ArticlePDF Available

Drawing as Thought: Ideation in Narrative Film Design

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This paper discusses drawing and interior dwelling as enstasic methodological practices that reach potentials beyond those available to thinking prescribed by the written word. In discussing the means by which the short film Munted (Ings 2011) was drawn into being, it suggests that drawn approaches to the design of filmic narratives might enable the designer to reach in unique ways, into ideation and outwards into the communicative content and appearance of the text.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Embodied Drawing: A Case Study in Narrative Design
Welby Ings,
AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand
2.1
2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10
ABSTRACT
This article uses a case study to discuss drawing
and interior dwelling as enstasic methodologi-
cal practices that reach potentials beyond those
available to thinking prescribed by the written
word. In considering the means by which the short
film Munted (Ings 2011) was drawn into being, it
suggests that drawn approaches to the design of
filmic narratives might enable the designer to reach
in unique ways, into ideation and outwards into the
communicative content and appearance of a text.
Keywords: enstasis, interior drawing, methodology, script
writing/design, skariphasthai
INTRODUCTION
Film is created in many ways but generally, the
worlds we watch are conceived as written scripts
that are later translated into images by directors,
production designers and actors. However, if film
may be understood as ‘talking pictures’ it might also
be conceived and developed inside the domain of
images. This alternative method reaches far beyond
the didactic storyboard. By using it, the designer1
‘draws’ a world into being (Figure 1). By forsaking
the script (scriptum), he might engage the Greek
idea of skariphasthai (to scratch an outline, sketch)
as a mode for dwelling within an embodied space
where thought is pursued, encountered and drawn
into tangibility. In this case study drawing is used
as an ideational tool, where the designer processes
ideas that words can’t reach; he touches the nu-
anced, draws into what withdraws, and retrieves
from a protean world, a complex story that thinks…
and speaks in pictures.
Using the recent short film Munted (Ings, 2011)2
and reflecting upon considerations of thought
(Eliade, 1958; Heidegger, 1968; Rosenberg, 2008;
and Polanyi, 1967) the article traces a trajectory of
practice-led design research through the creation of
the film’s story and treatment.
AIM
The aim of this approach was to find a way of bridg-
ing the space between visual ideation and visual
communication (in the development of a film text). In
other words, I was seeking a method through which
I might transfer something of the intangibility of im-
age-led thought into a film that dealt with a very in-
teriorised man and his relationship with a child who
wanted to become an artist. I was interested to see
if a method of embodied drawing might enable me to
reach into processes (and ideas) beyond words. In
so doing, I was attempting to open up the process of
film design to higher levels of discovery.
LITERATURE AND THEORY
While a significant number of publications continue
to reinforce conventional approaches to script-
writing (Landau 2012; McBride 2012; McKee 2010;
Turner 2011), a body of recent writing has surfaced
that draws into question screenplays as an appro-
priate model for designing and developing film.
Millard (2010) has discussed how, in an era where
images and sound play increasingly significant roles,
traditional formatting conventions may restrict
innovation in screenwriting. Murphy (2010) has con-
sidered alternative approaches to the screenplay
including improvisation, psychodrama and visual
storytelling. Their work builds on Wells’ (2007)
argument that the role of film ideation and develop-
ment needs to be broadened to embrace alternative
narrative forms, concepts, images, sounds and
music. He notes, “many innovative screenwriters
and film-makers have long favoured audio and visual
expressivity over plot and narrative drive” (p.13)
Wells’ ideas have been prefigured by diverse ex-
amples of directorial practice. Geuens (2000) notes
Artifact | 2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10 2.2
that Jean-Luc Godard used images for inspiration.
Similarly, the graphic designer Wong Kar Wai who
in 1995 created Fallen Angels, insisted on the role
of images, sound, and music in the scripting and pro-
duction process. Like the films of Antonioni, Wong’s
work is developed from the idea that “abstract
lines, and forms, and shapes, and colours can give
emotional meaning and expression just as much as
narrative lines, dialogue and characters” (Brunette
2005: 119). He believes, “You can’t write all your
images on paper, and there are so many things –
the sound, the music, the ambience, and also the
actors – when you’re writing all these details in the
script, the script has no tempo, it’s not readable…
It’s not a good idea (to write out a complete script
beforehand) and I just wrote down the scenes, some
essential details, and the dialogue” (ibid.: 126).
