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Semantic Prosody: Creating Awareness about a Versatile Tool

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Abstract

Efter at korpuslingvistik er kommet ind i billedet, har leksikalsk semantik udviklet sig markant. I stedet for som tidligere at forlade sig på introspektion og illustrative eksempler kan nutidens semantiker, i mange tilfælde, få af- eller bekræftet sine hypoteser på baggrund af korpussøgninger. En af konsekvenserne af denne udvikling er, at man har fundet ud af, at leksikalsk betydning ikke så meget er et spørgsmål om betydning, der er isoleret i et leksem, men at der snarere er tale om såkaldte "extended units of meaning" (udvidede betydningsenheder) (Sinclair 1996) – i de fleste tilfælde er det umuligt at bruge et ord isoleret, uden at der følger mere med, da ords betydning påvirkes af de ord de oftest omgives af. Et direkte resultat af disse erkendelser er, at man er blevet bevidst om det semantisk/pragmatiske fænomen "semantisk prosodi" (Sinclair 1987, Louw 1993), en term der refererer til det faktum, at et ord ofte indeholder en negativ eller positiv vurdering afhængigt af, hvad det kollokerer med. Vel at mærke en vurdering, der i mange tilfælde er meget ubevidst og altså ikke tilgængelig via intuition, men som alligevel tydeligt kommer frem, når man sammenligner konkordanslinier. Det er denne artikels formål dels at undersøge fænomenet "semantisk prosodi" som et metodisk værktøj til at bestemme værdiladning i en tekst og dels at undersøge nogle af dets mange potentielle anvendelsesområder.

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... They have all come to the same conclusion which is that collocational behavior and semantic prosodies of near-synonyms are unpredictable across languages; i.e. sometimes they are rather similar, and sometimes very different. Zethsen (2006) explores the fields in which semantic prosody can be a versatile tool, among which is translation. ...
... Translators are likely to be using ready-made, established translations that have in fact different semantic prosodies. Zethsen (2006) explains that "[p]resumably equivalent words may have developed differently in two languages and have during time been influenced by the company they have kept and thereby developed different prosodies" (p.289). This may be considered a subtler variation on the old concept of faux amis, or false friends, especially between two related languages that share look-alike words such as cause in English and causer in French, which have been closely studied by Hunston (2007) and Louw and Chateau (2010). ...
Conference Paper
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The arbitrary and independent nature of collocations has attracted translation scholars, trainers and practitioners alike. However, they have been, for the large part, addressed from a structuralist and/or lexical semanticist point of view, dealing with them as a static phenomenon whose meaning is isolated in the lexeme. A corpus-based cognitive semantic approach offers insights that might prove indispensable, as it views meaning, in general, and the meaning of collocations, in particular, as a mental phenomenon that is rather idiosyncratic, strongly context-dependent, and part of the encyclopedic knowledge that is far from being static. One of these insights is Semantic Prosody (SP), or the implied attitudinal meaning of a collocation; a phenomenon that is more widespread than traditionally assumed and one that cannot be reliably retrieved through intuition or introspection. Ignorance, or disregard, of SP can result in using clichéd, established translation equivalents for collocations that have prosodic differences leading to a clash that alters or blurs the meaning of the Source Text, resulting in a comic or ironic effect in the Target Text. As an insignificant number of empirical studies have addressed SP in English and Arabic as a language pair in translation, this study aims at bridging this gap. Keywords: Collocations, Semantic Prosody, Corpus-based cognitive semantics, attitudinal meaning, corpus-based translation studies.
... Zethsen (2006) cites Sinclair (1996) stating that he proposes the hypothesis that units of meaning are largely phrasal, and the model Sinclair suggests consists of four types of co-occurrence relations as is stated by Stubbs (2001b, p. 64, cited in Zethsen, 2006) in extended lexico-semantic units, being collocation, colligation, semantic preference and semantic prosody. Relying on the examples from Stubbs (2001b, p. 64, cited in Zethsen, 2006), Zethsen (2006) gives a brief definition of these extended semantic units. To Zethsen (2006), collocation is the frequent co-occurrence of word forms, and these verb forms are directly observable in textual data; colligation is the co-occurrence of grammatical choices, a one step more abstract phenomenon than collocation, for it is the outcome of long sequences of analysis. ...
