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Selfie posting behaviors are associated with narcissism among men

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Abstract

Although many studies have investigated individual differences in online social networking, few have examined the recent and rapidly popularized social phenomenon of the “selfie” (a selfportrait photograph of oneself). In two studies with a pooled sample of 1296 men and women, we tested the prediction that individuals who score high on four narcissism sub-scales (Self-sufficiency, Vanity, Leadership, and Admiration Demand) will be more likely to post selfies to social media sites than will individuals who exhibit low narcissism. We examined three categories of selfies: own selfies; selfies with a romantic partner; and group selfies, controlling for non-selfie photographs. Women posted more selfies of all types than did men. However, women’s selfie-posting behavior was generally unrelated to their narcissism scores. In contrast, men’s overall narcissism scores positively predicted posting own selfies, selfies with a partner, and group selfies. Moreover, men’s Vanity, Leadership, and Admiration Demand scores each independently predicted the posting of one or more types of selfies. Our findings provide the first evidence that the link between narcissism and selfie-posting behavior is comparatively weak among women than men, and provide novel insight into the social motivations and functions of online social networking.

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... In this study, observation of the physical features in self-portraits was used to gather information about gender and age of selfie-takers. The third item focuses on the type of group depicted (Sorokowski et al., 2015), whether selfies are individual or in-group. ...
... Type of selfie Individual selfie, group selfie. Sorokowski et al. (2015) Gender Male, female. Paris & Pietschni (2015); Taylor (2020); . ...
... These findings concur with previous studies related to travel photography (Donaire et al., 2014), in which it has even been stated that the absence of visitors in the pictures taken at a particular destination is related to "the willingness to show the elements as if they were pieces of a museum suitable for individual consumption" (Galí, 2005, 276 Regarding the selfie-takers profile, there is a significant tendency towards group selfies of two or more people, rather than selfies taken of oneself (one person). Recent studies concur with this finding; however, other researches outside the tourism field who study psychological aspects differ in opinion (Sorokowski et al., 2015). They maintain that the most common selfies taken are of the individual, based on a link between narcissism and selfie-posting behaviour. ...
... Albury (2015) claims that selfie behavior is a gendered process. On one hand, Sorokowski et al. (2015) claim that the link between selfie behavior and narcissism is stronger for men compared to women, while the relationship between women's selfie behavior and narcissism is unclear. Further, selfie posting was significantly linked with men who scored high on the entitlement/exploitativeness facet of narcissism even though it is not related to self-promoting behaviors on social networking sites (Weiser, 2015). ...
... Consistent with previous research, we identified a significant association between narcissism and selfie behavior. Multiple studies (Hernowo & Mashoedi, 2018;Moon et al., 2016;Sorokowski et al., 2015; agree that highly narcissistic people engage in greater selfie behavior. Consistent with these findings, we found a significant relationship between NPI and SBS scores. ...
... Furthermore, even in a continuing patriarchal society, the narcissistic tendencies of men are not only tolerated but are more likely encouraged (Kluger, 2014;Koenig et al., 2011;Waters, 2018). According to Sorokowski et al., (2015), three characteristics of narcissism-leadership, vanity, and admiration demand-predict an increase in selfie behavior for men while a fourth characteristic-self-sufficiency-does not. Men prove themselves as significant or important individuals by seeking recognition from other people rather than building personal relations (Gupta & Hee-Woong, 2007). ...
Article
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The emergence of the selfie phenomenon in 2013 is widely viewed as a form of social media-driven narcissism. Such individuals use images to promote themselves on social networks, gain admiration from others, and feed their seemingly inflated self-view. The current study examined whether narcissistic personality traits predict selfie behavior among selected male and female Filipinos. Four hundred thirty-nine participants belonging to Generations Y and Z voluntarily participated by completing the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-40) and the Selfitis Behavior Scale (SBS). Results revealed that a statistically significant relationship exists between narcissism and selfie behavior with narcissism accounting for about 7.3% of selfie behavior. Filipino men appear to be more narcissistic than women, while no difference was found between men and women who engage in selfie behavior in the current study's Filipino participants. Lastly, gender is not a moderator for the two variables.
... [18] Various studies showed that there is a relationship between selfie-posting behavior and narcissism. [2,[19][20][21] The physical appearance of narcissists is overestimating in many people's sight as they stick and adorn themselves in suggestive and enticing ways. [22] "Self-reliance" is found to be a negative personality predictor of selfitis behavior among college-going girls, suggesting that those who score low are likely to be affiliative, group-oriented, and dependent. ...
... However, some studies have reported narcissism to be a significant predictor of selfie-taking behaviour, more so in men than in women. [21,28] The second hypothesis asserted that there will be a significant difference of selfie-taking behavior between girls and boys of college and school-going students. The proposition is supported as the results show that girls are more inclined toward selfie-taking behavior than boys. ...
Research
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Aim: The study aims to identify significant personality predictors of selfie-taking behavior among college and school-going students. Methods: The sample size consists of 50 boys and 50 girls (n = 100) between the age range of 16–23 years from various schools and colleges of Delhi NCR. The tools used in the study were Cattell's 16 Personality Factors and Selfitis Behavior Scale. Results: The results of the study depicted a positive correlation of selfitis behavior with perfectionism and sensitivity. However, self-reliance, reasoning, and emotional stability showed a negative correlation with selfitis behavior. Furthermore, the results of the study showed that girls have more selfitis behavior as compared to boys and the college group have more selfitis behavior than that of the school group. ANOVA and linear regression were used to analyze data. Conclusion: Social media is the strongest tool of communication nowadays. “Selfies” are a growing social networking technique for self-disclosure. Use of social media is focusing on the physical aspect and allowing posting and amending pictures that are creating concerns about body image, poor self-esteem, loneliness, and depression among students. The overall results suggest that while selfies provide individuals with the potential of enhancing self-disclosure, they also demonstrate some risky and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, predicting personality traits could be considered an effective variable to sensitize them before the deterioration of their mental health.
... Traditional Saudi norms and standards regard women's visibility as harmful, and tacitly reject their self-presentation through photographs and videos. This finding contradicts the findings of a previous study which found that women snap more selfies than men [38]. As well, a previous research also found that women took 1.3 times more selfies than men [25]. ...
... However, these findings contradicted those who investigated selfie posting behaviors in relation to gender and found that female subjects had higher mean scores for posting selfie images than men in their study. Furthermore, in 2014, selfiecity, a project financed by The Graduate Center at City University of New York, evaluated the types of selfie in five cities around the world, concluding that women were more likely than men to share selfie images [38]. ...
Article
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Background Over the last 10 years, social media has become an integral facet of modern society. Self-presentation and body satisfaction are related to social media and its impact on users’ levels of well-being and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare selfie-related concepts (self-esteem and body image) and behaviors (selfie habits and patterns, the motives for using the selfie, and attitude about selfie) between samples of Egyptians and Saudis student nurses. To attain this research aim, a comparative research design study was conducted between 7th of October and 5th of November 2020. This study was conducted in the two countries: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) (College of Nursing, Taif University) and Egypt (Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University). A sample of 300 students was included in two countries: KSA and Egypt. Socio-demographic data sheet, patterns of selfie use scale, self-confidence questionnaire (SCQ), and body image scale. Results Results revealed that the Egyptian students were higher in number of selfies per day than Saudi students and the majority of Saudi group like to put their selfies on Instagram. Conclusion The current study deduced that Egyptian students as regard selfie habits and patterns had a higher number of selfies per day than Saudi students, also the majority of the Saudi group as regard selfie habits like to put their selfies on Instagram with a statistically significant difference. As regards the motives for using the selfie, the reasons for taking selfies were significantly higher in Saudi nursing students than in Egyptian students regarding depression and sadness. As well, significantly higher in Egyptian than in Saudi nurse students was related to motivates that their selfies on social media often contain comments or answers, the relationship between the number of selfie-taking and gender was a statistically significant difference between the two genders in both Egyptian and Saudi groups with increasing taking selfie among Egyptian females and Saudi males.
... Thus, we expected more beauty-enhancing activities to be performed by individuals who consider themselves more attractive (Hypothesis 3). Furthermore, we controlled for narcissism because more narcissistic individuals tend to focus on their looks [30,31]. Therefore, we predicted that those high in narcissism would spend more time improving their look (Hypothesis 4). ...
... It may seem surprising, as narcissistic individuals are highly concerned with their look [30]. For example, Sorokowski et al. [31] found links between narcissism and the frequency of posting images of one's appearance on social media (i.e., selfies). However, the present results suggest that preoccupation with one's look among narcissistic people might not necessarily entail intensified activities to increase one's attractiveness. ...
Article
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Background: Public opinion on who performs more beauty-enhancing behaviors (men or women) seems unanimous. Women are often depicted as primarily interested in how they look, opposed to men, who are presumably less focused on their appearance. However, previous studies might have overlooked how masculinity relates to self-modification among men. Methods: We explored this issue in depth by conducting a qualitative Study 1 aimed to establish how men and women enhance their attractiveness (N = 121) and a quantitative Study 2 aimed to test time spent on activities that increase one's attractiveness in a longitudinal design (with seven repeated measures from 62 participants; N(total) = 367). Results: We observed no sex differences in beauty investments. Although women spent more time on make-up and cosmetics usage, men caught up with women in exercising and bodybuilding. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that there may not be such wide sex differences in the intensity of enhancing one's appearance as has been previously thought. We hypothesize that this might partly stem from changes in gender roles regarding masculinity.
... Sebaliknya, semakin rendah intensitas mengunggah (Ahluwalia & Sanan, 2015). Hasil analisa data diatas juga sesuai dengan hasil penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Sorokowski (2015) yang menyatakan bahwa individu yang memiliki narasisme tinggi akan cenderung memposting foto selfie-nya di media sosial dibandingkan dengan individu yang memiliki narasisme rendah. Dan diperkuat lagi dengan hasil penelitian yang dilakukan Buffardi & Campbell (2010) yang menyatakan bahwa terdapat hubungan positif antara narsisme dan pengguna media sosial. ...
