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Effect of plyometric training on vertical jump height in high school basketball players: A randomised control trial


Abstract and Figures

Background: Plyometric involve high intensity eccentric contraction immediately after a powerful concentric contraction. A vertical leap in basketball also involves rapid & repeated muscle contraction & stretching. Various methods have been used to improve the vertical leap in players, but only few studies mention about plyometrics. Aim: To determine the effect of Plyometric training on vertical jump height in high school basketball players & compare them with their untrained counterparts. Methods and Materials: 144 students were randomly selected & distributed in Group I (Pre-pubertal) & Group II (Pubertal) which was further divided into Group A (trained players) & Group B (untrained students). A gender wise distribution followed this. Plyometric training of 6 weeks was conducted & the vertical jump height pre & post training were recorded & compared. Results: Vertical jump height improved significantly post Plyometric in Group Bcompared to Group A. Boys showed improvement in Group B, however girls were better in Group A. Correlation of BMI with vertical jump height was negative & significant in Group B. Conclusion: Plyometric training brought significant change in untrained students. Boys gained more jump height while girls showed significant increase in jump height during pubertal growth spurt. Also, increased BMI reduced jump height.
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Chhaya et al., Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2015;4(1):7-12
International Journal of Medical Research
Health Sciences Volume 4 Issue 1 Coden: IJMRHS Copyright @2014 ISSN: 2319-5886
Received: 5th May 2014 Revised: 28th Oct 2014 Accepted: 31st Dec 2014
Research article
*Chhaya Verma1, Lakshmi Subramanium2, Vijaya Krishnan3
1Professor of Physiotherapy, Seth G.S. Medical College & KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai
2M.P.Th, Ergonomic Consultant, Ergworks Inc, Banglore, India
3M.P.Th (musculoskeletal sciences), LTMMC & LTMGH, Sion, Mumbai
*Corresponding author
Background: Plyometric involve high intensity eccentric contraction immediately after a powerful concentric
contraction. A vertical leap in basketball also involves rapid & repeated muscle contraction & stretching. Various
methods have been used to improve the vertical leap in players, but only few studies mention about plyometrics.
Aim: To determine the effect of Plyometric training on vertical jump height in high school basketball players &
compare them with their untrained counterparts. Methods and Materials: 144 students were randomly selected
& distributed in Group I (Pre-pubertal) & Group II (Pubertal) which was further divided into Group A (trained
players) & Group B (untrained students). A gender wise distribution followed this. Plyometric training of 6 weeks
was conducted & the vertical jump height pre & post training were recorded & compared. Results: Vertical jump
height improved significantly post Plyometric in Group Bcompared to Group A. Boys showed improvement in
Group B, however girls were better in Group A. Correlation of BMI with vertical jump height was negative &
significant in Group B. Conclusion: Plyometric training brought significant change in untrained students. Boys
gained more jump height while girls showed significant increase in jump height during pubertal growth spurt.
Also, increased BMI reduced jump height.
Keywords: Basketball, Vertical jump height, Plyometric training, Body mass index.
Basketball is one of the most popular team based
sport played and watched throughout the world. The
aim of the game is for each team to defend a goal area
while trying to score goals at the opposing end of the
court. The on court team of 5 players consists of 2
forwards, 2 guards and a centre with each player
having to play in attack and defence. Basketball
requires speed, explosive power and sustenance of
maximum performance throughout the game.1
Vertical Jump: is the act of raising one’s centre of
gravity higher in the vertical plane solely with the use
of one’s own muscles. The vertical jump is divided
into 2 types:
Standing vertical jump: refers to vertical jump
done from a standstill with no steps involved
Running Vertical jump: refers to vertical jump
after an approach or run to help add energy to the
jump in an effort to improve on the standing
vertical jump.2
Plyometric Training: Is an essential tool for
improving explosive force. Plyometric exercises are
defined as eccentric loading immediately followed by
a concentric contraction. 3
Neurophysiology:These exercises induce
neuromuscular adaptations to the stretch reflex,
elasticity of the muscle and golgi tendon organs. This
DOI: 10.5958/2319-5886.2015.00002.8
Chhaya et al., Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2015;4(1):7-12
muscle action of eccentric to concentric or
deceleration to rapid acceleration is known as
Stretch-Shortening Cycle (SSC).4The conversion
from the negative (eccentric) to positive (concentric)
work is known as Amortization Phase. This begins at
the onset of eccentric contraction and continues to the
initiation of Concentric Contraction.5,6 Wilt suggested
that muscular performance gains after Plyometric
training are attributed to these neural adaptations and
it may enhance neuromuscular function.6,7
The shorter the duration of all the 3 phases, greater
will be the exploratory power of the muscles
exercised.Plyometric training is a training strategy
designed to improve the performance by
incorporating the basic needs of agility & power,
allows muscle to reach exponential increase in the
maximum strength & speed of movement inthe
shortest duration.8-11
Researchers have suggested that Plyometric exercises
were initially utilized to enhance sport performance
and more recently used in the rehabilitation of injured
athletes to help in preparation for a return to sport
participation.12 Santos et al in their study concluded
that Plyometric training showed positive effects on
upper & lower body explosive strength in adolescent
male basketball players.13Saggital plane Plyometric
program showed significant improvement in vertical
jump height in a study conducted by King & Cipriani,
on high-school basketball players. 14 A study done by
Mondal & Wondirad, to assess the effect of 6-week
Plyometric training on vertical jump performance
demonstrated a significant improvement in the
vertical jump performance of an athlete. 12 Also,
Abbas Asadi, in his study concluded that a 6-week in-
season Plyometric training program had positive
effects for improving power & agility, performance in
young male basketball players & his study further
provides support for coaches & players to use this
training method during competitive phase. 15
The purpose of this study, thus, was to determine the
effect of Plyometric training on vertical jump height
in high school basketball players compared to their
untrained counterparts around puberty. The effect of
training on boys & girls were also separately noted.
