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What is vitality and how can it be measured? The core dimensions of vitality and the Dutch Vitality Questionnaire Background Policymakers, professionals and researchers increasingly use vitality as a health-related concept. Although there are various definitions of vitality, consensus is lacking, just as instruments measuring it. Therefore, TNO and RIVM started a study aiming to describe vitality and developed an instrument (the Vita-16) to measure vitality among the Dutch adult population. Method Vitality was described based on (scientific) literature and expert opinions. Subsequently, the measurement instrument (the Vita-16) was developed. Step 1 involved selecting items from existing questionnaire measuring vitality. During step 2, policymakers, professionals and researchers scored these items on relevance. Based on consensus rules relevant items were selected and combined into a concept vitality questionnaire, which was pilot tested (step 3) to gain insight into comprehensiveness and ceiling effects. During step 4 (validation study), the concept vitality questionnaire was online tested among 1300 Dutch. Items were reduced based on collected data and the final questionnaire was validated by verifying the structural and construct validity. Results Vitality consists of three core dimensions, namely: Energy, Motivation and Resilience in which energy is characterized by feeling energized and full of pep, motivation by setting goals in life and putting effort into achieving these goals, and resiliency by the ability to cope with daily life problems and challenges. The distinction between vitality, determinants and outcomes has led to a conceptual model of vitality. The three core dimensions can be measured using a 16-item questionnaire, which appeared to be reliable (a:0.89-0.95) and has showed good validity. Conclusion The concept of vitality is differentiated in three core dimensions, which can be measured in the Dutch adult population using a validated 16-item questionnaire (the Vita-16).

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... This concept can be subdivided into the following three dimensions: vitality, work ability and employability (Semeijn et al., 2015). First, vitality refers to the extent to which someone feels lively in terms of energy, resilience and motivation for their work (Strijk et al., 2015). Second, work ability equates to employees who, given their physical and mental state and health, are able to meet the requirements of work (Ilmarinen, 2007). ...
... This was measured on a continuous scale using a drop-down menu of birth year ranging from 1945 to 2000. Second, vitality was measured by using the Vita-16 questionnaire (Strijk et al., 2015). This questionnaire consists of 16 items and measures vitality in terms of the following three domains: energy (five items), motivation (six items) and resilience (five items). ...
Article
Purpose Research findings are ambiguous regarding the effects of age on sustainable labour participation (SLP), defined as the extent to which people are able and willing to conduct their current and future work. The purpose of this paper is to contribute by examining age effects on SLP by focusing on the moderating role of workload. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-method study was conducted in 2018. First, a survey was distributed among a sample of 2,149 employees of the Dutch central government. Second, 12 interviews with public sector employees took place to gain greater insight into the quantitative data collected. Findings Three components that reflect an employee’s SLP were studied: vitality, work ability and employability. The quantitative results, in general, showed that SLP decreased with ageing. However, in contrast to the hypothesis, the results showed a significant positive relationship between age and energy. Moreover, relationships between an employee’s age and certain aspects of their SLP were moderated by workload. The interviews helped to interpret these results. Practical implications The findings demonstrate that some of the older worker stereotypes are unfounded, and the important practical implications of these are discussed. Originality/value Earlier research has produced conflicting findings regarding the relationship between age and (aspects of) SLP. By investigating several aspects of SLP in separate regressions within this research, the specific influences of age have become clearer. Furthermore, the research provides fresh insights into the relationship between age and SLP by including moderating effects of workload.
... Motivatie omvat doelen stellen in het leven en moeite doen om deze te behalen, waarvan verondersteld wordt dat deze nodig zijn om richting te geven aan het leven. Veerkracht betreft een dynamisch en lerend proces, waarbij mensen herstellen na een ingrijpende gebeurtenis en weer doorgaan met het dagelijkse leven [6]. Op basis van de schaarstetheorie en een recent reviewonderzoek naar de psychische effecten van armoede is onze hypothese dat armoede samenhangt met een verminderde vitaliteit en dat stress deze samenhang mede verklaart [1,7]. ...
... Dit onderzoek vormt een aanvulling op de beschikbare literatuur over sociaaleconomische gezondheidsverschillen en gedrag, omdat de focus vooral op vitaliteit ligt en niet zozeer op onderdelen van leefstijl of specifieke aspecten van de fysieke of mentale gezondheid [17,18]. Het gebruik van de Vita-16-vragenlijst kan worden beschouwd als een manier om sociaaleconomische verschillen in Positieve Gezondheid meetbaar te maken op populatieniveau [6]. ...
