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Wheat Germ: An Overview on Nutritional Value, Antioxidant Potential and Antibacterial Characteristics

Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2015, 6, 265-277
Published Online February 2015 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Mahmoud, A.A., Mohdaly, A.A.A. and Elneairy, N.A.A. (2015) Wheat Germ: An Overview on Nutri-
tional Value, Antioxidant Potential and Antibacterial Characteristics. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 265-277.
Wheat Germ: An Overview on Nutritional
Value, Antioxidant Potential and
Antibacterial Characteristics
Awad A. Mahmoud1, Adel A. A. Mohdaly1,2, Nady A. A. Elneairy1*
1Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Al Fayoum, Egypt
2Plant Production and Processing Department, Food Management Course, Agricultural Faculty, University of
Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Triesdorf, Germany
Email: *
Received 22 January 2015; accepted 8 February 2015; published 12 February 2015
Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Wheat germ is a by-product derived from the wheat milling industry. Defatted wheat germ is the
main by-product of the wheat germ in the oil extraction process. This study aims at development
of efficient and low cost processing methods to transform these residues in added value co-pro-
duct. In this study, wheat germ was analysed for its proximate composition, fatty acid composition,
physical and chemical characteristics of wheat germ oil. The basic chemical composition analyses
revealed high values of dry matter (87.37 g/100g FW), significant amounts of total protein and fat
(27.69 and 8.99 g/100g FW, respectively) content and low ash content (3.08 g/100g FW). The
quality of the extracted oils was assessed in terms of acid value, iodine value, saponification value,
peroxide value, refractive index, and unsaponifiable matter. The fatty acid profile was found to be
made up of linoleic followed by palmitic and oleic as the major fatty acids. Antioxidant properties
and in vitro antibacterial activity of defatted wheat germ (DWG) extract were also determined.
DWG, as a source of natural antioxidants and antibacterial, could be used to formulate nutraceu-
ticals with potential applications to reduce the level of oxidative stress. The antioxidant potency of
the DWG extracts could be the basis for its health promoting potential. The results showed that
these by-products could be used as a source of bioactive compounds beneficial for health.
Antibacterial Activity, Antioxidant Properties, Defatted Wheat Germ, Fatty Acid, Wheat Germ Oil
Corresponding author.
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
1. Introduction
There is an increasing awareness of the importance of vegetable oils as sources of food, biofuel, health enhanc-
ing compounds, i.e., nutraceuticals, as feedstock for industrial polymers and for many other industrial products.
Thus the world demand for vegetable oils is set to rise even more rapidly from year to year, and this trend will
impact on the price levels of oils. Oil World indicated in its 2011 reported [1] that vegetable oil world produc-
tion was not sufficient to satisfy global demand for food and for oleochemical industry as well as for the energy
sector. Total global consumption of vegetable oils has increased 3.6 percent to 176 million tonnes in 2011, from
170 million tonnes in 2010. About 60 percent of the increase was used in the food industry to meet demand from
a rising population, leaving only 2.4 million tons for the energy market and oleochemical industry [1].
Cereals have an important role in human nutrition, either for cooking or as raw material for obtaining flour for
baking. Botanically they belong to the grass family (Gramineae), that include wheat, maize, rice, oats, barley,
millets, sorghum, and rye [2]. Wheat is one of the major cereals and food ingredients across the world due to its
ability to be ground into flour. The flour extraction rate ranges from 73% to 77%, depending on the variety of
wheat, the cultivation conditions and the milling process [3]. Thus, by-product streams including wheat germ,
wheat bran and parts of the endosperm amount for about 23% - 27% of the milling output. Assuming that all
wheat for human food consumption is milled, the by-product stream would account for about 150 million tons
per year.
Wheat germ (WG) is widely recognized as a nutritious raw material for incorporation into food product for-
mulations or as a food in its own right. Typical applications are in germ-enriched bread, snack foods, and sup-
plements to breakfast cereals, and for production of wheat-germ oil. Wheat germ, containing about 8% - 14% oil
(average 10%), is mainly used in food, medical and cosmetic industries as a source of oil [4]. Relatively a huge
quantity of wheat germ is produced annually as a by-product of wheat milling industry in Egypt. In 2012, it was
reported that about 120,000 tons wheat germ were produced from wheat milling. This quantity can yield about
12,000 ton wheat germ oil annually. Unfortunately, the whole quantity of the germ produced is currently utilized
in the production of animal fodder [5]. It is advisable therefore that this by-product would be rather utilized for
oil production.
In recent years, there is a growing interest to identify antioxidative properties in many natural sources due to
the potential health hazards of some synthetic antioxidants. Defatted wheat germ (DWG), the main by-product
in the wheat germ oil extraction process, has relatively high protein content (30%) and contains many other nu-
tritional ingredients, such as carbohydrates, pigments, minerals, and B vitamins [4]. However, few systematic
studies have been found on DWG antioxidants. Furthermore, the phenolics in DWG have been less treated in
terms of their contents and contribution to the overall antioxidant activities of DWG. As a matter of fact, due to
the complex nature of phytochemicals, their antioxidant activity should be evaluated using several commonly
accepted assays.
The research area of food technology still faces great challenges in finding alternative ways of adding value to
produced foodstuffs and, moreover, in maintaining their quality and safety. Therefore, in this paper, effort has
been made to analyze oil recovery, physico-chemical properties, and fatty acid composition of wheat germ. In
addition, defatted wheat germ extracts (DWGE) were obtained using hexane as a solvent, and determined for its
antioxidant activity by in vitro methods, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay,
Rancimat method, and 2, 2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging assay. We
measured the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus
aureus), and Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli).
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Plant Material and Reagents
Wheat (Triricum aestivum) germ purchased from Middle Egypt Flour Mills Company, Fayoum Governorate,
Egypt, was carefully cleaned to remove contaminates. The germ collected was stored in an airtight container in a
freezer (20˚C) until it was further used for different experiments. Standards used for fatty acids and 2,
2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid) (ABTS) were purchased from Sigma (St Louis, MO, Ger-
many). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), was obtained from Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland). Reagents and
chemicals used were of the highest purity available.
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
2.2. Proximate Analyses of Wheat Germ
The major chemical constituent, moisture, ash, crude fat, crude fiber, and crude protein were determined in trip-
licate according to AOAC standard methods [6]. Carbohydrate content was calculated by difference as the sum
of the moisture, fat, protein, fiber, and ash contents were subtracted from 100 as outlined in AOAC [6]. The
food energy value of the seeds was obtained by multiplying the mean value of the protein, fat, and carbohydrate
by Atwater factors of 4, 9, and 4, respectively, and expressing the sum of the products in kilocalories.