Aim: To determine the effect of 6-weeks of
Plyometric training on vertical jump height in high
school basketball players and untrained students
around puberty.
Objectives: 1. To compare the effect of Plyometric
training on vertical jump height between high school
basketball players and untrained students. 2. To
observe the effect of training on pre pubertal &
pubertal boys & girls. 3. To observe the effect of
Body Mass Index on vertical jump height.
Study design: A randomized control trial
Study duration: 6 weeks
Sample size: 144
Location: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Inclusion criteria: Basketball players - boys and
girls from different schools in Mumbai who have
been playing the sport at a competitive level. 2 groups
of Pre-pubertal (10-11 yrs) and Pubertal (14-15 yrs)
were taken. Healthy active students (non basketball
players) of the same age and sex were included.
Exclusion criteria: Previous history of lower limb
injuries. Ligament and muscle injuries, boys and girls
who were unable to cope up with the training sessions
Fig. 1: Randomised distribution of subjects
Procedure: An institutional ethics committee
approval was obtained. A written consent from all the
participants along with prior permission from the
school principals was obtained. A musculoskeletal
screening of all the subjects was done. Measurement
of the height and weight was done and the Body Mass
Index was calculated.
Explosive power is the ability to exert a maximal
force in as short time as possible. Speed is the ability
to reproduce these explosive movements one after the
with minimal fatigue. Running speed is very
important in basketball players and it can be assessed
by sprint tests, shuttle tests etc.7
Group I
(72) (10-
11 Years)
(Trained 36)
(i) Girls
(ii) Boys
(i) Girls
(ii) Boys
Group II
(72) (14-
15 Years)
(i) Girls
(ii) Boys
d 36)
(i) Girls
(ii) Boys
Chhaya et al., Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2015;4(1):7-12
Vertical jump height was measured pre and post
training. 16-18 The athlete stands on to a wall and
reaches up with the hand closest to the wall. The
point of the fingertips is marked keeping feet flat on
the ground. The athlete then jumps vertically as high
as possible and attempts to touch the wall at the
highest point of jump. The difference in the distance
between the reach height and jump height is the
score. The best of three attempts is recorded. Biceps
and triceps, as all major muscle groups in the body
are important for basketball. There are compound
movements that can be done to integrate an isolated
bicep or tricep exercise within other movements e.g.
Pull up, press ups. The pushing exercises incorporate
triceps while pulling exercises will incorporate the
The subjects were put on a Plyometric training
program of 6 weeks, constituting the lower body19
and upper body20 Plyometric exercise.
Duration of a session: 40 minutes.
Frequency: 3 days/week (alternate days)
The training session consisted of: Warm up exercises:
10-15 minutes including stretching of hamstrings,
tendoachilles, illiopsoas, adductors and mobility
exercises of the lower limb. Also, stretching of
biceps, triceps, shoulder, pectorals, trunks were done.
Slow skipping and marching were included too.
Plyometric training: 20-25 minutes including arm
Plyometric and lower body Plyometric. Cool down:
10 minutes including slow jogging, walking, lying
down back stretch, deep breathing, and relaxation
Training program:
The untrained group was asked to perform the general
warm up prior to the vertical jump. Cool down
exercises were performed by them after the jump
height was recorded.