... Relying on the examples from Stubbs (2001b, p. 64, cited in Zethsen, 2006), Zethsen (2006) gives a brief definition of these extended semantic units. To Zethsen (2006), collocation is the frequent co-occurrence of word forms, and these verb forms are directly observable in textual data; colligation is the co-occurrence of grammatical choices, a one step more abstract phenomenon than collocation, for it is the outcome of long sequences of analysis. On the other hand, semantic preference is a lexical set that occurs as collocates sharing a semantic feature such as words from the same lexical field e.g. ...
Book
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This book includes selected papers presented at the 9th METU International Postgraduate Conference on Linguistics and Language Teaching organized by Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Education, Department of Foreign Language Education on December 14-15, 2013 at METU Cultural and Convention Center, Ankara, Turkey.
... (1993,157) In the field of translation studies many corpus-based studies investigate semantic prosody. Karen Zethsen (2006) argues that analyzing semantic prosody can be helpful for various linguistic areas such as; lexicography, text and discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis, and political discourse. In terms of political discourse, Zethsen stresses that thorough analysis can reveal an ideology behind the usage of certain words with other words by different political parties. ...
Article
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The current study aims to investigate the nature of Arab-Israeli conflict in Arabic political discourse. This study seeks to examine the possibility of using a corpus-driven study of semantic prosody to analyze Arabic political discourse. The researchers compiled a bi-directional parallel corpus that consists of two types of King Abdullah II’s of Jordan speeches (Arabic and English). Then the researchers used WordSmith Tools in order to obtain the data required, i. e., which mostly consist of collocations associated with five selected nouns, (‘Israel,’ ‘Palestine,’ ‘Arab,’ ‘Islam,’ and ‘terrorism’), respectively along with their frequency. The results show a variation in the collocations used with the five nouns in both types of speeches and a variation in the occurrence of these nouns. While reflecting different thematic focus, this variation suggests different ideologies.
... Yabancı dil öğreniminin özünü oluşturan sözcük bilgisi sadece sözcüklerin tek başlarına sahip oldukları anlamlarını bilmeyi değil, sözcüklerin hangi sözcüklerle beraber eşdizimli olarak görünmeye yatkın olduğunu dolayısıyla da anlamsal bürün görünümlerini de bilmeyi gerektirir (Hoey, 2000;Partington, 1998;Zethsen, 2006). Anlamsal bürün bilgisi, yabancı dil öğrenicilerine, dil üretim sürecinde hem dilbilgisel olarak neyin mümkün olabileceğine hem de bağlamsal olarak uygun sözcüğün hangisi olacağına karar vermeleri açısından yardımcı olur (Partington,2004).Dolayısıyla da anlamsal bürün farkındalığı kazanan bir dil öğrenicisi kendi üreteceği bir metinde sözcükleri dilsel ve bağlamsal olarak uygun bir biçimde nasıl kullanacağını ve ayrıca başka bir metin üreticisi tarafından üretilen metinlerdeki satır aralarına gizlenmiş mesajları doğru bir biçimde nasıl yorumlayacağını bilir. ...