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IntroductionThe relation between poverty, stress and impaired health recently gained interest at Dutch local municipalities. Vitality is an aspect of health which policy makers would like to influence, but is not quantified and studied in every Dutch municipality yet. We studied the association between difficulties making ends meet and vitality with a focus on mediation by the risk of anxiety and depression.Methods This cross-sectional study was performed using data of a local health monitor for adults and elderly (2016). Based on random sampling 10,650 inhabitants aged 19 years and older were included in this study. Associations between difficulties making ends meet and vitality were studied using linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders or mediators. Differences between municipalities were studied using multilevel analyses.ResultsPeople who experienced difficulties making ends meet were less vital than those who did not. Among people who experienced no difficulties making ends meet, the average vitality score was 4.94 (on a 7-point scale). Compared to this reference group, people who experienced a little, some or a lot of difficulties making ends meet had 0.23 (95%-CI 0.18–0.29), 0.49 (95%-CI 0.40–0.57) and 0.92 (95%-CI 0.77–1.07) lower vitality scores, after adjustment for confounders. The observed relationship was largely mediated by the risk of anxiety and depression. No significant differences between municipalities were observed.Conclusion Financial stress was associated with impaired vitality in Dutch adults. Their increased risk of anxiety and depression might explain this association. More research of longitudinal nature is needed to further unravel causes and consequences. This study underpins the importance of multidisciplinary policy development, for example by intensifying the collaboration between the social domain and public health.
... The citizen scientists filled in a questionnaire before the first training (T0) and after twelve weeks (after the focus group) (T1). The questionnaire consisted of the Dutch version of the Vita-16 scale to measure vitality (Strijk et al., 2015). The Vita-16 measures three domains: energy, motivation and resilience, and each item is rated on a 7-point scale ranging from 'rarely' (1) to 'always' (7). ...
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The aim of this study was to examine if citizen science contributes to gaining insight into community health and to the health of the citizen scientists themselves. Therefore, thirteen citizens in four deprived neighbourhoods were trained as citizen scientists to conduct research in their own communities. Results showed that the citizen scientists identified forty (health related) themes in their communities. The citizen scientists reported an increase in their overall self-perceived health which, however, was not significantly demonstrated in the prequestionnaire and postquestionnaire.
... The two online onboarding surveys gathered information on seven health parameters; energy, motivation, resilience, physical activity, sedentary behavior, nutrition and relaxation. These parameters are based on a delphi study on vitality by Strijk et al. [23] and the work of Proper et al. [22]. The automatically generated weekly survey, collected preferences on usage, relevance of the suggestions and whether users wanted to receive similar suggestions. ...
Article
Digital Behavior Change Interventions (DBCI) have a pivotal role in reducing lifestyle-related illness, absenteeism, and healthcare costs. Current challenges in designing DBCI are appropriately tailoring interventions and finding new forms of delivery. In this exploratory work, we present the design and evaluation of Tweak, a cloud-based health promotion system that integrates tailored and context-aware health suggestions into the users digital work calendar. Two four-week field studies (N=21) showed how Tweak adapted to changing user profiles and used personal and contextual data to situate suggestions. User insights showed that integration into the calendar stimulated reflective behavior and curiosity and was perceived as easy to use. However, due to differences in calendar use, suggestions could be overlooked. We conclude by discussing implications on how integrated delivery mechanisms can aid the development of future workplace DBCI.
... Ook levenskracht en bezieling worden in relatie tot het begrip vitaliteit benoemd (SER, 2009). Vitaliteit heeft betrekking op zich energiek voelen, op de moeite die wordt gedaan om doelen te stellen en te behalen en op het vermogen om met problemen en tegenslagen om te gaan (Strijk, Wendel-Vos, Picavet, Hofstetter & Hildebrandt, 2015). Vitaliteit zorgt ervoor dat iemand gezond en productief aan het werk kan en het plezier daarin behoudt (Van Vuuren, 2011). ...
