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Crowdfunding: A New Media & Society special issue

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Abstract

As guest editors of this special issue of New Media & Society, we examine the concept of crowdfunding, where grassroots creative projects are funded by the masses through websites such as Kickstarter and Indiegogo, a practice that has been steadily gaining attention in the last few years, across many different sectors of society. We introduce the nine articles comprising the special issue and unravel the developments and challenges involved in these processes, concluding with suggestions for theoretical explorations and empirical considerations of the evolution and growth of crowdfunding within digital society.

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... We found that human computation methods have stimulated the economy via an online workforce ecosystem [2], which includes crowdsourced labor markets [3], contributive vocational training [4], innovation crowdfunding [5], and microlending to third-world entrepreneurs [6]. Human computation also has been used to support important behavioral change (e.g., to encourage health-related behaviors) via social networks [7] [8], accelerate research [9], educate the public [10] through citizen science, enable new modes of civic engagement [11] through democratic processes, and reduce geopolitical conflict [12] through participatory gaming. ...
Technical Report
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The internet has given rise to human participation in computational systems, via social networking, crowdsourcing, collective intelligence, and other manifestations in which people contribute information processing that is central to system behaviors and outcomes. For example, the online verification service, reCAPTCHA provides a resource by which websites can determine if the inputs they are receiving come from a human or machine by asking the “user” to enter words seen in distorted text images. While reCAPTCHA may protect websites from mal-intentioned ‘bots’, it is also a resource that helps digitize the text of old books and newspapers by including failed OCR fragments among the examples of distorted text, and using human responses as the means to decode them. eCAPTCHA is just one of a growing body of examples of how machine and human effort, when thoughtfully organized, come together to create a distributed information processing system. The success of such Human Computation (HC) systems ultimately comes from coupling understanding of Computer Science sensibilities, especially in the design and implementation of computational systems, with understandings of human proclivities, capabilities, and behavior. This expansive, interdisciplinary research space includes machine-mediated computation by groups of individuals (e.g., pipelined problem solving systems), aggregate analytic results by groups that result from individual information processing (e.g., prediction markets), distributed networks of human sensors (e.g., mash-ups), and many other varieties of information processing that derive from involvement of humans as computational agents in simple or complex systems. Thus, HC draws participants from such CS fields as computational linguistics, computer graphics, computer theory, computer vision, databases, geospatial systems, human-computer interaction, information retrieval, Internet technology and e-commerce, semantic web, machine learning, multi-agent systems, programming languages, robotics, sensor networks, software engineering, and wireless computing. In addition to these CS fields, a variety of outside disciplines have more recently been brought to bear on HC research, including behavioral sciences, cognitive science, complexity science, cultural anthropology, economics, evolutionary biology, philosophy, and neuroscience. Knowledge from these outside areas informs participatory mechanisms, inspires architecture and algorithm design, and helps anticipate the ramifications of systems that engender thought, interaction, and behavior at the human-computer interface. Despite the area’s relative youth, HC systems have been embedded in real-world settings where the combined efforts of people and computing are achieving outcomes of notable scope and significance, such as in disaster relief, medical research, planetary resilience, scientific discovery, and education. A national research thrust in human computation, as characterized by this CCC study, is timely due to its potential to advance Computer Science, bring a significant new form of “computational thinking” to the behavioral sciences, and address problems of societal and national significance. We seek to bring together world-class luminaries, thought leaders, and innovators to explore the past and prospective impact of human computation and to clearly delineate the research areas and activities that will directly lead to the most beneficial national and societal outcomes.
... Daren Brabham (2013) dismisses crowdfunding as uncreative, and it only appears briefly in Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green's (2013) Spreadable Media as another potential disruption to the traditional relationship between audience and producers. Yet, with the success of the Veronica Mars Kickstarter (the 30-day campaign raised $5.7 million, making it, at the time of its launch, the largest and most successful film project in Kickstarter's history [Bennett, Chin, & Jones, 2015], more work has emerged, from analyses of specific crowdfunded projects to the interaction between producers and audiences, the civic and scientific possibilities opened up by crowdfunding, the role that crowdfunding platforms like Kickstarter play in discussions around fan agency and exploitation, and the ethics of crowdfunding itself (Scott, 2015a;Hills, 2015;Davies, 2015). Crowdfunding has emerged as media consumption grows increasingly niche and distribution extends further away from old network and print models to encompass online channels (Lotz 2007). ...