Article
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The aim of the study is to analyze the semantic prosodic appearances of the lexical items in the written texts produced by the students learning Turkish as a foreign language. The quantitative and qualitative research methods were adopted in the study. The quantitative data was analyzed by using frequency distribution. As for the qualitative data, descriptive analysis was used. The sample group of the study consisted of 50 randomly selected the students attending. During the data collection the students were required to produce a written text based on an open-ended prompt. The data was analysed by using AntConc. The results revealed that the words " bilgisayar " and " internet " were the most to appear. Therefore they were chosen for analysis of semantic prosodies as the node words. Also, it was seen that the words mostly collocated with the lexical items that have negative semantic prosody. Moreover the results indicated that the students couldn't produce lexically cohesive and coherent written texts because of the inapparopriate word choice arising from ignorance of semantic prosody.. ÖZET Bu çalışmada Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen öğrenciler tarafından üretilen yazılı metinlerdeki sözlüksel sözcüklerin anlamsal bürün görünümlerinin nasıllığı sorgulanmıştır. Çalışmada nitel ve nicel araştırma stratejilerinin birlikte kullanıldığı karma araştırma deseni benimsenmiştir. Nicel verilerin analizinde frekans dağılım; nitel verilerin analizinde ise betimsel analiz yönteminden yararlanılmıştır. Çalışmanın örneklem grubunu, seçkisiz örnekleme yöntemi kullanarak seçilmiş olan Mersin Üniversitesi Türkçe Öğretimi Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezi, Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sürekli Eğitim Merkezi, Gaziantep Üniversitesi Türkçe Öğretimi Bölümü ile Niğde Üniversitesi Türk Dili Bölümü bünyesinde Türkçe öğretimi alan toplam 50 yabancı öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Verilerin toplanması sırasında öğrencilerden bir açık uçlu uyarana bağımlı kalarak birer yazılı metin üretmeleri istenmiştir. Verilerin çözümlenmesi aşamasında elde edilen metinler Ant Conc 3.2 Derlem İşleme Aracına aktarılarak çözümlenmiştir. Çözümleme sonucunda " bilgisayar " ve " internet " sözcüklerinin veritabanında yüksek kullanım sergilediği görülmüş ve bu sözcükler anlamsal bürün analizi için düğüm sözcükler (node words) olarak seçilmiştir. Çalışmada düğüm sözcüklerin genellikle olumsuz anlamsal bürün görünümüne sahip sözcükler ile eşdizimlilik sergilediği görülmüştür. Ayrıca, öğrencilerin sözcüklerin anlamsal bürün özelliklerini göz ardı etmeleri nedeni ile metinlerinde dilsel ve bağlamsal olarak uygun sözcükleri kullanmada sorun yaşadıkları dolayısıyla da sözcüksel bağdaşıklığı sağlanmış tutarlı bir metin üretemedikleri gözlenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Anlamsal bürün, eşdizimlilik, yazılı metin, sözcüksel bağdaşıklık, tutarlılık.
... Yabancı dil öğreniminin özünü oluşturan sözcük bilgisi sadece sözcüklerin tek başlarına sahip oldukları anlamlarını bilmeyi değil, sözcüklerin hangi sözcüklerle beraber eşdizimli olarak görünmeye yatkın olduğunu dolayısıyla da anlamsal bürün görünümlerini de bilmeyi gerektirir (Hoey, 2000;Partington, 1998;Zethsen, 2006). Anlamsal bürün bilgisi, yabancı dil öğrenicilerine, dil üretim sürecinde hem dilbilgisel olarak neyin mümkün olabileceğine hem de bağlamsal olarak uygun sözcüğün hangisi olacağına karar vermeleri açısından yardımcı olur (Partington,2004).Dolayısıyla da anlamsal bürün farkındalığı kazanan bir dil öğrenicisi kendi üreteceği bir metinde sözcükleri dilsel ve bağlamsal olarak uygun bir biçimde nasıl kullanacağını ve ayrıca başka bir metin üreticisi tarafından üretilen metinlerdeki satır aralarına gizlenmiş mesajları doğru bir biçimde nasıl yorumlayacağını bilir. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study is to analyze the semantic prosodic appearances of the lexical items in the written texts produced by the students learning Turkish as a foreign language . The quantitative and qualitative research methods were adopted in the study. The quantitative data was analyzed by using frequency distribution. As for the qualitative data, descriptive analysis was used. The sample group of the study consisted of 50 randomly selected the students attending Mersin University Turkish Language Research and Application Center, Kocaeli University The Center for Continuing Education, Gaziantep University Department of Turkish Language Teaching and Niğde University Department of Turkish Langauge. During the data collection the students were required to produce a written text based on an open-ended prompt. The data was analysed by using AntConc. The results revealed that the words “bilgisayar” and “internet” were the most to appear. Therefore they were chosen for analysis of semantic prosodies as the node words. Also, it was seen that the words mostly collocated with the lexical items that have negative semantic prosody. Moreover the results indicated that the students couldn’t produce lexically cohesive and coherent written texts because of the inapparopriate word choice arising from ignorance of semantic prosody. .