... Pearlaman ( foto selfie merupakan suatu aktivitas yang berguna untuk mempromosikan diri kepada khalayak ramai di dalam media sosial. Selain itu mengunggah foto selfie juga berguna untuk meningkatkan regulasi diri atau disebut self regulation (Sorokowski, 2015). ...
Article
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Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara intensitas mengunggah konten ke media sosial instagram dengan perilaku narsistik pada remaja awal di kota samarinda. Perilaku narsistik adalah pola kepribadian yang didominasi oleh perasaan dirinya hebat pada remaja awal, senang dipuji, dan dikagumi serta tidak ada rasa empati yang bisa dialami oleh remaja awal. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian berjumlah 70 remaja awal. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan dua skala yaitu intensitas dan perilaku narsistik. Analisa data yang digunakan dengan uji analisis korelasi Product Moment dengan bantuan program Statistical Package for Sosial Sciences (SPSS) 25.0 for windows. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang sangat signifikan antara intensitas mengunggah konten ke media sosial instagram dengan perilaku narsistik pada remaja awal di kota samarinda dengan nilai hasil r = 0.898 dan p = 0.000 ( p < 0.05) yang menunjukkan kedua variabel tersebut memiliki korelasi yang sedang. Sehingga dengan demikian hipotesis dalam penelitian ini diterima.
... Literatures are merely updated with the information on selfies in general, as a form of narcissistic self-behavior, personality and psychology, user gender and behaviour, clinical and medical use of selfies, forensic and cyber politics, privacy concern, business and branding, illegal hunting and Paris and Pietschnig, (2015) seemed to be the pioneers to introduce travel selfie as a form of digital tourist photography. Selfies are defined as a photograph that an individual captures of himself or herself alone or with others, typically with a smartphone held at arm's length or pointed at a mirror, and is uploaded to a social media website (Sorokowski et al., 2015). Precisely, this paper considers travel selfies as a form of travel photography taken by Malaysian tourists and aimed to be shared with next others in social media, to which photos taken are not confined to any limited genre but primarily as a form of self-expression. ...
... Literatures are merely updated with the information on selfies in general, as a form of narcissistic self-behavior, personality and psychology, user gender and behaviour, clinical and medical use of selfies, forensic and cyber politics, privacy concern, business and branding, illegal hunting and Paris and Pietschnig, (2015) seemed to be the pioneers to introduce travel selfie as a form of digital tourist photography. Selfies are defined as a photograph that an individual captures of himself or herself alone or with others, typically with a smartphone held at arm's length or pointed at a mirror, and is uploaded to a social media website (Sorokowski et al., 2015). Precisely, this paper considers travel selfies as a form of travel photography taken by Malaysian tourists and aimed to be shared with next others in social media, to which photos taken are not confined to any limited genre but primarily as a form of self-expression. ...
... First, high levels of narcissism are related with the tendency to apply attractiveness and appearance as the main criteria to post pictures [20,23,26,31,[39][40][41][42][43]. Particularly, studies have found a correlation between narcissism (self-sufficiency, vanity, leadership, admiration demand or grandiose exhibitionism) and the frequency of posting selfies based on attractiveness [40,[44][45][46] or valuing pictures for their physical attractiveness [24,26]. Siibak [47] found that the profile picture is used by youngsters between 11 and 18 to construct their ideal attractive self or the ought-self, and that girls tended to prioritize their aesthetic, emotional and self-reflecting dimensions in these images. ...
Article
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The use of social networking sites (SNS or social media) often comes with strong self-centered behaviors to promote self-appearance. The relationship between narcissism and social media use has intensively occupied scholars in the last decade, yet not much research has focused on, first, how the intensity of social media use (SNS use) is associated with narcissism through a self-centered appearance focused use of these SNS; and second, whether these associations are moderated or not by cultural differences of the country of origin in such a critical age of personality formation and (global) culturalization as the transition from pre-adolescence to adolescence. We performed a correlation and mediation analysis on a cross-sectional survey among Austrian, Belgian, Spanish, and South Korean adolescents ( n = 1,983; M age 14.41, 50.3% boys) examining the adolescents’ daily usage of social media, their self-centered appearance focused behavior, and the reported narcissism. Findings show that a self-centered appearance focused use of SNS (SCA) moderates the association between SNS use and narcissism, especially for males from the three European countries. We have also particularly found that the years of use, number of friends and time spent in FB are associated with narcissism. Since SCA is defined in the study as narcissistic behavior in SNS, we argue that social media are part of the socialization process as both reinforcers and catalyzers of narcissism.
... Further, majority of the subjects with themselves alone in selfie had higher NPI scores; thus, reflecting their approval seeking or demonstration of grandiose self. Similar results were found from studies by P. Sorokowski et al. (2015); Malik, N. I., et al. (2020) and Salafia, C., & Rimzhim, A. (2020) which report that people post own photos are linked with narcissism. This finding from this study extend to a different dimension of explanation called the 'attraction shading effect'; in which one captures oneself keeping aside the travel or tourist site is observed on social networks of tourists (frequent travelers) which reflects an underpinning narcissism. ...
Article
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Selfie, a commonly observed behaviour, is symbol of virtual identity. Similarly, narcissism as described by grandiose view of oneself, seeking approval and admiration on social media is also frequent. The purpose of this study is exploring selfie taking behaviour and narcissism among young adults. A total 132 subjects were considered for study through an online questionnaire which included demographic variables, selfie taking behaviour and NPI-16 (Narcissistic Personality Inventory -16). The results showed majority of the subjects N = 76 (57.5%) had high narcissism (NPI ≥ 7). Age group 15 to 25 years (p= 0.0200), males, subjects who stayed in city, post graduates or graduate qualification, and married subjects had high narcissism. Using smart phone use more than 5 years (p=0.00942), taking 5 to 10 selfies per day with (p=0.00331), posting selfie for personal memory (p=0.03268), selfie on WhatsApp messenger (p=0.03268) and taking selfie with person alone and selfie taken on specific occasions (p=0.01122), had high narcissism. The conclusion of this study is selfie and narcissism are closely linked among young adults and a matter of psychological wellbeing during personality development.
... This kind of critique has been particularly levied at contemporary digital culture from within the field of Psychology; it is typified by preoccupations between the link between modern-day 'Selfie culture' and narcissism. See, for example, Weiser 2015; Sorokowski et al. 2015;Barry et al. 2017. 12. Frith 2015and Greschke 2012. ...
... Literatures are merely updated with the information on selfies in general, as a form of narcissistic self-behavior, personality and psychology, user gender and behaviour, clinical and medical use of selfies, forensic and cyber politics, privacy concern, business and branding, illegal hunting and Paris and Pietschnig, (2015) seemed to be the pioneers to introduce travel selfie as a form of digital tourist photography. Selfies are defined as a photograph that an individual captures of himself or herself alone or with others, typically with a smartphone held at arm's length or pointed at a mirror, and is uploaded to a social media website (Sorokowski et al., 2015). Precisely, this paper considers travel selfies as a form of travel photography taken by Malaysian tourists and aimed to be shared with next others in social media, to which photos taken are not confined to any limited genre but primarily as a form of self-expression. ...
Conference Paper
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The city of Edirne is located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, hosting the busy borders with Greece and Bulgaria. The city center is only 7 km from Greece and 17 km from Bulgaria. Edirne has been blessed with not only historical, but also natural and cultural riches. More specifically Edirne, historically known as Hadrianopolis, was founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian, served as the third capital of the Ottoman Empire for almost a century, and houses numerous ancient sites from different civilizations and religions (Islam, Christian, Jewish, and Baha’i). All these factors make Edirne a vibrant and potentially very attractive tourism destination for various types of tourists, including but not limited to history devotees, gastronomy enthusiasts, nature lovers, crossborder visitors/shoppers and so on. Since 1360, Edirne has hosted Kırkpınar Oil Wrestling Tournament, which is now a festival on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List of Humanity. All these and many other attractions/offerings make Edirne important for international and domestic tourism. Moreover, tourism plays a substantial role in Edirne’s economic well-being as a significant direct and indirect revenue generator and source of employment. Before the COVID-19 pandemic hit global tourism and limited the travel industry, Edirne hosted 5.5 million tourists (international and domestic), at its 37 accommodation establishments. However, given the significance of tourism, there is a lack of a unifying tourism master plan for the city. Thus, this paper aims to present a detailed analysis of Edirne’s strengths and weaknesses as a tourism destination and what opportunities and threats it …
... Furthermore, their results showed that narcissism predicted the sele-posting intention and frequency. On a similar note, Sorokowski et al. [51]studied the interplay between narcissism and sele-related activities. Their results showed a signicant correlation between narcissism and sele-posting behaviours. ...
... Previous studies have explored narcissism and frequency of sharing [34,48] and frequency of use [28,29] which was included in the current analysis, with the addition of rating one's own content and rating the importance of receiving feedback on social media. Some motives for social media, such as wanting admiration and wanting followers, have been found to have a strong relationship with narcissism [37]. ...
Article
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Agentic narcissism and vulnerable narcissism have been widely studied in relation to social media use. However, with research on communal narcissism in its early stages, the current study examines communal narcissism in relation to social media use. Specifically, the current study investigates whether communal narcissism is related to use and frequency of use of the popular social networking sites Instagram, Reddit and Twitter, and if communal narcissism relates to the importance of receiving feedback and to the quality-rating of self-presented content on those platforms. A total of 334 individuals were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk, with two-thirds being male (66.7%). A regression analysis showed that communal narcissism was related to increased use of Instagram and Twitter but not Reddit. Sharing content, the importance of feedback and better than average ratings had positive associations with communal narcissism. The relationship between communal narcissism and sharing on social media was fully mediated by wanting validation on social media and higher ratings of self-presented content. Communal narcissism had a notably strong relationship with wanting validation on all platforms and our results suggest that communal narcissism might be especially relevant in the context of social media use.
... The study found that the major-examined the use of selfies did not provide a concrete definition (Abidin, 2017;Ekman & Widholm, 2017;Grusell & Nord, 2020). Thus, it remains unclear whether the authors followed a narrow definition and included only self-portraits taken by the politicians themselves (Sorokowski et al., 2015), or, like other authors (e.g., Poulakidakos and Giannouli, 2019), applied a broader concept. Ekman & Widholm (2017) found that female politicians used selfies more often than males, and that selfies were combined with political messages. ...