Article
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As media consumption grows increasingly niche and distribution extends further away from old network and print models (Lotz, 2007), media producers continue to hone their marketing toward ever more specific audiences. Yet, while fan-centred franchises and crowdfunding projects have garnered some scholarly attention, there has been less discussion of the ways that gender, race, and sexuality intersect with media production and marketing. This paper analyses the crowdfunded comic My So-Called Secret Identity (MSCSI) and its attempts to appeal to female comics fans. MSCSI was launched in 2013 with the aim of countering misogynistic depictions of women in comics. Created by academic Professor Will Brooker, the series focuses on Cat Daniels, an ordinary girl who becomes a superhero. I examine how the production and branding processes of the comic were used in paratexts to market MSCSI to women as specifically gendered audiences. In particular, I consider the implications of gendered (and de-gendered) media texts on the ways that content producers imagine female audiences, as well as how they commodify and capitalize on these audiences. I argue that the comic's tagline #smartisasuperpower, the design of the website and the deliberately female creative team function to appeal to female comic book fans and introduce new fans to the genre. I suggest, however, that the paratextual elements of MSCSI resulted in ambivalent responses from comic fans and critics, demonstrating the contradictions and difficulties of producing and branding a gendered text for a gendered audience.
... We found that human computation methods have stimulated the economy via an online workforce ecosystem [2], which includes crowdsourced labor markets [3], contributive vocational training [4], innovation crowdfunding [5], and microlending to third-world entrepreneurs [6]. Human computation also has been used to support important behavioral change (e.g., to encourage health-related behaviors) via social networks [7] [8], accelerate research [9], educate the public [10] through citizen science, enable new modes of civic engagement [11] through democratic processes, and reduce geopolitical conflict [12] through participatory gaming. ...
... In the digital humanities, meanwhile, research concentrates on donation and rewards crowdfunding. It is particularly interested in the fandom and other affective energies that animate the crowdfunding of artists and performers, and which may serve to transform the cultural industries from 'the bottom-up' (Bennett, Chin and Jones 2015). ...
Research
Crowdfunding is a digital economy in which funds provided by large numbers of individuals (the crowd) are aggregated and distributed through online platforms to a range of actors and institutions. In the United Kingdom, crowdfunding is a particularly diverse and dynamic economy: the forms taken by funding now range from donations to business loans and the issue of equities by start-up enterprises, and recent rapid growth is concentrated in the financial market circuits of crowdfunding. This article analyzes the changing composition of the crowdfunding economy in the United Kingdom as a process of financial marketization and develops a sympathetic critical engagement with cultural economy scholarship on the geographies of money and finance. Consistent with previous cultural economy research into sociotechnical processes, the financial market circuits of crowdfunding are shown to be produced through the mobilization of economic theory and the enrollment of calculative market devices. When calling for a broadening of the existing analytical remit of cultural economy scholarship, however, emphasis is also placed on both regulation and governance and monetary valuations as constitutive and relational forces in the assembly of markets in the making. Regulation and governance are shown to deploy sovereign powers and techniques to territorialize, legitimize, and bolster the financial market circuits of crowdfunding. Money, meanwhile, is shown to play a dual role. While it certainly enables calculative and marketized valuations, money simultaneously creates scope for a multiplicity of values to be inscribed into its circulations such that the diversity of the crowdfunding economy persists and proliferates amidst financial marketization.
... But in the smaller, other end of the crowdfunding spectrum, activities are able to unfold unhindered by the gaze of the regulator, for investments made here are both much smaller (around £6m in 2014 (Baeck, et al., 2014)) and not made for a financial return but as gifts and donations or in exchange for some kind of reward. It was this kind of transaction that evolved into crowdfunding, a means of funding creative and innovation-related projects by tapping into the enthusiasms and passions of motivated fans and enthusiasts (Bennett et al, 2014). In this respect, crowdfunding seeks to take advantage of the internet's long tail (Anderson, 2006), by aggregating geographically distributed sources of supply and demand to form markets with viable critical mass. ...
Chapter
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This chapter considers the promises and problems of fandom and enthusiasm within capitalism. Crowdfunding has emerged as an alternative way of funding creative projects in the face of the more cautious investments of record companies following the MP3 crisis. Through crowdfunding artists seek to harness the affect and emotions of fans to access new sources of money. However, the process is not without its costs. These include the demands placed on its users, not least that of being able to navigate a system that requires considerable reserves of social, cultural and financial capital.