For trained group: the exercises included were-
Upper body Plyometric: Press-ups, Chest Pass, Power
Lower body Plyometric: Two-legged hops or Bunny
hops, Depth jumps, Short sprints or Bounds
Fig 2: Vertical Jump Test
Table 1: vertical jump height pre & post training
Vertical jump height (cms)
mean + sd
group I
34.18 +1.38
33.78 +1.28
34.09 +1.46
31.07 +1.49
group II
33.36 +1.38
35.57 +2.19
32.09 +3.51
35.21 +1.99
Inference: There is an improvement seen in post training vertical jump height as compared to the pre-training in
all groups.
Chhaya et al., Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2015;4(1):7-12
Table 2: Comparison of effect of Plyometric
training on vertical jump height (in cms) of
trained players & untrained students.
10-11 yrs
Inference: Improvement in vertical jump height was
significantly greater in untrained boyscompared to
trained boys.
Table 3: Mean improvement between Boys &
Girls in Vertical Jump Height(in cms)
10-11 yrs
14-15 yrs
10-11 yrs
14-15 yrs
Inference: Improvement in jump height is significant
in boys compared to girls in untrained group while in
the trained group girls are better than boys.
Table 4: Mean difference in Vertical Jump Height
between Pre Pubertal & Pubertal ages
(10-11 yrs)
(14-15 yrs+a55)
Inference: There is no significant difference in the
pre-pubertal and pubertal age groups in vertical jump
Table 5:Body Mass Index in Pre Pubertal &
Pubertal boys and girls
(10-11 yrs)
(14-15 yrs+a55)
Inference: A significant negative correlation is seen
in the untrained boys and girls of both age groups
suggesting that as the BMI increases, the vertical
jump height decreases.
Vertical jump measurements are used primarily in
athletics to measure performance. The most common
sports in which this is measured are field and track
events, basketball, football, volleyball etc. This study
was conducted to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks
plyometric training on vertical jump height in high
school basketball players. It was also aimed at
determining the effect of the pre-training status,
gender and pubertal age on the difference in vertical
jump post plyometric training.
Kinetic forces involved during a vertical jump are6-
1. Contact time: Period of time for which the foot
/feet are in contact with the ground during an
activity. This phase is important, as the body
cannot generate force to increase velocity or
change directions without foot contact.
2. Ground reaction force (GRF): is the force exerted
by the ground on a body in contact with it.
3. Impulse: is the rate of change of momentum.
These above factors mentioned collectively
contribute to the quality of both the types of the
vertical jump: standing and running which are
enhanced during a plyometric training programme.
Table 1 demonstrates the significant improvement in
the jump height post plyometrics. The training effect
was seen to be enhanced in untrained students as
compared to trained players (Table 2). Neural
adaptations after training among initially untrained
individuals include earlier activation and increases in
maximal discharge rates of single motor
neuron.21But, in individuals with training
background, these neuromuscular adaptations have
already occurred. Therefore, the players showed
lesser improvements as compared to untrained
The jump height is usually recorded as a distance
score. It can be affected by the angle of knee bending,
effective use of hands, co-ordination etc. hence, to
minimise these factors the students were given three
attempts to perform the test and the average of the
scores were recorded for analysis purpose.
Boy’s demonstrated increased vertical jump height
than Girls (Table3). This was due to the fact that
Boys demonstrated a neuromuscular spurt evidenced
by an increased vertical jump height and increased
ability to attenuate the landing force. 22 Also,
eccentric exercises are performed differently by girls
as compared to boys as they have different activation
pattern. Eccentric contractions induce a significant
post-exercise force deficit. It was observed that girls
showed greater loss of strength immediately after a
bout of maximal eccentric contraction due to muscle
Chhaya et al., Int J Med Res Health Sci. 2015;4(1):7-12
thawing. 23 Since, plyometric exercises involve this
effect; the difference in activation patterns might also
have affected the final outcome in girls. There are
many ways to improve vertical jump, but the most
effective exercises include plyometrics along with
exercises that build both strength and power. For e.g.
Full squats, weighted step ups, overhead walking
lunges sprints, agility drills etc. the students can build
strength by performing basic weight training exercise
and build power with faster dynamic movements.
Also, practising maximum vertical jump will increase
the vertical jump.1,6
During and following puberty, boys have a significant
increase neuromuscular performance, while most
girls do not (Table 4).24 But specialized
neuromuscular training introduced at the onset of
puberty can influence these neuromuscular responses
in girls. These improved neuromuscular adaptations
due to our plyometric training could probably have
resulted in an enhanced improvement in pubertal
aged girls compared to boys.
