ArticlePDF Available

Effects of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on Anxiety in Students: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Authors:

Abstract

Vitamin C ascorbic acid) is a well-known antioxidant that is involved in anxiety, stress, depression, fatigue and mood state in humans. Studies have suggested that oxidative stress may trigger neuropsychological disorders. Antioxidants may play an important therapeutic role in combating the damage caused by oxidative stress in individuals that suffer from anxiety. In this context, it was hypothesized that oral vitamin C supplementation would reduce anxiety. However, few up to date studies have evaluated the consequences of oral vitamin C supplementation on anxiety in humans. The present study examined the effects of oral vitamin C supplements in 42 high school students, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The students were given either vitamin C (500 mg day(-1)) or placebo. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and blood pressure were measured before the intervention and then one day after the intervention. Anxiety levels were evaluated for each student before and after 14 days following supplementation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results showed that vitamin C reduced anxiety levels and led to higher plasma vitamin C concentration compared to the placebo. The mean heart rates were also significantly different between vitamin C group and placebo control group. Present study results not only provide evidence that vitamin C plays an important therapeutic role for anxiety but also point a possible use for antioxidants in the prevention or reduction of anxiety. This suggests that a diet rich in vitamin C may be an effective adjunct to medical and psychological treatment of anxiety and improve academic performance.
Asian Network for Scientific Information
an
s
n
e
t
.
RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS
... Results in the lower cortisol level can be associated to the higher Vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin and thiamine content and essential amino acids particularly glutamic acid which enhanced performance of broilers exposed to different concurrent stressors found in the environment that significantly (p<0.01) lower cortisol level, thus has the potential to combat heat stress through efficient feed utilization that consequently enhance nutrient absorption and had favorable immune-modulatory effect in poultry without any toxicity due to moderation of cortisol level in blood and urine (Mckee and Harrison, 1995;Okpanachi et al., 2016;Bhat and Nagarala, 2008;Oyewole et al., 2018) that reduce stress and anxiety (Oliveira, 2015), thus relaxes the animals which consequently reduces the incidence of stress. Furthermore, lower level of stress hormone (blood cortisol) can be correlated to the lower LDL, triglycerides, and total cholesterol which consequently enhanced the good cholesterol (Oyewole et al., 2018). ...
... These results can be associated with the higher digestibility rate of cashew apple, high protein but low fiber content, essential minerals, appreciable quantities of vitamins A and high content of ascorbic acid and glutamic acid (Morton, 2018;Oliveira, 2015;Campbell, 2018) that may enhance feed intake that consequently improve the growth rate and feed efficiency of animals through improve nutrient digestion and absorption (Fanimo et al., 2003;Oddoye et al., 2017;Liwayway, 2013;Song and Seng, 2008;Okpanachi et al., 2016). ...
... These results can be associated with the higher digestibility rate of fermented cashew apple, high protein but low fiber content, essential minerals, had appreciable quantities of vitamins A and high content of ascorbic acid (Morton, 2018;Oliveira, 2015;Campbell, 2018;Famino et al., 2003) that may enhances feed intake that consequently improved the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study aimed to determine how feeding dried ground cashew apple pulp (DGCAP) and fermented cashew apple juice (FCAJ) affect the stress level, productivity, organoleptic property and profitability of broiler chickens. A total of 240 day old chicks were used and data were analyzed following 2x4 factorial CRD and significant differences between treatments were analyzed using Scheffe's Test and Friedman's Test. Broilers fed with 50 grams DGCAP significantly reduced the blood cortisol, lipid profile, enhanced the organoleptic property of cooked broiler meat in terms of texture, flavor, tenderness and general acceptability, improved the ADG, weight gain and FCR, and increase net income, income per bird and ROI. Fermented cashew apple showed significant effects on the blood cortisol, blood lipid profile, enhanced all the organoleptic property of cooked meat, increase dressing percentage and reduced abdominal fat pad. Moreover, FCA improved the growth rate and feed efficiency, net income, income per bird and ROI. Providing DGCAP and FCAJ significantly improved the blood cortisol and blood lipid profile, ADG, abdominal fat pad, net income, income per bird and ROI. Results suggested that feeding DGCAP and 30ml FCAJ were potential CP, energy and Vitamin supplement and potential alternative and natural feedstuff to reduce feed cost and consequently to maximize profit in broiler production.