2.3. Oil Extraction
About 250 grams of wheat germ were ground in a blender and the oil was extracted by four successive extrac-
tions with purified n-hexane (1:3 w/v) at room temperature. The miscella was separated from the cake by filtra-
tion with Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The filtrate miscella, were combined and n-hexane was removed under
vacuum, at 50˚C, in a rotary evaporator. The obtained oil was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate then, di-
rectly analyzed.
2.4. Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Germ Oil
2.4.1. Physical Constants
The refractive index of extracted oil was measured according to AOAC [6] using Abbe refractometer at 25˚C.
The method described by Lee et al. [7] was applied for determination of color; the absorbance of 5% (w/v) solu-
tions of oil in chloroform was measured at 420 nm using a spectronic 20spectrophotometer (Bauch & Lamb).
2.4.2. Chemical Constants
The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, acid value, and peroxide value were determined
according to standard IUPAC methods for the analysis of oils and fats [8]. The ester value was obtained by sub-
tracting the acid value from the saponification value. All experiments were conducted in triplicate.
2.5. Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition of Wheat Germ Oil
2.5.1. Preparation of Methyl Esters
Methyl esters of fatty acids were prepared in accordance to the method of Morrison and Smith [9] with some
modification. For sample 100 mg adding 1 mL BF3/methanol (14%) and 1 ml hexane. The tube is vortexed and
placed under nitrogen for 60 min at 100˚C. Esters of fatty acids were then extracted by adding 1 ml of hexane
and washing with 2 ml of distilled water. After the centrifugation step (4500 rpm, 10 min, 20˚C), the supernatant
is recovered in vials and then injected into the GC column.
2.5.2. Chromatographic Analysis of the Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
Methyl esters were analyzed by GC-type CG-2010 Plus, Shimadzu, equipped with a flame ionization detector
and a capillary column of 60 m length, 0.25 mm internal diameter, the thickness of the film is 0.20 microns. The
oven temperature is 200˚C. The detector and the injector are at a temperature of 250˚C. The samples were sepa-
rated on the column using helium as the carrier gas with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The sample is injected in split
mode. The temperature program used in the analysis is to keep the unit at 120˚C for 2 min and then climb to
180˚C for 2 min and keep the sample at 220˚C for 25 min. The peak integration is done on the software GC, GC
solution (Shimadzu). Peak identification of fatty acids on the chromatogram is made using standard fatty acids
(Restek, Food industry FAME Mixmethylene chloride 30 mg/mL).
2.6. Antioxidant Activity
The antioxidant properties of defatted wheat germ extract was evaluated according to the DPPH radical sca-
venging activity, Rancimat method, and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays.
2.6.1. Determination of DPPH Radical Scavenging Capacity
The antioxidant activity was determined by radical scavenging ability using stable DPPHradical as described
by Akowuah et al. [10], which measures the ability of antioxidants to quench a DPPH stable radical. Briefly,
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
200 μL of methanolic solution of tested sample at different concentration was added to 2 mL of methanolic so-
lution of DPPH radical (0.1 mM) and the total volume was made up to 3 mL with methanol. After 60 min of
incubation at 30˚C in the dark, the absorbance of the mixture was measured at 517 nm against methanol as blank
in an UV spectrophotometer. The free radical scavenging activity of the tested samples was evaluated by com-
parison with a control (2 mL of DPPH radical solution and 1 mL of methanol). Each sample was measured in
triplicate, and an average value was calculated. Antioxidant activity was expressed as a percentage of DPPH
radical scavenging activity compared to control. Scavenging activity was calculated as follows:
( )
( )
Control Sample Control
DPPH radical-scavenging activity % A A A 100
where A is the absorbance at 517 nm.
2.6.2. ABTS Radical Scavenging Assay
The method was described by Re et al. [11]. ABTS+• was dissolved in water to a 7 mM concentration. ABTS+•
radical cation was produced by reacting ABTS stock solution with 2.45 mM potassium per sulphate (final con-
centration) and allowing the mixture to stand in the dark at room temperature for 12 - 16 h before use. Because
ABTS+• and potassium per sulphate react stoichiometrically at a ratio of 1:0.5, this will result in incomplete
oxidation of the ABTS+•. Oxidation of the ABTS+• commenced immediately, but the absorbance was not maxi-
mal and stable until more than 6 h had elapsed. The radical was stable in this form for more than two days when
stored in the dark at room temperature. For the study of the antioxidant activity, the ABTS+• solution was diluted
with ethanol to an absorbance of 0.7 at 734 nm and equilibrated at 30˚C. All determinations were carried out at
least three times, and in triplicate, on each occasion and at each separate concentration of samples. Scavenging
activity was calculated as follows:
( )
( )
Control Sample Control
ABTS radical-scavenging activity % Abs Abs Abs 100
where AbsControl is the absorbance of ABTS radical + methanol and AbsSample is the absorbance of ABTS radical
+ extract.
2.6.3. Rancimat Method
Measurement of the antioxidant potency in a food matrix (oil) was performed using the well-established Ranci-
mat method [12]. The Rancimat apparatus was operated at 120˚C. A dry air flow of 20 l/h was passed through
the oil sample (5 ± 0.001 g) containing the antioxidant. The volatile oxidation products coming from the oxida-
tion of the oil dissolved in cold milli-Q water (60 ml), causing an increase in the electrical conductivity. All tests
were performed in triplicate. The time (in h) taken to reach a specific conductivity value, corresponding to the
flex point of the peroxidation curve, was considered as the induction time (IT). The higher the induction time the
higher the antioxidant potency of the compounds.
2.7. Microorganisms and Culture Conditions
The following strains and incubation conditions were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of defatted wheat
germ: four food borne pathogens, Escherichia coli CIP 54.8 (E. coli) and Salmonella enterica CIP 81.32 (S. en-
terica) as model Gram-negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus CIP 76.25 (S. aureus) and Listeria mono-
cytogenes CIP 82.110 (L. monocytogenes) as model Gram-positive bacteria, were obtained from public collec-
tion (Collection de lInstitut Pasteur (CIP), Paris, France). These strains were propagated overnight at 37˚C in
Mueller-Hinton broth (MH). The cultures obtained were diluted with Mueller-Hinton broth (MH) to obtain a fi-
nal absorbance (OD630) of 0.1 corresponding to ~108 (CFU/ml). This concentration was used for antibacterial
activity experimentations.