Article
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The photo and video sharing social network Instagram attracts an impressive number of users, among them political actors such as politicians, parties, and members of the government. Instagram's focus on images, which can be accompanied by lengthy captions as well as a range of other communication tools, suggests that the platform has high potential for political communication. Therefore, it is no surprise that Instagram has attracted the interest of scholars of various research areas. This article provides a systematic review of 37 studies on Instagram usage by politicians, parties, and governments. The aim is to gather substantiated knowledge while identifying research gaps. To this end, the review focuses on three key areas of Instagram research: who uses Instagram, how do they use it, and with what effect? Methodological approaches, databases, and applied theories are included to provide a comprehensive overview of research on Instagram. Based on the findings, points of departure for future research are identified.
... While few studies suggested no relationship (Etgar and Amichai-Hamburger, 2017), more studies, including ones briefly mentioned above, found that selfie posting on SNS was related to narcissism (Fox and Rooney, 2015;Weiser, 2015;Kim et al., 2016). Especially, Sorokowski et al. (2015) subdivided their research sample by gender and showed that selfie posting was associated with narcissism among men but not among women. ...
Article
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We examined the associations between the characteristics of Instagram users and the features of their photographs. Narcissism, life satisfaction, and loneliness were employed for user variables and the features at high-(content) and low-levels (pixel) were employed to analyze the Instagram photographs. An online survey was conducted with 179 university students, and their Instagram photographs, 25,394 in total, were collected and analyzed. High-level features were extracted using Computer Vision and Emotion Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) in Microsoft Azure Cognitive Services, and low-level features were extracted utilizing the program written by the authors. The results of correlation analysis indicate that narcissism, life satisfaction, and loneliness were significantly associated with a part of photograph features at high-and low-levels. The results of the predictive analysis suggest that narcissism, loneliness in total, and social loneliness could be predicted with acceptable accuracy from Instagram photograph features, while characteristics such as life satisfaction, family loneliness, and romantic loneliness could not be predicted. Implications of this research and suggestions for further research were presented.
... Literatures are merely updated with the information on selfies in general, as a form of narcissistic self-behavior, personality and psychology, user gender and behaviour, clinical and medical use of selfies, forensic and cyber politics, privacy concern, business and branding, illegal hunting and Paris and Pietschnig, (2015) seemed to be the pioneers to introduce travel selfie as a form of digital tourist photography. Selfies are defined as a photograph that an individual captures of himself or herself alone or with others, typically with a smartphone held at arm's length or pointed at a mirror, and is uploaded to a social media website (Sorokowski et al., 2015). Precisely, this paper considers travel selfies as a form of travel photography taken by Malaysian tourists and aimed to be shared with next others in social media, to which photos taken are not confined to any limited genre but primarily as a form of self-expression. ...
... Among the innumerable pictures, taken, posted, and shared online, selfphotographs or selfies are the most popular on social media (Sung et al., 2016). Photographic images or "selfies" posted by users is the most popular way of self-disclosure on SNS (Sorokowski et al., 2015). ...
Article
The study investigated the moderating role of exhibitionism in the relationship between psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and selfie-posting behavior. The study proposed a research model by extending the "self-determination theory" with exhibitionism to better explain selfie-posting behavior. Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was employed to test the proposed model based on data obtained from 316 social media users in New Delhi, India. Results indicated that psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy significantly predict selfie-posting behavior. Further, results of the multi-group analysis indicated that level of exhibitionism plays a moderating role in the relationship between psychological needs and selfie-posting behavior. The findings suggested that individuals with a higher level of exhibitionism more tend to post selfies on social media to satisfy their needs for competence and relatedness.
... Their results indicated individuals having a high level of narcissism were more favor of the selfie-posting, interested in feedbacks provided by peers, and followers of others' selfie-postings. In another study, Sorokowski et al. (2015) suggested that selfie-posting behavior is positively correlated with narcissism among men. Similarly, Weiser (2015) suggested a significant correlation between the frequency of selfie posting on SNS and narcissism. ...
Article
This study contributes to the cyberpsychology literature by investigating the moderating effect of gender in the relationship between narcissism and selfie posting behavior. A demographic questionnaire, 13-item selfie-posting scale developed and validated in the present study, and Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-16) were used to collect data. An EFA was conducted to test the factor structure of scales based on data collected from 179 young adults (age 18-27 years). A CFA was then conducted using data from 269 university students (age 18-32 years) to test construct validity of the scales. A correlation analysis was employed to test the correlations between narcissism and selfie posting behavior. The results indicated that the correlations between attitudes, intentions, behaviors, and narcissism are significant for men, but not for women. The results also indicated gender differences in online behavior with women spending more time on social media and selfie-posting.
... Various researches on selfie-related behaviors and its relation to narcissism agreed that people engage in selfie-related behaviors are highly narcissistic (Hernowo & Mashoedi, 2018;Moon et al., 2016;Sorokowski et al., 2015;Sung et al., 2016;Amurao & Castronuevo, 2016). ...
Article
The increasing popularity of selfies and social media made users vulnerable to excessive selfie-related behaviors. This maladaptive behavior can cause people to develop several mental disorders such as depression and body dysmorphic disorder. Thus, this study determined the relationship between selfietaking behavior and narcissistic tendencies of selected college students. Selfitis Behavior Scale (SBS) and Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-13) are research instruments used to measure selfie-taking behavior and narcissistic tendencies, respectively. The descriptive-correlational research revealed that 120 college students, selected through stratified sampling technique, are more likely to engage in selfie-taking behavior which in turn, may lead to narcissistic tendencies. Respondents showed high level of selfietaking behavior and low level of narcissistic tendencies, therefore displaying ‘seldom narcissistic’ features. Only the frequency of selfies taken was significantly related to selfie-taking behavior. Selfietaking behavior was also significantly related to narcissistic tendencies. Thus, this study concludes that selfie-taking and narcissistic behaviors can be positive and negative, influenced primarily by the motives of selfie-taking, and cultural differences play an important role in mediating selfie-taking and narcissistic behaviors. This study suggests a deeper exploration on the narcissistic tendencies and providing more specific details on the nature, causes, classification, as well as possible diagnostic criteria of these narcissistic features.
... In line with the empirical evidence that narcissism appears to be positively related to physical attractiveness (Holtzman & Strube, 2010;Weber et al., 2021;Wurst et al., 2017) and primarily attributable to appeal in early stages of acquaintance Wurst et al., 2017), we hypothesize that bodily attractiveness, BUR, physical strength, SHR and upper arm girth are positively, whereas BMI and WHR are inversely related to self-reported and judged narcissistic admiration (Hypothesis 1). Furthermore, we predict that these effects are larger in men compared to women (Hypothesis 2), since narcissism was found to be associated more strongly with male self-presentation (Sorokowski et al., 2015). Narcissistic rivalry will be investigated in an exploratory manner, because narcissistic rivalry is moderately intercorrelated with narcissistic admiration (rs = .30 ...
Article
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Narcissistic people are exceedingly successful in conveying positive first impressions to their social surrounding, yet, they appear to be the driving force behind unfavorable long-term social and romantic relationships. Hence, a quick identification of narcissistic people may be of adaptive value for their social partners. Narcissism perception research, however, is lacking evidence on human body morphology. In this study, N = 110 raters evaluated natural 3D body scans of unacquainted N = 307 target participants (152 men and 155 women) regarding narcissistic admiration and rivalry. Based on the Brunswikian lens model, multiple regression models revealed that bodily attractiveness (β = .54, 95% CI = [0.41; 0.66]), BMI (β = .32, 95% CI = [0.13; 0.51]), shoulder-to-hip ratio (β = .33, 95% CI = [0.20; 0.47]) and physical strength (β = .23, 95% CI = [0.07; 0.39]) were utilized in judging narcissistic admiration and rivalry. Shoulder-hip ratio showed small relationships with self-reported narcissistic admiration (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.03; 0.38]) and rivalry (β = .23, 95% CI = [0.07; 0.39]) that were not robust across all analyses. Correlations between self-reported and judged narcissism showed a significant positive association for narcissistic admiration (r = .17, 95% CI = [0.06; 0.28]). Results indicate a perceptual bias when judging narcissism, as perceivers used body cues to draw inferences about target’s levels of narcissism that were not significantly related to self-reported narcissistic admiration and rivalry (and can thus be seen as invalid). However, perceivers were able to somewhat accurately judge target’s levels of narcissistic admiration and rivalry, based on body morphology alone. Thus, people’s bodies might disclose social information at zero acquaintance, but different stimuli material with more information on the targets may lead to more accurate judgments.
... Among the innumerable pictures, taken, posted, and shared online, selfphotographs or selfies are the most popular on social media (Sung et al., 2016). Photographic images or "selfies" posted by users is the most popular way of self-disclosure on SNS (Sorokowski et al., 2015). ...
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The study investigated the moderating role of exhibitionism in the relationship between psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and selfie-posting behavior. The study proposed a research model by extending the “self-determination theory” with exhibitionism to better explain selfie-posting behavior. Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was employed to test the proposed model based on data obtained from 316 social media users in New Delhi, India. Results indicated that psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy significantly predict selfie-posting behavior. Further, results of the multi-group analysis indicated that level of exhibitionism plays a moderating role in the relationship between psychological needs and selfie-posting behavior. The findings suggested that individuals with a higher level of exhibitionism more tend to post selfies on social media to satisfy their needs for competence and relatedness.
... Although both men and women take selfies for self-presentation reasons (Chua & Chang, 2016;Haferkamp & Krämer, 2011), the literature has reported gender differences in selfie-related behaviors. For example, women post more selfies than men (Sorokowski et al., 2015). This difference can be explained considering that self-objectification is more frequent among women than men. ...