... Vitamin C memainkan peran penting dalam biosintesis kortikosteron, hormon yang meningkatkan pasokan energi selama stres. 3,4 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuktikan suplementasi vitamin C dapat menurunkan tingkat stres mahasiswa kedokteran di Universitas Ciputra. ...
... Sejalan dengan penelitian yang telah dilakukan di Iran menunjukan bahawa mahasiswa kedokteran memperoleh hasil tertinggi rerata stres ringan yaitu 26,22%. 3 Sedangkan pada penelitian yang dilakukan pada mahasiswa fakultas kedokteran universitas lainnya mendapatkan rerata hasil 35% diperoleh stres ringan, 61% stres sedang dan 4% stres berat. 4 Perbedaan data tersebut bisa disebabkan karena faktor penyebab stres yang berbeda-beda, seperti tuntutan dari luar, kualitas makanan yang dikonsumsi, frekuensi ujian yang sangat banyak dan tidak dapat mengkontrol pola pikir dengan baik dan kenyamanan ruang kuliah. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Stress is an event that places a strain or demand on a person, disrupting the body's balance and physical and psychological conditions. Students often experience stress due to the numerous orders placed on them regarding learning and extracurricular activities on campus. Because medical students are prone to stress due to academic factors and the pressure they face, additional treatment is required to ensure that it does not have a long-term impact. Objective: This study aims to show that vitamin C supplementation can help medical students at Ciputra University feel less stressed. Method: A pre-and post-experimental study and the total sampling technique were used, and the respondents were divided into two groups: treatment and control. The DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) questionnaire was used in this study as the instrument. After that, the paired t-test was used to examine the data. The findings revealed that 66.6 percent of students in the pre-intervention experimental group experienced mild stress. In comparison, 29.16 percent of students in the pre-intervention control group had a normal pre-experimental score of 17.96. With an average result of 11.58, 95.8% of the participants in the post-intervention experimental group or after vitamin C supplementation were classified as usual. In a comparative test, the average stress score before and after supplementation differed significantly (p = 0.05). It can be concluded that supplementing with vitamin C can help students cope with stress.
... Consequently, alteration in neuronal function, neurotransmission, and brain activity occur under oxidative load (Salim, 2014). Compounds with antioxidant potential have also shown to reduce anxiety-and depression-like symptoms in pre-clinical and clinical studies (Ribeiro, 2015;Aburawi et al., 2014;Scapagnini et al., 2004). Consistently, the antioxidant effects of our test compound at lower doses are concomitant with anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, indicating improved neuronal integrity following the administration of geraniol. ...
Article
Geraniol, a component of essential oil, is reported to have various pharmacological properties. The current study was conducted to demonstrate the dose-dependent neurobehavioral effects of geraniol. Rats were divided into 5 groups (n=7), comprising of control and four test groups for different doses of geraniol including 10, 30, 50 and 100 mg/kg. Geraniol was given for 15 days through intraperitoneal route. Following the administration, anxiety-, depression-like behaviors and memory function were evaluated. Extent of oxidative stress in rat's brain was also assessed by determining the levels of malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzymes activity. The present study revealed that low doses of geraniol produced more potent anxiolytic, antidepressant, nootropic, and antioxidant effects as compared to the higher doses. The findings highlight the dual characteristic of geraniol, acting as antioxidant at lower doses while at higher doses it produces pro-oxidant effects. The results are discussed in the context of dual characteristic of antioxidant compounds.
... Food supplements, such as vitamin B and L-carnitine, that restore mitochondrial function and help remove damaged mitochondria, can be used to enhance energy production 45,46 . Vitamin C is also beneficial for alleviating fatigue and stress 47 . ...
Article
Full-text available
A vast majority of COVID-19 patients experience fatigue, extreme tiredness and symptoms that persist beyond the active phase of the disease. This condition is called post-COVID syndrome. The mechanisms by which the virus causes prolonged illness are still unclear. The aim of this review is to gather information regarding post-COVID syndrome so as to highlight its etiological basis and the nutritional regimes and supplements that can mitigate, alleviate or relieve the associated chronic fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders and continuing inflammatory reactions. Naturally-occurring food supplements, such as acetyl L-carnitine, hydroxytyrosol and vitamins B, C and D hold significant promise in the management of post-COVID syndrome. In this pilot observational study, we evaluated the effect of a food supplement containing hydroxytyrosol, acetyl L-carnitine and vitamins B, C and D in improving perceived fatigue in patients who recovered from COVID-19 but had post-COVID syndrome characterized by chronic fatigue. The results suggest that the food supplement could proceed to clinical trials of its efficacy in aiding the recovery of patients with long COVID.