2.8. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity
Bacterial Growth Inhibition
Bacterial growth inhibition was determined using, flat-bottomed 96-well microplate. Microplate was filled with
90 µl of diluted bacterial strains, with the exception of the first row of wells, which were filled with 90 µl of
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
broth medium, corresponding to the blank. Then, 10 µl of each sample concentration (50% initial ethanol con-
centration) was added in all microplate wells to have final concentration of 0.1 - 10 mg/ml. Two controls were
used in two columns of the microplate which contain 90 µl of diluted bacterial strains: one with 10 µl of sterile
distilled water (positive control) and another with 10 µl of ethanol (50%) (negative control).
After that, the microplate was homogenized by constant shaking for 5 minutes. Bacterial growth was deter-
mined by optical density at 630 nm of each well on a microplate reader (multiscan GO W382TA, Thermo Sci-
entific MIB, France). After absorbance determination at 630 nm for T0, the microplates were incubated, without
shaking, at 37˚C for 16 - 18 h. Tests were carried out in duplicate. The antibacterial activity of compounds tested
was reported as inhibition percentage (%) by the following equation according to method [13]:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Sample Sample Blank Blank
Growth Growth Blank Blank
% Inhibition 1 100
where T0Sample and TFSample corresponded to the absorbance at 630 nm of the strain growth in the presence of the
tested compounds before (T0) and after (TF) incubation, respectively; T0Blank and TFBlank corresponded to the
Mueller-Hinton broth medium with solvent before and after incubation, respectively; and T0Growth and TFGrowth to
the strain growth in the presence of the sterile distilled water (positive control) before and after incubation, re-
3. Results and Discussions
3.1. Proximate Composition of Wheat Germ
Wheat germ, a nutritious by-product of the flour milling industry constituting 2.5 - 3.0 g/100g of the grain can
be separated in a fairly pure form by using a germ separator or by suitable adjustments in milling techniques.
The results of the proximate chemical analysis (Table 1) indicated that raw wheat germ sample had 12.63
g/100g moisture, 27.69 g/100g crude protein, 3.08 g/100g ash, and 1.54 g/100g crude fiber. The total carbohy-
drate by difference was found to be 46.07 g/100g, whereas the total lipids content of wheat germ was 9 g/100g.
Previous studies reported higher values of ash content for wheat germ (18.01 g/100g FW) [2].
The crude fat content of wheat germ used in this study was 8.99 g/100g, and this agrees with the 7% - 10%
results reported by some researchers [2] [14]. The oil yield from wheat germ obtained in this study was lower
than that of safflower oil (32%), rapeseed (39%), soybean oil (20%) and linseed oil (34%), both produced on
commercial scale [15]. The defatted residues consequently became more replete with carbohydrates which could
be processed further into livestock feeds, syrups, and other forms for diverse purposes, thus suggesting solvent
extraction as the most acceptable and economical method of oil extraction relative to those enumerated.
The crude protein content of wheat germ is comparable to those reported for some conventional oilseeds like
safflower seed (29.3%), sunflower (19.5%), and peanut (30.3%). The protein compares favourably with the
value of 9.8% reported for wheat flour [16], 6.34% reported for jackfruit seed flour [17]. Wheat germ could
therefore serve as alternative source of protein and oil for man.
Wheat germ was also found to be a rich source of carbohydrates (46.07 g/100g). Thus being an excellent
source of energy (375 kcal/100g). The low moisture content 12.63 of wheat germ remains an asset in storage
and preservation of the nutrients. The germ could therefore serve as a cheap source of raw material for the food
and oleochemical industries, and would also yield stable oil for diverse purposes and applications including
shampoos, soaps, and by-products, margarine and salad and cooking oils. Therefore, wheat germ, with its inher-
ent nutritional, could serve as good alternative to imported vegetable oils in food products.
Table 1. Chemical composition of wheat germ.
Parameter (%) Moisture Ash Crude fat Crude protein Crude fiber Carbohydrate* Food energy value
Wet weight 12.63 ± 0.19 3.08 ± 0.18 8.99 ± 0.32 27.69 ± 0.44 1.54 ± 0.18 46.07 375.95
Dry weight 0.0 3.53 10.29 31.69 1.76 52.73 430.30
Data are mean ± SD of three replicates. *By difference.
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
3.2. Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Germ Oil
Preliminary characterization of wheat germ oil was carried out by collecting data (Table 2) on some bulk phys-
icochemical properties of the oil. Refractive index is the degree of the deflection of a beam light that occurs
when it passes from one medium to the other. Refractive index generally shed light on structural properties such
as average molecular mass and degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids in oils and fats. Refractive index of
wheat germ oil was found to be 1.4728. This value indicates the presence of long chain unsaturated fatty acids in
germ oil.
The saponification value (SV) of 191.22, mg KOH/g for wheat germ oil also pointed in the direction of pres-
ence of long chain unsaturated fatty acids in germ oil. The high saponification value of this oil suggested its po-
tential use in liquid soap and shampoo production [18]. Unsaponifiable matter (USM) consists of minor compo-
nents accompanying triacylglycerols (sterols, tocopherols, lipopigments and hydrocarbons) and makes up 0.5% -
2.5%, exceptionally 5% - 6% of vegetable oils. The oil showed a high content of the unsaponifiable matter
(4.69%) i.e., the phytosterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Therefore, the addition of USM isolated from wheat
germ oil can be proved to retard oxidation in vegetable oils and model lipids subjected to heating. The antioxi-
dant activity of tocopherols is well documented. Other unsaponifiable components including sterols, carotenoids
and squalene may protect the unsaturated fatty acids from being rancid as well [19].
Iodine value measures the unsaturation content in the oil sample. A higher iodine value indicates a higher de-
gree of unsaturation and consequently higher refractive indices. For this study, the oil showed a high iodine
value 115.47 (g I2100 g1 oil) due to its high unsaturated fatty acid content such as oleic and linoleic acid
(Table 3). Its iodine value places it in the semi-drying oil group. This iodine value suggests its use in production
of alkyd resin, shoe polish, and varnishes.
Formerly it was believed that wheat germ oil had poor keeping qualities. Jamieson and Baughman [20] re-
ported that a sample of the oil which at first contained 5.65% of free fatty acids after a year’s storage had 43.8%.
Later investigators have found that, contrary to former reports, the oil has excellent keeping qualities as shown
by the slight increase in the quantity of free fatty acids, even when the oil is held from one to three years after its
extraction. These differences in free fatty acids can be related with the wild origin, maturation stage of germ and
different storage condition. The wheat germ used in this investigation was several weeks old before the extrac-
tion of the oils. Both acid value and peroxide value were high in wheat germ oil (Table 2). Acid value is a
measure of the degree of lipid hydrolysis and separation of fatty acids from glycerol while peroxide value is a
measure of lipid oxidation. Wheat germ, from which the oil was extracted, had been on the shelf for a long time
according to the production date and oil deterioration is quite possible. In addition, wheat germ oil is generally
characterized by higher free fatty acids [21].