THE SCRIPTED NARRATIVE
However, unlike these films Munted was entirely
constructed and refined through a process of draw-
ing, poetic notation and painting.
Traditionally it is a requirement that the spectrum
of visualised material in the writer/director’s head
must be translated into the comparatively limited
parameters of written language before investors or
funding agencies will consider the work. In other
words, the merits of an imagined film are assessed
on the act of translation into the interim medium of
the written word.
The assumption that the narrative potential of film
can only work if imagery is translated into written
language may be in part inherited from the traditions
of theatre where written scripts have historically
driven performed narratives. However film is not
theatre on celluloid. It tells its stories in unique,
pictorial ways.
It is useful in this regard to consider for a moment
the etymology of the term ‘script’. The Latin word
scriptum means a written text. It refers to the nature
of recording in written language and relates to con-
ventions of presenting ideas in a cohesive manner
through the construct of writing. However, there
is a potentially richer term akin to this word that is
Figure 1. Munted is an unusual film that fuses drawing and
photography. It concerns a false accusation of paedophilia
and its terrible consequences. Set in 1961 in a remote rural
New Zealand community, it tells the story of a ten-year old girl
(Katrina) and her friendship with a brain damaged artist (Don).
In so doing, it of fers a lyrical and brutal account of the cost of
rumour and prejudice.
Artifact | 2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10 2.3
of comparable interest. In Greek skariphasthai also
means to inscribe but it may be defined as scratch-
ing an outline, or sketch.
Skariphasthai suggests that meaning might be
drawn into being in realms that transcend the limita-
tions of the written word. It supposes an approach
to communication that still records, but provides
a broader dimension for thinking and construction
of narrative. It prescribes an environment where a
world imagined in pictures might be processed in
pictures and eventually communicated in pictures,
without the unnecessary impingement of literal
translation. Within this construct, the hand and
pencil as realising agents in the act of drawing, may
serve as translative tools that operate in a purely
iconic mode (closest to the mode in which a film
might be imagined) (Figure 2). Pallasmaa (2009: 17)
suggests “the pencil… is a bridge between the
imagining mind and the image that appears on the
sheet of paper. In the ecstasy of work, the drafts-
man forgets both his hand and the pencil, and the
image emerges as if it were an automatic projection
of the imagining mind.” This kind of drawing is a
process of pursuit rather than capture.
If the imagining mind creates in images and we ac-
cept that film uses pictures to communicate mean-
ing, it is useful to consider the potential of methods
of ideation and development that operate purely
within iconic modes. If one considers the scripting
of a film as skariphasthai, one might create and re-
fine through a process of drawing. In this approach,
the designer might engage with levels of indwelling
inside the film’s emerging diegesis and this process
may lend itself to a deeper contemplation of the
visual potentials of a proposed narrative.
ENSTASIS AND DRAWING
Sketching as a method of processing and com-
municating design ideas has been discussed by a
number of writers, (Goel 1995; Hare 2002; Pipes
1990; Rodgers, Green, and McGown 2000; Scrivener,
Ball, and Tseng, 2000; Verstijnen, van Leeuwen,
Goldschmidt, Hamel, & Hennessey 1998). However,
much of the emphasis of research in the area has
focused on what Rogers (2000) considers three
primary uses of design drawing. These are concept
sketching, presentation drawing, and drawing for
manufacture.
Figure 2. Pencil and wash drawing of the decay of tidal flats.
Painted in coffee, ink and muddied water, drawings like this
formed thinking spaces where I read the narrative potential of
the site. These paintings offered up to four hours of contempla-
tion and suggestion. The scribbled notes reflect on sounds,
smells, and motion as poetic thought.