... Besides, Louw (1993Louw ( , 2008, Hunston (2002) and Stewart (2010) put forward the concept of consistent aura, a concept which allows lexical assessment to be done through semantic prosodic analysis. Critical judgments that could be discovered from the concept of consistent aura is the assessment of the text information that could be highlighted as a result of the analysis of syntactical behaviour or sentence patterns and this assessment can only be made by examining examples of lexis that collocate with other lexis in a huge number (Zethsen , 2006). Some examples of text information to be acquired is as positive or negative evaluation of the use of certain lexis and the formation of one's identity based on the frequent use of the lexis. ...
Article
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Education generally is a planned initiative related to the teaching and learning process to produce learners who are active in developing their potential to meet their own needs and society's. Synergistic process conducted ultimately aims to produce a positive output acceleration of human capital that has religious and spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, good characters and competent, dedicated to the challenges and needs of the 21st century. Armed with such commitment, Higher Education Minister, Datuk Seri Mohamed Khaled Nordin in his speeches often reveals the diversity of education issues in Malaysia particularly in relation to education at the tertiary level. Therefore, this study will describe the information that can be tapped from the use of [education] lexis in his speech texts through the analysis of semantic prosody based on corpus linguistics. A total of 20 speeches are selected at random from a collection of his speeches from 2009 to 2012 to be analyzed. Semantic prosody analysis results show most often Khaled Nordin highlights four (4) text information related to the main theme education namely strengthening the quality of higher education and its academicians, strengthening research and innovation development besides quality student development, and human capital employability. This situation would highlight the evidence that lexis in a language would be able to reveal text information that could be used to understand lexical meanings and values and could also enlighten the leadership identity of its users. The situation is thus able to prove that there are explicit and implicit links between the reality of the language usage and the social reality of its users.
... With the help of computerized corpora data, much research has examined this linguistic phenomenon from various perspectives. Along with this line of research, researchers also have recognized the importance and necessity of semantic prosody for ESL/EFL (English as a second/foreign language) vocabulary learning and teaching (Hoey, 2000;Partington, 1998;Zethsen, 2006). The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to introduce the notion of semantic prosody and provide an overview of corpus-based studies of semantic prosody; and (b) to help develop ESL/EFL educators' awareness that semantic prosody needs to be integrated into vocabulary pedagogy. ...
Article
There is evidence that semantic prosody, a novel linguistic theme, should attract much attention in ESL/EFL (English as a second/foreign language) vocabulary learning and teaching. Research suggests that inappropriate word choice arising from ignorance of semantic prosody is common among ESL/EFL learners (Wei, 2006; Xiao & McEnery, 2006). This article introduces the notion of semantic prosody and provides an overview of studies of semantic prosody from five perspectives: monolinguistic, cross-linguistic, register, lexicographical, and in-terlinguistic. Based on this overview, the article suggests that semantic prosody be integrated into ESL/EFL vocabulary pedagogy. Finally, implications on in-tegrating semantic prosody into ESL/EFL vocabulary pedagogy are discussed. Certaines sources indiquent que la prosodie sémantique, un nouveau thème linguistique, méritrait que les intervenants en enseignement du vocabulaire en ALS/ALE (anglais langue seconde/étrangère) y portent attention. La recherche porte à conclure que le choix de mots inapproprié découlant de l'ignorance de la prosodie sémantique est un phénomène commun chez les apprenants en ALS/ALE (Wei, 2006; Xiao & McEnery, 2006). Cet article présente la notion de la prosodie sémantique et fournit un aperçu, à partir de cinq perspectives, des études portant sur la prosodie sémantique: monolinguistique, portant sur plus d'une langue, basée sur le registre, lexicographique et interlinguistique. À partir de cette vue d'ensemble, l'auteur propose que la prosodie sémantique soit intégrée à la pédagogie du vocabulaire en ALS/ALE. L'article termine par une discussion des répercussions de cette intégration.
