Objective: Mental health treatment today incorporates neurobiology, genetics, neuro-imaging, and pharmacologic mechanisms, offering more options to patients. For some, these modern approaches are not viable choices due to reasons such as limited access to care, cost, intolerable side effects, and, in the pediatric population, fears of potential long-term effects. With the growing prevalence of chronic health conditions, concerns for age of onset, (McGorry, Purcell, Goldstone, & Amminger, 2011) and a growing population of mental health patients, cost-effective and evidence-based treatment options should be evaluated. Integrative treatments, also known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), may offer interventions that meet today’s clinical needs.
Method: To evaluate evidence-based treatment options, we initiated the school-based integrative health program (IHP) in January 2011 at three high schools located in Massachusetts. Our goal was two-fold: first, to design a holistic treatment program and evaluate several integrative modalities, and; second, to determine the feasibility of providing a CAM health program through school clinics. Our protocol utilized three integrative treatments that addressed stress and anxiety conditions. Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness affecting over 40 million adults in the US (Anxiety and Depression Association of America).
Results: The program has been successfully implemented. Preliminary results indicate that this intervention decreased anxiety in these youth.
Conclusion: Providing integrative techniques to students in the school setting has the potential to decrease barriers to accessing care, lowering treatment costs and decreasing school absenteeism by instituting care on-site. Offering a holistic approach to treatment in schools is feasible. Because utilizing these approaches involves their active participation, adolescents can acquire life-long skills that improve their ability to cope and confront inevitable life stressors.
We review the literature conjoining acupuncture, migraine, and cerebral hemodynamics. To do so, we searched PubMed in March 2013 for studies investigating cerebral hemodynamics with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound, and other tools in migraineurs, acupuncture recipients, and migraineurs receiving acupuncture. Our search identified 1321 distinct articles - acupuncture (n = 463), migraine (n = 866), and both (n = 8). Only three (n = 3) satisfied our inclusion criteria. Based on these three, we found the following: (1) Acupuncture may positively influence not just dynamic, but also static cerebral autoregulation during the interictal phase, depending on the intervals between sessions of acupuncture as dose units. (2) TCD can detect pretreatment differences between responders and non-responders to acupuncture, which may be predictive of clinical response. (3) "Point-through-point" needling (at angles connecting acupoints) may be clinically superior to standard acupuncture, thus needling angles may affect treatment effectiveness. None of the reviewed articles investigated patient responses during migraine attack. Although the 2009 Cochrane review affirmed acupuncture as effective prophylaxis for migraine, few studies investigated the cerebrovascular aspects - only analyzing arterial blood flow, but not microcirculation. Future research is warranted in monitoring brain tissue oxygenation to investigate acupuncture as both a preventive and abortive treatment for migraine, varying the type and dose interval and analyzing variations in clinical response.
Aromatherapy is the controlled use of plant essences for therapeutic purposes. Its applications are numerous (i.e., wellbeing, labour, infections, dementia, and anxiety treatment) but often they have not been scientifically validated. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature to determine if there is evidence for effectiveness of aromatherapy in surgical patients to treat anxiety and insomnia, to control pain and nausea, and to dress wound. Efficacy studies of lavender or orange and peppermint essential oils, to treat anxiety and nausea, respectively, have shown positive results. For other aspects, such as pain control, essential oils therapy has shown uncertain results. Finally, there are encouraging data for the treatment of infections, especially for tea tree oil, although current results are still inconclusive. It should also be considered that although they are, allergic reactions and toxicity can occur after oral ingestion. Therefore, while rigorous studies are being carried out, it is important that the therapeutic use of essential oils be performed in compliance with clinical safety standards.
Use of alternative medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension is common in low as well as high income countries. This study estimated the proportion of people who were aware of their hypertension that use alternative medicine and identified factors predicting the use of alternative medicine.
In a community based cross sectional survey among people >= 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda 258 people aware of their hypertension were questioned about use of alternative medicine for hypertension, advice about uptake of life style intervention for hypertension control such as reduction of salt intake and about their attitude towards use of alternative medicine. Proportions of people who used alternative medicine and adopt life style interventions and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Predictors of using alternative medicine were identified using logistic binary regression analysis.