An improvement in vertical jump is said to be
enhanced in the pubertal age group due to physiologic
growth spurt.23, 24 But in our study this effect was
seen only in trained pubertal aged girls. On an
average, girls begin the process of puberty about 1- 2
yrs earlier than boys.25Girls, therefore, attain their
adult height and growth spurt earlier than boys. All
girls in our study in the age group of 14 15 yrs had
attained their menarche at least a year prior to the
start of the study and thus would be at the peak of
their growth spurt. This difference in the pubertal age
between boys and girls explains the absence of
significant improvement in vertical jump height in
pubertal aged boys.
It is easier for one’s propulsive muscles to carry one
faster and further if one’s body is lighter.26 Also,
greater the body mass, greater the ground reaction
force and lesser will be the velocity of the vertical
jump.2This reasons the negative correlation of BMI
with the jump height. In our study, a significantly
negative correlation is present in untrained students
as compared to trained players (Table 5). As the BMI
calculated from the weight would include both
muscle and fat mass, some individuals may have a
high BMI because of increased muscularity rather
than increased body fat.27-32
Increased muscularity especially in the lower limbs
would enhance power production and hence increase
vertical jump. This might be the cause of a significant
negative correlation seen in untrained subjects.
Pearson’s Correlation test was used for calculation
and is depicted in table 5.
This study concludes that plyometric training of 6
weeks brought a significant change in the vertical
jump height in untrained students as compared to
basketball players. Boys gained more jump height
compared to girls with training, however, during
pubertal growth spurt girls showed significant
increase in jump height. As Body Mass Index of a
person increases, vertical jump height decreases. This
correlation is however not significant for trained
individuals who have a higher BMI due to muscle
mass and not fat.
We thank god almighty, the college dean, the prof &
head of physiotherapy department, the school
principals and all the students who participated in the
Conflict of Interest: Nil
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... Their study shows that plyometric training improves postural control (11). Furthermore, Verma et al. (2015) have studied the positive effect of plyometric training on vertical jumping in secondary school basketball players (12). Moreover, McCormick et al. (2016) have shown a significant improvement in the motor performance of basketball players in frontal and sagittal movement planes (13). ...
... Their study shows that plyometric training improves postural control (11). Furthermore, Verma et al. (2015) have studied the positive effect of plyometric training on vertical jumping in secondary school basketball players (12). Moreover, McCormick et al. (2016) have shown a significant improvement in the motor performance of basketball players in frontal and sagittal movement planes (13). ...
... In summary, given the structural importance of deep sensation in postural control and its significance in basketball, and also given the contradiction among related studies (11)(12)(13), the present work aims to study the concomitant use of selective plyometric training on an unstable surface and the routine sport activities for female basketball players with an emphasis on the effect of such training on their functional balance. ...
Full-text available
Background. Body adaptations and the high level of achievement in different sporting fields depend on the degree of fitness and training. Hence, it is important for basketball players to have suitable body fitness for tactics and skill performance. Objectives. The present study aims to investigate the effect of selective plyometric exercises using an unstable surface on the movement performance of female basketball players. Methods. In this pre-/post-designed clinical trial, the subjects were selected from among qualified female basketball players (n=24) having a history of two-year regular specialized training in a team considered as elite. They were randomly assigned into two, experiment (age: 20.25±2.34, training history: 2.55±0.29, and BMI: 23.28±0.93) and control (age: 21.16±2.79, training history: 2.60±0.75, and BMI: 24.80±1.04) groups. The experiment group performed for eight weeks (three sessions each week with a duration of 80 min/session) progressive plyometric exercises on an unstable surface. The assessment of dependent variables was performed using functional movement screening and the star excursion balance test. The results of the control and experiment groups were compared using multivariate covariance and post hoc Bonferroni test, while the pre- and post-test results were compared using the dependent t-test at a significance level of (p
... To produce greater force, it is essential to overcome the gravity and inertia generated by one's own body by use of strategies such as gathering for a throw, a jump, or a fast run. [23][24][25] Plyometric training increases the proportion of force production (power) and conscription of motor units which augments the synchronisation of the firing frequency, as a result of the increase in excitability, sensitivity, and reactivity of the neuromuscular system. This enhances the motor learning and neuromuscular efficiency. ...
... The SSC encompasses three phases: the eccentric phase, the amortization phase, and the concentric phase. [23][24][25][26] The eccentric phase is the first phase. Prior to muscle activation, this phase intensifies the muscle spindle activity by pre-stretching the muscle. ...