... Xiao & McEnery (2006) demonstrate the importance of corpusbased contrastive work on semantic prosody to language learning in order for L2 learners not to use words and expressions at odds with their semantic prosodies. It goes without saying that such contrastive studies are equally important to students of translation and TS (Munday forthcoming: 6;Berber Sardinha 2000: 16;Zethsen 2006). In connection with translator training contrastive semantic prosody analyses may also be useful for translation assessment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional lexical semantics focuses on the meaning of individual lexemes. Firth (1957) brought our attention to collocations and the fact that meaning is not isolated in the lexeme. In 1996 Sinclair argued for the existence of extended units of meaning which, as the expression indicates, go beyond the lexeme. In recent years Stubbs (2001b), and other corpus linguists have convincingly shown that meaning is a phraseological phenomenon to a high degree. Corpus searches allow us to study lexemes in their immediate con-text, study their most frequent collocates and thus help us reveal their se-mantic preferences (Sinclair 1987, 1996) and semantic prosodies (evalua-tion) (Louw 1993). Some of the findings confirm intuitions, whereas some make us aware of connotations which we have never before consciously known the existence of. In this article, I shall argue for the application of corpus-based cognitive semantics as a tool for researchers within transla-tion studies (TS) who are particularly interested in revealing evaluative aspects of the units of meaning of source texts and their translations. What may formerly have been described as something intangible like an 'atmos-phere', now becomes tangible because of the patterns emerging from large numbers of examples. I shall provide empirical examples in various lan-guages of such evaluative patterns which are of course not automatically generated but come about as the result of computer-generated concordance lines and thorough manual analysis.
Article
Originally defined as an aura of meaning associated with words used together in a particular context, semantic prosody is a complex linguistic concept, and there is no agreement among researchers as to its precise definition and level of operationalization (word, phrase, text or discourse). Although there have been some studies on semantic prosody in translation, their findings are rather inconclusive and limited to individual words and phrases. Also, there has been no research on semantic prosody conducted so far in Polish-English translation. Intending to fill in this gap, this paper, grounded in corpus linguistics, showcases the role of semantic prosody in a selected English-to-Polish translation found in the Paralela corpus. More precisely, we present and reflect upon a peculiar translation error resulting from a mismatched semantic prosody and discuss its wider implications on translation quality, translation reception and translation teaching. Thus, apart from presenting new empirical findings, the study also provides an opportunity for reflection on the application of the concept of semantic prosody in descriptive and explanatory research on translation as well as in translator training. (DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2021.1891268)
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The meaning of words can be influenced by their co-occurrences. Semantic prosody (SP) is attitudinal and evaluative meaning inferred from the habitual lexical environment of a word in a corpus. By introducing SP in an English teaching classroom, teachers can reveal more implicit knowledge about language usage and assist students in reaching sufficient English language competence. This paper offers a detailed study of semantic prosody and suggests an approach to vocabulary instruction by making use of research results obtained in a native English corpus. On the basis of corpus-assisted methods, this study documents a series of pedagogical interventions such as SP instruction, tests, surveys and interviews, which are centred on using SP in synonym differentiation. The pedagogical implications are to raise the awareness of semantic prosody among English learners and encourage them to explore more idiomatic and natural use of English vocabulary by studying collocational meaning in corpora. Get free access of the paper at: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/3HBFIC6TKXUCNJINNCAV/full?target=10.1080/04250494.2020.1838896
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In this paper I wish to examine the two related concepts of semantic prosody and semantic preference. I will begin the section on each with a definition, attempt a review of relevant current positions and then describe a number of corpus-based experiments I conducted to throw light on the two phenomena. Finally, I will try to draw some conclusions about the relationship between them.
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Discusses man's capabilities and limitations as an element in a closed loop control system under normal environmental conditions. Factors considered include the nature of manual control, modes of tracking, mathematical models of human operators, and characteristics of controls and displays in tracking tasks. (21/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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During recent years, corpus-based phraseology has brought new insights to the study of language use and in particular to the role of evaluation in language. New quantitative studies (e.g. Stubbs, 2001b) reveal that rather than choosing individual words and their meanings, the average writer/speaker often chooses larger building blocks, so to speak, as the meanings of words are much more intrinsically connected than is traditionally assumed. A given word is statistically likely to trigger other words and frequently also a set of connotations, as evidenced by the concept of semantic prosody (Louw, 1993). From the point of view of meaning, it makes more sense to talk about extended units of meaning (Sinclair, 1996) than about the syntagmatically more limited concept of lexical meaning. This article discusses the implications of these new insights on the semantics/pragmatics boundary, in particular the claim that the traditionally primarily pragmatic concept of evaluation is part of the language system to a much larger degree than hitherto presumed. It offers Danish language analyses which corroborate English and Italian findings within the area of semantic prosody; these analyses are furthermore used to argue for the existence of inherent evaluative meaning and pragmatic evaluative meaning.