Artifact | 2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10 2.4
However, through a process of immersion the
designer might also engage in an embodied method
I would describe as enstasic drawing. The term
enstasic suggests a standing within. It surfaces
from the Indo-Greek roots ‘en’ (into) and ‘histanai’
(to stand). It may be contrasted with dis-stasis
(non-standing) and ecstasy or ec-stasis (standing
outside of). The word has been used in certain eso-
teric/philosophical writing (Dooyeweerd 1931; Eliade
1958; Von Baader 1987; and Friesen 2011). However,
its origins predate this use.3 Although these writers
use enstasis in slightly different ways it may be
broadly understood as a state of indwelling, interior
consciousness or inner reflection. Eliade (1958: 193)
describes it as a state and knowledge where the
“consciousness is saturated with a direct and total
intuition of being”.
In design research I would suggest enstasis might
refer to an induced interior state of self hood where
one dwells in the creative potential of what is not
yet formed. This process may involve the deploy-
ment of drawing in a slow, reflective process that al-
lows the designer to become immersed in the world
of the emerging image and story. In this approach,
thinking becomes contemplative; the designer
converses with drawing and the drawing talks back
to him. This talking is generally more nebulous than
literal. One talks in tone and weight, emphasis and
potential. Ideas are coloured and lit and their param-
eters are nuanced. Thinking is not prescribed by the
territorial limitations of words. Images operate with
a more flexible grammar and one is able to connect
possibilities in comparatively abstract and intangi-
ble ways.
Rosenberg (2008: 109) refers to this process as a
state “where one thinks with, and through drawing
to make discoveries, to find new possibilities that
give course to ideas and to help fashion their even-
tual form”. Here he says “the represented object
does not function as a sign but rather as a trope;
a vector, a directional motion that moves from the
singularity of the image to turn the mind out towards
something that suggests itself in the hubbub of con-
nections” (ibid.: 114).
Figure 3. Interior of Don’s cabin showing enstasic drawings
used in the development of his character.
Artifact | 2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10 2.5
Thus, in a state of enstasy one is not outside of
one’s self, drawing to create a picture, but inside
one’s self, drawing to explore the potentials of a
thought. As such drawing is a process. Rosenberg
suggests this form of drawing, “is thinking and
acting between the not yet formed and the formed”
(ibid.).
THE POST-THINKING DRAWING
These drawings are significantly changed when
they are read post-process. Although residues of
enstasic thinking were used in Munted as a way
of making explicit the interior mind of a man, this
was not their original purpose. Drawings on Don’s
walls only acquired this function when one night as
I was drawing I pinned some of his thinking on the
wall in front of me (Figure 3). I was trying to clear
my worktable of material, and when I looked up
he felt comforted. It was the comfort of a fictional
man. From that point the residues of some of these
enstasic drawings contributed to a physical world
that explained his interior nature.
Across the surface of these images we see evi-
dence of an almost obsessive need to find mean-
ing. Don’s notes weave through his drawings in a
tiny scrawled hand that bursts into unpredictable
volume. His thoughts are poetic, meandering and
introspective. They are also broken. This is a conse-
quence of a condition of many brain injuries where
ideas cannot be held together in a cohesive manner
for any extended period of time (see figures 2, 5 and
6).
Although some of these drawings became artefacts,
enstasic drawing is only what it is during ideation.
Rosenberg (2008: 123) notes, “When the process
has a clear outcome, a telos, it is in a sense no
longer an ideational drawing…. Once the idea is in
a sense realised, the drawing is merely a record, a
feature in a history of the process, and no longer
part of the process proper”. In this regard I am re-
minded of Byron in his 1822 letter to Thomas Moore,
who said, “....like all imaginative men, I, of course,
embody myself with the character while I draw
it, but not a moment after the pen is lifted off the
paper” (Byron 1835: 623).
This approach to drawing surfaced characters, con-
texts and narratives. They developed and refined
inside a visual world and eventually emerged as
constructed beings. Thus, enstasic drawing became
a method of immersing the designer in both the
visual feel and the narrative genesis of the film (as
thought).