Table 2. Physico-chemical characteristics of wheat germ oila.
Parameter Value
Refractive index 1.4728 ± 0.17
Color (as absorbance at 420 nm) 1.35 ± 0.22
Specific gravity 0.9257 ± 0.44
Acid value (mg/g oil) 13.88 ± 0.33
Acidity (as % oleic acid) 8.33 ± 0.19
Saponification value (mg/g oil) 191.22 ± 0.15
Ester value (mg/g oil) 177.34 ± 0.18
Iodine value (g I2/100g of oil) 115.47 ± 0.22
Peroxide value (meq O2/kg oil) 16.35 ± 0.13
Unsaponifable matter (%) 4.69 ± 0.33
aData are mean ± SD of three replicates.
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
Table 3. Fatty acid composition of wheat germ oila.
Fatty acid Concentration (%)
C14 myristic 0.13 ± 0.23
C15 pentadecanoic 0.16 ± 0.45
C16 palmitic 17.42 ± 0.18
C16:1 palmitoleic 0.23 ± 0.22
C18:1n-9t eliadic 0.85 ± 0.11
C18:1n-9c cis oleic 16.14 ± 0.16
C18:2n-6t trans linoleic 0.71 ± 0.10
C18:2n-6c cis linoleic 55.05 ± 0.15
C18:3n-3 linolenic 7.95 ± 0.44
C21 heneicosylic 1.36 ± 0.25
Total saturated 19.07
Total unsaturated 80.93
∑MUFA 17.22
∑PUFA 63.71
n6/n3 6.92
pufa/sfa 3.34
sfa/pufa 0.30
oleic/linoleic 0.29
S/U 0.24
aMean values ± standard deviation of triplicate determinations are reported. Results are ex-
pressed as percentage of the total fatty acids.
3.3. Fatty Acid Composition of Wheat Germ Oil
Physiological and biological characteristics of oils are influenced by the kinds and proportions of the fatty acid
components and their position on the glycerol radical, thus the stereospecific analysis of fatty acids in the tria-
cylglycerol was considered important for use of the lipid for both dietary and industrial purposes [22]. In profil-
ing the principal components carried out the determination of the FA compositions of the test seed oil by GC.
A striking feature of wheat germ lipids was the relatively high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA),
especially linoleic fatty acid which was estimated at higher levels (55%) (Table 3).
Linoleic acid, the essential fatty acid, is one of the most important polyunsaturated fatty acids in human food
because of its prevention of cardiovascular heart disease (CHD). With regard to the issue of fatty acids, our data
are in accord with those of Ramadan et al. [14] which show that the proportion of linoleic followed by oleic and
palmitic as the major fatty acids, which together comprise more than 92 g/100g of the total identified.
The fatty acid compositions of wheat germ oil, compare favourably with those reported for some conventional
oilseeds like soybean (C18:1, 25%, C18:2, 51%, C18:3, 9%), and sunflower (C18:1, 17%, C18:2, 72%) [23].
The oleic acid content of wheat germ oil is close to that of most other vegetable oils, such as sunflower oil
(23.6%), soybean oil (24.9%), or corn oil (23.8%), and can thus serve as a substitute for these oils especially in
times of scarcity.
From the analysis of the summation of FAs, it can be seen that the MUFAs (16:1, 18:1n-9t, and 18:1n-9c) to-
taled 17.22% of the total fatty acids present in the sample, 18:1n-9c being responsible for almost all of this total.
These results are considered very advantageous for health as this class of fatty acids is responsible for reducing
LDL and total cholesterol, thereby preventing heart attacks, thrombosis and activates blood content of soluble
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
glucose; thus its digestion is recommended.
The linoleic fatty acids (belonging to the omega-6) and α-linolenic fatty acids (belonging to the omega-3) are
considered essential, as they cannot be synthesized by mammals and must be obtained from food. ω-6 and ω-3
fatty acids are required for the normal growth, health and development of body [24]. According to Ribarova et
al. [25], polyunsaturated fatty acids must make up 10% of the total energy ingested for an adequate diet as far
the correct ingestion of lipids is concerned. Furthermore, omega-3 family of fatty acids may have a positive ef-
fect in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia [26]. The consumption of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid) is com-
monly thought to be capable of reducing LDL and total cholesterol. The presence of this polyunsaturated fatty
acid in the germ oil is expected to impart semi-drying property and can be used in surface coating industries.
Several scientific studies have shown that n3 fatty acids have benefits for lowering CHD risk. It has been also
suggested that n3/n6 ratio of 10 or less results in a reduction in fatal CHD risk [27]. Wheat germ oil also has
very high unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid content and an excellent n3/n6 fatty acid ratio (1/7). The
SFAs found in the sample were 14:0, 15:0, 16:0, and 21:0, and their summation was 19.07%. The ratio of satu-
rated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids (S:U), a commonly used criteria to describe the nutritional value of fat,
was low for wheat germ oil (0.24), indicating its potential as an alternative edible oil feed source.
Since oils rich in PUFA and minor components are required for the normal physiological activities, blending
germ oil with other edible oils of the diet in wheat growing countries may be useful to provide health benefits.
3.4. Antioxidant Activity
Autoxidation is a complex process, but model studies have revealed that the rate of autoxidation is affected by
fatty acid composition, degree of unsaturation, the presence and activity of pro- and antioxidants, partial pres-
sure of oxygen, the surface exposed to oxygen (dispersed systems) and storage conditions. Antioxidants inacti-
vate reactive radicals at the initial steps of autoxidation, thus avoiding the propagation of the radical chain reac-
tion. Radical scavengers have attracted special interest in nutrition and medicine, because they may protect hu-
man cells from free radicals, thereby preventing diseases, including cancer [14]. Natural antioxidant activity de-
pends on various parameters, such as the reaction mechanism, the isolation procedures, purity of active com-
pounds, as well as the test system and substrate to be protected by the antioxidant. The antioxidant properties of
DWG extract cannot be evaluated by just one method due to the chemical nature of the extracts constituents.