... To our knowledge, however, little research has examined the process of soliciting instrumental financial support through crowdfunding. Although success is varied, crowdfunding campaigns can raise thousands or even millions of dollars for users (Bennett et al., 2015a), but research on professional or creative fundraising ventures have not used social support literature as a lens. Exploration of personal medical crowdfunding in this study is therefore intended to extend previous online social support research by examining how crowdfunding successfully enables instrumental support and how that process compares to accessing emotional support. ...
Article
In the United States, medical crowdfunding is an increasingly common response to overwhelming healthcare costs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 individuals crowdfunding for health (e.g. cancer, paralysis, brain injury) on behalf of themselves or others, to better understand this new phenomenon as it informs theory on social support, identity, and privacy. First, findings suggest that crowdfunding is often a resource for both instrumental and emotional social support. Second, many crowdfunders weighed the need for support against perceived privacy risks, which is consistent with and extends privacy calculus theory. Finally, highly vulnerable self-disclosures were often reinterpreted to be empowering, which also supports and extends work on identity shift. Using crowdfunding as a context for inquiry, findings point to new theoretical frameworks to describe how users navigate needs for both privacy and support online and the often positive consequences of that negotiation for identity.
... Although some criticism has focused on issues of class (e.g. Strehlau 2012 ) and genre (e.g., Fields and Johnson 2013 ), much of the academic attention devoted to Veronica Mars has centered on the show's complicated-and to read some critics, compromised-treatment of gender, sex, and feminism (Elza 2011 ;Feasey 2012 ;Martaus 2009 ;Jones 2013 ;Sibielski 2010 ), and on its landmark-and equally fraught-use of Kickstarter to crowdfund a theatrically released fi lm sequel to the show, also titled Veronica Mars (Bennett et al. 2014 ;Busse 2015 ;Hills 2015 ). ...
Chapter
Originally airing from 2004 to 2007, Veronica Mars centers on the sleuthing adventures of its eponymous heroine, a teenage student moonlighting as a detective in the corrupt and segregated town of Neptune, California. The show is remarkable for a number of reasons, not least of which is the fact that its active fandom led to the first successful Kickstarter campaign to fund a theatrically released film. Importantly, Rob Thomas, the show’s creator and showrunner, worked as a high school teacher in central Texas and therefore imbues his show with something of an insider’s perspective. What is arguably most interesting about Veronica Mars, however, is the diversity in its representation of teachers and teaching. The teachers of Neptune High School occupy a broad range from self-sacrificial to exploitative; the school also boasts an ethically complex administration—at once Machiavellian and moral—and a custodial and support staff that is regularly foregrounded in the lives of the show’s central cast. This chapter critically considers the construction of teaching presented in Veronica Mars from the perspective both of Rob Thomas’ experiences as a teacher, and also from the array of teaching models Neptune High affords viewers. Ultimately, we argue that Veronica Mars presents a model of teaching that differs from other pop-cultural representations of teaching in two important ways. First, the show presents “good” and “bad” teaching in ethical terms far removed from a focus on skill- and content-knowledge. As a microcosm for sociocultural inequity and corruption in the town of Neptune, Neptune High School presents as a site for liberation or oppression wherein “good” teachers act to protect students from systemic manipulation or devaluation, and “bad” teachers maintain the status quo, or leverage injustices in order to exploit students in their charge. Second, in a related, and arguably more important way, the show challenges conventional notions of what it means to be a “teacher,” and what it means to “teach,” by foregrounding the experiential, extracurricular learning inextricable from the mysteries Veronica solves. Neptune is a town filled with, and driven by, secrets; the task of uncovering those secrets acts as an extracurricular pedagogy that both complements and subverts classroom learning.
... We are reminded, then, that while all crowdfunding creates monetary claims and obligations through digital payments infrastructures (in particular, the PayPal and Amazon payments systems (see Simon 2011)), the distinct values, enthusiasms and affects of 'the crowd' that circulate and are communicated in each of the five crowdfunding ecologies are equally important. Appraisals of the role and potential of crowdfunding in the music industry Leyshon 2014), as well as work in the digital humanities (Bennett, Chin, and Jones 2015), indicates that gifting money in donation and rewards crowdfunding is infused with fandom for creative artists of various kinds. Yet, a broad spectrum of 'orders of worth' (Boltanski and Thévenot 2006) ...
