reduced the levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation, indicated by the very high MDA and conjugate diene content in the tissues. PF fraction from VCO was found to have more inhibitory effect on microsomal lipid peroxidation compared to that from the other two oils. VCO with more unsaponifiable components viz. vitamin E and polyphenols than CO exhibited increased levels of antioxidant enzymes and prevented the peroxidation of lipids in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. These results showed that VCO is superior in antioxidant action than CO and GO. This study has proved that VCO is beneficial as an antioxidant.
Pure olive oil triglycerides (POLO), free from all unsaponifiable matter, were isolated from Virgin Spanish olive oil (COLO) by alumina-charcoal column chromatography. COLO and POLO were used as sources of dietary fat in two animal studies. The responses of serum and liver lipids to the two types of dietary fat were examined. Our results show that animals fed POLO-diet gave somewhat higher serum total and LDL cholesterol levels as compared to those on COLO-diet. The increase in serum cholesterol level is followed by a parallel increase in liver cholesterol content. These results indicate that the hypocholesterolemic effect of olive oil was partly due to the presence of the unsaponifiable matter. Supplement of the POLO-diet separately with a-tocopherol and squalene resulted in serum lipid responses similar to that observed with the COLO-diet. The serum and liver triglyceride levels are not affected by the removal of unsaponifiable components but addition of a--T and squalene to the POLO-diet appeared to lower both the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the serum but increased only the liver cholesterol content. These results show that the unsaponifiable components modulate the hypocholesterolemic effect of olive oil.
1.1. A method for the determination of mercaptans is described. It depends on the interchange of bis(p-nitrophenyl)disulfide and mercaptan anions at pH A study of the specificity of the reaction indicates that it occurs only with the S− group (actual or potential, as in thiourea).3.3. Heavy-metal ions interfere with the reaction by irreversibly bonding any S− ions.4.4. The kinetics of the reaction with cysteine and β-mercaptoethylamine were studied.5.5. Several applications of this reaction were made: (a) the determination of mercaptan in synthetic compounds; (b) mercaptan reactivity in proteins; and (c) determination of blood and serum concentrations.
The need for a better lipid system to satisfy the fuel requirements of patients while avoiding the adverse effects of current systems has led to suggestions that medium chain fatty acids (MCFs) be incorporated into TPN-lipid emulsions. Since clinical situations requiring TPN are associated with metabolic processes mediated by insulin, in the present study we have therefore examined the effects of a variety of medium chain fatty acids on insulin release. Using an isolated perifused mouse islet model, various doses of medium chain fatty acids and the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, were tested and compared. The possibility of an additive effect of an insulinotropic MCF and linoleate when both are provided together was also examined. Effluent perifusate samples collected on ice during these experiments were assayed for insulin by radioimmunoassay. It was found that the ability of 5 mM of a given MCF to stimulate insulin secretion was dependent upon its chain length. Thus, while adipic acid (C6) had no effect, Caprylic acid (C8) had a minimal effect that was not statistically significant, but capric acid (C10) and lauric acid had very potent effects that were of the same magnitude to the effect of linoleate on insulin secretion. When insulin output was assessed as the mean integrated area under the curve during a 20-min perifusion, 5 mM lauric acid enhanced insulin secretion from a basal 7351 +/- 666 pg to 15,756 +/- 1680 pg (P less than 0.01, n = 5). In the same experiments, 5 mM linoleic acid stimulated insulin release to 11,260 +/- 867 pg (P less than 0.05). When C12 and linoleate were added together, each at a submaximally effective concentration of 2.5 mM, insulin output was 12,712 +/- 1011 pg (P less than 0.05, n = 5), which was not statistically different from the values obtained when the islets were perifused with 5 mM of each fatty acid alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Four compounds, including two new flavonoids, were isolated from Si-pei licorice (licorice from the north-western region of China). The structures of the two new flavonoids, named glycyrrhisoflavanone and glycyrrhisoflavone, were (S)-7, 8'-dihydroxy-2', 2'-dimethyl-5-methoxy-[3, 6'-bi-2H-1-benzopyran]-4(3H)-one (6) and 3-[3, 4-dihydroxy-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenyl]-5, 7-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (9). Glycyrrhisoflavone was found to be one of the tannic substances by the measurement of the binding activity to hemoglobin (relative astringency). Licochalcone B (1) was isolated from the fraction which showed the highest binding activity to hemoglobin among the fractions obtained by centrifugal partition chromatography of the extract of Sinkiang licorice (licorice from Sinkiang in China). Licochalcone B also showed the highest activity as a radical scavenger in the experiment using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, among ten tested compounds obtained from several licorices. The order of the radical scavenging effects was the same as the order of the inhibitory effects on the 5-lipoxygenase-dependent peroxidation in arachidonate metabolism [licochalcone B (1)>licochalcone A (3)>>isoliquiritigenin (14)>liquiritigenin (13)].
Publisher Summary The primary difficulty in assaying Superoxide dismutase (SOD) for its enzymatic activity consists in the free radical nature of its substrate O 2 · - which can only be supplied by generation within the assay medium. The substrate O 2 · - cannot easily be detected directly by conventional analytical tools. Routine testing of SOD, therefore, is performed according to a general principle, which is explained in the chapter. If an absolute measure of physiological levels of SOD is intended, a direct immunochemical method is suggested in addition to activity measurements. This chapter focuses on measuring SOD in biological media. It presents a qualitative test for SOD activity based on the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) by O 2 · - , a simple immunological determination of the SOD molecule of sufficient sensitivity and avoiding labeled reagents, and an indirect measure of SOD activity to be used in purified samples.
A microfluorometric adaptation of the method of D. E. Paglia and W. N. Valentine has been made which can assay glutathione peroxidase activity in less than 100 μg of tissue. As in the original method, the oxidized glutathione produced in the reaction is coupled to the oxidation of NADPH by glutathione reductase. No inhibition by NADPH was found. A similar method can be used to measure glutathione reductase. These methods have been used to assay glutathione peroxidase and reductase in rat brain and in a neuronal and a glial cell line using samples containing 15 μg of protein. The assays are sensitive enough to allow multiple determinations of the enzymes in brain regions, organotypic tissue cultures, and microwell cell cultures.