The use of several methods is recommended to assess and compare the antioxidant capacity of a sample. Here
we applied assays of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and Rancimat
3.4.1. Scavenging of DPPH Radicals
DPPH is a stable organic free radical that is dissolved in methanol and its purple colour shows maximum ab-
sorbance at 517 nm. When DPPH radicals encounter a proton-donating substance such as an antioxidant, the
radicals would be scavenged and the colour from the DPPH assay solution becomes light yellow resulting in a
decrease in absorbance. It can accommodate many samples in a short period and is sensitive enough to detect ac-
tive ingredients at low concentrations [28]. Thus, the DPPH radicals have been widely used to determine the free
radical scavenging ability of various samples. In this assay, results are expressed as the ratio percentage of the
absorbance decrease of DPPH radical solution in the presence of extract at 517 nm to the absorbance of DPPH
radical solution at the same wavelength. Figure 1 shows the results of scavenging DPPH radical ability of DWG
at various concentrations and compared with those of BHA and BHT. DWG showed DPPH scavenging activi-
ties in a concentration dependent manner. The antioxidative activity of DWG was close to that of synthetic anti-
oxidants BHA and BHT. A similar trend was observed in a study of the antioxidant activity of the field horsetail
(tsukushi) Equisetum arvense L. extracts [19]. The EC50 (meaning the concentration that causes a decrease in the
initial DPPH concentration by 50%) is a parameter widely used to measure the antiradical efficiency, which was
obtained by interpolation from linear regression analysis. A lower EC50 value is associated with a higher radical
scavenging activity. The result showed that DWG is a free radical inhibitor, as well as a primary antioxidant that
reacts with free radicals, which may limit the occurrence of free radical damage in human body.
3.4.2. ABTS Radical Scavenging Activity
The antioxidant potential of a compound is different according to different antioxidant assays since the interac-
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
Figure 1. Scavenging activity of defatted wheat germ extract against DPPH radical at
different concentrations. Data are mean ± SD of three determinations.
tion of the antioxidant with other compounds plays an important role in the activity. Dramatic differences in the
relative antioxidant potential of model compounds were observed when one model compound is strongly anti-
oxidant with one method and prooxidant with another [28]. The ABTS radical cation decolourisation test is an-
other method widely used to assess antioxidant activity. The original ABTS assay was based on the activation of
metmyoglobin by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ABTS. Reduction in colour indicates reduction of ABTS
radical. The ABTS radical cation is more reactive than the DPPH radical, and reaction of the ABTS radical
cation with an antioxidant is taken as complete within 1 min. As shown in Figure 2, DWG extract reduced the
absorbance at 734 nm, and the concentration of the extract was directly proportional to the reduction. DWG ex-
tract had comparable scavenging ability to the synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT. Scavenging of the ABTS+
radical by the extract was found to be higher than that of DPPH radical.
Factors such as stereoselectivity of the radicals and the solubility of extracts in different test systems have
been reported to affect the capacity of extracts to react with and quench different radicals [29]. Wang et al. [30]
found that some compounds possessing ABTS+-scavenging activity did not show DPPH-scavenging activity.
This was not the case in the present study. From a mechanistic standpoint, the DPPH radical scavenging assay
could reflect the capacity of the extract transferring electrons or hydrogen atoms, while the ABTS radical scav-
enging activity could reflect the hydrogen donating and the chain-breaking capacity of the extract [19].
3.4.3. Rancimat Method
The oxidative stability of oils are affected by many factors, including fatty acid composition, concentration and
stability of antioxidants in the oil, and the presence of prooxidant compounds, such as free fatty acids, lipid per-
oxides, or prooxidant metals. The Rancimat method is an accelerated aging test (taking several hours to a day,
depending on the oil and test temperature) used to establish the relative oxidative stability of oils, as measured
by the induction time (called the oxidative stability index, OSI) for an oil to begin oxidizing under controlled
temperature and air flow conditions. Rancimat results, due to the formation of secondary reaction products,
showed a pattern in good agreement with that of ABTS and DPPH methods. As can be seen in Figure 3, stabili-
zation factor of DWG extract was (2.1). Considering the results of all three assays, it may be anticipated that the
extract of defatted wheat germ has antioxidant activity.
3.5. Antibacterial Activity
The antibacterial ability of defatted wheat germ was evaluated as natural antibacterial agents against certain bac-
teria known to cause infection in humans. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are of the major causes of
hospital-acquired infections [31]. These organisms occur naturally in and on human body. The antibacterial ac-
tivity of DWG extract at different concentrations in vitro test against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus
aureus, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli bacteria were showed in Figure 4. The extract evidenced an-
tibacterial activity, and showed different bacterial growth inhibition for each microorganism. According to the
% Inhibition
Concentration µg/mL
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
Figure 2. Scavenging activity of defatted wheat germ extract against ABTS radical at
different concentrations. Data are mean ± SD of three determinations.
Figure 3. Oxidative stability of defatted wheat germ extract by Rancimat method.
Data are mean ± SD of three determinations.
Figure 4. Antibacterial activity of defatted wheat germ extract against the bacterial
strains pathogens tested. Values are mean ± standard deviation (n = 3).
% Inhibition
Concentration µg/mL
DWG, 2.1 BHA, 2.4 BHT, 2.3
Stabilization factor
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 .8 1 1 .2 1.4 1.6
Bacterial growth inhibition (%)
Concentration µg/mL
S. aureus
L. monocytogenes
S. enterica
E. coli
A. A. Mahmoud et al.
results obtained, all the Gram-positive bacteria tested were highly sensitive to a lower concentration of DWG
especially against L. monocytogenes. Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, S. enterica) were also sensitive for DWG
extract. However, it was found that the highest dose (1.5 mg/mL) of DWG was needed to inhibit the growth of
S. enteric only about 70%. In addition, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were the most sensitive strains, followed
by E. coli, and S. enterica.
In the present work, we could verify that the Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to DWG than the
Gram-negative bacteria. The most plausible explanation for the lack of sensitivity shown by Gram-negative bac-
teria could be attributed to their outer membrane that inhibits and/or retards the penetration of DWG at lower
concentrations, but this effect is as yet not fully explained. Another possible reason might be the presence of
multidrug resistance pumps (MDRs), which extrude amphipathic toxins across the outer membrane. In addition,
this bacterial group has a higher lipid amount than that observed in Gram-positive.
On the basis of the results it is possible that defatted wheat germ extract could be of value as easily accessible
source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial as a food supplement or in the pharmaceutical industry.
4. Conclusions
The basic chemical composition analyses of wheat germ sample put in evidence the high values of dry matter,
considerable amounts of total protein and fat contents and low ash content. In addition, ten different individual
fatty acids were identified, with 18:2n-6 linoleic predominating in the studied sample by GC. The oil showed a
high content of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid, saponification and unsaponifiable matter, suggesting that
this oil might be used as cosmeceutical agent, and for making skin creams and lotions, soap, hair shampoo and a
source of minor components in our daily food menu to promote good health. Soybean oil is the most common
feedstock for biodiesel, but this study indicates that from the standpoint of fatty acid composition and oxidative
stability, oil extracted from wheat germ will be an economical alternative. Considering that over 120,000 tons
WG with roughly 10% oil are produced from wheat milling each year, enough oil can be recovered to decrease
the high demand for conventional vegetable oils and therefore decrease their prices. In this study, DWGE exhib-
its antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, and oxidative stabil-
ity in Rancimat method. It is also notable that this product is a potential source of antibacterial agents that act
mainly on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Thus, it can be an efficient protective agent for use as an-
tioxidant and antibacterial additives in food systems.