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Since social networks have become an essential part of young people’s lives, the present study examined the relationship between sharing and manipulating selfies on Instagram and related outcomes on body image. A total of 350 young adults from Italy and Portugal participated in the study. They completed measures on selfie-sharing, selfie-manipulation, appearance-based comparison, internalization of beauty ideals, and shame for their bodies. Gender, nationality, and type of account (public/private) were hypothesized to moderate the examined relationships. The results partially confirmed the hypothesized model, indicating that sharing selfies was positively associated with body shame through appearance-based comparison, which was also positively associated with beauty-ideal internalization. In contrast with the hypotheses, selfie manipulation was negatively associated with body shame. Gender and type of social networks account moderated these relationships, whereas no moderation role was found with regard to nationality. Findings showed that there are specific behaviors on Instagram associated with the feeling of shame about one’s own body. Limitations of the present study and implications for future research are discussed from a sociocultural perspective.
... Thus, self-presentation seems to be a significant moderate relationship between the 2subscale of dark triad (Machiavellianism and psychopath) and selfie addiction. Figure 3. Graphical presentation of Narcissism*self-presentation predicting selfie addiction Lastly, as prior studies" findings that the personality characteristics associated with selfie behavior tended to be stronger for males than for females (Fox & Rooney, 2015;Sorokowski et al., 2015). The present study findings show that men scored high on all the dark triad personalities, selfie addiction and selfpresentation as compared to women. ...
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The current research scrutinized the relationship in dark triad and selfie addiction it further investigated the moderating role of self-presentation on facebook. The sample of study comprised of 300 students (18 to 30 years) drawn from various Public universities of Punjab, Pakistan. Selfities scale by Amjad and Adil (2017), Revised Self-Disclosure Scale (to measure presentation on facebook) by Young and Brown, (2016) and Short Dark Triad scale (Jones & Paulhus, 2013) were used to measure study variables. Result indicated significant relationship in all subscale of dark triad, selfie addiction and self-presentation. Moreover, it was found that Machiavellianism significantly positively predict intimacy while psychopathy significantly positively predict obsession whereas Narcissism was significant positive predictor of self-esteem, taking and posting selfies, intimacy and obsession. Results further showed that self-presentation moderated the relationship between Machiavellianism, Psychopathy and selfie addiction.
... There are many subgenres of selfies, aside from cute faces and grimaces, there are also performances: tourist selfies, funeral selfies, or extreme selfies competing in risky performances on Selfie Olympics . . . Yet, although not all selfie genres are reporting on the author's psychological condition, but can also chronicle the landscape or the action, selfies were in the beginning often analyzed in the framework of personality disorder of narcissism (Sorokowski 2015, Berry 2015Wang 2018). However, also due to more frequent appearances of selfcentered reporting, predominantly in the visual genre of selfies, narcissism was recently proposed to be taken out from the list of personality disorders. ...
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Although mental illnesses and personality disorders are largely destigmatized in the contemporary age, some genres, such as self-portraiture and consequently selfies, are still framed in interpretation by diagnostic labeling. One of the disorders that was often taken into reference when approaching self-picturing is narcissism. However, such an approach to the visual genre is limiting its interpretation. This article analyses two sets of self-portrait photographs of a Norwegian painter Edvard Munch, who spent some time in psychiatric asylums. This episode divides his work into two phases. In the first period, Munch self-records his various actions in space, while in the second one, he focuses on his face and a static half-a-figure. While the first one is actively reinterpreting the world through the self-image, the second one is centering the self as the world itself. Rather than defining which sets are more narcissistic, this article proposes distinguishing between performative/extravert and contemplative/introvert definitions of self-pictures by defining anthropocentric and solipsistic self-portraits. Distinguishing between anthropocentric and solipsistic self-portraiture may have impact not only on analysis of Munch’s photographic and painterly self-portraits but also on the interpretation of contemporary genre of selfies as well.
... Literatures are merely updated with the information on selfies in general, as a form of narcissistic self-behavior, personality and psychology, user gender and behaviour, clinical and medical use of selfies, forensic and cyber politics, privacy concern, business and branding, illegal hunting and Paris and Pietschnig, (2015) seemed to be the pioneers to introduce travel selfie as a form of digital tourist photography. Selfies are defined as a photograph that an individual captures of himself or herself alone or with others, typically with a smartphone held at arm's length or pointed at a mirror, and is uploaded to a social media website (Sorokowski et al., 2015). Precisely, this paper considers travel selfies as a form of travel photography taken by Malaysian tourists and aimed to be shared with next others in social media, to which photos taken are not confined to any limited genre but primarily as a form of self-expression. ...
Conference Paper
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Destination Management Organisations (DMO’s) have gained ultra-importance in marketing especially in the external and the internal destination development activities. (Presenza, Sheehan, & Ritchie, 2005). Pike and Page (2014) in their narrative analysis of literature on destination brands and DMO for forty years highlights the importance of aligned communication with all stakeholders. A thorough literature review of journal articles till 2018 was carried out by (Ruiz- Real, Uribe-Toril, & Gázquez-Abad, 2020), and opportunities and new challenges were discussed. Destination Branding, as a concept started to evolve as early as the 90’s (Oppermann, 2000). Researchers had earlier developed on the concepts of branding of cities and image of destinations (Morgan, Pritchard, & Pride, 2011). Skinner (2008) highlighted the emergence of place marketing research alongside the emergence of services marketing as a distinct subject area within marketing. Later on Park, Cai, and Lehto (2009) developed conceptual models to explain collaborative destination branding. Tasci and Gartner (2009) suggested an integrative marketing communications approach with both qualitative and quantitative methods for assessment of destination brands. (Kumar & Nayak, 2014) insisted on holistic perspectives to measure the destination personality. Pike (2014) also tracked the brand performance of a competitive set of destinations over time. Hence to further investigate the roles and responsibilities of DMO’s we propose a systematic literature review of articles from 2018 to 2021 by searching databases like Scopus, EBSCO, ProQuest-ABI/INFORM, Emerald Insight and Science Direct. Keywords with the term’s destination marketing organisations and destination management organisations and their abbreviations along with the term’s destination branding and destination marketing were used for the search. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol was used to funnel down the selection of articles.
... In 2013, the Oxford dictionaries chose the word "selfie" as the word of the year. This word is defined as "A photograph taken by oneself, usually with a smartphone or webcam, and shared via social media" Nagaraju & Chikkegowda, 2019;Shin et al., 2017;Sorokowski et al., 2015). Selfie is also expressed as a form of self-presentation and expression, which is an interpersonal communication in which a person conveys an image of himself/herself to another individual, community, or audience (Varma et al., 2020). ...
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Although selfie behavior, which has become popular with smartphones, initially starts as a leisure activity, it can turn into an addiction with time. This condition has been defined as a mental disorder by the American Psychiatric Association and named as selfitis. Recently, interest in studies on the concept of selfie has increased and a measurement tool called "Selfitis Disease Behavior" has been developed on this subject. In this study, we aimed to perform the validity and reliability analysis of the Turkish version of Selfitis Disease Behavior Scale (SDBS). As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that the goodness of fit values of the Turkish version of the scale were acceptable and a good fit. It was also determined that the internal consistency coefficients of the scale were between 0.834 and 0.956. In addition, as a result of the correlation analysis performed within the context validity, it was concluded that the SDBS had a positive relationship with social media addiction and body perception scales. Therefore, the SDBS adapted into Turkish was demonstrated to be a valid and reliable measurement tool for use in Turkish culture.
... . Este tipo de crítica tem sido particularmente cobrado da cultura digital contemporânea pelo campo da Psicologia; e se tipifica por preocupações no elo entre a "cultura do selfie" atual e o narcisismo. Ver, por exemplo,Weiser 2015;Sorokowski et al. 2015; Barry et al. 2017. 12 Livros de recortes montados a partir de cortes e colagens variados, na capa ou no miolo, sem formato padronizado [N.T.]. ...
Book
O smartphone está tão frequentemente debaixo de nosso nariz, que assumimos saber o que ele é. Mas sabemos mesmo? Para descobrir, 11 antropólogos realizaram pesquisa de campo de 16 meses em países da África, Ásia, Europa e América do Sul, tendo como foco pessoas mais velhas. O livro O Smartphone Global apresenta perspectivas inéditas a partir desta pesquisa comparativa. A primeira descoberta é: os smartphones não são mais uma tecnologia restrita aos jovens, estando nas mãos de todos, independente da idade. Além disso, observou-se uma grande ambivalência entre aquilo que as pessoas falam sobre os smartphones e os modos como elas os usam na prática. Os smartphones se tornaram tanto um lugar em que vivemos, como apetrechos que providenciam um tipo de ‘oportunismo perpétuo’, por estarem sempre conosco. Vão além de um ‘repositório de aplicativos’. São um dispositivo sem precedentes em termos de potencial de transformação, assimilando rapidamente valores pessoais. Para compreender esse processo, considerou-se um leque de nuances nacionais e culturais, como a comunicação visual na China e no Japão, o dinheiro móvel em Camarões e Uganda, e acesso a informação sobre saúde no Chile e na Irlanda – juntamente com trajetórias variadas em relação ao envelhecimento em Al-Quds, no Brasil e na Itália. É dessa perspectiva global, e a partir do mapeamento de contextos diversos, que o livro se propõe a responder à pergunta O que é um smartphone? e a analisar suas consequências.
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Fotoğraf temelli sosyal ağların yaygınlığı son dönemde hızlı bir ivme kazanmış, mobil telefonların gelişen kamera özellikleri de bu olguyu artırmıştır. Bu araştırma, iletişim fakültesi öğrencilerinin özçekim davranışlarını bazı kişisel ve demografik değişkenler açısından karşılaştırmalı olarak incelemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Genel tarama modelinde yürütülen araştırmanın evreni, mobil teknolojiler konusunda, başka alanlardaki akranlarına oranla, görece daha yetkin olduğu varsayılan iletişim fakülteleri öğrencilerinden oluşmuştur. Araştırma örnekleminde Türkiye’deki iki devlet ve iki vakıf üniversitesinin iletişim fakültelerinde öğrenim gören toplam 613 lisans öğrencisi yer almıştır. Veriler, Balakrishnan ve Griffiths (2018) tarafından geliştirilen ve çeşitli ülkelerdeki araştırmalarda yaygın biçimde kullanılan Likert türü Özçekim Saplantısı Davranış Ölçeği ile toplanmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesinde hem betimsel hem yordamsal istatistiksel tekniklerden yararlanılmıştır. Sonuçlar göstermektedir ki, öğrencilerin cinsiyeti ve üniversite türünün (devlet-vakıf) genel özçekim saplantı düzeyi üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisi yoktur. Buna karşılık, öğrencilerin öğrenim gördükleri üniversiteler, bölümler, dönemler ile kullandıkları mobil telefonların markası ve günlük mobil telefon kullanım süreleri açısından anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur. Ayrıca, üniversite türü dışında, neredeyse tüm bağımsız değişkenler açısından özçekim saplantısının alt boyutları üzerinde anlamlı farklılıklar belirlenmiştir.