... However, we failed to show cross-sectional associations or a supplementation effect of vitamin C on mood variables, including stress, depression, positive and negative affect, and anxiety. In contrast, supplementation with 3000 mg/ day of vitamin C lowered subjective stress against acute psychological stressors [62], and a relief effect on anxious moods was observed after vitamin C administration in healthy populations [63,64]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose We aimed to investigate the link of vitamin C status with vitality and psychological functions in a cross-sectional study, and examine their causal relationship through a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods We first conducted a population-based cross-sectional investigation of healthy young adults (n = 214, 20–39 years), and analyzed the associations of serum vitamin C concentrations with vitality (fatigue and attention) and mood status (stress, depression, and positive and negative affect) using Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Next, we performed a double-blind RCT in healthy subjects whose serum vitamin C concentrations were inadequate (< 50 μmol/L). Subjects were randomly allocated to receive 500 mg of vitamin C twice a day for 4 weeks (n = 24) or a placebo (n = 22). We assessed vitality, which included fatigue, attention, work engagement, and self-control resources, and measured mood status, including stress, depression, positive and negative affect, and anxiety. ELISA determined serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and a Stroop color–word test evaluated attention capacity and processing speed. Results In the cross-sectional data, the serum vitamin C concentration was positively associated with the level of attention (r = 0.16, p = 0.02; standardized β = 0.21, p = 0.003), while no significant associations with the levels of fatigue and mood variables being found. In the RCT, compared to the placebo, the vitamin C supplementation significantly increased attention (p = 0.03) and work absorption (p = 0.03) with distinct tendency of improvement on fatigue (p = 0.06) and comprehensive work engagement (p = 0.07). The vitamin C supplementation did not affect mood and serum concentrations of BDNF. However, in the Stroop color–word test, the subjects supplemented with vitamin C showed better performance than those in the placebo group (p = 0.04). Conclusion Inadequate vitamin C status is related to a low level of mental vitality. Vitamin C supplementation effectively increased work motivation and attentional focus and contributed to better performance on cognitive tasks requiring sustained attention. Trial registration number and date of registration Cross-sectional study: KCT0005074 (cris.nih.go.kr)/1 June, 2020 (retrospectively registered). Intervention study: KCT0004276 (cris.nih.go.kr)/4 September, 2019.
Article
Neurological disorders are a significant cause of mortality and disability across the world. The current aging population and population expansion have seen an increase in the prevalence of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. These pose a significant societal burden, especially in low - and middle-income countries. Many neurological disorders have complex mechanisms and lack definitive cures; thus, improving our understanding of them is essential. The pathophysiology of neurological disorders often includes inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Oxidative stress processes, especially the generation of reactive oxygen species, are key mechanisms in the development of neurological disorders. Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants that can counteract them. Through their impacts on the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, nutrients with anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antioxidative properties have been suggested to prevent or mitigate these disorders. Certain vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and flavonoids may have therapeutic effects as adjuvant treatments for neurological disorders. Diet quality is also a risk factor for some neurological and psychiatric disorders and addressing nutritional deficiencies may alleviate symptoms. Therefore, optimizing nutritional intake may represent a potential treatment or prevention strategy. This review summarizes a selection of promising nutrients for the prevention and amelioration of neurological disorders to provide a summary for scientists, clinicians and patients, which may improve understanding of the potential benefits of nutrients in the treatment of neurological disorders.
Chapter
Although a large number of observational studies suggest a beneficial role for antioxidants in different diseases, the data from intervention trials are still scarce and inconclusive. In this article we address the possible role of vitamins C and E in aging and in different conditions associated with oxidative stress. The data obtained through meta-analyses show that although both vitamins can reduce fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels in metabolically compromised subjects, the effect is not clinically significant. In different situations, high doses of these antioxidants can blunt the positive effects of diet and exercise and their supplementation pose a greater risk of developing cancer. We can conclude that more studies are still necessary to generate evidence-based guidelines and that, in any case, an adequate intake of these molecules from the diet should be recommended to maintain an adequate antioxidant status for optimal health.