Overall, these results show that these by-products can be used as a rich source of bioactive compounds of
beneficial effects on health as well as increasing the competitiveness of the company that generates theses resi-
dues economically profitable.
Our gratitude is extended to Dr. Mohamed H. Roby from Fayoum University, Faculty of Agriculture, Food Sci-
ence and Technology, Egypt, for helpful revision.
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... It is a miraculous by-product and has different applications like biological and pharmaceutical purposes and also as food. It is also used in snack foods, enriched germ bread, and in breakfast cereals for enrichment purposes (Ghafoor et al., 2017;Mahmoud et al., 2015). Naturally, there is a distinct line between the germ and endosperm that makes the separation of germ from grain easy. ...
... It contains almost 8-14% oil and is used in different industries like food, cosmetics, and medical as an oil source. The fatty acid composition of wheat germ in another study was found to be palmitic acid (17.42%), myristic acid (0.13%), pentadecanoic acid (0.16%), palmitoleic acid (0.23%), and oleic acid (0.29%), with total saturated fatty acids (19.07%), total un-saturated fatty acids (80.93%), total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (17.22%), and total poly-unsaturated fatty acids (63.71%) (Mahmoud et al., 2015). Similarly, in another study, the lipid composition of wheat bran oil was calculated. ...
... Phenolic acids may occur in the free form, but are mostly glycoylated with different sugars, especially glucose [7]. In this concern, Vichapong et al. [8], Zilic et al. [9] and Mahmoud et al. [10] reported that wheat bran, wheat germ and rice bran are a source of phytonutrients with potential health benefits, but the nutritional properties will only be fully exploited if whole-meal products are available. Potentially health beneficial compounds such as phenolics, carotenoids and tocopherols are concentrated in the bran layers and germ. ...
... ABTS radical scavenging activity [51]. Mahmoud et al. [10] mentioned that 1 µg/ml of wheat germ extract had ability to scavenging 70% from the ABTS •+ radicals. ...
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In this study, nano and fermented-nano powders of wheat and rice by-products were prepared by superfine grinding of raw and solid-state fermented materials. Effects of fermentation and superfine grinding on phytochemical content, phenolic acids profile as well as antioxidant and anticancer activity were investigated. The results revealed that, phenolic contents of fermented-nano wheat bran (FNWB), fermented-nano wheat germ (FNWG) and fermented-nano rice bran (FNRB) increased by 40.5, 59.2 and 27.9%, respectively compared to their raw samples. The free, conjugated and bound forms of most identified phenolic acids apparently increased. Also, the antioxidant activity of nano and fermented-nano forms significantly increased compared to its raw materials. The anticancer activity of nano and fermented-nano materials against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116) increased compared to its raw materials. Nano rice bran (NRB) extract was the most effective one with IC 50 value of 4.10 mg/mL under the investigated condition. The obtained results indicated that superfine grinding and solid-state fermentation could change the rigid microstructure and liberate bioactive compounds, which enhanced their bio-accessibility and bioavailability to improve bran functionality and usability.
... It is mostly composed of 75-80% carbohydrates, 9-18% protein, fiber, several vitamins (particularly B vitamins), calcium, iron, and a variety of macro-and micro-nutrients [23]. Also, the germ part is composed of almost 50%g/100 g dry matter total carbohydrates and various micronutrients such as phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2) and pyridoxine (B6) [4,8,35]. Moreover, the outer layer of the seed (bran) contains 67.5%g/100 g dry matter carbohydrates and 48.2%g/100 g dry matter [45]. ...
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Wheat is considered as the most important cereal grain globally. It has a vast economic importance as it is used in producing bread, pastries, and household flour and serving as food for livestock among other uses. Different biological activities of wheat were correlated with the presence of polyphenols due to their antioxidant activities and other preventative capabilities. Wheat can also be used as an antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiaging agent. Omics has established itself during the past 20 years as a crucial tool for comprehending the internal systems of various plant systems including wheat using LC–MS, GC–MS, and UV spectrophotometry as analytical techniques. The current review represents in depth search regarding wheat cultivation, botanical description, economic significance, quantitative phytochemical characterization, and biological importance. Additionally, a critical assessment of the cited omics research on wheat was conducted with an emphasis on the analytical instrument, methods of analysis and results interpretation.
... The review finally concludes and gives recommendations and biofuels production prospects for second-generation lipid-based biomasses in Ghana ( Figure 1). like nutraceuticals, as well as industrial polymers feedstock and several other products from industrial [24] . As a result, worldwide demand for edible oils is likely to continue to rise year after year, putting downward pressure on oil prices. ...
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Ghana is a country rich in natural resources, including biodiversity and large water bodies, but it is also plagued by food and energy shortages. Fuel prices are also increasing. Biodiesel made from lipids will attract increasing attention as researchers and experts look for a solution. However, the obvious cheapest option of edible feedstock will be insufficient to meet rising energy and food demand, necessitating the need for a guaranteed feedstock. As a result, this research was conducted to identify lipid-based biomass feedstocks that would be ideal for biodiesel production in Ghana. This research seeks to give current information on the biofuel feedstock currently existing (mostly biodiesel) synthesis from lipid-based biomasses in Ghana. Edible plant oils were the first generation of lipid-based feedstocks, whereas alternative types of feedstocks were identified and reported as the second generation. Non-edible oils, like Jatropha oil, Neem oil, Karanja oil, Nagchampa oil, Calophyllum inophyllum oil, Mahua indica oil, Rubber seed oil, and other non-edible feedstocks are used to make second-generation biodiesels. Vegetable oil waste, industrial wastes and by-products, animal fats, and lipid-derived from microorganisms and insects are also among the 2nd generation feedstocks discussed in this paper. The advantages of 2nd generation feedstocks are the low-cost, high-yielding, and the fact that they do not economically or ethically compete with edible oils (food crops). Nevertheless, all 2nd generation feedstocks are often free fatty acids and having high moisture, which have a significant detrimental impact on the conventional biodiesel synthesis process. As a result, this article contains basic information on processing procedures that can handle 2nd generation feedstocks.
... Wheat germ oil (WGO) is produced from the wheat germ by a milling process, and the wheat endosperm contains approximately 10% oil. WGO has broad applications in the food industry as well as in the cosmetic industry [4,5]. WGO is believed to have medical value, and the protein content of WGO has been reported to be a rich source of amino acids such as methionine, threonine, and lysine [6]. ...