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This work examines how transmen pregnancy is found within the discourse of moralizing and pathologizing reproductive health. Moralization criticizes the "artificial" character of transpregnancy, and pathologization sees transpregnancy as rather "abnormal". This work analyses these discursive contentions with case of the increasing public visibility of pregnant transmen through selfies. A commonplace reading of these transpregnant selfies can be, on the one hand, extended forms of othering or, on the other hand, emancipation from moralization and pathologization. However, this work argues that the visual display of transpregnant bodies is neither a form of othering nor gaining recognition but rather a suspension to moralization and pathologization of trans-identities. Transmen pregnancy has the character of both disrupting the concept of pregnancy-as-usual and at the same time evokes a very familiar experience of human reproduction. This thus gives transpregnant selfies their liminal character of both abnormal and normal at the same time. Given that transpregnancy is still a new subject for philosophical inquiry, this work hopes to contribute to the literature by surfacing some of transpregnancy's ethical dimensions when juxtaposed in the cyberspace.
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Social Networking Sites (SNS) user behavior has been discussed in association with SNS user personality characteristics, such as narcissism. However, gender and cultural influences on the relationship between selfie posting on SNS and narcissism remain unclear. Thus, the present study included gender and culture to investigate the relationship between narcissism and selfie posting using 232 Japanese and 481 American college students. The main findings include: (a) while the data failed to show a significant difference in level of narcissism across culture, significant gender differences were found in each culture; (b) our data show no significant difference in the number of selfies across culture/gender or level of narcissism; (c) self-esteem moderated the relationship between narcissism and the number of selfies for American male college students.
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Technology has fundamentally shaped the way we communicate with acquaintances, family members, and romantic partners. Digital technologies permit us to be accessed (and access others) at any time, through a variety of electronic means irrespective of geography. The purpose of this article is link factors germane to technology to explain why they fuel intimate partner violence. This article outlines key characteristics of behaviors associated with intimate partner violence, outlines the specific functions of technology that exacerbate these symptoms, and introduces guidelines for training and treatment.
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У доповіді проаналізовано феномен селфі як наслідок поступового збільшення соціальної дистанції між людьми, відповідного перенесення реального життя у віртуальний простір і вибуху так званого «кліпового мислення», коли лайки та світлини заміняють глибші форми комунікації, притаманні старим формам епістолярного жанру. Описано також емпіричне дослідження певних особливостей самоставлення та нарцисизму студентської молоді, які проявляються через наявність або відсутність селфі-активності. Виявлено, що серед українського студентства селфіманія не отримала загрозливих розмірів, як це засвідчують зарубіжні дослідження, хоча і має певні негативні наслідки для особистісного стану. З’ясовано, що в цілому певна адаптивна селфі-активність студентів (до 10 світлин на тиждень) з викладенням їх у соціальних мережах не є шкідливою, навпаки, сприяє зниженню соціальної ізольованості, особливо в умовах переважання віртуальних контактів в часи вимушеного карантину. Проаналізовано позитивні аспекти селфі-активності (можливість самореалізації, покращення матеріального становища, один із засобів досягнути соціального успіху, популярності; можливість для самовираження, пізнання себе, підвищення самооцінки; розвиток творчого потенціалу; спілкування без меж, спосіб познайомитися з іншими) та негативні (селфі-адикція, заохочення духовної ліні, плекання поверховості, удавана само-реалізація, подоба осмисленості, оманливе благополуччя, розвиток селфізму, відмова від реального спілкування, зниження самооцінки, фальшиве «Я», залежність від «лайків», психотравматичні епізоди, Інтернет-булінг, секстинг, харасмент). Феномен селфі в сучасних умовах усе більше пов’язаний із особистісним та сексуальним благополуччям. Зазвичай сексуальне благополуччя природно розглядати в контексті парних стосунків чи взаємодій. Однак, у віртуальному середовищі «парна взаємодія» відбувається з кожним, хто розглядає представлене на всезагальний огляд зображення в соцмережах з метою отримання позитивної реакції.
Chapter
Social media platforms enable access to large image sets for research, but there are few if any non-theoretical approaches to image analysis, categorization, and coding. Based on two image sets labeled by the #snack hashtag (on Instagram), a systematic and open inductive approach to identifying conceptual image categories was developed, and unique research questions designed. By systematically categorizing imagery in a bottom-up way, researchers may (1) describe and assess the image set contents and categorize them in multiple ways independent of a theoretical framework (and its potential biasing effects); (2) conceptualize what may be knowable from the image set by the defining of research questions that may be addressed in the empirical data; (3) categorize the available imagery broadly and in multiple ways as a precursor step to further exploration (e.g., research design, image coding, and development of a research codebook). This work informs the exploration and analysis of mobile-created contents for open learning.
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Instagram serves as a powerful instrument for youth socialization, self-expression, and self-performance in visual online spaces. Using social semiotics and multimodal discourse analysis, this study examines the potential ideological meanings and implications of selfie-shooting and sharing on Instagram on young adults’ self-concept. A corpus of 110 questionnaires, including almost 85 captioned selfies, was surveyed as multimodal utterances. In doing so, this study argues that selfies can create young adults’ split-selves while constructing their multiple personas in visual online spaces. This marks the significance of viewing selfie-creators not only as authors of their selfies, but rather as viewers of a three-fold self: an ideal-self, a projected-self, and an internal-self, to negotiate social and power relationships, while (re)positioning observer-observed roles. This study claims originality in unraveling how young adults use visual and textual mediated communication to represent and perform their split-selves. It suggests that selfie-shooting-sharing has become a key self-performance tactic and behavior in online cultures. Therefore, young adults deploy selfies and captions to posit a redefinition of certain social values, such as aesthetics and freedom, while deploying their selfies and captions. Challenging certain orthodox social allegiances, they conceive wildness, messiness, and exuberance as emerging neo-aesthetics components of appeal. This study contributes to the literature on personal visual communication with insights on how Egyptian young adults perform their self-concept via the semiotic practice of selfie-shooting-sharing.
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The paper focuses on the structure of an advertising image for a 2010s computer company in the neo-capitalist Moscow, Russia. The analysis looks back to the pioneering studies of advertising as a commercial “applied art” by Sergei Eisenstein, Leo Spitzer and Roland Barthes. The picture’s plot and composition are shown to be a consistent and sophisticated near-artistic design that uses textual puns, poetic topoi and visual stereotypes (in particular, sex appeal) for the promotion of the advertised merchandise (a smartphone). The psychological naturalization of the design is clarified with references to the insights of Sigmund Freud, Heinz Kohut and Gerard Genette into the dynamics of narcissism. In a widening circle, the contextualization of the design involves: the literary topos of using birds in love poetry (made famous by its treatment in the lyrics of the Roman poet Catullus) and in painterly variations on the theme; the narcissist discourse of a modern Russian poet (Eduard Limonov); and the grand pictorial tradition of portraying a nude (Venus) before the mirror (relevant classical canvases are considered briefly).
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The tendency of taking Selfie has turned into a phenomenon of recent culture in the society. This study tried to bring the impact of Social Media marketing through Selfies. The study attempts to explore how Gen Y users identify the act of uploading selfies with branded products, as an expression of self-presentation for social approval. 100 Gen Y brand conscious women consumers in the age group of 18-21 years constituted the sample for the study. Frequency table reveal about the perception of respondents towards selfie and Factor Analysis reveal the factor influencing Psychological Enhancer, Societal Enhancer and Brand Community Enhancer. The results of the study show that posting of selfies is used as a tool for self-presentation by Gen Y people.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, beliren yetişkinlik dönemindeki üniversite öğrencilerinin beden imgesi baş etme stratejilerinin benlik saygılarını etkileyip etkilemediğinin incelenmesidir. Bazı alt amaçlar doğrultusunda çeşitli demografik özelliklere ve sosyal medya kullanım tutumlarına göre değişkenlerin anlamlı bir farklılık gösterip göstermediğinin incelenmesi de gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma nicel araştırma yöntemlerinden genel tarama modelleri içerisinde yer alan ilişkisel tarama modelinde kesitsel bir araştırma olarak dizayn edilmiştir. Çalışma grubu Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi Sosyal Hizmet (n=57) ve Fizyoterapi ve Rehabilitasyon (n=48) bölümü 1. sınıf öğrencisi olan toplamda 105 kişiden oluşmaktadır. Veri toplama araçları olarak Beden İmgesi Baş etme Stratejieri Ölçeği, Rosenberg Benlik Saygısı Ölçeği ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Veriler IBM SPSS Statistics 21 programı istatiksel analiz yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. Bulgular katılımcıların benlik saygıları ve görünüşü düzeltme stratejisini kullanmaları ile selfie kaldırma davranışları arasında anlamlı bir fark olduğunu göstermektedir. Kaçınma ile benlik saygısı arasında pozitif ve düşük düzeyde bir ilişki vardır ve kaçınma değişkeni benlik saygısının anlamlı bir yordayıcısı olmuştur. Sonuç olarak beliren yetişkinlik döneminin incelenmesi toplumların geleceği açısından önemli görülmüş ve beden algısı/benlik saygısı kavramlarının teknolojik gelişimle birlikte değerlendirmesi yapılmıştır. The aim of this study is to examine whether the body image coping strategies of university students in emerging adulthood affect their self-esteem. In line with sub-goals, it was also examined whether the variables showed a significant difference according to various demographic characteristics and social media usage attitudes. The research was designed as a cross-sectional research in the relational survey model, which is one of the quantitative research methods, one of the general survey model. The study group consist of a total of 105 students who are 1st year students in Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Department of Social Work (n=57) and Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation (n=48). Body Image Coping Strategies Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and Personal Information Form were used as data collection tools. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 program using statistical analyses method. The findings show that there is a significant difference between the participants’ self-esteem and their use of appearance correction strategy and their selfie-taking behaviors. There is a positive and low correlation between avoidance and self-esteem, and the avoidance variable was a significant predictor of self-esteem. As a result, the examination of the emerging adulthood was considered important fot the future of societies and the concepts of body image/self-esteem were evaluated together with the technological development.