DRAWING AS INDWELLING
This is not a new idea. The sixteenth century
the Italian painter Titian reportedly “touched the
surface of his paper in order to investigate an
elusive world just beyond his reach” (Taylor 2008:
11). In so doing he was reaching into the domain of
thought. He was drawn into the world of the mark.
Heidegger suggests that what is thought provoking
has not yet been thought. He notes that thought
turns away from us, and calls us through the draft
of its withdrawal (Heidegger 1968: 3-18). Schön,
(1983: 159) argues that when drawing, we construct
a “virtual world” where “the pace of action can be
varied at will. The designer can slow down and think
about what he is doing.” This process of “thinking
about” aligns somewhat with Polyani’s concept of
Figure 4. Painting of drains. This was a four-hour contempla-
tion on water running through the darkness of an abandoned
culvert. I was interested in how such a sound might translate
into the idea of loss through drowning. This painting (with ani-
mated water) appears in the film as a tracking shot accompa-
nying the child’s monologue about the death of Don’s family.
Artifact | 2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10 2.6
“indwelling” (1967: 17). In this state the thinker is
dwelling inside an environment of the self where
meanings and connections might surface.
Douglass and Moustakas (1985: 47) suggest that this
process is marked by “vague and formless wan-
derings” but eventually there develops “a growing
sense of direction and meaning emerge[s] as the
perceptions and understandings of the research-
er grow and the parameters of the problem are
recognised.”
In this space, Rosenberg (2008: 109) suggests one
thinks as “a process and always in process”. He
notes that in this state the process of drawing is si-
multaneously mental and physical. It is both thinking
and thought. Thus, he suggests, “we are drawn into
making drawing and the drawing draws us into fur-
ther thinking” (ibid.: 110). In this regard, “the known
and the un-known are drawn to and through each
other” (ibid.: 112).
ENSTASY IN APPLICATION
In developing the diegesis of the film Munted I
travelled to a remote, farming settlement. I sketched
the corrosion of old buildings, the danger of water,
and the smell of summer mud (see figures 2, 4 & 5).
Upon returning home each night, I unloaded piles of
wilted plants onto my table. These were the remains
of forgotten gardens; the residues of lives that had
unfolded on the location. Then I began to draw in
the character of a damaged man. I was not drawing
as myself (indeed my painterly style is very different
from the works that appear in this film); instead, I
dwelt inside and sought out, a fictional character.
I moved into an enstasic space. Here the rhythm
and sound of a pencil and the smell of wilting leaves
formed a kind of denkraum. This contemplation re-
moved me from a known world and from an aware-
ness of myself. In an enstasic space the unknown
had room to dwell and find tentative form. Although
Eliade (1958) considers this space one of static con-
sciousness, no longer related to any temporal dura-
tion or functions, I would argue that it is not static,
although time may feel suspended. Time and action
function, but in less familiar ways. One is aware
of fatigue and of the drying of paint, but not of the
linear progression of time. Stasis is not a suspension
of thought but a stillness inside which thought might
surface as a form of contemplation.
Using a process of indwelling I slowly drew into
existence the nature and story of another being.
The man who surfaced from the interior space into
which I was drawn was a botanical artist. I discov-
ered that he was intelligent and had a scientist’s
penchant for detail. However, some years before the
film begins, he suffered a brain injury as the result
of a car accident that killed his wife and children.
Accordingly, his work wrestles with grief over the
incident.
As I drew, I dwelt inside this man. Eventually I
replaced the light bulbs in my studio with a kerosene
lamp so he might feel more comfortable with the lu-
minosity, scents and sounds that were in the slowly
forming world he occupied.
The state of immersion became increasingly senso-
ry to the point that, as the film sought higher levels
of refinement, changes were made to the story only
Figure 5. Don’s paintings were
created using only materials
available to an isolated man in
a remote New Zealand farming
district in the early 1960s.
Accordingly, his drawings
appeared on sheets of light,
unbleached paper in Indian
ink, graphite, coloured pencils,
watercolours, grass stains,
coffee washes, and rust. When
completed, these works were
glued roughly onto card so the
paper he had stretched in the
process of painting, blistered,
creased and marked.
