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Consistent evidence from population studies report that 10-15% of the total burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with workplace exposures. This proportion of COPD could be eliminated if harmful workplace exposures were controlled adequately. To produce a standard of care for clinicians, occupational health professionals, employers and employees on the identification and management of occupational COPD. A systematic literature review was used to identify published data on the prevention, identification and management of occupational COPD. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidance Network grading and the Royal College of General Practitioner three star grading system were used to grade the evidence. There are a number of specific workplace exposures that are established causes of COPD. Taking an occupational history in patients or workers with possible or established COPD will identify these. Reduction in exposure to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes at work is likely to be the most effective method for reducing occupational COPD. Identification of workers with rapidly declining lung function, irrespective of their specific exposure, is important. Individuals can be identified at work by accurate annual measures of lung function. Early identification of cases with COPD is important so that causality can be considered and action taken to reduce causative exposures thereby preventing further harm to the individual and other workers who may be similarly exposed. This can be achieved using a combination of a respiratory questionnaire, accurate lung function measurements and control of exposures in the workplace. © Crown copyright 2015.
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... A study conducted in Spain found that COPD prevalence was 9% in men aged over 40 years and 20% of those over 65 years (Aisanov et al., 2019). Overall, 10-15% of COPD sufferers are associated with occupational exposure (Fishwick et al., 2015). The incidence of COPD is relatively high among workers due to exposure to steam, dust, gas, and smoke in the work environment. ...
... Ginger contains many components of active ingredie nts , such as phenolics and terpenes. Ginger acts as an antioxidant by inhibiting the production of reactive species antigens and lipid peroxidase (Fishwick et al., 2015; Perhimpuna n Based on the Shapiro Wilk test, the distribution of data from observations of neutrophils in the unpaired group difference test passed the normality requirements, the different test with independent t-test, namely pre-test and post-test data. Meanwhile, data that did not meet the assumption of normality using the Mann Whitney test, namely the post-test difference data. ...
... Ginger contains many components of active ingredients, such as phenolics and terpenes. Ginger acts as an antioxidant by inhibiting the production of reactive species antigens and lipid peroxidase (Fishwick et al., 2015;Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia, 2016). ...
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ABSTRACT Health problems that are often encountered due to work are respiratory disorders that cause premature death every year. Exposure to pollution is harmful to health, and chronic exposure causes lung cancer and COPD. The use of masks is an alternative in reducing exposure to pollution. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the habit of wearing masks on the incidence of respiratory symptoms disorder of online motorcycle taxi drivers in Malang. This study was an analytic observation with a cross-sectional design. Samples were determined using the comparative bivariate analytical sample formula. The data were analyzed using a univariate test and bivariate analysis with a chi-square test. This study showed a significant relationship between the habit of wearing a mask with p score = 0.015 (p
... A study conducted in Spain found that COPD prevalence was 9% in men aged over 40 years and 20% of those over 65 years (Aisanov et al., 2019). Overall, 10-15% of COPD sufferers are associated with occupational exposure (Fishwick et al., 2015). The incidence of COPD is relatively high among workers due to exposure to steam, dust, gas, and smoke in the work environment. ...
... Ginger contains many components of active ingredie nts , such as phenolics and terpenes. Ginger acts as an antioxidant by inhibiting the production of reactive species antigens and lipid peroxidase (Fishwick et al., 2015; Perhimpuna n Based on the Shapiro Wilk test, the distribution of data from observations of neutrophils in the unpaired group difference test passed the normality requirements, the different test with independent t-test, namely pre-test and post-test data. Meanwhile, data that did not meet the assumption of normality using the Mann Whitney test, namely the post-test difference data. ...
... Ginger contains many components of active ingredients, such as phenolics and terpenes. Ginger acts as an antioxidant by inhibiting the production of reactive species antigens and lipid peroxidase (Fishwick et al., 2015;Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia, 2016). ...