Article
El uso de las redes sociales por los menores, además de ser una práctica muy extendida, es un factor que influye en la construcción de su identidad personal y social. Youtubers e influencers son los nuevos modelos a seguir, inciden en el pensamiento y en la forma de actuar de los preadolescentes. Esta influencia repercute en su elección vocacional y su proyecto de vida. Es por ello que nos cuestionamos cuáles son las variables que inciden en que los menores quieran ser youtubers o influencers, así como la idea que tienen acerca de estas nuevas profesiones. Para ello nos situaremos en un enfoque cuantitativo, donde se ha aplicado un cuestionario a 343 estudiantes andaluces de quinto y sexto curso de Educación Primaria. Los resultados evidencian que la variable narcisismo, es la que demuestra estar directamente relacionada con la intención de ser youtubers y/o influencers, no ocurriendo así con la autoestima. El sexo no se ha configurado como una variable que influya en este deseo, no así el nivel educativo. Como conclusión creemos que es básico favorecer entre los menores un pensamiento crítico que promueva la acción y la transformación personal, así como trabajar en el rasgo del narcisismo.
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Each person projects behavioral patterns through actions. Even in a virtual environment we express our way of seeing, feeling, and reacting to the world. The analysis of the data generated allows the identification of pattern behaviors associated with users. Therefore, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the user, the image he/she decided to express, and how he/she behaves in social media, which we name here the virtual persona. Machine learning techniques make it possible to develop a framework that allows to infer psychological and behavioral aspects of the virtual persona. The goal of this chapter is to introduce the virtual persona concept as a mechanism to understand social media users. Emphasis is given to the self-presentation of virtual persona, the perception of physical persona over virtual persona, and the description of three computational frameworks to study virtual persona, what we call here the virtual persona triad.
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“Selfies,” where people take self-portraits with their mobile phones held at arm’s length, have become one of the defining features of the millennial generation. Given their ubiquity, which is intrinsically linked with social networking sites, it tends to be forgotten that the selfie originated in the age of film cameras and found its first wave popularity with the arrival of disposable cameras in the 1990s. This paper describes and discusses the Konica Waiwai, the first and only disposable film camera specifically designed for selfie photography. First produced in 2002, it was soon supplanted by the development of cell phones with built-in cameras suitable for taking “selfies.”
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الهاتف الذكي هو حرفيًا أمام أنفنا باستمرار، وهو الأمر الذي يجعلك تعتقد اننا نعرف ما هو. لكن هل نحن نعرفه فعلاً؟ للإجابة على ذلك، قام 11 من علماء الأنثروبولوجيا بقضاء 16 شهرًا في مجتمعات في إفريقيا وآسيا وأوروبا وأمريكا الجنوبية، مع التركيز على استخدام كبار السن للهواتف الذكية. وقد أسفر ناتج بحثهم عن أن الهواتف الذكية هي تقنية للجميع ، وليس فقط من أجل الشباب. قدم الهاتف الذكي العالمي سلسلة من وجهات النظر الأصلية المشتقة من هذا المشروع البحثي العالمي والمقارن. الهواتف الذكية أصبحت مكانًا نعيش فيه بقدر ما هو جهاز نستخدمه لتوفير “الانتهازية الدائمة” ، وذلك نظراً لوجودهم الدائم معنا. يوضح المؤلفون كيف يتخطى الهاتف الذكي كونه أكثر من مجرد “جهاز تطبيقي”، ويقوموا باستكشاف الاختلافات بين ما يقوله الناس عن الهواتف الذكية وكيفية استخدامهم لها الهاتف الذكي هو غير مسبوق من حيث الدرجة التي يمكننا القيام بتحويلات له. ونتيجة لذلك ، فإنه يستوعب القيم الشخصية بشكل سريع. من أجل فهم الهاتف الذكي ، يجب أن نأخذ في الاعتبار مجموعة من الفروق الوطنية والثقافية ، مثل الاتصال المرئي في الصين واليابان ، الأموال المتنقلة في الكاميرون و أوغندا ، والوصول إلى المعلومات الصحية في تشيلي وأيرلندا – كل ذلك جنبًا إلى جنب مسارات متنوعة للشيخوخة في القدس والبرازيل وإيطاليا، وعندها فقط نستطيع معرفة ماهية الهاتف الذكي وفهم عواقبه على حياة الناس حول العالم دانيال ميللر هو أستاذ الأنثروبولوجيا في جامعة كاليفورنيا. ليلى عبد ربه هي باحثة في معهد هاري س. ترومان لتعزيز السلام. باتريك أووندو هو باحث ما بعد الدكتوراه في الأنثروبولوجيا بجامعة كاليفورنيا ، ومحاضر في جامعة ياوندي. مايا ده - فريس هي باحثة ما بعد الدكتوراه في الجامعة العبرية في القدس. ماريليا دوكي هي باحثة في المدرسة العليا للإعلام والتسويق بساو باولو. بولين غارفي هي أستاذة مساعدة في الأنثروبولوجيا في جامعة ماينوث بمقاطعة كيلدير بإيرلندا. لورا هابيو كيرك لورا هابيو كيرك هي طالبة دكتوراه بقسم الأنثروبولوجيا في كلية لندن الجامعية، وزميلة ببرنامج ال “ليتش / راي” في الأنثروبولوجيا العامة. شارلوت هوكينز هي باحثة ما بعد الدكتوراه بقسم الأنثروبولوجيا في كلية لندن الجامعية. ألفونسو أوتيغي هو محاضر في الجامعة البابوية الكاثوليكية في شيلي. شيرين والتون هي محاضرة في الأنثروبولوجيا في كلية جولد سميث بجامعة لندن. شينيوان وانغ هي باحثة ما بعد الدكتوراه في كلية لندن الج
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[Purpose/meaning] As the development of social media and the rise of visual culture, image in the social media has received more and more attention from scholars and sorting out its content is beneficial to clarifying the related research of images in social media and provide a new research perspective. [Method/procedure] This article takes the image literature in social media as the research object, carries on the keyword analysis to the literature and summarizes the typical research methods. Then this paper adopts analytic induction method to summarize the research progress of images in social media in recent ten years from the perspective of “publisher-information-receiver” in information interaction. [Results/conclusions] Through the analysis of research topics, it is found that the feature of images on social media and user’s information interaction behavior based on image are the key content that researchers pay attention to. Studies on images in social media can be divided into three parts:the characteristics of images in social media, image publishing behavior in social media, and image perception and acquisition behavior of social media users.[Innovation/value]This paper constructs a systematic cognitive frame for image research in social media, summarizes the existing research results, and predicts the future research from three aspects: the impact of image-based information interaction on users’ social relationships in social media environments, the problem of user privacy disclosure in image social communication and the advancement of computer vision technique in image research in social media environment.
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Objective. The stude presents a study aimed at clarifying the psychological meaning of the selfie phenomenon, the role of selfie in the life of modern teenagers. Materials and methods. The study involved 22 people, 13 girls and 9 boys, among them 17 high school students, aged 14—17, and 5 university students, aged 18—21. Interviews were conducted with the participants, and a discussion was organized regarding the issues of use and attitudes towards selfies. Processing of interview and discussion materials was carried out with the help of thematic and content analysis. Results. Various views on the psychological nature of the selfie, the reasons for its popularity among young people are considered. The author’s interpretation of the phenomenon of selfie in the context of the theory of «transitional object» by D.W. Winnicott and A. Langley’s existential analysis is presented. The paper shows that selfie is a new means of knowing oneself, building a true image of oneself through a virtual image of the body in the space between the image of the Self and reality.
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RESUMO A internet tem se mostrado como um meio de se fazer contatos múltiplos, sejam eles pessoais ou profissionais. Embora o uso das mídias sociais não seja problemático, um pequeno número de usuários parece se envolver nas mídias sociais excessivamente e / ou compulsivamente, isto é, vício pelo uso. Alguns traços de personalidade, tal como narcisismo entre outros, são conhecidos por prever comportamentos anômalos, portanto é importante entender como essas características se relacionam com os comportamentos online. O objetivo foi verificar na literatura recente como está sendo avaliada a relação narcisismo e internet. Foram realizadas pesquisas na base de dados ScienceDirect utilizando-se as palavras "narcissism and the internet". Foram encontrados 26 artigos e selecionados 21. Entre os artigos avaliados, treze abordaram diretamente o tema narcisismo; três, abordaram o narcisismo entre os usuários do Facebook; cinco, mencionaram narcisismo somente como um dos aspectos da pesquisa ou do comportamento sem avaliarem diretamente e três, abordaram os temas sexting, comportamento e selfie. O que se pode inferir é que não há uma opinião formada sobre se o uso da internet impacta as relações sociais, mas alguns pesquisadores sugeriram que mídia social tem o potencial de unir a aprendizagem formal e informal e compartilhar novas informações e conhecimentos pode beneficiar os estudantes e melhorar suas vidas no campus.