Background: Field hockey is a team sport requiring a combination of skill set to enhance a player’s performance. Power, Fitness and Agility are few such basic parameters. Newer training protocols are constantly explored to achieve the desired effect and plyometrics is one such method. It is also important to know how long lasting the effects of training are. Methodology: Fifty (50) male field hockey players at interschool and zonal level participated in the study. These sports specific parameters - lower limb power, fitness level and agility - were tested using the vertical jump test, 40-metre sprint test, and shuttle cross pick up test respectively. Plyometric training was supervised for 6 weeks and the values were recorded at baseline, 3rd week, and 6th week. The training was stopped after six weeks and the post cessation values on the 8th week were recorded. Results: Plyometric training showed statistically significant improvement in all the test parameters throughout the 6 weeks. The effects of training post cessation of the plyometric regimen also were statistically significant after two weeks. Conclusion: Plyometric training was effective in improving the lower limb power, fitness level, and agility level. Long lasting effects of training were also noted. Coaches will find it a very effective protocol and one of the ideal methods to enhance player performance.
... Gül et al. showed a non-significant increase in vertical jump height after eight weeks of plyometric training for 13-years-old basketball players (21). The results of some other studies showed that PT can have significant effects on the CMJ only in specific conditions (22,23). Rubley et al. found a significant in-crease in CMJ height after fourteen weeks of low-frequency, low-impact plyometric training. ...
... Verma et al. also found that the effect of PT on the CMJ height can vary in boys and girls non-basketball players. However, the gender-based effect of training in basketball players was not significant (23). ...
Full-text available
Background: Countermovement vertical jump is a crucial skill in many sports. Plyometric training is a prevalent method to improve athletes' jumping ability. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a 6-week plyometric training on the kinematics of take-off and countermovement vertical jump height. Methods: Fifteen young, healthy male subjects performed plyometric exercises in three sessions per week for six weeks. Digital videos of pre-training and post-training jumps were captured. The Kinovea software was used to measure the kinematic parameters of take-off in the sagittal plane. Pre and post-training values were compared by paired sample t-test with the statistical significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Post-training results showed a higher jump height (P < 0.05), more flexed shoulder, and more extensive hip and knee at take-off (P < 0.05). Also, while hip extension velocity was decreased, shoulder flexion and knee extension velocities were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The 6-week plyometric training, including 720 jumps, improved shoulder flexion, and hip and knee extensions at take-off, resulting in high CMJ height. We employed plyometric training to improve the shoulder flexion and hip and knee extension velocities and increase CMJ height.
... Studies have also attempted to determine predictors of vertical jump height by variables such as muscular strength, flexibility, balance, body weight, and composition, and jumping technique which can be altered by training (11,2). Despite the efforts of many investigators, a strong prediction model for VJ height in basketball players has not been defined and this has led investigators to examine many different variables (12). More fat causes more body weight that requires greater forces in order to overcome gravity force (13). ...
Full-text available
The Vertical jump (VJ) test is a common functional measure of an athlete's current and potential level of athletic performance. There is paucity of investigations assessing the influence of lower limb anthropometric variables on VJ height in basketball players. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between selected lower limb anthropometric parameters and VJ height among recreational basketball players in Lagos, Nigeria. Material and Method. Seventy seven male recreational basketball players, aged 16 to 35 years participated in this study. Body weight, height and BMI kg/m 2 were determined. Lower limb anthropometric parameters of femoral length, thigh girth, tibial length, calf girth, and foot length were assessed using a standard clinical tape measure while the subjects were in supine lying. The VJ test involving a countermovement jump was performed using a wall mounted centimeter tape. Data was analysed using Pearson product moment correlation to determine the relationship between VJ and anthropometric characteristics with significance set at p < 0.05. Results. No significant (p > 0.05) correlation of VJ height with femoral length, thigh girth, tibial length was seen. Calf girth and foot length had significant impact (p<0.05) while there were significant correlations of weight (p < 0.001, r =-0.426), height (p < 0.001, r =-0.455) and BMI (p = 0.027, r =-0.252) with VJ. Conclusion: Physical characteristics of weight, height and BMI as well as anthropometric variables of calf girth and foot length had significant impact on VJ performance among recreational basketball players.
... Also, our results showed a significant increase in vertical and lateral jump scores after plyometric training. Verma et al. also reported a significant increase in vertical jump height of basketball players after plyometric training [32]. McCormick et al. studied the effects of plyometrics in frontal and sagittal planes on change-ofdirection speed and power in female basketball players and reported its positive effects [33]. ...