Article
Full-text available
In order for living species to have a healthy and balanced diet, their needs for adequate amounts of protein, oil, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals must be met. When the amount of nutrients required by the living species is not taken as much as necessary, various health problems such as psychological, as well as metabolic, physiological and chemical disorders occur. One of the fundamental indicators of psychological problems is the diet of the living thing. Excess or less of the amount of nutrients required by the living species can cause various behavioral disorders. When these behavioral disorders are examined; chronic anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia, mood and depressive symptoms, counterconditioning and depersonalization, behavioral disorders, cognitive performance and anxiety, social interaction capacity, locomotor activity, repetitive behaviors, motor coordination and seizure sensitivity, autism spectrum disorder, alzheimer's, antiepileptic it is stated in studies that it has a characteristic feature and effects on manic type bipolar disorder and migraine headache. Moreover; it is stated that the secretion of the stress hormone cortisol, social and communication disorders and restricted/repetitive behaviors, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders, satiety, performance restriction, chewing behavior, stereotypical behaviors affect animal welfare, yield and performance closely. In this study, it is aimed to give information about the abnormal behaviors observed in different species depending on nutrition.
Chapter
This chapter covers the research focused on and published with respect to the treatment of depressive disorder using marine-based products. Depression is one of the illnesses in which an individual feels irritable, guilty, unhappiness in life, sometimes suicidal ideation, and loss of pleasure in activities. So far, there are hundreds of millions of people suffering from this major depression disorder worldwide. To resolve this issue, there is a need to spend a large amount of money for drug every year, and it leads to a significant share of the economy going for the treatment. Therapeutic drugs are not very effective, and they also have side effects that compound the problem. Many studies have proved that marine-derived natural products show potential activities against many diseases including depression treatment. Over the last few decades, vitamins, amino acids, trace elements, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine sources are used for the treatment of depression, and these compounds do not having any side effects, which merits utmost consideration for advanced research and development.KeywordsDepressionMarine organismMNPsOmega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidVitamin
Article
Full-text available
Background The distressing COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on public mental health, and the importance of food and nutrients in several aspects of mental health has been recognized. People in isolation or quarantine suffer from severe stress, anger, panic attack, and anxiety. Scope and approach Although, people who have improved and progressed through medications or vaccines have reduced anxiety levels to some extent yet the efficacy of these measures, in the long run, remains a question. The review depicts that such negative emotional reactions were particularly higher in elderly individuals in the first wave than in other phases. The emotional and behavioral response to the COVID-19 pandemic is multifactorial. From different research studies, it has been found that stress scores were considerably higher for those engaging in unhealthy eating practices. This factor relies not only on external components but on personal and innate ones as well. In the present pandemic, the sustainable development of the food system would have been a major issue; this should be carefully restored to avoid a food crisis in the future. Key findings and conclusions Changes in mind-body interactions are triggered by psychosocial stresses such as interpersonal loss and social rejection. Physiological response (in terms of psychological stress) in COVID-19 affected patients varies due to individual physical health status. This review explores the relationship between nutrition and mental health as what we eat and think is interlinked with the gut-brain-axis. The role of dietary components along with the Mediterranean diet, DASH diet and use of psychobiotics in improving psychological distress in pandemic induced stress, anxiety and depression has also been discussed.
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin C offered through a dietary supplement and an ascorbic acid (AA)-rich diet on exercise-induced oxidative stress. METHODS: The sample consisted of 13 elite swimmers (6 men and 7 women) aged 18 to 26 years. The same athletes were submitted to an acute exercise session in 3 phases, with different treatments: control (C), AA-rich diet (D) and AA supplement (S), where blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 24 hours after exercise. A mixed effects linear regression model was used to compare phases and stages. RESULTS: The habitual consumption of antioxidants did not differ between phases, except that AA intake was higher during the D and S phases than during the C phase. The use of an AA-rich diet provided lower lipid peroxidation due to lower lipid hydroperoxide (FOX) values, a reduction of peroxidation after exercise due to reduction of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and an increase in vitamin C levels after exercise. The use of an AA supplement also restricted lipid peroxidation after exercise and increased the antioxidant power due to higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Without the addition of AA , the swimmers had greater hepatic damage as shown by higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lower antioxidant levels (vitamin C and GSH) and increased uric acid. CONCLUSION: Thus, the changes observed after the addition of AA to the diet of swimmers suggest an important role of this micronutrient in the defense against exercise-induced oxidative stress.