Artifact | 2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10 2.7
after driving out to the world where the narrative
would be shot and spending hours drawing inside
the rooms of the cottage where he would be living.
Through this process of immersion the character of
the botanical artist (Don) began to speak. He was
strange company because unlike other characters
I create, he did not speak with words… (in the film
he has largely lost the ability). Instead somewhere
between drawing and the scribbled, fragmented,
poetry of his observations, his story began to sur-
face and connect through a language of nuance and
suggestion.
I discovered he was very vulnerable. He was afraid
of conflict because he could not hold ideas together
long enough to protect himself. Drawing had be-
come his retreat into a simple but beautiful world
that could not hurt him. His friendship with the child
in the film was based on this same quest for the
safety of innocence.
STANDING WITHIN THE SELF
The process of embodied drawing involved recep-
tively ‘listening’ inside the drawing of a fictional
man’s thinking. I was standing within the self and
dimensions of the self were speaking in languages
that transcended words. Drawing in this realm was
not didactic. I was not trying to record thought.
Rather drawing was contemplative. Each mark
induced another and collectively the weight, colour
and texture created worlds and ways of seeing
became the dimensions of a fictional character and
his story.
Embodied drawing in this regard may be likened
to Keats concept of negative capability, “when a
man is capable of being in uncertainties, Mysteries,
doubts, without any irritable reaching after fact or
reason” (Keats 1958, I: 193). In this uncertain state
one receives and reflects on thoughts rather than
actively pursuing them. Thought is cumulative.
The dimensions of characters, their worlds and
stories gather like tentative fragments drawn to
a magnetic field. These fragments are brought to
the fore through rhythms of drawing objects and
environments.4 Where a character murmurs words
in this state, I record the fragments I ‘hear’. These
fragments do not become the dialogues of the film,
but act as further insights into consciousness. They
are the lyrical thoughts of dimensions of the self that
have adopted fictional personas.
Figure 6. Drawing of a wild lily showing a fusion of Don’s botan-
ical training and the fragmented nature of his grief.
Artifact | 2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10 2.8
INSIGHTS AND CONSEQUENCES
As a research method, embodied drawing enabled
me to think slowly and immersively. By being able
to develop a film via images rather than through
writ ten description, instruction, and dialogue, I was
able to develop a diegesis based on weight, tone,
colour, texture and sound. This is not unlike Wong’s
approach to filmmaking that utilises abstract forms,
shapes, and colours to create distinctive levels
of emotional resonance. However, the process of
embodied drawing is more immersive. One dwells
inside a world and through this indwelling that world
gravitates towards the tangible.
Because as a director I had lived inside these char-
acters and their physical worlds, I knew the ethos of
what I eventually filmed on very sensory levels. This
meant that approaches to lighting, grading, move-
ment, sound and texture were internally cohesive
because they were developed inside the same
ideational process.
Significantly, the outcomes of this approach also
influenced the manner in which the film was direct-
ed. When Munted was shot we did not have a script.
I showed actors drawings, introduced them to the
physical world they would inhabit, and explained the
event that would occur in each scene. This meant
that their performances were essentially respon-
sive. This technique is not unique. Films like Wright’s
Shaun of the Dead (2004), Kubrick’s Full Metal
Jacket (1987), and Scorsese’s Taxi Driver (1976), all
contain significant, non-scripted scenes. However,
with Munted the entire film was directed through
immersion and guidelines.
Both Katrina and Don spent long periods, prior to
shooting in their respective houses and the environ-
ments that surrounded them. They learned to ride
bikes through long summer afternoons, they picked
wild blackberries together and drew pictures of
each other. The scenes of Katrina’s near drowning
and the assault on Don were shot without rehearsal.
The actors knew what would happen in the scene
but I asked them to feel their way through (dwell
within) the episode and respond accordingly. This
approach is closely related to the embodied process
of Method Acting (Stanislavski and Strasberg) that
enables performers to create rich reproductions
of a character’s emotional state by dwelling inside
emotions or sensations of their own experience.