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Purpose: Considering the high prevalence of dynamic valgus and its impact on sports performance among the female athletes, the present study aimed to examine the effect of a course of selective plyometric training on the lower extremity functional performance indexes of female athletes with dynamic knee valgus. Methods: This research was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-post-test design. The study population comprised the athletic girls with dynamic valgus referring to Bu-Ali Sina gymnasium of the University of Hamadan in 2018. Of them, 26 eligible girls who met the inclusion criteria were selected purposefully and then randomly assigned into experimental (Mean±SD age=20.25±2.34 y, Mean±SD BMI=21.27±2.75 kg/m2) and control (Mean±SD age=21.16±2.79 y, Mean±SD BMI=21.60±2.68 kg/m2) groups. The experimental group performed specific plyometric training for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Assessing the dependent variable was done using dynamic balance, Sargent and Illinois Agility tests in the pretest and post-test. The comparisons between experimental and control groups in the pretest and post-test were made by analysis of covariance and the dependent t-tests, respectively in SPSS V. 20. The significance level was set at 0.05 or lower. Results: Considering the pretest as the covariate parameter, a significant improvement was found for total dynamic balance (P=0.005), anterior leg (P=0.001), medial-posterior leg (P=0.001), lateral-posterior side of right leg (P=0.028), vertical jump (P=0.001) and Illinois jumping test score (P=0.001) in the experimental group. Conclusion: An improvement was seen in the dynamic balance and the movement performance of the participants with dynamic valgus after doing plyometric exercises that result in subsequent improvement in their exercise performance.
... General weariness translated into poorer results recorded in volleyball drills performed at the end of the intervention, yet the magnitude of this drop was lower in the CRY group. A longer training period, e.g., 6 or 16 weeks (Verma et al., 2015), which would have allowed for some recovery breaks, could have potentially proven more effective in boosting explosive power, however, further research would be required to verify this observations. Still, our study has limitations that warrant mention. ...
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Potentially beneficial effects of cold therapies on training adaptation still remain unequivocal. We have, thus, decided to evaluate the effects of a 2-week volleyball training program supported by 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation (WBC) on growth factors and physical performance. Twenty healthy college-aged men and women randomly assigned either to the cryostimulation group (CRY) or the control group (CON; executed passive rest). Both groups took part in the same 2-weeks training program. Additionally, the CRY group attended in 10 cryo-sessions (3 min, -110°C temperature, five times/week). Blood samples were collected at baseline, 1 h after the first cryo-session as well as before and 1 h after the last session of WBC to assess growth factors, myokines concentration and the amino acid profile. Motor abilities were tested before commencing the training program and 2 days after its completion. The applied intervention resulted in an increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations. The adjusted effect describing the difference between groups in response to applied procedures was for both growth factors large and very likely in the CRY, higher than in the CON group (113%; Coefficient Interval: 38–230%, 45%; Coefficient Interval: 17–79%, respectively). Physical performance dropped in both groups, yet in the CRY group, the magnitude of change was smaller. The fibroblast growth factor dropped significantly 1 h following the first cryo-session, yet irisin remained statistically unchanged. The similar tendency was maintained after the whole procedure, still the range of changes was smaller. In the CRY group, an elevated uptake of tryptophan and valine noted in response to the whole intervention, could have induced a significant decrease of fasting glucose concentration (the adjusted effect small and very likely -6%; Coefficient Interval: -10 to -2%). Overall, a 2-week volleyball training program supported by the whole body cryostimulation protocol resulted in an increase of growth factors and offset a decline of physical performance. Thus these procedure can be applied in professional sport during competition period, especially among those disciplines focusing on an explosive power and ability to concentrate.
Introduction: In the current Chinese basketball team, many players have a high level of training. However, in official competitions, athletes tend to have heart rate problems. Therefore, it is importment to monitor and control the heart rate of basketball players to improve their performance. Objective: To explore the heart rate of basketball players in intermittent endurance training. Methods: The researchers selected 28 male basketball players from a university as the research objects. Athletes performed intermittent endurance training, and their heart rate variability, changes in frequency indicators, and changes in cardiac function were measured before and after training. Results: After training,(Total Power, TP), (High Frequency, HF), HFnorm, and (Low Frequency, LF) were significantly higher than before training. The effect sizes were medium for TP (0.7); moderate for HF (0.72); medium for HFnorm (0.59); and moderate for LFnorm (0.57). In the case of LF/HF and LF, the effect size was 0.48, close to the critical value of medium effect. Conclusions: Intermittent endurance training can improve the tension of the cardiovagal nerve of college basketball players and increase heart capacity and load, significantly improving heart function. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.