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus as one of the most prevalent endocrine disease is associated with high oxidative stress. Anxiety, stress and depression are common neuropsychiatric features in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia leads to increased oxidative stress which in turn diminishes antioxidant defense system. On the other hand oxidative stress is the leading cause of depression and anxiety disorders. Thus, it seems that diabetes could accelerate the trend of psychiatric diseases. In this randomized single-blind study, evaluation of the effects of two antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E) was done on Stress, depression and anxiety levels in 45 diabetic patients for six weeks. The patients were randomly divided in three groups of vitamin E (400 IU day(-1)), vitamin C (1000 mg day(-1)) and placebo. DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21-item) questionnaire items were read to each patient and completed by the main investigator of this study before and after six weeks of supplementation. The scores of depression, anxiety and stress were evaluated separately based on the DASS questionnaire. The results showed a significant decrease in anxiety level (p = 0.005) in vitamin C group compared to other groups but there were no significant differences between groups in terms of changes in stress and depression scores. In conclusion, this study suggests that short-term supplementation of vitamin C is safe and beneficial for reducing anxiety levels in diabetic patients through alleviating oxidative damage.
Article
Full-text available
Various abiotic stresses lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and animals which are highly reactive and toxic causing damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA thus leads to oxidative stress. This oxidative stress causes damage to tissues and results in large number of diseases. Antioxidants neutralize the effects of ROS and thus help in preventing diseases. Antioxidants can be natural or synthetic. Natural antioxidants can be taken up through diet as they are present in fruits, vegetables and spices. There are also certain synthetic antioxidants like BHT and BHA that also inhibit oxidation. However, these synthetic antioxidants have now been reported to be dangerous to humans so the search for non-toxic antioxidants have intensified in the recent years.
Article
Full-text available
Hypovitaminosis C and D are highly prevalent in acute-care hospitals. Malnutrition with regard to these vitamins has been linked to mood disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. The objective was to determine whether vitamin C or D supplementation improves mood state or reduces psychological distress in acutely hospitalized patients with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and D. A randomized, double-blind, active-control clinical trial compared the effects of vitamin C (500 mg twice daily) with those of high-dose vitamin D (5000 IU/d) on mood (Profile of Mood States) and psychological distress (Distress Thermometer). Vitamin C provided for a mean of 8.2 d increased plasma vitamin C concentrations to normal (P < 0.0001) and was associated with a 71% reduction in mood disturbance (P = 0.0002) and a 51% reduction in psychological distress (P = 0.0002). High-dose vitamin D provided for a mean of 8.1 d increased plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations (P < 0.0001), but not into the normal range, and had insignificant effects on mood (P = 0.067) and distress (P = 0.45). The changes in mood and distress in the vitamin C group were greater than those in the vitamin D group (P = 0.045 for mood; P = 0.009 for distress). Short-term therapy with vitamin C improves mood and reduces psychological distress in acutely hospitalized patients with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and D. No conclusion is possible regarding the effects of vitamin D because the dose and duration of therapy were insufficient to raise 25(OH)D concentrations into the normal range. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01630720.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present a pilot study of pre- post treatment toward overcoming anxiety in improving academic performance for engineering's students. The anxiety level measurement was used to examine the effect of the intervention, as well to acquire the prior finding on the effectiveness of a treatment to reduce anxiety in improving academic performance. It is based on a pre post design to evaluate the effect of intervention by using breath per-minute (bpm) and grade point average (GPA). Six males and females engineering's students participated in this study. They received six sessions of treatment each for two hours of intervention. It includes breathing retreatment, relaxation, study coping skills. The results show that, the number of anxieties was significantly reduced which bpm shows t (2;5)= 4.788; p=.005 (p.05). Since all participants had reduced their anxiety level and improve their academic performance, we recommend that this intervention as an effective approach in reducing anxiety level.
Article
Full-text available
Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (p<.01). A moderated mediation model was tested, in which it was hypothesized that heightened anticipatory cortisol reactivity would mediate the relationship between perceived stress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHdG) via anticipatory cortisol reactivity, showing the expected relations among chronically stressed participants (p≤.01) Intriguingly, among those with low chronic stress exposure, moderate (compared to low) levels of perceived stress were associated with reduced levels of oxidative damage. Hence, this study supports the emerging model that chronic stress exposure promotes oxidative damage through frequent and sustained activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It also supports the less studied model of 'eustress' - that manageable levels of life stress may enhance psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage.