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ABSTRACT Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive disease characterized by airflow limitation that does not fully return to normal and is associated with the increased inflammatory response in the airways due to exposure to noxious particles or gases. Workers are susceptible to exposure to steam, dust, gases, and fumes in the work environment. Administration of antioxidants can be beneficial in COPD patients by reducing oxidative stress to reduce the inflammatory response. Ginger contains various active ingredients that act as antioxidants. The research design is a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test approach. The research subjects were 30 subjects workers diagnosed with COPD. Subjects were divided into two groups: the control group was given standard therapy, the treatment group was given standard therapy and ginger extract. The treatment was given for one month, then the neutrophil and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores were checked. The data were analyzed with an unpaired difference test. The treatment group (-5.67 +2.32) experienced more CAT decline than the control group (-0.73 +1.28) and showed a significant difference; this was evidenced in the unpaired difference test on the post-pre difference value (p
... Reduction of exposure to respiratory irritants, e.g. by changes in ventilation system or in work processes, move to a different work area, use of appropriate masks for short-term exposure, etc., obtains sufficient protection of triggering symptoms in the working patient. If measures for reduction of exposure are not successful, the working patient should be removed to a workplace with fewer triggers [61][62][63][64]. ...
... Tertiary prevention includes measures for management and rehabilitation of advanced disease, i.e. pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, as well as eventually retirement or removal to workplace with few triggers depending on severity of the disease, work ability and work conditions at the certain workplace [62,63]. ...
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Introduction Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, i.e. work-related asthma (WRA) and occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are the most common occupational lung diseases in the last decades worldwide. As in the case of the other occupational disorders, these diseases may be prevented. Areas covered WRA is a heterogeneous entity that includes three subtypes, immunologic occupational asthma (OA), irritant-induced asthma (IIA) and work-exacerbated asthma (WEA), depending on the role of occupational exposures as a causing or aggravating factor of the disease. In addition, there is consistent evidence that a substantial proportion of COPD cases can be explained by exposure to noxious particles and gases other than tobacco smoke, such as workplace dusts, gases, fumes, and vapors. The articles cited in this paper were searched by keywords in several databases in the period up to May-July 2021. Expert opinion The development of occupational chronic obstructive disorder is a matter of prevention. WRA and occupational COPD contribute significantly to the overall burden of asthma and COPD. Activities and measures targeted to elimination or reduction of harmful workplace exposures, as well as to early detection and early intervention in the course of the lung damage, can significantly reduce the burden caused by these diseases.
... In addition, with 10-15% of COPD cases being attributed to workplace exposures, it is essential to look at the COPD burden based on occupation as well (Balmes et al., 2003). Fishwick et al. (2015) found 27 different occupations that are at an increased risk of COPD and harmful agents located at those workplaces that attribute to the increased risk of COPD. ...
Thesis
Public health institutions have come a long way in working to eliminate disease, but one that is still threatening the United States (U.S.) health care system is chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). COPD is the third highest cause of death globally, which leaves the medical and economic burden at an all-time high. There is a severe delay in diagnosis and treatment, which causes an underutilization of preventative care services. COPD care management is below the standard of quality care, which ultimately causes insufficient outcomes for patients and providers. This information alone is of high public health relevance, and is enough to call for a reform in the COPD treatment care path. Preventative care technique’s ability to be cost effective and their ability to improve overall patient outcomes in COPD patients will be examined thoroughly. The primary aim of this essay is to discuss the potential costs and benefits of including COPD support groups and motivational interviewing (MI) into a regular part of the COPD care pathway. Including these preventative measures into the COPD care pathway is the goal of this research in order to reduce readmissions and improve overall quality of life. Based on this research, the author will advocate to utilize these techniques in a prevention program.
... He had no history of smoking, recreational drug use or occupational exposures to substances including coal, cadmium or silica dusts. 1 His parents reported that he had feeding difficulties in childhood and mild learning difficulties. There was no family history of note. ...
... The main picture presented by the ODs in Table 1 confirms worker exposure and health impacts inflicted in South African general industry [91]. The ODs are attributable to exposure from physical agents such as noise [8,65,92,93], an array of hazardous chemical agents [92,[94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101] and hazardous biological agents such as mycobacterium tuberculosis [92,[102][103][104][105]. Tint [19] and Ashford [30] postulated, for instance, that a single worker is exposed to a combination or a part of these hazards, depending on the type of process and job category. ...