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Wheat germ oil (WGO) is the richest source of unexplored antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. In this study, we identified the constituents of WGO by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The physicochemical and pharmacokinetic behaviors were evaluated for the top 12 constituents with the common target FABP4. Three fatty acids with significant anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated for their interaction with FABP4 by molecular docking. The molecular mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory responses were analyzed by various in- silico analytical tools and multidimensional data analysis. WGO showed anti-inflammatory activities via FABP4 interacting physically with target genes (77.84%) and by co-expressing with 8.01% genes. Primary targets for inflammatory pathways were PPARα, PPARγ, LPL, LEP, and ADIPOQ, as depicted by gene network enrichment analysis. The key pathways implicated were the metabolism of lipids, PPAR signaling, cellular response to alcohol, oxygen and nitrogen pathway, inflammatory response pathway, and regulation of the inflammatory pathway. The common transcription factors implicated were HNF1, AP2α, CEBP, FOX, STATS, MYC, Zic, etc. In this study, we found that WGO possesses anti-inflammatory potential via FABP4 binding to PPARα, PPARγ, LPL, LEP, and ADIPOQ gene expression by regulatory transcription factors HNF, AP2α, and CEPB.
... m (Vitaglione et al., 2008). k (Mahmoud et al., 2015). They can thus affect various quality characteristics of the final product, especially in baked products. ...
Over the past decades, adding dietary fibers (DF) to the human diet has gained interest due to their evident health effects. It led to more extensive studies for finding their purpose and exploring the utilization of some specific agro-processing wastes as their sustainable sources. Wheat bran (WB) is one of the popular sources available in huge quantity, generated during the wheat milling process as a co-product. It contains a good proportion of healthy DF, as claimed, and so several researchers are working to explore its potential as a prospective food ingredient. However, despite being a rich source of DF, its food applications are limited owing to poor textural and functional properties. Lower bioavailability, instability, and losses of available nutrients and bioactives during different processing conditions are severe points of concern. However, there are some technical developments to limit these negative effects and increase the usability of WB as an important ingredient in different food products. This review explores and highlights the dietary role of fiber, opportunities and challenges in valorizing WB as a sustainable DF source, health benefits, including gut health, and their food applications. Moreover, physical, chemical, and biological modifications, including novel treatments, have been critically discussed. The future scope for developing functional food products based on modified WB-DF using current technologies and processes has been compiled in this review.
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The effect of replacing (5, 10, and 15%) wheat middlings in the feed of broiler chickens (EX5, EX10, EX15) with wheat germ expeller (WGE) on their parameters of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism was examined. Thirty-two randomly chosen broilers on day 43 were slaughtered, and their blood and liver were sampled. The concentration of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and protein and their fractions were tested in the blood serum. In livers, total protein and fat contents were analyzed. It has been found that replacing wheat middlings with 10% and 15% of expeller results in (p ≤ 0.05) a lower final body weight than CT. A higher feed, fat, protein, and methionine intake was noted in groups EX5-EX15 compared to CT. No alterations were found in the protein and fat content in the livers and the blood lipid profile of chickens. Changes in the protein metabolism of broilers indicate the need to research. WGE does not interfere with the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. However, WGE did not contribute to obtaining production benefits.
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Ekstrüzyon teknolojisi gıda sanayiinde kullanılan ve önemli avantajlara sahip olan bir gıda işleme tekniğidir. Ekstrüzyon yoluyla gıda üretiminde, hammadde özellikleri (nişasta tipi ve içeriği, protein içeriği, yağ içeriği vb)ve proses parametreleri (tek/çift vida, vida hızı, vida konfigürasyonu, besleme oranı, besleme nem içeriği vb) son ürünün duyusal (renk, tat, koku, tekstür vb) ve besleyicilik özellikleri üzerinde belirleyici olmaktadır.Buğday öğütme yan ürünleri olan kepek, ruşeym ve bonkalite un, ana ürün olan beyaz unile kıyaslandığında besleyicilik ve fonksiyonel özellikler bakımından daha üstündür. Türkiye’de yıllık 3-5 milyon ton civarında buğday öğütme yan ürünü ortaya çıktığı tahmin edilmekte olup ağırlıklı olarak yem sanayinde kullanılmaktadır.Ancak son yıllarda ekstrüzyon gibi farklı gıda işleme teknikleri sayesinde yan ürünlerin gıdalarda kullanım olanakları artmaktadır. Bu çalışmada ekstrüzyon teknolojisi ve buğday öğütme yan ürünlerinin ekstrüde gıda üretiminde kullanımı değerlendirilmiştir.
Background Wheat germ, a major by-product of the milling industry provides concentrated nutrients of high biological valuable components (essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, minerals, vitamins B and E, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids and phytosterols), though exhibiting an unstable nature. The severe activity of endogenous lipase and lipoxygenase is associated with rancidity and shelf-life deficiency and limited the optimal use of it. At present, a large amount of wheat germ throughout the world are used just as animal feed. Scope and approach Applying the appropriate stabilization technique for reducing the activity of destructive enzymes is essential to the full valorization of this nutrient by-product. Fermentation is one of the most traditional, natural, and economic known food processing methods as well as being a pioneer of modern biotechnology that is a promising tool to transform agro-industrial wastes and by-products into value-added products with extended shelf-life and natural fermented food products can be effective in preventing and treating many kinds of diseases. Therefore, the objective of the present review is to summarize the most recent advances in the field of fermentation processes related to wheat germ. More specifically, this paper addresses issues that are relevant to stabilization, nutritional/functional aspects, and therapeutic effects of fermented wheat germ. Key findings and conclusions In addition to being one of the most effective methods for wheat germ stabilization, fermentation significantly improves the nutritional/functional values of wheat germ as well as its therapeutic potentials, especially anti-cancer properties in different cancer cell lines.
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Wheat germ and corn bran are by-products derived from the bread baking industry. This study aims to development of efficient and low cost processing methods to transform these residues in added value co-products. The basic chemical composition analyses revealed high values of dry matter (87.5–89.8 g/100 g FW), significant amounts of total ash (13.3–18.0 g/100 g FW) content and low fat contents (2.2–9.8 g/100 g FW). The starch values found in the original samples were much lower than after the sequential defatting method revealing a content of starch 3.39, 3.44 and 3.27-fold higher for the samples of wheat germ, maize flour of zootechnical grade and fine, respectively. The performed stabilization studies revealed significant increases up to week 3 in the total phenolics content of the wheat germ and maize cell wall samples. Within the low molecular weight phenolics, quercetin was the major compound (47.3 mg/100 g FW), in the cell wall of wheat germ samples. The antioxidant activity showed significant differences between liquid and solid fractions, with the highest values (0.38 μmol/L Trolox Eq. FW) in the wheat germ liquid fraction. The results show that these by-products can be used as a source of bioactive compounds beneficial for health, while the method used for starch “enrichment” may potentially transform the fine maize flour into an added value co-product.