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Background and Aim: Martial arts like Taekwondo have the highest prevalence rate of sport injuries. Most injuries in Taekwondo occur in lower extremities. Also, previous studies indicated the growing risk of knee ligamentous injuries in martial arts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks agility exercises on maximum ground reaction force of the knee, knee proprioception, balance and performance in Taekwondo athletes of Alborz Province. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects (15 in each group) selected and randomly assigned into two groups. They informed a voluntary consent and demographic information of the subjects was collected with demographic information form. Force plate was used to assess the kinetic variable (maximum ground reaction force). Single hop and triple hop functional test was used to determine the functional performance. Universal goniometer was used to measure the proprioception of the knee. Y balance test was used for evaluating the dynamic balance. After group allocations, pre-test was conducted to measure the research variables. After pre-test, the exercise program was applied to experimental group for six weeks. Subsequently, the post test was performed to measure the variables of the research, with the same procedure with pre-test. Results: Results showed that participating in six weeks of the interventions may result in decreased maximum ground reaction force of the knee (P=0.009), improved knee proprioception (P=0.002) and dynamic balance (poterolateral) (P=0.029). Therefore, significant differences were observed between intervention and control group. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the effects of agility exercises on the mentioned factors was significant. Therefore, the interventions can be considered as a safe and effective method for improving mentioned factors in Taekwondo athletes. Keywords Agility exercises; maximum ground reaction force; proprioception; dynamic balance; performance
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The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of in-season plyometric training program on power and agility performance in young male basketball players. Twenty intermediate basketball players (age 20.1 ± 1.3 years; height 181.1 ± 8.5 cm; body mass 78.8 ± 5 kg) from Division I province team volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly divided into two groups: plyometric training (PL; n = 10) and control group (CG; n = 10). Plyometric training took place twice weekly for 6 weeks including three sets of 15 repetitions of depth jump (from 45-cm box height), vertical jump, and standing long jump, in addition to regular basketball practice of the team. Vertical jump (VJ), standing long jump (SLJ), 4 × 9-m shuttle run, agility t test (ATT), and Illinois Agility Test (IAT) were measured at pre- and post-training. The PL group showed significant improvement (P Keywords: Agility; Basketball; Jump; Plyometric exercise Document Type: Research Article DOI: Affiliations: Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Islamic Republic of Iran, Email: Publication date: December 1, 2013 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher In this Subject: Anatomy & Physiology , Medicine , Public Health By this author: Asadi, Abbas GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
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The aims of this study were to determine the effects of (a) plyometric training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent male basketball players and (b) detraining and reduced training on previously achieved explosive strength gains. Two groups were formed: an experimental and a control group. The former was submitted to a 10-week in-season plyometric training program, twice weekly, along with regular basketball practice. Simultaneously, the control group participated in regular basketball practice only. At the end of this period, the experimental group was subdivided into 2 groups: a reduced training group and a detraining group. All participants were assessed on squat jump, countermovement jump, Abalakov test, depth jump, mechanical power, and medicine ball throw at the beginning and at the end of the 10-week in-season plyometric training and on weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the in-season detraining and reduced training periods. In the first phase of the study, the experimental group significantly increased all the assessed indicators (p < 0.05). In the following phase and in general all the groups maintained the previously achieved results. In conclusion, plyometric training showed positive effects on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. Moreover, we can state that both detraining and a reduced training program indistinctly contribute to maintenance of strength levels. These results highlight the unique power that basketball-specific training seems to have on the sustainability and maintenance of sport performance.
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The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationships between the strength qualities of the leg extensor musculature and performance in vertical jumps (VJ) performed from a standing position and a run-up. Twenty-nine males with experience in jumping activities were tested for vertical jumping capacities with a standing VJ (double leg takeoff) and run-up jumps from a 1, 3, 5 and 7 stride approach (single leg takeoff). The speed-strength and maximum strength qualities of the leg extensors were assessed by tests involving concentric, stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and isometric muscular actions. Pearson's correlations and stepwise multiple regression was performed to describe the relationships with jumping performance. The speed-strength tests correlated significantly with both jump types (r = 0.55-0.82), but maximum strength did not. A drop jump test considered to measure reactive strength correlated more strongly with the run-up jump than the standing VJ. The standing VJ was best predicted by a low stretch load SSC test, whereas the run-up jump was best predicted by a model that also including the test of reactive strength. The role of maximum strength in jumping performance was not clear but speed-strength qualities were considered important. It was concluded that reactive strength is relatively more important for jumping from a run-up than for the standing VJ, and this should be reflected by appropriate training methods and test protocols for the assessment of athletes who jump.