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Wat is nodig om de duurzame inzetbaarheid van medewerkers in deze sector te bevorderen? Hoewel duurzame inzetbaarheid al jaren hoog op de HRM-agenda staat, lukt het veel organisaties niet om hierin slagen te maken. Ook in de industrie is dat aan de orde, terwijl duurzame inzetbaarheid juist in deze sector nodig is in het licht van veranderingen in het werk als gevolg van innovaties. Via praktijkgericht onderzoek is gezocht naar een antwoord op de vraag wat nodig is om de duurzame inzetbaarheid van medewerkers in de Nederlandse industrie te bevorderen. Het onderzoek omvat de ervaringen van twintig organisaties, verdeeld over zes branches binnen de industrie. Per organisatie is deskresearch verricht, een online enquête uitgezet en zijn kwalitatieve interviews afgenomen. In de onderzochte organisaties blijkt het te schorten aan de randvoorwaarden voor duurzame inzetbaarheid. Geconcludeerd wordt dat dit vraagt om een integrale aanpak van duurzame inzetbaarheid in het ka-der van het (strategische) HRM-beleid, met instrumenten en activiteiten die op elkaar zijn afgestemd en elkaar versterken. De versterking van de vaardigheden van het management om dit in praktijk te brengen en toe te passen dient eveneens een cruciaal onderdeel te zijn van die integrale aanpak. Dit artikel roept HRM-professionals op om meer 'evidence-based' te (leren) werken en bewezen effectieve aanpakken op het terrein van duurzame inzetbaarheid toe te passen.
... Self-reported, health-related outcomes included a Vitality-score (Vita16©), which was found to be valid and reliable in a Dutch adult population (Strijk et al., 2015). The Vita16© contains three dimensions (energy, motivation and resilience), represented by 16 items with a 7-point Likert answering scale (Hardly (1) to Always (7)). ...
Article
Objective: Prolonged sitting, which is highly prevalent in office workers, has been associated with several health risks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Dynamic Work intervention by determining its effect on total sitting time at the 8-month follow-up in comparison to the control. Methods: This two-arm pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial included 244 office workers from 14 different departments of a large, Dutch insurance company. The Dynamic Work intervention was a real-life, worksite intervention that included environmental components (i.e. sit-stand workstations), organisational components (i.e. group sessions), and individual components (e.g. activity/sitting trackers). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 4-month follow-up, and 8-month follow-up. The primary outcome was total sitting time per day, objectively assessed using the activPAL activity monitor at 8-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included other total and occupational movement behaviour outcomes, health-related outcomes, and work-related outcomes. Data analyses were performed using linear and logistic mixed models. Results: Total sitting time did not differ between the intervention and control group at the 8-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes also showed no difference between the intervention and control group at either the 4-month or at 8-month follow-up, with the exception of number of occupational steps, which showed a statistically significant effect at 4-month follow-up (but not at 8-month follow-up) of 913 (95% CI = 381-1445) steps/8-h working day. Conclusions: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a real-life worksite intervention to reduce sitting time and showed little to no effect. This may be due to the relatively low intensity of the intervention, i.e. that it only involved the replacement of 25% of sitting workstations with sit-stand workstations. Future research should focus on the evaluation of more intensive real-life worksite interventions that are still feasible for implementation in daily practice. CLINICALTRIALS. Gov, registration number: NCT03115645.
... To gain insights into the satisfaction of guests about the worksite cafeterias, employees of all worksites will be asked to fill in an online questionnaire at baseline and after the intervention phase. The questionnaire assesses elements of the satisfaction with the worksite cafeteria and vitality with the Vita-16 [51]. Further, self-reported demographic variables will be collected like age, sex, body weight, height, level of education, marital status, household size, frequency of having lunch at the worksite cafeteria and the proportion of lunch purchased in the worksite cafeteria. ...
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Background The worksite cafeteria is a suitable setting for interventions focusing on changing eating behavior, because a lot of employees visit the worksite cafeteria regularly and a variety of interventions could be implemented there. The aim of this paper is to describe the intervention development and design of the evaluation of an intervention to make the purchase behavior of employees in the worksite cafeteria healthier. The developed intervention called “the worksite cafeteria 2.0” consists of a set of 19 strategies based on theory of nudging and social marketing (marketing mix). The intervention will be evaluated in a real-life setting, that is Dutch worksite cafeterias of different companies and with a number of contract catering organizations. Methods/design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with 34 Dutch worksite cafeterias randomly allocated to the 12-week intervention or to the control group. Primary outcomes are sales data of selected products groups like sandwiches, salads, snacks and bread topping. Secondary outcomes are satisfaction of employees with the cafeteria and vitality. Discussion When executed, the described RCT will provide better knowledge in the effect of the intervention “the worksite cafeteria 2.0” on the purchasing behavior of Dutch employees in worksite cafeterias. Trial registration Dutch Trial register: NTR5372.