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety and depression form commonest stress-induced psychiatric disorders. To combat the biochemical changes which occur as a result of stress, there is antioxidant defence in the biological system. Secondary defence is by the nonenzymatic antioxidants like vitamins E (alphatocopherol), C (ascorbic acid), and β-carotene. Therefore, the authors interest was aroused to examine the status of these antioxidants in the biological system of patients suffering from stress-induced psychiatric disorders. This study was carried out to find out whether patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression have any difference in blood serum levels of vitamins A (β-carotene), C, and E in comparison to the normal healthy control group and whether supplementation of adequate doses of vitamins A (β-carotene), C, and E leads to improvement in anxiety and depression and reduction in scores of the patients. Eighty subjects in the age group of 20-60 years, who attended a psychiatric clinic of a private hospital and who met inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study and consented for psychological evaluation and blood screening to find out the serum levels of vitamins A, C, and E, were included in the study. Approval was sought from the institutional ethics committee for collecting the blood sample of these subjects before and after vitamins A, C, and E supplements given for a period of 6 weeks. STATISTICS ANALYSIS: It was observed that patients with GAD and depression had significantly lower levels of vitamins A, C, and E in comparison to healthy controls. After dietary supplementation of these vitamins for a period of 6 weeks, a significant reduction in anxiety and depression scores of patients was observed (P<0.001). A significant increase in the blood levels of antioxidants was observed in patients (P<0.05) except that of vitamin E in the group of depressed patients. The findings suggest that antioxidant supplement therapy as an adjuvant therapy is useful in patients with stress-induced psychiatric disorders and the results have been discussed.
Article
The present study investigated the involvement of the PI3K, GSK-3β, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and mTOR in the antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid in the tail suspension test (TST). Male Swiss mice were pretreated with ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle and 45 min after, LY294002 (10 μg/site, i.c.v., reversible PI3K inhibitor), rapamycin (0.2 nmol/site, i.c.v., selective mTOR inhibitor), zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP - 10 ng/site, i.c.v., HO-1 inhibitor) or vehicle was administered. We also investigated the synergistic effect of ascorbic acid (0.1 mg/kg, p.o., sub-effective dose in the TST) with lithium chloride (10 mg/kg, p.o., non-selective GSK-3β inhibitor), AR-A014418 (0.01 μg/site, i.c.v., selective GSK-3β inhibitor) or cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP - 0.01 μg/site, i.c.v., HO-1 inducer) in the TST. The antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was prevented by the treatment of mice with LY294002, rapamycin or ZnPP. In addition, sub-effective doses of lithium chloride, AR-A014418 or CoPP, combined with a sub-effective dose of ascorbic acid produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect. We also demonstrated that 1 h after its administration, ascorbic acid increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K and the immunocontent of PSD-95 in the hippocampus of mice. These results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid in the TST might be dependent on the activation of PI3K and mTOR, inhibition of GSK-3β as well as induction of HO-1, reinforcing the notion that these are important targets for antidepressant activity and contributing to better elucidate the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like effect of ascorbic acid.
Article
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common among the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigated the nature of the association between anxiety disorders and mood disorders in a prospectively studied high-risk cohort. METHODS: High-risk offspring were identified from families in which one parent had confirmed BD based on SADS-L interviews and best estimate diagnostic procedures. All agreeable offspring aged 8-25 years were enrolled in a longitudinal study involving repeated KSADS-PL format clinical assessments. Control (C) offspring from families in which neither parent met lifetime criteria for a psychiatric disorder were similarly assessed. All DSM-IV diagnoses in the offspring were confirmed on blind consensus review. Cumulative incidence and adjusted Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to calculate the risk of anxiety disorders and the predictive association with mood disorders. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of anxiety disorders was higher (23.40% vs. 10.42%; HR=2.136; p=.0382) and occurred earlier (9.79 vs. 14.84 years; p=.0125) in high-risk compared to C offspring. In high-risk offspring generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) followed by social phobia were the most incident anxiety subtypes; while high emotionality (HR 1.111; p=.0096) and shyness (HR 1.144; p=.0053) increased the risk of anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders increased the adjusted risk of mood disorders (HR 2.166; p=.0004), on average 8.49 years later (SD 5.97). LIMITATIONS: The cumulative incidence of BD is relatively low, as the cohort is still in the period of risk. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the need for longitudinal surveillance of symptomatic high-risk children and suggest anxiety disorders are an important early intervention target.