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Boys and men with eating disorders remain a population that is under-recognized and underserved within both research and clinical contexts. It has been well documented that boys and men with eating disorders often exhibit distinct clinical presentations with regard to core cognitive (e.g., body image) and behavioral (e.g., pathological exercise) symptoms. Such differences, along with the greater likelihood of muscularity-oriented disordered eating among boys and men, emphasize the importance of understanding and recognizing unique factors of clinical relevance within this population. This book reviews the most up-to-date research findings on eating disorders among boys and men, with an emphasis on clinically salient information across multiple domains. Five sections are included, with the first focused on a historical overview and the unique nature and prevalence of specific forms of eating disorder symptoms and body image concerns in boys and men. The second section details population-specific considerations for the diagnosis and assessment of eating disorders, body image concerns, and muscle dysmorphia in boys and men. The third section identifies unique concerns regarding medical complications and care in this population, including medical complications of appearance and performance-enhancing substances. The fourth section reviews current findings and considerations for eating disorder prevention and intervention for boys and men. The fifth section of the book focuses on specific populations (e.g., sexual minorities, gender minorities) and addresses sociocultural factors of particular relevance for eating disorders in boys and men (e.g., racial and ethnic considerations, cross-cultural considerations). The book then concludes with a concise overview of key takeaways and a focused summary of current evidence gaps and unanswered questions, as well as directions for future research. Written by experts in the field, Eating Disorders in Boys and Men is a comprehensive guide to an under-reported topic. It is an excellent resource for primary care physicians, adolescent medicine physicians, pediatricians, psychologists, clinical social workers, and any other professional conducting research with or providing clinical care for boys and men with eating disorders. It is also an excellent resource for students, residents, fellows, and trainees across various disciplines.
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Speculation that social networking sites (SNSs) breed narcissism has produced research with mixed results (e.g., Bergman, Fearrington, Davenport, & Bergman, 20113. Bergman , S. M. , Fearrington , M. E. , Davenport , S. W. , & Bergman , J. Z. ( 2011 ). Millennials, narcissism, and social networking: What narcissists do on social networking sites and why . Personality and Individual Differences , 50 , 706 – 711 . doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.12.022 [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references; Buffardi & Campbell, 20084. Buffardi , L. E. , & Campbell , W. K. ( 2008 ). Narcissism and social networking Web sites . Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 34 , 1303 – 1314 . [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®]View all references). This study viewed SNSs as tools for communication and maintaining relationships, examining whether providing information about oneself reflects a positive attitude about sharing such information with one's social network, rather than reflecting narcissism. A questionnaire was completed by 233 undergraduate students. Results indicated that attitude toward being open about sharing information about oneself was significantly related to frequency of using Facebook® and Twitter to provide self-focused updates. Higher levels of narcissism were associated with a larger number of Facebook friends and with the number of self-focused “tweets” an individual sends.
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In recent years, Facebook has become the most popular of social networking sites (SNSs). Due to its increasing popularity and rising number of its users, the phenomenon of Facebook has aroused academic interest as well. There has been a growing number of studies on this subject. The aim of this article is to present the main trends in Facebook research and to provide an overview of major empirical findings. Among the most intensively explored topics in Facebook research, studies that concentrate on personality and individual differences among users, the role of self-efficacy, and motivation for using that specific SNS were identified. There is also a growing trend in empirical studies that focuses on testing advanced theoretical models of Facebook usage determinants. Technology acceptance model, presented in this article, is one of the most often used among them. This kind of approach may serve as a suggestion for a methodological conceptualization in the future confirmatory research on Facebook.
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With the growth of the Internet comes a growth in a ubiquitous networked society. Common Web 2.0 applications include a rapidly growing trend for social network sites. Social network sites typically converged different relationship types into one group of “friends.” However, with such vast interconnectivity, convergence of relationships, and information sharing by individual users comes an increased risk of privacy violations. We asked a small sample of participants to discuss what friendship and privacy meant to them and to give examples of a privacy violation they had experienced. A thematic analysis was conducted on the interviews to determine the issues discussed by the participants. Many participants experienced privacy issues using the social network site Facebook. The results are presented here and discussed in relation to online privacy concerns, notably social network site privacy concerns and managing such information.
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The social networking site, Facebook, has gained an enormous amount of popularity. In this article, we review the literature on the factors contributing to Facebook use. We propose a model suggesting that Facebook use is motivated by two primary needs: (1) The need to belong and (2) the need for self-presentation. Demographic and cultural factors contribute to the need to belong, whereas neuroticism, narcissism, shyness, self-esteem and self-worth contribute to the need for self presentation. Areas for future research are discussed.
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The present investigation examined associations among narcissism, age, ethnicity, world region, and gender, using a large (n=3445) sample of participants representing several different world regions and ethnicities. The results suggest that (1) reported narcissism declines in older participants, (2) consistent with previous findings, males report being more narcissistic than females, (3) that ethnic differences in reported narcissism are generally comparable to those found in the self-esteem literature, and (4) that world region appears to exert influence on narcissism, with participants from more individualistic societies reporting more narcissism. The results are discussed in terms of how age and culture might impact narcissism and how future research might address this topic.
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Narcissism is characterized in part by an acute concern for one’s appearance. Despite this fundamental aspect of narcissism, little is known about whether narcissism is manifested in features of physical appearance. Can you tell if someone is narcissistic just by looking at them? Our results indicate that snap judgments of narcissism based on full-body photographs are at least as accurate as snap judgments of any of the big five personality traits. Narcissists are more likely to wear expensive, flashy clothing, have an organized, neat appearance requiring a lot of preparation, and (in females) wear makeup and show cleavage. Furthermore, observers’ judgments correlate with the presence of these cues, suggesting that they are drawing on the correct information when making their judgments. Finally, observers’ judgments are associated with three of the four facets of narcissism and capture the unique constellation of personality traits typical of narcissists (i.e., high extraversion and low agreeableness). These findings suggest that physical appearance reflects narcissists’ personality, preoccupation with good looks, and desire to be the center of attention, and serves as a vehicle with which to promote their status.
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Within the cultural context of MySpace, this study explores the ways emerging adults experience social networking. Through focus group methodology, the role of virtual peer interaction in the development of personal, social, and gender identities was investigated. Findings suggest that college students utilize MySpace for identity exploration, engaging in social comparison and expressing idealized aspects of the selves they wish to become. The public nature of self and relationship displays introduce feedback mechanisms by which emerging adults can legitimize images as associated with the self. Also, male–female differences in self-presentation parallel, and possibly intensify, gender norms offline. Our study suggests that social networking sites provide valuable opportunities for emerging adults to realize possible selves; however, increased pressure for female sexual objectification and intensified social comparison may also negatively impact identity development. A balanced view, presenting both opportunities and drawbacks, should be encouraged in policies regarding youth participation in social networking sites.
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The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very limited understanding of what the term “Social Media” exactly means; this article intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media.
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The aim of this research was to investigate age differences and similarities in the use of the social networking website MySpace, to explore potential differences in social capital among older people (users over 60 years of age) compared to teenagers (users between 13 and 19 years of age). We used locally developed web crawlers to collect data from MySpace’s user profile pages, and to quantify any differences that exist in the networks of friends of older people and teenagers. Content analysis was applied to investigate differences in social activities between the two age groups on MySpace, and the way they represent themselves on their profile pages. Our findings show a social capital divide: teenagers have larger networks of friends compared to older users of MySpace. On the other hand, we found that the majority of teenage users’ friends are in their own age range (age ± 2 years), whilst older people’s networks of friends tend to have a more diverse age distribution. In addition, our results show that teenagers tend to make more use of different media (e.g. video, music) within MySpace and use more self-references and negative emotions when describing themselves on their profile compared to older people.
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The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies provided support for a three-factor model consisting of the dimensions of Leadership/Authority, Grandiose Exhibitionism, and Entitlement/Exploitativeness. The Leadership/Authority dimension was generally linked to adaptive outcomes whereas the other two dimensions, particularly Entitlement/Exploitativeness, were generally linked to maladaptive outcomes. These results suggest that researchers interested in the psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with the NPI should examine correlates at the facet level. In light of the findings, we propose a hierarchical model for the structure of the NPI and provide researchers with a scoring scheme for this commonly used instrument.
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Given the rapid changes in the communication landscape brought about by participative Internet use and social media, it is important to develop a better understanding of these technologies and their impact on health communication. The first step in this effort is to identify the characteristics of current social media users. Up-to-date reporting of current social media use will help monitor the growth of social media and inform health promotion/communication efforts aiming to effectively utilize social media. The purpose of the study is to identify the sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with current adult social media users in the United States. Data came from the 2007 iteration of the Health Information National Trends Study (HINTS, N = 7674). HINTS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey on health-related communication trends and practices. Survey respondents who reported having accessed the Internet (N = 5078) were asked whether, over the past year, they had (1) participated in an online support group, (2) written in a blog, (3) visited a social networking site. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of each type of social media use. Approximately 69% of US adults reported having access to the Internet in 2007. Among Internet users, 5% participated in an online support group, 7% reported blogging, and 23% used a social networking site. Multivariate analysis found that younger age was the only significant predictor of blogging and social networking site participation; a statistically significant linear relationship was observed, with younger categories reporting more frequent use. Younger age, poorer subjective health, and a personal cancer experience predicted support group participation. In general, social media are penetrating the US population independent of education, race/ethnicity, or health care access. Recent growth of social media is not uniformly distributed across age groups; therefore, health communication programs utilizing social media must first consider the age of the targeted population to help ensure that messages reach the intended audience. While racial/ethnic and health status-related disparities exist in Internet access, among those with Internet access, these characteristics do not affect social media use. This finding suggests that the new technologies, represented by social media, may be changing the communication pattern throughout the United States.
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Research comparing the leadership styles of women and men is reviewed, and evidence is found for both the presence and the absence of differences between the sexes. In contrast to the gender-stereotypic expectation that women lead in an interpersonally oriented style and men in a task-oriented style, female and male leaders did not differ in these two styles in organizational studies. However, these aspects of leadership style were somewhat gender stereotypic in the two other classes of leadership studies investigated, namely (a) laboratory experiments and (b) assessment studies, which were defined as research that assessed the leadership styles of people not selected for occupancy of leadership roles. Consistent with stereotypic expectations about a different aspect of leadership style, the tendency to lead democratically or autocratically, women tended to adopt a more democratic or participative style and a less autocratic or directive style than did men. This sex difference appeared in all three classes of leadership studies, including those conducted in organizations. These and other findings are interpreted in terms of a social role theory of sex differences in social behavior.