... 45 Vitality will be measured using the Vitality 16-item questionnaire, which assesses energy, motivation, and resilience. 46 Personal characteristics Sociodemographic information, including age, gender, marital status, working hours per week, job status, job type, income and education level, will be assessed. ...
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Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. With atherosclerosis as the underlying cause for many CVD events, prevention or reduction of subclinical atherosclerotic plaque burden (SAPB) through a healthier lifestyle may have substantial public health benefits. Objective: The objective was to describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of a 30-month worksite-based lifestyle program aimed to promote cardiovascular health in participants having a high or a low degree of SAPB compared with standard care. Methods: We will conduct a randomized controlled trial including middle-aged bank employees from the Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis cohort, stratified by SAPB (high SAPB n=260, low SAPB n=590). Within each stratum, participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive a lifestyle program or standard care. The program consists of 3 elements: (a) 12 personalized lifestyle counseling sessions using Motivational Interviewing over a 30-month period, (b) a wrist-worn physical activity tracker, and (c) a sit-stand workstation. Primary outcome measure is a composite score of blood pressure, physical activity, sedentary time, body weight, diet, and smoking (ie, adapted Fuster-BEWAT score) measured at baseline and at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up. Conclusions: The study will provide insights into the effectiveness of a 30-month worksite-based lifestyle program to promote cardiovascular health compared with standard care in participants with a high or low degree of SAPB.
Article
Background This 4-year research project focuses on 6 social community enterprises (SCEs) that operate in 5 neighborhoods in a Dutch city. Residents of these neighborhoods face problems such as poor average levels of physical and mental health, high unemployment rates, and weak social cohesion. SCEs offer residents social, cultural, and work-related activities and are therefore believed to help these persons develop themselves and strengthen the social ties in the community. Because of a lack of empirical evidence; however, it is unclear whether and how SCEs benefit the health and well-being of participants. Objective This paper outlines a protocol for an evaluation study on the impact of SCEs, aiming to determine (1) to what extent SCEs affect health and well-being of participating residents, (2) what underlying processes and mechanisms can explain such impact, and (3) what assets are available to SCEs and how they can successfully mobilize these assets. Methods A mixed methods multiple-case study design including repeated measurements will be conducted. Six SCEs form the cases. An integrated model of SCE health intervention will be used as the theoretical basis. First, the impact of SCEs is measured on the individual and community level, using questionnaires and in-depth interviews conducted with participants. Second, the research focuses on the underlying processes and mechanisms and the organizational and sociopolitical factors that influence the success or failure of these enterprises in affecting the health and well-being of residents. At this organizational level, in-depth interviews are completed with SCE initiators and stakeholders, such as municipal district managers. Finally, structurally documented observations are made on the organizational and sociopolitical context of the SCEs. Results This research project received funding from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development in 2018. Data collection takes place from 2018 until 2022. Data analysis starts after the last round of data collection in 2022 and finalizes in 2024. Expected results will be published in 2023 and 2024. Conclusions Despite the societal relevance of SCEs, little empirical research has been performed on their functioning and impact. This research applies a variety of methods and includes the perspectives of multiple stakeholders aiming to generate new empirical evidence. The results will enable us to describe how SCE activities influence intermediate and long-term health outcomes and how the organizational and sociopolitical context of SCEs may shape opportunities or barriers for health promotion. As the number of these initiatives in the Netherlands is increasing rapidly, this research can benefit many SCEs attempting to become more effective and increase their impact. The findings of this research will be shared directly with relevant stakeholders through local and national meetings and annual reports and disseminated among other researchers through scientific publications. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/37966
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The aim of this explorative study is to evaluate whether personalized compared to generic lifestyle advice improves wellbeing in a senior population. We conducted a nine-week single-blind randomized controlled trial including 59 participants (age 67.7 ± 4.8 years) from Wageningen and its surrounding areas in the Netherlands. Three times during the intervention period, participants received either personalized advice (PA), or generic advice (GA) to improve lifestyle behavior. Personalization was based on metabolic health measures and dietary intake resulting in an advice that highlighted food groups and physical activity types for which behavior change was most urgent. Before and after the intervention period self-perceived health was evaluated as parameter of wellbeing using a self-perceived health score (single-item) and two questionnaires (Vita-16 and Short Form-12). Additionally, anthropometry and physical functioning (short physical performance battery, SPPB) were assessed. Overall scores for self-perceived health did not change over time in any group. Resilience and motivation (Vita-16) slightly improved only in the PA group, whilst mental health (SF-12) and energy (Vita-16) showed slight improvement only in the GA group. SPPB scores improved over time in both the PA and GA group. PA participants also showed a reduction in body fat percentage and hip circumference, whereas these parameters increased in the GA group Our findings suggest that although no clear effects on wellbeing were found, still, at least on the short term, personalized advice may evoke health benefits in a population of seniors as compared to generic advice.