Article
‘Crowdfunding’ is a method of raising money and finance to capitalise projects of various kinds. Drawing on the networking capabilities of the internet and software platforms, those seeking project funding appeal to potentially diverse audiences who are collectively referred to as ‘the crowd’. What practitioners, advocates and policymakers typically identify within crowdfunding is its ‘alternative’, ‘disruptive’ and ‘democratising’ qualities; that is, it is held to be a novel, digitally-rendered economic space which has the capacity to challenge established funding practices in banking, capital markets and venture capital networks, offering a more open and egalitarian source of capital for economic, social and cultural entrepreneurship. The paper develops the concept of ‘ecologies’, drawn from the geographies of money and finance literature, to advance a critical understanding of the crowdfunding economy that is sceptical of its apparent qualities. First, the concept of ecologies encourages the analysis of diverse and proliferative monetary and financial forms, enabling an understanding that avoids the binary opposition of ‘capitalist/alternative’ economic forms and which differentiates between the variegated crowdfunding ecologies that have emerged to date. Second, by foregrounding the intermediation processes and credit-debt relations of monetary and financial ecologies, it is argued that crowdfunding may largely replicate rather than disrupt the extant institutional and debt dynamics of funding practices. Third, by emphasizing the socio-spatial effects of monetary and financial ecologies, attention is drawn to the need for further research into the unevenness that mitigates against crowdfunding being as open and egalitarian as its advocates claim.
... Paralleling many wider examples of 'affective economies' where the means of online monetisation are often obscured through heterogeneous sociality (Andrejevic, 2011: 85;Arvidsson and Colleoni, 2012) or voluntarily given through networks of fandom (Jenkins, 2006: 61;Bennett et al, 2015), MOBAs are a hybridised commodity form. Their bottomup playful structure, vast network of relational actors and free model of monetisation all echo the genealogy of their grassroots past in various ways while paradoxically, enabling new structures of control in other ways. ...
... 2015). The growth of the crowdfunding industry has attracted scholarly attention to study various aspects of alternative financing within the digital society, and it has even led to special issues on crowdfunding (e.g., Bennett et al., 2015;Short et al., 2017). These studies vary from the role of fan culture in crowdfunding (Booth, 2015;Hills, 2015;Scott, 2015) to the influence of crowdfunding on shaping societal norms in various contexts (Farnel, 2015;Hunter, 2015;Koçer, 2015;Stiver et al., 2015) to the role of innovativeness (Chan and Parhankangas, 2017), signaling and endorsements (Courtney et al., 2017), community (Josefy et al., 2017), and social capital (Butticè et al., 2017;Skirnevskiy et al., 2017) explaining crowdfunding performance. ...
Article
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Crowdfunding campaigns are widely designed based on intuition rather than strategy. This systematic review gathers scattered knowledge on the elements that influence crowdfunding performance. The review provides guidance for practitioners on how to run a successful crowdfunding campaign, and it suggests topics and themes to advance the field further. The review identifies four main categories that affect crowdfunding performance: (1) campaign-, (2) crowdfunder-, (3) crowdfunding platform-, and (4) fund-seeker-related factors. Empirical research findings within these categories are synthesized and evaluated. It was found that there are still substantial gaps in our knowledge of crowdfunding performance, which opens avenues for future research. In addition, the review reveals methodological shortcomings in the field and calls for further research on the topic in general. In particular, many intuitive suggestions made by crowdfunding platforms need to be subjected to rigorous academic research.
... An increasing number of creatives, scientists, and even members of the public are turning to crowdfunding as a resource for their personal ventures, or even for their survival. Research interest in this phenomenon is evident from special issues on crowdfunding in New Media & Society (Bennett et al., 2015) and California Management Review (Fleming and Sorenson, 2016). While scholars have looked at practices used by artists (Davidson and Poor, 2015), film-makers (Kocer, 2015), scientists (Byrnes et al., 2014), technology start-ups (Antonenko et al., 2014), community citizens (Stiver et al., 2015), and journalists (Jian and Usher, 2014), few studies have examined donation-based, personal fundraising on sites such as GoFundMe.com ...
Article
While research into crowdfunding in general has been steadily increasing, few studies have looked at how requests are formulated on personal fundraising sites. Through a narrative analysis of 105 medical campaigns on GoFundMe (GFM), we examine the way people appeal to the lived experiences and moral assumptions of members of their own social network in order to request funding. While requests are deeply embedded in the suggested scaffold of the GoFundMe platform, authors depart in codified ways from the strategies recommended by the site. These vernacular departures serve to position people in dire need of assistance as respectable and worthy of help. We argue such self-positioning distracts from the injustices of a free-market medical system that depletes people’s resources and renders them precarious subjects at the mercy of donations from individuals in the same socio-economic boat.