Article
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Operations in general industry, including manufacturing, expose employees to a myriad of occupational health hazards. To prevent exposure, occupational health and safety regulations were enacted, with both employers and workers instituting various risk reduction measures. The analysis of available occupational disease and injury statistics (indicators of worker physical health) can be used to infer the effectiveness of risk reduction measures and regulations in preventing exposure. Thus, using the READ approach, analyses of occupational disease and injury statistics from South African industry, derived from annual reports of the Compensation Fund, were conducted. The publicly available database of occupational disease and injury statistics from the South African general industry is unstructured, and the data are inconsistently reported. This data scarcity, symptomatic of an absence of a functional occupational disease surveillance system, complicates judgement making regarding the effectiveness of implemented risk reduction measures, enacted occupational health and safety regulations and the status of worker physical health from exposure to workplace hazards. The statistics, where available, indicate that workers continue to be exposed to occupational health impacts within general industry, notwithstanding risk reduction measures and enacted regulations. In particular, worker physical health continues to be impacted by occupational injuries and noise-induced hearing loss. This is suggestive of shortcomings and inefficiencies in industry-implemented preventive measures and the regulatory state. A robust national occupational disease surveillance system is a regulatory tool that should detect and direct policy responses to identified occupational health hazards.
... The occupations with the highest incidence of COPD are the mining, textile, agriculture, machine-building and chemical industries [20][21][22][23][24]. The most common causes of occupational chronic bronchitis are presented in Table 1. ...
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Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (oCOPD) represents 15–20% of the global burden of this disease. Even if industrial bronchitis has long been known, new occupational hazards continue to emerge and enlarge the number of people exposed to risk. This review discusses the challenges related to the early detection of oCOPD, in the context of new exposures and of limited usage of methods for an efficient disease occupational screening. It underlines that a better translation into clinical practice of the new methods for lung function impairment measurements, imaging techniques, or the use of serum or exhaled breath inflammation biomarkers could add significant value in the early detection of oCOPD. Such an approach would increase the chance to stop exposure at an earlier moment and to prevent or at least slow down the further deterioration of the lung function as a result of exposure to occupational (inhaled) hazards.
... 3 For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the major respiratory disease in terms of morbidity and mortality, tobacco smoking is the leading risk factor, accounting for 80% of the disease burden. 4 Transport, rescue and security industries are important part of a fully functioning modern society. They also provide employment for a considerable number of people: approximately 10% of the total labour force in Denmark work in these industries and the proportion is even higher among male workers. ...
Article
Objective To investigate the risk of hospitalisation for major chronic diseases across representative transport, rescue and security industries. Methods We performed a register-based study of 624 571 workers from six industries in Denmark between 2000 and 2005, followed up hospitalisation for chronic diseases up to 17 years, and compared with a 20% random sample of the economically active population. Results HR from the Cox regression models showed that seafarers had higher risk of lung cancer (men: 1.54, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.81; women: 1.63, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.36), and male seafarers had higher risk of diabetes (1.32, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.43) and oral cancer (1.51, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.88). Men and women in land transport had increased risk of diabetes (men: 1.68, 95% CI 1.63 to 1.73; women 1.55, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.71) and chronic respiratory disease (men: 1.21, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.25; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.53). Among women, a higher risk of gastrointestinal cancer was observed in aviation (1.53, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.89) and police force (1.29, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.65), oral cancer in defence forces (1.83, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.79), and chronic respiratory disease in rescue service (1.47, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.77), while men in defence forces, police force and rescue service had mainly lower risk of these chronic diseases. Conclusions We observed considerable health disparities from chronic diseases across transport, rescue and security industries, with workers in seafaring and land transport generally bearing the greatest relative burden.