What's in a word? , in: MED Magazine, http://www.macmillandictionary.com/MED-Magazine/August2003/10- Feature-Whats-in-a-word.htm, Issue 10
  • Michael Hoey
Hoey, Michael (2003), " What's in a word? ", in: MED Magazine, http://www.macmillandictionary.com/MED-Magazine/August2003/10- Feature-Whats-in-a-word.htm, Issue 10, August 2003, First published in English Teaching Professional issue 27, April 2003.
Parallel corpora and bilingual lexicography
  • Ruta Marcinkeviciene
Marcinkeviciene, Ruta (1998), " Parallel corpora and bilingual lexicography ", in: Usoniene, A. (ed.) (1998), Germanic and Baltic Linguistic Studies and Translation, Proceedings of the International Conference, 22-24 April 1998, Vilnius, pp. 40-48.
Looming large: A cross-linguistic analysis of semantic prosodies in comparable reference corpora " , submitted for publication in the proceedings of the Corpus-Based Translation conference in Pretoria, South Africa Utterly content in each other's company: Semantic prosody and semantic preference
  • Jeremy Munday
Munday, Jeremy, " Looming large: A cross-linguistic analysis of semantic prosodies in comparable reference corpora ", submitted for publication in the proceedings of the Corpus-Based Translation conference in Pretoria, South Africa, July 2003 http://www.surrey.ac.uk/lcts/cts/staff/munday.htm Partington, Alan (2004), " Utterly content in each other's company: Semantic prosody and semantic preference ", International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 9/1 (2004), pp. 131-156.
Slumped in front of the telly Beginning the study of lexis
  • Mike Rundell
Rundell, Mike (2000), " Slumped in front of the telly ", in: Humanising Language Teaching, 1 (2000), http://www.hltmag.co.uk/jan00/idea.htm Sinclair, John (1966), " Beginning the study of lexis ", in: Bazell, C. E., J. C. Catford, M. A. K. Halliday, R. H. Robins (eds.) (1996), In Memory of J. R. Firth, London: Longman, pp. 410-430.
human beings categorise by means of prototypes, i.e. many categories are mentally represented by means of schemata of their most characteristic members. Other members constitute borderline cases and are peripheral in nature
  • According To Rosch
According to Rosch (1973) human beings categorise by means of prototypes, i.e. many categories are mentally represented by means of schemata of their most characteristic members. Other members constitute borderline cases and are peripheral in nature. Put in another way our linguistic categories have a hard core and blurred or fuzzy edges.
colligation' is listed before 'semantic preference' and vice versa in Stubbs
  • Stubbs
Stubbs (2001a) 'colligation' is listed before 'semantic preference' and vice versa in Stubbs (2001b).
17) points out " [c]ollocational normality is dependent on genre, register and style, i.e. what is normal in one kind of text may be quite unusual in another
  • As Partington
As Partington (1998: 17) points out " [c]ollocational normality is dependent on genre, register and style, i.e. what is normal in one kind of text may be quite unusual in another. "
Germanic and Baltic Linguistic Studies and Translation
  • Ruta Marcinkeviciene
Marcinkeviciene, Ruta (1998), "Parallel corpora and bilingual lexicography", in: Usoniene, A. (ed.) (1998), Germanic and Baltic Linguistic Studies and Translation, Proceedings of the International Conference, 22-24 April 1998, Vilnius, pp. 40-48.
Looming large: A cross-linguistic analysis of semantic prosodies in comparable reference corpora
  • Jeremy Munday
Munday, Jeremy, "Looming large: A cross-linguistic analysis of semantic prosodies in comparable reference corpora", submitted for publication in the proceedings of the Corpus-Based Translation conference in Pretoria, South Africa, July 2003 http://www.surrey.ac.uk/lcts/cts/staff/munday.htm
Slumped in front of the telly
  • Mike Rundell
Rundell, Mike (2000), "Slumped in front of the telly", in: Humanising Language Teaching, 1 (2000), http://www.hltmag.co.uk/jan00/idea.htm