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Background: The incidence and prevalence of chronic diseases have reached epidemic proportions during the last decades and are not expected to diminish. Chronic diseases increasingly affect younger individuals too, with over 40% of all deaths due to non-communicable diseases occurring before the age of 70. This has led to the development of information services aimed at preventive health care, such as Health Potential®. This counselling service estimates a personal disease risk of a carefully selected list of preventable common chronic diseases that have both a genetic and a lifestyle component of development. The results are delivered face-to-face by a lifestyle counsellor, simultaneously stimulating initial steps towards behaviour change. This information can assist in lifestyle decision-making. Methods/design: The primary aim is to study the effect of the Health Potential® service on change in lifestyle behaviour in distinguishable customer populations. The secondary aims are (1) to study the effect of the Health Potential® service on determinants of behaviour change, (2) to study the effect of additional lifestyle counselling on behaviour change and determinants thereof, and (3) to describe the characteristics of the Health Potential® customer. The study consists of two integrated designs: (A) a two-armed non-randomised controlled pre-test/post-test trial (1.5:1 ratio), followed by (B) a two-armed randomised controlled pre-test/post-test trial (1:1 ratio), resulting in three study arms. Participants are clients of local prevention clinics, purchasing a personalised health check (PHC; intervention condition), consisting of Health Potential® and a general health check, or the general health check alone (GHC; control condition) (part A). PHC participants will be randomised to receive four additional lifestyle counselling sessions over a period of 3 months (part B). Discussion: This research can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of and possible ways forward in the field of personalised prevention making use of lifestyle interventions enriched with modern genetic advancements. Trial registration: Nederlands Trial Register, NTR6289 and NTR6288 . Registered on 24 February 2017.
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Background: Currently, many studies focus on how the environment can be changed to encourage healthier eating behavior, referred to as choice architecture or "nudging." However, to date, these strategies are not often investigated in real-life settings, such as worksite cafeterias, or are only done so on a short-term basis. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the effects of a healthy worksite cafeteria ["worksite cafeteria 2.0" (WC 2.0)] intervention on Dutch employees' purchase behavior over a 12-wk period. Design: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in 30 worksite cafeterias. Worksite cafeterias were randomized to either the intervention or control group. The intervention aimed to encourage employees to make healthier food choices during their daily worksite cafeteria visits. The intervention consisted of 14 simultaneously executed strategies based on nudging and social marketing theories, involving product, price, placement, and promotion. Results: Adjusted multilevel models showed significant positive effects of the intervention on purchases for 3 of the 7 studied product groups: healthier sandwiches, healthier cheese as a sandwich filling, and the inclusion of fruit. The increased sales of these healthier meal options were constant throughout the 12-wk intervention period. Conclusions: This study shows that the way worksite cafeterias offer products affects purchase behavior. Situated nudging and social marketing-based strategies are effective in promoting healthier choices and aim to remain effective over time. Some product groups only indicated an upward trend in purchases. Such an intervention could ultimately help prevent and reduce obesity in the Dutch working population. This trial was registered at the Dutch Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5372) as NTR5372.
Article
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A 36-item short-form (SF-36) was constructed to survey health status in the Medical Outcomes Study. The SF-36 was designed for use in clinical practice and research, health policy evaluations, and general population surveys. The SF-36 includes one multi-item scale that assesses eight health concepts: 1) limitations in physical activities because of health problems; 2) limitations in social activities because of physical or emotional problems; 3) limitations in usual role activities because of physical health problems; 4) bodily pain; 5) general mental health (psychological distress and well-being); 6) limitations in usual role activities because of emotional problems; 7) vitality (energy and fatigue); and 8) general health perceptions. The survey was constructed for self-administration by persons 14 years of age and older, and for administration by a trained interviewer in person or by telephone. The history of the development of the SF-36, the origin of specific items, and the logic underlying their selection are summarized. The content and features of the SF-36 are compared with the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study short-form.