LIMITATIONS AND POTENTIALS
Such approaches to narrative design and realisation
are not devoid of problems. First, they can expen-
sive, both in terms of time and money. Because the
process of enstasic thinking is relatively nebulous it
is not always easy to lock into schedules and bud-
gets. It does not operate effectively in firmly pro-
scribed time frames because it is rhyzomic rather
than directionally oriented.
In co-designed texts like film or graphic novels (with
a combination of a writer and director or writer and
illustrator) such thinking can also face difficulties
because it cannot transfer intact from the originator
to the collaborator. It may however offer fruitful
material for discussion between the two parties.
By extension, highly embodied methods of ideation
and development in film must also cross from the
self-referencing interior environment of the origina-
tor to synergetic relationships with actors, lighting
designers, set constructors and sound engineers.
Unless this can occur the process of creation can
become marooned and a breakdown will ensue
between the imagined and the realised world.
Embodied methods of ideation and development
also face issues of vulnerability. Konin (2000) and
Hamden (2010) both note that when individuals
immerse themselves deeply in fictional worlds as
a process for creation, especially if these environ-
ments engage with psychologically fraught material,
problems can surface if emotions are not compart-
mentalized and they encroach on other facets of the
researcher’s life.
These issues acknowledged, the potentials of em-
bodied thinking in narrative design are considerable.
The approach may be transferable into the design of
fictional narratives and their corresponding worlds
in media forms as diverse as the graphic novel, the
picture book, animated narrative, the zine, theatre,
opera, and arguably music. In these art forms em-
bodied thinking may help one to experience unique
connections beyond the limitations of the written
word. Such immersion may enable the designer to
experience ideationally, synergies between light,
sound, texture, weight, image, rhythm, pace, tone,
colour and volume.
Artifact | 2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10 2.9
CONCLUSION
In trying to describe the design process that brought
the film Munted into being I am aware of the difficult
nature of the discussion.
First, enstasic consciousness (as discourse) has a
somewhat discordant history through theological
philosophy. In considering the term I have largely
stripped it of its spiritual/esoteric associations
and considered it as a concept that may be used to
describe a state and process used for developing
creative thought.
Second, enstasic drawing is not a form of commu-
nication. Its purpose is not didactic (diagrams), nor
a form of shorthand (sketches). Instead, it is used to
generate thinking.
Third, enstasic drawing is by its nature, nebulous. It
validates the sensory, the immersive and the tacit.
It elevates standing within the subjective self to
draw thought into being. As such its processes are
neither stable, predictable nor explicit.
Finally, enstasic drawing is useful only in action.
What we read post-process is not the thinking, but
at best, a disconnected residue. In Munted, these
drawings did bleed into the film. Because of this, it
has been necessary in this article to differentiate
between the drawings as enstasic thinking and their
nature and use as post-ideational artefacts.
IN CLOSING…
Munted premiered in the 2011 Montreal World
Film Festival. It went on to official selections in a
number of international festivals including the 53rd
Bilbao International Film Festival, the 29th Brussels
International Film Festival, the 27th Berlin-Interfilm
Film Festival, the 18th Regensburg Short film Week,
the 2011 Vladivostok International Film Festival, and
the 2011 Lucerne International Film Festival. The film
won numerous awards including: Best Short Film
at the Lucerne International Film Festival, Finalist
in the 2011 New Zealand Design Awards, the Jury
Award: Special Honour at the 18th Regensburg Short
Film Week, and the Audience Award at Zubiak Gexto
(Spain).
But these awards are only the aftermath of making.
Munted was a film generated inside an enstasic
space that eventually bled into a short film text. The
film was conceived through painting, drawing, touch
and sound, in a world beyond words. Through this
highly sensitised process, two men reached out to
each other. One was the designer and the other, a
fictional man. These men were inextricably linked,
although one functioned as the creator of the other.
The drawings constitute the territories and residues
of their thinking.