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We are developing an innovative process for the recovery of a starch-rich product from millfeed (the low-value byproduct of wheat flour milling); enzymatic processing of the starch to glucose; and the subsequent processes for conversion of that glucose into a value-added product by either a catalytic or a fermentation process. We have completed the development of the starch recovery step with enzymatic processing and the assessment of its economic viability. The processes to use the glucose product as feedstock for catalytic processing and fermentation processing have been tested in the laboratory. Catalytic processing of the glucose from the extracted starch for polyol production is based on catalytic hydrogenation to sorbitol. Alternatively, fermentation of the extracted starch-derived glucose also provides a pathway to value-added chemical products via a platform chemical, lactic acid. The paper includes results from all the processing areas addressed. Starch extraction and glucose generation from wheat milling byproducts are presented with laboratory and scaled-up processing results. Results of fermentation of the glucose product to lactic acid in shaker flask tests are presented, documenting the minimal requirements for nutrient addition. Stirred batch reactor tests of catalytic hydrogenation of the glucose product to sorbitol are presented with a discussion of contaminant effects on the catalyst.
A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
Indication that excess fat intake can increase the risks of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and certain types of cancer has raised awareness of fat consumption. Health-conscious individuals have consequently adjusted their dietary habits and consumed less fat. This trend has led the food industry try to develop structural modifications and substitutes of fats that contain less energy yet have the desirable functional properties. Structured lipids are defined as lipids structurally modified from their natural state to achieve a desired nutritional, physical, and chemical outcome. They have gained attention as edible oil and for pharmaceutical purposes, and can be produced via enzymatic action, (mostly via lipases), and/or chemical reactions. Enzymatic action is preferable to chemical reactions in terms of regiospecificity, stereospecificity, selectivity towards substrates, and production of side products and waste.
Due the environmental concern and limited resources of petroleum oil has increase the demand of biodiesel. One way of reducing the biodiesel production costs is to use the less expensive feedstock containing fatty acids such as inedible oils, animal fats, waste food oil and by products of the refining vegetables oils The fact that Jatropha oil can not be used for nutritional purposes without detoxification makes its use as energy/fuel source very attractive. The lipid fraction of Jatropha oil seed were extracted and analyzed for their chemical and physical properties such as acid value, percentage free fatty acids (% FFA), iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value as well as viscosity, and density. The fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAGs) composition of the extracted lipid was revealed using the gas chromatography (GC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Both oleic acid (44.7%) and linoleic acid (32.8%) were detected as the dominant fatty acids while palmitic acid and stearic acid were the saturated fatty acids found in the Jatropha oil. OLL (22.94%) and OOL (17.9%) was detected as major triacylglycerol composition in the jatropha oil. The oil extracts exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be useful as biodiesel feedstock and industrial application.
Leaf powder of Orthosiphon stamineus was extracted with the following solvents; distilled water, 50% aqueous methanol, methanol, 70% aqueous acetone and chloroform, at 2, 4 and 8 h, respectively, on a water bath at 40 °C. The extracts were subjected to qualitative and quantitative HPLC analyses of the polyphenols, the most dominant chemical constituents in the leaf. Chloroform extraction from 4 to 8 h at 40 °C gave the highest amount of sinensetin and eupatorin. The extraction with 70% aqueous acetone extracts at 4 and 8 h gave a high yield of 3′-hydroxy-5,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone. The yield of rosmarinic acid was high in 50% methanol extracts at 2, 4 and 8 h of extraction. The extracts were screened for free radical-scavenging potential, using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl in vitro model system. The extracts exhibited significant radical-scavenging activity and the acetone extracts showed the highest activity.
Cereal Chem. 83(1):69-75 The main by-product of the wheat germ oil extraction process is a defatted wheat germ meal, which has a relatively high protein content, making it an attractive and promising source of vegetable proteins. Four protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamine, and glutelin) and protein isolate from defatted wheat germ flour (DWGF) were fractionated and then characterized by amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Albumin was the major fraction (34.5%) extracted, followed by globulin (15.6%), glutelin (10.6%), and prolamine (4.6%). Protein isolate was mainly composed of albumin and globulin. These protein fractions and protein isolate showed an excellent balance of all essential amino acids, with a relatively high level of glutamic acid, arginine, leucine, and glycine, whereas cystine was lacking. All the esti- mated nutritional quality parameters based on amino acids composition showed that defatted wheat germ proteins had good nutritional quality. Nonreduced and reduced SDS-PAGE analyses showed that S-S bonds were deficient in the structure of wheat germ proteins. The albumin fraction consisted of 19 major polypeptide bands with Mr 14,000-84,000. The globulin fraction showed four distinct polypeptides or polypeptide group bands with Mr 55,000, 37,000-43,000, 24,000, and 12,000-20,000, which may be the components of the 8S-type and 11S-like proteins. The prolamine fraction showed a predominant doublet-like band at Mr 17,000-16,000, while the glutelin fraction showed five major polypeptide bands with Mr 39,000, 20,000, 18,000, 17,000, and 14,000. Protein isolate and DWGF showed very similar SDS-PAGE patterns. Except for prola- mine and glutelin fractions without detectable calorimetric response, the globulin fraction possessed the highest thermal stability (Td = 83.80°C, ΔH =1.36 J/g ), followed by protein isolate (Td = 80.05°C, ΔH = 0.76 J/g), while the albumin fraction was lowest (Td = 69.72°C, ΔH = 0.53 J/g). The findings on defatted wheat germ proteins are important for their potential application as functional food ingredients.
Defatted wheat germ (DWG) is the main by-product of the wheat germ oil extraction process. Its nutritional value has well been accepted. In this study, the antioxidant properties of 30% ethanol, 50% ethanol, 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and aqueous extracts of DWG were measured using various in vitro assays. Among the DWGEs (DWG extracts) tested, the 70% ethanol extract showed the best DPPH radical scavenging power while the 100% ethanol extract showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, both the 70% ethanol extract and the 50% ethanol extract exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system. The extracts in question exhibited total phenolic contents ranging from 13.98 to 16.75mg GAE/g. DWG, as a source of natural antioxidants, can be used to formulate nutraceuticals with potential applications to reducing the level of oxidative stress. The antioxidant potency of the DWG extracts could be the basis for its health promoting potential.