More than a half 144 (56.2%) had ever used alternative medicine whereas more than one in four 74 (28.6%) were currently using alternative medicine alone or in combination with modern medicine (50%). People who were using alternative medicine alone (29.7% CI 17.5-45.9) were less likely to have received advice on reduction of salt intake compared to those using modern medicine alone or in combination with traditional medicine (56.6%, CI 47.7-65.0). The only independent predictor for using alternative medicine was agreeing that alternative medicine is effective for treatment of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6; 95% CI 1.40-4.82).
The use of alternative medicine was common among patients with hypertension and usage was underpinned by the belief that alternative medicine is effective. As patients with hypertension use alternative medicine and modern medicine concurrently, there is need for open communication between health workers and patients regarding use of alternative medicine.
Errors in Byline, Author Affiliations, and Acknowledgment. In the Original Article titled “Prevalence, Severity, and Comorbidity of 12-Month DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication,” published in the June issue of the ARCHIVES (2005;62:617-627), an author’s name was inadvertently omitted from the byline on page 617. The byline should have appeared as follows: “Ronald C. Kessler, PhD; Wai Tat Chiu, AM; Olga Demler, MA, MS; Kathleen R. Merikangas, PhD; Ellen E. Walters, MS.” Also on that page, the affiliations paragraph should have appeared as follows: Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass (Drs Kessler, Chiu, Demler, and Walters); Section on Developmental Genetic Epidemiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Md (Dr Merikangas). On page 626, the acknowledgment paragraph should have appeared as follows: We thank Jerry Garcia, BA, Sara Belopavlovich, BA, Eric Bourke, BA, and Todd Strauss, MAT, for assistance with manuscript preparation and the staff of the WMH Data Collection and Data Analysis Coordination Centres for assistance with instrumentation, fieldwork, and consultation on the data analysis. We appreciate the helpful comments of William Eaton, PhD, Michael Von Korff, ScD, and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, PhD, on earlier manuscripts. Online versions of this article on the Archives of General Psychiatry Web site were corrected on June 10, 2005.
Sleep has restorative powers. Studies from Hill et al. and Nelson et al. indicate that sleep is important for nematodes to recover from cellular stress. Hill et al. report that Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to noxious heat or cold, ethanol, or hyperosmotic stress ceased feeding and reduced their locomotor activity. After removal of the noxious stimulus, the animals entered a temporary sleep-like state, in which they became even more behaviorally quiescent and unresponsive to sensory stimulation, before returning to normal activities. Animals lacking the ALA neuron did not enter this sleep-like state following removal of the stressful stimulus. Epidermal growth factors (EGFs) have been implicated in inducing sleep in vertebrates, and overexpressing the EGF homolog lin-3 in C. elegans induces behavioral quiescence in a manner requiring the EGF receptor LET-23 and the EGF pathway mediator phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) in the ALA neuron. Compared with wild-type worms, worms with reduced LIN-3, LET-23, or PLC-γ were less quiescent during recovery from heat stress. Worms lacking the stress-responsive transcription factors HSF-1 or DAF-16 or the chaperone HSP-4 remained behaviorially quiescent longer than wild-type worms following heat stress, and worms lacking the ALA neuron or PLC-γ showed reduced survival following extreme heat stress. Nelson et al. found that depolarization of the ALA neuron was required for stress-induced behavioral quiescence, because silencing the ALA neuron by expressing a histamine-gated chloride channel in this cell repressed post-stress behavioral quiescence in the presence of histamine. Depolarizing ALA by expressing a light-activated cation channel in this neuron induced behavioral quiescence. The ALA neuron expressed flp-13, which encodes a neuropeptide related to FMRFamide, and heat shock increased the expression of flp-13. FLP-13 was required in the ALA neuron for behavorial quiescence following heat stress, and flp-13 mutants showed reduced quiescence in response to lin-3 overexpression. Finally, animals overexpressing flp-13 were more behaviorally quiescent than wild-type animals following mild heat stress. A membrane-tethered form of LIN-3 that is present in the pharynx can be proteolytically cleaved to release the active EGF domain. The authors hypothesize that heat stress induces the cleavage and release of LIN-3, which activates LET-23 on the ALA neuron, leading to depolarization and release of FLP-13, which induces quiescence. Not only do these findings confirm that sleep serves a protective function that allows for the recovery from cellular stress, they suggest a mechanism by which cellular stress reversibly induces sleep.