NOTES
1. Although traditionally the role of the director
is a discrete, interpretive one, in films like
Munted the roles of ideator, writer, director,
production designer, illustrator, typographer
and editor are fused. In cases like this, I
position myself as the designer of the text. By
design I refer to a conscious and critical or-
chestration of graphic elements/thinking into
coherent, communicative texts.
2. A trailer for Munted can be viewed at: http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=f8I1k6gwn1w
3. The word enstasis as it appears in early Greek
thought referred to an objection to a premise
in a logical argument, or to finding an example
that countered an argument. See Aristotle:
“enstasis d’ esti protasis protasei enantia”
(Aristotle: Anal. prior. II, pp. 26-28). However,
Friesen (2011) notes the Greeks also used
enstasis to refer to a ‘way of life’ (enstasis
biou). He records the first reference to con-
trasting ‘enstasis’ with ecstasy in the writing
of Heinrich Paulus (1800, vol. 1, p.15).
4. Some of these fragments establish homologies
and resonances; they ‘relate’ to each other.
Others surface and then fall away. This may
be likened to Simmel’s discussion on method
(1908: 1) where he notes, “out of complex phe-
nomena, the homogeneous will be extracted…
and the dissimilar paralyzed”.
Artifact | 2014 | Volume III, Issue 2 | Pages 2.1-2.10 2.10
REFERENCES
Br une t te, P.(2005). Wo ng Kar- wai . Urbana: University of Illinois
Press.
Byron, G.(1835). The complete works of Lord Byron. Paris: A.
and W. Galignani and Co.
Dooyeweerd, H.(1931). De wijsbegeerte der wetsidee.
Amsterdam: H. J. Paris.
Douglass, B.G. & Moustakas, C.(1985). Heuristic Inquiry.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25, 39-55. doi:
10.1177/0022167885253004
Eliade, M.(1958). Yoga: Immortality and freedom . Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Friesen, J.G.(2011). Enstasy, ecstasy and religious self-re-
flection: A history of Dooyeweerd’s ideas of pre-theoretical
experience. Retrieved from http://www.members.shaw.ca/
aevum/Enstasy.pdf.
Geuens, J.P.(2000). Film production theory. Albany: State
Universit y of New York Press.
Goel, V.(1995). Sketches of thought. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Hamden, R.(2010, 14 April). Clinical and Forensic Psychology.
Interview, Dubia Today. Arabian Radio Network.
Hare, Richard.(2012). The act of sketching in learning and
teaching the design of environments: a total skill for complex
expression. Tracey , May 2012. Retrieved from http://www.
lboro.ac.uk/microsites/sota/tracey/journal/edu/noed/hare.
html.
Heidegger, M.(1968). What is called thinking. New York : Harper
& Rown.
Ings, W. (Designer/Director).(2011). Munted [Short film].
Auckland, New Zealand: MF Films.
Keats, J.(1958). The Letters of John Keats 1814-1821.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Konin, E.(2000). Acting Emotions: Shaping Emotions on Stage
(pp . 8 9-10 2). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Landau, N.(2012). The screenwriter’s roadmap: 21 ways to
jumpstart your story. Burlington: Focal Press.
McBride, J.(2012). Writing in pictures: Screenwriting made
(mostly) painless. New York: Vintage Books.
McKee, R.(2010). Story: Style, structure, substance, and the
principles of screenwriting. New York: Harper Collins.
Millard, K.(200 6). Writing for the screen: Beyond the gospel
of story. Scan: Journal of Media Arts Culture, 3(2). Retrieved
from http://www.scan.net.au/scan/journal/display_synop-
sis.php?j_id=8.
Millard, K.(2010). After the typewriter: the screenplay in a
digital era. Journal of Screenwriting, 1(1), 11-25. doi: 10 .13 86/
josc.1.1.11/ 1
Murphy, J.(2010). No room for the fun stuff: The question
of the screenplay in American indie cinema. Journal of
Screenwriting, 1(1), 175-196. doi: 10.1386/josc.1.1.175/1
Pallasmaa, J.(2009). The thinking hand: Existential and embod-
ied wisdom in architecture. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Paulus, H.E.G.(1800). Philologisch-Kritisch und Historischer
Kommentar über das neue Testament. Lübeck : Johann
Friedrich Bohn.