Article
Introduction. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common occupational diseases registered in workers exposed to dust for a long time. This disease significantly worsens the quality of life, requires constant monitoring in the centers of occupational pathology and regular preventive measures. The proportion of COPD in the structure of occupational diseases has not changed significantly for decades, high rates of disability and premature mortality characterized this disease. The study aims to research the diagnostic parameters of COPD exacerbation under the influence of industrial aerosols and tobacco in the clinic of occupational diseases. Materials and methods. Researchers examined 153 patients with occupational COPD (toxic gases and inorganic dust). The comparison group consisted of 103 patients with smoking COPD. We established the diagnosis of COPD in accordance with the criteria of GOLD 2011. The duration of the study was 5 years. The authors conducted a complex of clinical and laboratory studies in all patients with an emphasis on the diagnostic parameters of COPD exacerbation and lung function. The critical significance level is p=0.05. Results. The development of occupational COPD under the influence of industrial aerosols and tobacco affects the frequency and predominant phenotype of exacerbations. Rare but severe exacerbations, mainly with eosinophilic type of inflammation, are present in COPD from the action of toxic gases. They respond well to therapy with systemic GCS. With COPD from the action of dust, hospitalization is not necessary for short-term exacerbations with neutrophilic type of inflammation, since such exacerbations respond to therapy with bronchodilators, and a significant proportion of exacerbations require the use of antibacterial therapy. Also, in COPD from the action of toxic gases, the experience of exposure to aerosols and gases of the production environment is an independent predictor of any exacerbations. But we do not have data on the significance of the length of service and the intensity of dust exposure. Conclusion. The risks of exacerbations of occupational COPD and the predicted features of their course depend on the etiological production factor, its intensity and duration of exposure. Clinical features determine different tactics of treatment and prevention of health deterioration. With the severity of COPD exacerbation from the action of toxic gases, symptoms of emphysema and hypoxemia are characteristic, with COPD from the action of dust, symptoms of bronchial obstruction, emphysema and hypoxemia are characteristic. Obtained results can use to construct risk meters of exacerbations and the scale of effectiveness of rehabilitation measures, to revise the standards of treatment and prevention of patients with COPD of professional genesis, as well as for the differential diagnosis of occupational obstructive pulmonary disease. Limitations. The study was conducted on the basis of Novosibirsk State Medical University and on the basis of the City Clinical Hospital No. 2. The limitations of the study may be the unidirectionality of the study performed and the small sample of patients participating in the research. Ethics. All patients have signed an informed consent form. The study program, the content of the informed consent, and the materials of the article were approved by the local ethics committee of Novosibirsk State Medical University and City Clinical Hospital No. 2.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by exposure to noxious particles and gases. Smoking is the main risk factor, but other factors are also associated with COPD. Occupational exposure to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes contributes to the development and progression of COPD, accounting for a population attributable fraction of 14%. Workplace pollutants, in particular inorganic dust, can initiate airway damage and inflammation, which are the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis. Occupational COPD is still underdiagnosed, mainly due to the challenges of assessing the occupational component of the disease in clinical settings, especially if other risk factors are present. There is a need for specific education and training for clinicians, and research with a focus on evaluating the role of occupational exposure in causing COPD. Early diagnosis and identification of occupational causes is very important to prevent further decline in lung function and to reduce the health and socio-economic burden of COPD. Establishing details of the occupational history by general practitioners or respiratory physicians could help to define the occupational burden of COPD for individual patients, providing the first useful interventions (smoking cessation, best therapeutic management, etc.). Once patients are diagnosed with occupational COPD, there is a wide international variation in access to specialist occupational medicine and public health services, along with limitations in workplace and income support. Therefore, a strong collaboration between primary care physicians, respiratory physicians and occupational medicine specialists is desirable to help manage COPD patients' health and social issues.
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Occupational-attributable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents a substantial health challenge. Focusing on spirometric criteria for airflow obstruction, this review of occupational COPD includes both population-wide and industry-specific exposures. We used PubMed and Embase to identify relevant original epidemiological peer-reviewed articles, supplemented with citations identified from references in key review articles. This yielded 4528 citations. Articles were excluded for lack of lung function measurement, insufficient occupational exposure classification, lack of either external or internal referents, non-accounting of age or smoking effect, or major analytic inadequacies preventing interpretation of findings. A structured data extraction sheet was used for the remaining 147 articles. Final inclusion was based on a positive qualitative Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) score (≥2+) for study quality, yielding 25 population-wide and 34 industry/occupation-specific studies, 15 on inorganic and 19 on organic dust exposure, respectively. There was a consistent and predominantly significant association between occupational exposures and COPD in 22 of 25 population-based studies, 12 of 15 studies with an inorganic/mineral dust exposure, and 17 of 19 studies on organic exposure, even though the studies varied in design, populations, and the use of measures of exposure and outcome. A nearly uniform pattern of a dose-response relationship between various exposures and COPD was found, adding to the evidence that occupational exposures from vapors, gas, dust, and fumes are risk factors for COPD. There is strong and consistent evidence to support a causal association between multiple categories of occupational exposure and COPD, both within and across industry groups.