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The social network site Facebook is a rapidly expanding phenomenon that is changing the nature of social relationships. Anecdotal evidence, including information described in the popular media, suggests that Facebook may be responsible for creating jealousy and suspicion in romantic relationships. The objectives of the present study were to explore the role of Facebook in the experience of jealousy and to determine if increased Facebook exposure predicts jealousy above and beyond personal and relationship factors. Three hundred eight undergraduate students completed an online survey that assessed demographic and personality factors and explored respondents' Facebook use. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis, controlling for individual, personality, and relationship factors, revealed that increased Facebook use significantly predicts Facebook-related jealousy. We argue that this effect may be the result of a feedback loop whereby using Facebook exposes people to often ambiguous information about their partner that they may not otherwise have access to and that this new information incites further Facebook use. Our study provides evidence of Facebook's unique contributions to the experience of jealousy in romantic relationships.
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This article analyzes the topic of leadership from an evolutionary perspective and proposes three conclusions that are not part of mainstream theory. First, leading and following are strategies that evolved for solving social coordination problems in ancestral environments, including in particular the problems of group movement, intragroup peacekeeping, and intergroup competition. Second, the relationship between leaders and followers is inherently ambivalent because of the potential for exploitation of followers by leaders. Third, modern organizational structures are sometimes inconsistent with aspects of our evolved leadership psychology, which might explain the alienation and frustration of many citizens and employees. The authors draw several implications of this evolutionary analysis for leadership theory, research, and practice.
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The present research examined how narcissism is manifested on a social networking Web site (i.e., Facebook.com). Narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from social networking Web page owners. Then their Web pages were coded for both objective and subjective content features. Finally, strangers viewed the Web pages and rated their impression of the owner on agentic traits, communal traits, and narcissism. Narcissism predicted (a) higher levels of social activity in the online community and (b) more self-promoting content in several aspects of the social networking Web pages. Strangers who viewed the Web pages judged more narcissistic Web page owners to be more narcissistic. Finally, mediational analyses revealed several Web page content features that were influential in raters' narcissistic impressions of the owners, including quantity of social interaction, main photo self-promotion, and main photo attractiveness. Implications of the expression of narcissism in social networking communities are discussed.
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An online survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. men aged 18-40 assessed trait predictors of social networking site use as well as two forms of visual self-presentation: editing one’s image in photographs posted on social networking sites (SNSs) and posting “selfies,” or pictures users take of themselves. We examined the Dark Triad (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) and trait self-objectification as predictors. Self-objectification and narcissism predicted time spent on SNSs. Narcissism and psychopathy predicted the number of selfies posted, whereas narcissism and self-objectification predicted editing photographs of oneself posted on SNSs. We discuss selective self-presentation processes on social media and how these traits may influence interpersonal relationship development in computer-mediated communication.
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The pervasiveness of social networking sites and the popularity of status updates have prompted the question whether excessive online self-presentation is motivated by narcissism. The present studies assessed (1) whether this concern is shared by users of social networking sites, and (2) the actual relationship between narcissism and frequency of status updates using self- and informant reports of narcissism and an observational measure of status updating activity. Results confirmed that users of social networking sites believe that narcissism strongly predicts status updating activity. However, analyses of the actual relationship in a German and US sample yielded null-results. Using the equivalence testing approach allowed us to conclude that the effect of narcissism on status updating activity is not substantial.
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The current study explores the relationship between personality traits and self-presentation at Facebook. An online survey of Facebook users was conducted. The results suggest that extraversion was positively related to self-presentation both on Wall and at News Feed. Extraverts uploaded photos and updated status more frequently, and had more friends displayed on Wall than introverts. Besides, extraverts clicked Like, wrote Comment and clicked Share at News Feed more frequently than introverts. Moreover, narcissists with high rivalry frequently updated their Status on Wall. In addition, neuroticism and conscientiousness were negatively related to writing Comment at News Feed. Lastly, openness to experience was negatively related to clicking Share at News Feed. The results and implications are discussed in conjunction with previous research. Suggestions for future research are provided.
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This study examined the relationship between three of the “Big Five” traits (neuroticism, extraversion, and openness), self-esteem, loneliness and narcissism, and Facebook use. Participants were 393 first year undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who completed an online questionnaire. Negative binomial regression models showed that students with higher openness levels reported spending more time on Facebook and having more friends on Facebook. Interestingly, students with higher levels of loneliness reported having more Facebook friends. Extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and narcissism did not have significant associations with Facebook use. It was concluded that students who are high in openness use Facebook to connect with others in order to discuss a wide range of interests, whereas students who are high in loneliness use the site to compensate for their lack of offline relationships.
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It has been suggested that personality factors are related to an individuals’ use of social networking sites (SNSs). The present research explores the relationships between the Big Five Personality factors, narcissism, self-esteem, and sensation seeking and individuals’ use of specific features of SNS. Self-reports were collected from 265 SNS users from a university in China. Regression analyses revealed that personality factors play an important role in how SNS are used. Specifically, extraverts are more likely to use the communicative function of SNS including status update, comment, and adding more friends. Neurotic are more likely to use the feature of status update as a way of self-expression. Agreeable individuals tend to make more comments on others’ profiles. Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely to comment on others’ profiles. Users scoring high on openness and sensation seeking are more likely to play online games on SNS. Narcissistic users are more likely to upload their attractive photos on SNS and tend to use update status more frequently for self-presentation. Gender also played an important role in predicting types of SNS use. Males reported more SNS friends and were more likely to play online games than were females, who were more likely to upload self-photos and update their status.
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Social Networking Sites (e.g. Facebook), which afford self-presentation, are gaining popularity amongst adolescents. This study examined the relationship of narcissism and extraversion on adolescents’ self-presentation in four Facebook profile features (profile picture, status updates, social network size, photo count), as reported by Grade 7–Grade 9 adolescents. After accounting for extraversion, narcissism predicted features presenting self-generated content (profile picture rating, status update frequency), but not features presenting system-generated content (social network size, photo count).
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Abstract The rising popularity of social networking sites raises the question of whether and how personality differences are manifested on them. The present study explores this topic through an analysis of the relationship between narcissism and motivations behind Facebook profile picture selection. A survey that assesses motivations emphasizing physical attractiveness, personality, and social ties was conducted with 288 undergraduate students. The study found narcissism to be a significant predictor of the motivation for selecting profile pictures that emphasize attractiveness and personality for both men and women. The findings are discussed in terms of the dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism.
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Examined the self-fulfilling influences of social stereotypes on dyadic social interaction. Conceptual analysis suggests that a perceiver's actions based upon stereotype-generated attributions about a specific target individual may cause the behavior of that individual to confirm the perceiver's initially erroneous attributions. A paradigmatic investigation of the behavioral confirmation of stereotypes involving physical attractiveness (e.g., "beautiful people are good people") is presented. 51 male "perceivers" interacted with 51 female "targets" (all undergraduates) whom they believed to be physically attractive or physically unattractive. Tape recordings of each participant's conversational behavior were analyzed by naive observer judges for evidence of behavioral confirmation. Results reveal that targets who were perceived (unknown to them) to be physically attractive came to behave in a friendly, likeable, and sociable manner in comparison with targets whose perceivers regarded them as unattractive. (42 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A survey (N = 292) was conducted that measured self-promoting Facebook behaviors (e.g. posting status updates and photos of oneself, updating profile information) and several anti-social behaviors (e.g. seeking social support more than one provides it, getting angry when people do not comment on one's status updates, retaliating against negative comments). The grandiose exhibitionism subscale of the narcissistic personality inventory was hypothesized to predict the self-promoting behaviors. The entitlement/explo-itativeness subscale was hypothesized to predict the anti-social behaviors. Results were largely consistent with the hypothesis for the self-promoting behaviors but mixed concerning the anti-social behaviors. Trait self-esteem was also related in the opposite manner as the Narcissism scales to some Facebook behaviors.
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Facebook is quickly becoming one of the most popular tools for social communication. However, Facebook is somewhat different from other Social Networking Sites as it demonstrates an offline-to-online trend; that is, the majority of Facebook Friends are met offline and then added later. The present research investigated how the Five-Factor Model of personality relates to Facebook use. Despite some expected trends regarding Extraversion and Openness to Experience, results indicated that personality factors were not as influential as previous literature would suggest. The results also indicated that a motivation to communicate was influential in terms of Facebook use. It is suggested that different motivations may be influential in the decision to use tools such as Facebook, especially when individual functions of Facebook are being considered.
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Online social networking sites have revealed an entirely new method of self-presentation. This cyber social tool provides a new site of analysis to examine personality and identity. The current study examines how narcissism and self-esteem are manifested on the social networking Web site Facebook.com . Self-esteem and narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from 100 Facebook users at York University. Participant Web pages were also coded based on self-promotional content features. Correlation analyses revealed that individuals higher in narcissism and lower in self-esteem were related to greater online activity as well as some self-promotional content. Gender differences were found to influence the type of self-promotional content presented by individual Facebook users. Implications and future research directions of narcissism and self-esteem on social networking Web sites are discussed.
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We examined the internal and external validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Study 1 explored the internal structure of the NPI responses of 1,018 subjects. Using principal-components analysis, we analyzed the tetrachoric correlations among the NPI item responses and found evidence for a general construct of narcissism as well as seven first-order components, identified as Authority, Exhibitionism, Superiority, Vanity, Exploitativeness, Entitlement, and Self-Sufficiency. Study 2 explored the NPI's construct validity with respect to a variety of indexes derived from observational and self-report data in a sample of 57 subjects. Study 3 investigated the NPI's construct validity with respect to 128 subject's self and ideal self-descriptions, and their congruency, on the Leary Interpersonal Check List. The results from Studies 2 and 3 tend to support the construct validity of the full-scale NPI and its component scales.
(n.d.). Selfie. Retrieved from <http
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Oxford Online Dictionaries (2015a). (n.d.). Selfie. Retrieved from <http://www. oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/selfie>.
(n.d.). Selfie. Retrieved from <http
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Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2015b). (n.d.). Selfie. Retrieved from <http:// www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/selfie>.