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The complexities of defining what appears to be the relatively simple concept of resilience are widely recognized. This paper analyses the concept of resilience from a range of disciplinary perspectives and clarifies a definition in order to inform research, policy and practice. The work takes a life course approach to resilience, examining evidence derived from research across the lifespan. It incorporates the methods of systematic review, concept analysis and consultation through face-to-face meetings. The synthesis of methodological approaches enables a clear identification of the antecedents, defining attributes and consequences of resilience, validated with stakeholder partners. Through this process, resilience is defined as the process of effectively negotiating, adapting to, or managing significant sources of stress or trauma. Assets and resources within the individual, their life and environment facilitate this capacity for adaptation and 'bouncing back' in the face of adversity. Across the life course, the experience of resilience will vary. A large proportion of resilience research is routed within the discipline of developmental psychology, and has mainly been developed with children and adolescents. A major contribution to resilience research could be made through more multi-disciplinary studies that examine the dynamics of resilience across the lifespan, its role in healthy ageing and in managing loss, such as changes in cognitive functioning.
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A major contributor of early exit from work is a decline in health with increasing age. As healthy lifestyle choices contribute to better health outcomes, an intervention aimed at an improved lifestyle is considered a potentially effective tool to keep older workers healthy and vital, and thereby to prolong labour participation. Using the Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol, a lifestyle intervention was developed based on information obtained from 1) literature, 2) a short lifestyle questionnaire aimed at identifying the lifestyle behaviours among the target group, and 3) focusgroup (FG) interviews among 36 older workers (aged 45+ years) aimed at identifying: a) key determinants of lifestyle behaviour, b) a definition of vitality, and c) ideas about how vitality can be improved by lifestyle.The main lifestyle problems identified were: insufficient levels of physical activity and insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables. Using information from both literature and FG interviews, vitality consists of a mental and a physical component. The interviewees suggested to improve the mental component of vitality by means of relaxation exercises (e.g. yoga); physical vitality could be improved by aerobic endurance exercise and strength training.The lifestyle intervention (6 months) consists of three visits to a Personal Vitality Coach (PVC) combined with a Vitality Exercise Programme (VEP). The VEP consists of: 1) once a week a guided yoga group session aimed at relaxation exercises, 2) once a week a guided aerobic workout group session aimed at improving aerobic fitness and increasing muscle strength, and 3) older workers will be asked to perform once a week for at least 45 minutes vigorous physical activity without face-to-face instructions (e.g. fitness). Moreover, free fruit will be offered at the group sessions of the VEP. The lifestyle intervention will be evaluated in a RCT among older workers of two major academic hospitals in the Netherlands. At baseline, after 6 and 12 months, measurements (primary: lifestyle and vitality, and secondary: work-engagement and productivity) will take place. The lifestyle programme is developed specifically tailored to the needs of the older workers and which is aimed at improving their vitality. NTR1240.
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Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
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Vitality draws together the interests of health and physical education. Already these fields of education have come together, with health, fitness, wellness, and active and healthy living as shared curricular concepts. Vitality furthers these conjunctions by having us rethink prevailing views of the body of knowledge in health and physical education. More than a concept, vitality is promoted phenomenologically in terms of the essential movements of the body. It is explicated as vitality affects, specifically identifiable motions and developmental patterns of movement that provide curricular structure for teaching health and physical education. The promotional implications of this analysis relate to enlivening the baseline criteria currently used in health and physical education assessments; revitalizing the curricular concepts of body awareness, space, time, and relationships on which provincial programs are based; and expanding the reach of these programs to mental, emotional, spiritual, and, particularly, environmental health.