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Although the plyometric training has proved its efficiency, it remains generally unknown whether a limited amount of plyometric training could improve movements in subjects who already demonstrate high level of performance. Three different training regimens were performed in order to study effects of plyometric training on elite junior basketball players. While control group (CG) participated only in the regular midseason training activity, another two groups performed a limited amount of plyometric training employing drop jumps from the height of either 50 cm (EG-50) or 100 cm (EG-100). The height of the maximal vertical jump (CMJ), as well as the maximal voluntary force (F) and the rate of force development (RFD) of hip and knee extensors were tested prior to and after the training. An increase in CMJ (4.8 and 5.6 cm in EG-50 and EG-100, respectively), as well as in F of hip extensors and RFD of knee extensors was observed in both experimental groups, while no significant changes were recorded in CG. When the pretest scores were used as a covariate, both experimental groups demonstrated higher increase in CMJ and RFD of knee extensors then CG. However, no differences were observed between EG-50 and EG-100. The multiple correlation between four isometric parameters and CMJ revealed R2=0.29. A limited amount of plyometric training could improve jumping performance in elite junior basketball players and this improvement could be partly related with an increase in F of hip extensors and RFD of knee extensors. However, neither of the two initial heights of the applied drop jumps proved to be more effective.
Sport specific training in basketball players should focus on vertical jump height and agility in consistent with demands of the sport. Since plyometrics training improves vertical jump height and agility, it can be useful training strategy to improve the performance of basketball players. A convenience sample of thirty professional basketball players were recruited. Following pre-intervention assessment, interventions using plyometrics training and dynamic stretching protocol was administered on the basketball players. The outcome measures were assessed before the intervention and at the end of first and second week. Statistically significant improvements in vertical jump height (31.68 ± 11.64 to 37.57 ± 16.74; P < 0.012) and agility (16.75 ± 2.49 to 16.51 ± 2.80; P <0.00) were observed between pretest--posttest measures and no changes in muscle girth and isometric muscle strength. The study concludes that short term two weeks plyometrics training combined with dynamic stretching as a useful sport specific training strategy to improve vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players.
The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effects of weight training, training with weights and plyometrics, and training with weights and the VertiMax on vertical jump. Subjects were 37 intercollegiate athletes assigned to one of four training groups: strength (S), strength-plyometric (P), strength-VertiMax without arms (VNA), and strength-VertiMax with arms (VA). Each group completed a 6-week training program. There were no statistical increases in pre-post vertical jump within all groups. There were no significant differences for posttest vertical jump between the four training groups. Pre- and posttest effect sizes were minimal across all groups. The findings of this study demonstrate that there is no difference in vertical jump among strength training, plyometric training, and jump training over a 6-week timeframe.
This study determined whether a 6-week regimen of plyometric training would improve running economy (i.e., the oxygen cost of submaximal running). Eighteen regular but not highly trained distance runners (age = 29 +/- 7 [mean +/- SD] years) were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. All subjects continued regular running training for 6 weeks; experimental subjects also did plyometric training. Dependent variables measured before and after the 6-week period were economy of running on a level treadmill at 3 velocities (women: 2.23, 2.68, and 3.13 m.s(-1); men: 2.68, 3.13, and 3.58 m.s(-1)),VO(2)max, and indirect indicators of ability of muscles of lower limbs to store and return elastic energy. The last were measurements during jumping tests on an inclined (20 degrees ) sled: maximal jump height with and without countermovement and efficiencies of series of 40 submaximal countermovement and static jumps. The plyometric training improved economy (p < 0.05). Averaged values ( for the 3 running speeds were: (a). experimental subjects-5.14 +/- 0.39 pretraining, 5.26 +/- 0.39 posttraining; and (b). control subjects-5.10 +/- 0.36 pretraining, 5.06 +/- 0.36 posttraining. The VO(2)max did not change with training. Plyometric training did not result in changes in jump height or efficiency variables that would have indicated improved ability to store and return elastic energy. We conclude that 6 weeks of plyometric training improves running economy in regular but not highly trained distance runners; the mechanism must still be determined.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of variations in the volume and intensity of resistance training in highly skilled athletes on neural adaptive mechanisms: the maximality and pattern of neural drive. The maximality of muscle activation was measured using a high-resolution sample and hold amplifier to record interpolated twitches. The pattern of neural drive was measured by analysing isometric torque-time curves and electromyographic (EMG) characteristics during the performance of rapid isometric contractions at maximal effort. The volume and intensity of training were varied at 4-weekly intervals to systematically emphasize the development of strength, power and motor performance in 14 highly skilled track and field athletes (e.g. discus, hammer, javelin, shot put and weight). Knee extension strength increased significantly by 15% during steady maximal isometric contractions and by 24% during rapid isometric contractions at maximal effort after the 16-week training programme (P < 0.05). Increases in EMG amplitude and rate of EMG activation indicated that improvements to the pattern of neural drive occurred with sport-specific resistance training (P < 0.05). The maximality and pattern of neural drive did not change in the control group.