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To examine the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among nonsmokers by occupation in the United States. The 1997 to 2004 National Health Interview Survey data for working adults aged 25 years or more were used to estimate the COPD prevalence and to examine change in COPD prevalence between 1997 to 2000 and 2001 to 2004 by occupational groups. During 1997 to 2004, COPD prevalence was 2.8%. The COPD prevalence was highest in financial records processing (4.6%) occupations. There was a slight increase in COPD prevalence during the two survey periods from 2.8% during 1997 to 2000 compared with 2.9% during 2001 to 2004. No significant changes in the COPD prevalence between the two periods were found. Nevertheless, the elevated COPD prevalence in certain occupational groups suggests that other risk factors play a role in developing COPD.
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Coal mine dust exposure is associated with accelerated loss of lung function. We assessed long-term health outcomes in two groups of underground coal miners who during previous mine surveys had shown either high rates of FEV1 decline (cases, n = 310) or relatively stable lung function (referents, n = 324). Cases and referents were matched initially for age, height, smoking status, and FEV,. We determined vital status for 561 miners, and obtained a follow-up questionnaire for 121 cases and 143 referents. Responses on the follow-up questionnaire were compared with those on the last previous mine health survey questionnaire. Cases showed a greater incidence of symptoms than did referents for cough, phlegm production, Grades II and III dyspnea, and wheezing, and greater incidences than referents of chronic bronchitis and self-reported asthma and emphysema. More cases than referents (15% versus 4%) left mining before retirement because of chest illnesses. After controls were applied for age and smoking, cases had twice the risk of dying of cardiovascular and nonmalignant respiratory diseases and a 3.2-foId greater risk of dying of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than did referents. Rapid declines in FEV1 experienced by some coal miners are associated with subsequent increases in respiratory symptoms, illnesses, and mortality from cardiovascular and nonmalignant respiratory diseases.
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The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was planned to answer specific questions about the distribution of asthma and health care given for asthma in the European Community. Specifically, the survey is designed to estimate variations in the prevalence of asthma, asthma-like symptoms and airway responsiveness; to estimate variations in exposures to known or suspected risk factors for asthma, and assess to what extent these variations explain the variations in the prevalence of disease; and to estimate differences in the use of medication for asthma. The protocol provides specific instructions on the sampling strategy adopted by the survey teams, as well as providing instructions on the use of questionnaires, the tests for allergy, lung function measurements, tests of airway responsiveness, and blood and urine collection. The principal data collection sheets and questionnaires are provided in the appendices, together with information on coding and quality control. The protocol is published as a reference for those who wish to know more of the methods used in the study, and also to give other groups who wish to collect comparable data access to the detailed methodology.
Article
Background: Although occupational exposure is a known risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), it is difficult to identify specific occupational contributors to COPD at the individual level to guide COPD prevention or for compensation. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of how different expert clinicians attribute likely causation in COPD. Methods: Ten COPD experts and nine occupational lung disease experts assigned occupational contribution ratings to fifteen hypothetical cases of COPD with varying combinations of occupational and smoking exposures. Participants rated the cause of COPD as the percentage contribution to the overall attribution of disease for smoking, occupational exposures and other causes. Results: Increasing pack-years of tobacco smoking was associated with significantly decreased proportional occupational causation ratings. Increasing weighted occupational exposure was associated with increased occupational causation ratings by 0.28% per unit change. Expert background also contributed significantly to the proportion of occupational causation rated, with COPD experts rating on average a 9.4% greater proportion of occupational causation per case. Conclusion: Our findings support the notion that respiratory physicians are able to assign attribution to different sources of causation in COPD, taking into account both smoking and occupational histories. The recommendations on whether to continue to work in the same job also differ, the COPD experts being more likely to recommend change of work rather than change of work practice.