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The potentially toxic effects of psychopathology and poorly regulated emotion on physical health have long been considered, but less work has addressed whether healthy psychological functioning may also benefit physical health. Emotional vitality--characterized by a sense of energy, positive well-being, and effective emotion regulation--has been hypothesized to reduce risk of heart disease, but no studies have examined this relationship. To examine whether emotional vitality is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Secondary aims are to consider whether effects are independent of negative emotion and how they may occur. A prospective population-based cohort study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I and follow-up studies (a probability sample of US adults). Six thousand twenty-five men and women aged 25 to 74 years without CHD at baseline, followed up for a mean 15 years after the baseline interview. Measures of incident CHD were obtained from hospital records and death certificates. During the follow-up period, 1141 cases of incident CHD occurred. At the baseline interview (1971-1975), participants completed the General Well-being Schedule from which we derived a measure of emotional vitality. Compared with individuals with low levels, those reporting high levels of emotional vitality had multivariate-adjusted relative risks of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.94) for CHD. A dose-response relationship was evident (P < .001). Significant associations were also found for each individual emotional vitality component with CHD, but findings with the overall emotional vitality measure were more reliable. Further analyses suggested that one way in which emotional vitality may influence coronary health is via health behaviors. However, the effect remained significant after controlling for health behaviors and other potential confounders, including depressive symptoms or other psychological problems. Emotional vitality may protect against risk of CHD in men and women.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Chapter
Public health strategies have been successful in preventing morbidity and death during the prime years of our lives but there is too little knowledge on how to address the consequences of our success, the fate of the overwhelming majority of people now enjoying higher longevity. We assert that striving for just healthy longevity is too limited an approach as for most people a satisfactory life is not dependent on an optimal level of physical and mental functioning. Here we present a conceptual framework, introducing vitality as a key competence that combines the narrow, functional definition of health and the broader perception of self-rated life satisfaction. Vitality is the ability of a person to set ambitions which are appropriate for one's life situation and to realize these goals despite functional limitations. A focus on vitality presents a striking opportunity to experience a satisfactory life in keeping with longevity from which society as a whole could strongly benefit. It necessitates a paradigm shift in our thinking that should lead to a new type of health strategy that appropriately integrates the needs and desires of the older generation.
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The meaning of health is complex and subject to change. In this article,four conceptual models of health are presented to summarize the current meanings for health. The medical model is the most widely used definition in the United States, but the World Health Organization model has gained in popularity during the past several decades. In addition, there are other newer models-the wellness model and the environmental model-that are adding new meanings to the definition of health. By understanding and combining these different meanings, the prospects for improving medical outcomes and the quality of care are enhanced. This conceptual work is a prelude to improving health status assessment in a variety of contexts.
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Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed.
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The success of the Apgar score demonstrates the astounding power of an appropriate clinical instrument. This down-to-earth book provides practical advice, underpinned by theoretical principles, on developing and evaluating measurement instruments in all fields of medicine. It equips you to choose the most appropriate instrument for specific purposes. The book covers measurement theories, methods and criteria for evaluating and selecting instruments. It provides methods to assess measurement properties, such as reliability, validity and responsiveness, and interpret the results. Worked examples and end-of-chapter assignments use real data and well-known instruments to build your skills at implementation and interpretation through hands-on analysis of real-life cases. All data and solutions are available online. This is a perfect course book for students and a perfect companion for professionals/researchers in the medical and health sciences who care about the quality and meaning of the measurements they perform. © H. C. W. de Vet, C. B. Terwee, L. B. Mokkink and D. L. Knol 2011.
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Objectives: To (1) provide a framework for the conceptualization of emotional vitality as an important construct for rehabilitation professionals; (2) outline the existing scope and breadth of knowledge currently available regarding the definition and measurement of emotional vitality in persons with chronic health conditions; and (3) identify the extent to which the components can be mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Design: Activities included a scoping review of the literature, and a Delphi mapping exercise using the ICF. Setting: Not applicable. Participants: Not applicable. Intervention: Not applicable. Main outcome measure: Not applicable. Results: The results of this study suggest that emotional vitality is a complex latent construct that includes (1) physical energy and well-being, (2) regulation of mood, (3) mastery, and (4) engagement and interest in life. Existing literature supported the presence of all 4 components of the construct. The mapping exercise showed that 3 of these components could be readily mapped to the Body Function chapter of the ICF (energy, mood, mastery). Conclusions: Emotional vitality may influence both the physical and emotional adaptation to living with a chronic illness or disability and should be included in both assessment and treatment planning to optimize rehabilitation outcomes. Future research is needed to refine the definition and identify optimal methods of measuring this construct.
Article
Resilience is often associated with extreme trauma or overcoming extraordinary odds. This way of thinking about resilience leaves most of the ontogenetic picture a mystery. In the following review we put forth the Everyday Stress Resilience Hypothesis where resilience is analyzed from a systems perspective and seen as a process of regulating everyday life stressors. Successful regulation accumulates into regulatory resilience which emerges during early development from successful coping with the inherent stress in typical interactions. These quotidian stressful events lead to activation of behavioral and physiologic systems. Stress that is effectively resolved in the short run and with reiteration over the long-term increases children's as well as adults' capacity to cope with more intense stressors. Infants, however, lack the regulatory capacities to take on this task by themselves. Therefore, through communicative and regulatory processes during infant-adult interactions, we demonstrate that the roots of regulatory resilience originate in infants' relationship with their caregiver and that maternal sensitivity can help or hinder the growth of resilience.