... A number of concerns have been voiced about crowdfunding science, mainly with regard to quality control and the importance of peer evaluation (Cumming and Groh, 2018). If research funding is decided by non-experts, it is argued, quality control is lacking, and certain kinds of necessary but complex or seemingly less appealing projects might not receive enough funds (Bennett et al., 2015). The problem of allocation of funding for research combines the issue of supplying public goods with the issue of assessing the relative values of different research strands (Link, 2015). ...
... A number of concerns have been voiced about crowdfunding science, mainly with regard to quality control and the importance of peer evaluation (Cumming and Groh 2018). If research funding is decided by nonexperts, it is argued, quality control is lacking, and certain kinds of necessary but complex or seemingly less appealing projects might not receive enough funds (Bennett 2015). The problem of allocation of funding for research combines the issue of supplying public goods with the issue of assessing the relative values of different research strands (Link 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Medical crowdfunding is the practice of using websites to raise money from donors to pay for medicalcare or related expenses. While in terms of overall funding volume, medical crowdfunding should still be considered as a niche phenomenon, it is rapidly growing in many countries and is seen by many people as a way to cope with government cuts on public health financing. Examining the worldwide population of healthcare crowdfunding platforms, this study is the first to offer global and cross-platform evidence on healthcare crowdfunding by providing an assessment of how and where healthcare crowdfunding platforms emerge. We explore the relationship between healthcare crowdfunding and national health systems, finding evidence of a substitution effect when public health coverage is low. Moreover, our findings support the evidence that the number of successfully funded health projects is higher when the platform is not investment-based or dedicated only to healthcare projects.
... From its development in 2006, crowdfunding was initially a domain for the funding of initiatives in art, music, film, games, design and technology through the likes of Sellaband (launched 2006(launched ), Indiegogo (launched 2008 and Kickstarter (launched 2009). Crowdfunding has grown exponentially from this beginning, expanding to fund initiatives in journalism, medicine, civic public works, fashion, design and outer space, as well as school projects, scientific research, software development, academic research and projects for social change (Belleflamme, Lambert & Schwienbacher, 2011;Bennett, Chin & Jones, 2015;Macht & Weatherstone, 2015). This expansion of focus is not without controversy, however, with two conflicting perspectives being aired regarding the capacity of crowdfunding to support social change. ...
... The university's crowdfunding site in this study is a proprietary platform, compared to commercial sites that do not let university program leaders strategically plan and manage the platform and its communication functions. Bennett et al. (2015) call for research to examine the benefits and disadvantages of platforms that do not receive as much recognition as commercial sites. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the comprehensive, ongoing role of communication in an enterprise crowdfunding context, which has been largely overlooked. Design/methodology/approach A large public higher education institution in the Southeastern USA was chosen as the case study unit to illuminate an enterprise-wide crowdfunding program using a proprietary, in-house platform, compared to commercial sites like Kickstarter that do not let organizational leaders strategically plan and manage the platform and its communication functions. Such autonomy provides a richer landscape for studying organizational members’ communication and communication management related to an enterprise crowdfunding program. Findings The case study identified communication-related challenges to the fundraising program’s success such as limited project leader and funding recipients’ commitment to communicate with their social networks about the projects. Internal communication and conflicting expectations, largely ignored in current crowdfunding research, were seen as critical to program effectiveness. Originality/value This study adds scholarly and practical depth to knowledge of enterprise crowdfunding, a relatively new phenomenon in nonprofit and higher education fundraising. While not generalizable to all settings, findings can offer transferable guidance for organizations seeking to engage internal stakeholders related to new and innovative fundraising programs that require their active buy-in and participation.
... Sie umfasst die Nutzung eines Teils der erhobenen Daten sowie die algorithmische Sortierung von Beiträgen. Weiterhin geht es um eine partizipative Dimension bei der Einbindung von Lesern auf allen Wertschöpfungsstufen -vom Crowdfunding (Bennett et al., 2015) über kollektive Rechercheformen (Vehkoo, 2013) bis hin zur Distribution. In dieser Beteiligungsfunktion haben Plattformen auf äußerst produktive Weise zum Wandel des journalistischen Berufsbildes beigetragen (Deuze & Witschge, 2018): So sind investigative Formate wie der "Watchdog-Citizen-Journalism" (Welker, 2016, S. 395) oder anwaltschaftliche Formate wie der "Moral Journalism" (Wiesslitz & Ashuri, 2011) entstanden. ...