Polanyi, M.(1967). The tacit dimension. New York: Doubleday.
Rodgers, P.A., Green, G. & McGown, A.(2000). Using concept
sketches to track design progress. Design Studies,21, 451-
46 4. doi: 10.1016/S0142-694X(00)00018-1
Rosenberg, T.(2008). New beginnings and monstrous births:
Notes toward an appreciation of ideational drawing. In S.
Garner (Ed.), Writing on drawing: Essays on drawing practice
and research (pp. 109-124). Bristol: Intellect Books.
Schön, D. A.(1983). The reflective practitioner: How profession-
als think in action. New York: Basic Books Inc.
Scrivener, S, Ball, L. J, & Tseng, W.(2000). Uncer tainty and
sketching behaviour, Design Studies,21, 46 5-4 81. doi:
10.1016/S0142-694X(00)00019-3
Simmel, G.(190 8). Sociology: Investigations on the forms of
socialization. Berlin: Duncker & Humbolt.
Taylo r, A.(2008) Re: Positioning drawing. In S. Garner (Ed.),
Writing on drawing: Essays on drawing practice and research
(pp. 9-11). Bristol: Intellect Books.
Turner, B.(2 011). The screenwriter’s handbook. Hampshire:
Macmillan.
Verstijnen, I, van Leeuwen, C, Goldschmidt, G, Hamel,
R & Hennessey, J.(1998). Sketching and creative dis-
cover y. Design Studies, 19 (4), 519-546. doi: 10.1016/
S0142-694X(98)00017-9
Von Baader, F.X.(1987). Sämtliche Werke. Aalen: Scientia
Verlag und Antiquariat.
We lls , P.(20 07). Scriptwriting. Singapore: Ava Publishing.
CORRESPONDENCE
Welby Ings, School of Design, AUT University,
Private bag 92006 Auckland, New Zealand
E-mail: welby.ings@aut.ac.nz
Published online 31 December, 2014
ISSN 1749-346 3 print/ISSN 1749-3471
DOI: 10.14434/ar tifact.v3i2.3 983
© 2014 Artifact
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Chapter
'I shall reconsider human knowledge by starting from the fact that we can know more than we can tell', writes Michael Polanyi, whose work paved the way for the likes of Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper. "The Tacit Dimension", originally published in 1967, argues that such tacit knowledge - tradition, inherited practices, implied values, and prejudgments - is a crucial part of scientific knowledge. Back in print for a new generation of students and scholars, this volume challenges the assumption that skepticism, rather than established belief, lies at the heart of scientific discovery.
Book
Robert McKee's screenwriting workshops have earned him an international reputation for inspiring novices, refining works in progress and putting major screenwriting careers back on track. Quincy Jones, Diane Keaton, Gloria Steinem, Julia Roberts, John Cleese and David Bowie are just a few of his celebrity alumni. Writers, producers, development executives and agents all flock to his lecture series, praising it as a mesmerizing and intense learning experience. In Story, McKee expands on the concepts he teaches in his $450 seminars (considered a must by industry insiders), providing readers with the most comprehensive, integrated explanation of the craft of writing for the screen. No one better understands how all the elements of a screenplay fit together, and no one is better qualified to explain the "magic" of story construction and the relationship between structure and character than Robert McKee.
Article
In the words of the Swedish Architect Lennart Nord, 'Sketching is a path into the many possibilities of the complex word' (Nord & Birgestam, 1998) and this paper hopes to examine something of the pedagogy of sketching as a means for students to begin to engage with that 'complex world'. Some of the theory of sketching will be examined with particular reference to sketching and IT. Some suggestions will be made as to ways of improving skills in both, simultaneously rather than exclusively. The paper will use an outline of some of the pedagogical approaches to sketching at the beginning of the Landscape Architecture and Garden Art and Design undergraduate courses at Leeds Metropolitan University (LMU) to suggest some working practices for debate. A recent questionnaire intended to discover something of current students' relationships to drawing is also considered.