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Work Engagement: The measurement of a concept Work Engagement: The measurement of a concept Wilmar B. Schaufeli & Arnold B. Bakker, Gedrag & Organisatie, volume 17, April 2004, nr. 2, pp 89-112. The first part of this article reviews research on work engagement, a concept that has recently been introduced as the antipode of burnout. Engaged workers are vigorous and dedicated, and totally absorbed by their work. Typically, research on work engagement uses the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), which psychometric qualities seem to be confirmed by numerous (inter)national studies. However, a more detailed and systematic study on psychometric qualities of UWES has not yet been performed. Therefore, the second part of this article discusses the results of UWES analyses, performed on a database consisting of almost 10.000 Dutch speaking (i.e. Dutch and Flemish) workers. The study shows that the three subscales of the UWES (i.e. vigor, dedication and absorption) are sufficiently internally consistent and that the three-factor structure fits the data better than the alternative one-factor structure. Nevertheless, the three subscales are highly interrelated. Although weaker than expected, the subscales of the UWES correlate negatively with those of the UBOS (Utrecht Burnout Scale), the Dutch version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Furthermore, scores on the UWES are significantly and positively correlated with age; male and Flemish employees feel more engaged than female and Dutch employees, respectively; and some professional groups (e.g. managers) score higher on work engagement than other groups (e.g. blue collar workers). However, although statistically significant, practically speaking these differences are irrelevant. Hence, no age, gender, occupation or nation specific UWES-norms are presented. It is concluded that the 15-item UWES – of which also a 9-item shortened version exists – is a reliable and valid self-report tool to measure the concept of work engagement.
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In this article, we examine subjective vitality, a positive feeling of aliveness and energy, in six studies. Subjective vitality is hypothesized to reflect organismic well-being and thus should covary with both psychological and somatic factors that impact the energy available to the self. Associations are shown between subjective vitality and several indexes of psychological well-being; somatic factors such as physical symptoms and perceived body functioning; and basic personality traits and affective dispositions. Subsequently, vitality is shown to be lower in people with chronic pain compared to matched controls, especially those who perceive their pain to be disabling or frightening. Subjective vitality is further associated with self-motivation and maintained weight loss among patients treated for obesity. Finally, subjective vitality is assessed in a diary study for its covariation with physical symptoms. Discussion focuses on the phenomenological salience of personal energy and its relations to physical and psychological well-being.
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The meaning of health is complex and subject to change. In this article, four conceptual models of health are presented to summarize the current meanings for health. The medical model is the most widely used definition in the United States, but the World Health Organization model has gained in popularity during the past several decades. In addition, there are other newer models--the wellness model and the environmental model--that are adding new meanings to the definition of health. By understanding and combining these different meanings, the prospects for improving medical outcomes and the quality of care are enhanced. This conceptual work is a prelude to improving health status assessment in a variety of contexts.
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Although the adverse physical health consequences of negative emotions have been studied extensively, much less is known about the potential impact of positive emotions. This study examines whether emotional vitality protects against progression of disability and mortality in disabled older women. A community-based study, The Women's Health and Aging Study. A total of 1002 moderately to severely disabled women aged 65 years and older living in the community. Emotional vitality was defined as having a high sense of personal mastery, being happy, and having low depressive symptomatology and anxiety. The onset of new disability was determined by semiannual assessments of disability in performing activities of daily living (ADLs), walking across a room, walking 1/4 mile, and lifting/carrying 10 pounds. Mortality status was determined by proxy interviews and linkage with death certificates. Survival analyses with time to onset of specific disabilities (among those not disabled at baseline) and time to mortality were performed and adjusted for age, baseline level of difficulty, physical performance, and chronic conditions. Three hundred fifty-one of the 1002 older disabled women studied were emotionally vital. Among women without the specific disability at baseline, emotional vitality was associated with a significantly decreased risk for incident disability performing ADLs (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66-0.99), for incident disability walking one-quarter mile (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59-0.92), and for incident disability lifting/carrying 10 pounds (RR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63-0.95). Emotional vitality was also associated with a lower risk of dying (RR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.39-0.80). These results were not simply caused by the absence of depression since protective health effects remained when emotionally vital women were compared with 334 women who were not emotionally vital and not depressed. Emotional vitality in older disabled women reduces the risk for subsequent new disability and mortality. Our findings suggest that positive emotions can protect older persons against adverse health outcomes.
6%) Leeftijd [min:19-max:84
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