Article
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Das Verhältnis zwischen journalistischen Medien und international agierenden Intermediären, ist zu einer Schlüsselfrage gesellschaftlicher Öffentlichkeiten geworden. Plattformdienste, die Aufmerksamkeit durch Aggregieren, Auswählen und Präsentieren von Inhalten generieren, tragen wesentlich zur Meinungsbildung der Gesellschaft und zur öffentlichen Kommunikation bei. Medienorganisationen sind zunehmend gefordert, publizistische und ökonomische Entscheidungen auch im Lichte einer eigenen Plattformstrategie abzuwägen: Plattformdienste versprechen eine größere Reichweite, Publizität und Leser*innennähe, bringen aber insbesondere Zeitungshäuser in eine strukturelle Abhängigkeit und zwingen sie dazu, Kontrollverluste einzukalkulieren, etwa über die Daten ihrer eigenen Zielgruppen. Der Beitrag reflektiert die internationale Forschung über Plattformdienste und fragt nach deren spezifischen Leistungen für den Journalismus. Vor diesem Hintergrund werden fünf journalistische Unternehmer*innen befragt, die in den letzten Jahren alternative Medienprojekte im deutschsprachigen Markt initiiert haben, sowie zwei Experten aus dem Feld der Medienpolitik. Die explorative Untersuchung zeigt, dass diese Neugründungen im Kontext einer plattformisierten Medienlandschaft auf maximale Unabhängigkeit von globalen Plattformdiensten setzen und die von diesen offerierten infrastrukturellen Vorteile bewusst gegen die deliberative Leistungsfähigkeit ihres eigenen Mediums abwägen. Summary The relationship between journalistic media and internationally active intermediaries has become a vital issue for public spheres. Plattform based services generate attention by aggregating, selecting, and presenting content, thus contributing to public opinion-forming and societal communication. Media outlets are increasingly challenged to weigh up publishing decisions and economic arrangements in the light of a platform strategy: Intermediaries offer an increase in reach, publicity, and reader participation. On the other hand, they impose structural dependence and force news-outlets to give up control, i.e. regarding data-ownership. Against the background of recent contributions by international platform studies, this paper discusses the services platforms offer to journalism. We then present an explorative study of five journalistic entrepreneurs who successfully initiated alternative media projects in Germany and Switzerland. Two interviews with experts from the field of media politics accomplish the data. In the context of a platformed media landscape, these start-ups rely on maximum independence from global platform services and consciously weigh the infrastructural advantages offered by these services against their own medium's deliberative power.
Article
Crowdfunding is a new business model in which journalists rely—and depend—on (micro-) payments by a large number of supporters to finance their reporting. In this form of entrepreneurial journalism the roles of publisher, fundraiser and journalist often overlap. This raises questions about conflicts of interest, accountability and transparency. The article presents the results of selected case studies in four different European countries—Germany (Krautreporter), Italy (Occhidellaguerra), the United Kingdom (Contributoria) and the Netherlands (De Correspondent)—as well as one US example (Kickstarter). The study used a two-step methodological approach: first a content analysis of the websites and the Twitter accounts with regard to practices of media accountability, transparency and user participation was undertaken. The aim was to investigate how far ethical challenges in crowdfunded entrepreneurial journalism are accounted for. Second, we present findings from semi-structured interviews with journalists from each crowdfunding. The study provides evidence about the ethical issues in this area, particularly in relation to production transparency and responsiveness. The study also shows that in some cases of crowdfunding (platforms), accountability is outsourced and implemented only through the audience participation.
Chapter
Im Spiegel der Statistik internationaler und nationaler Kulturdaten zeigt sich, dass der Kultur- und Kreativsektor substanziell zur Wertschöpfung und zur Beschäftigungslage auf dem Arbeitsmarkt beiträgt. Auf lokaler und regionaler Ebene wird die Wirtschaft durch das Kulturangebot stimuliert und als Umwegrentabilität ausgewiesen. Die Finanzierung der Bereitstellung von Kunst und Kultur basiert auf den Säulen öffentlicher und privater Zuwendungen. Um mangelnde Steigerungen bei den öffentlichen Geldern auszugleichen, müssen sich die Kulturinstitutionen stärker um Zuflüsse aus privaten Quellen bemühen. Private Kulturförderung findet einerseits über Sponsoring und Spenden der Unternehmen oder Fördervereine und private Stiftungen statt. Die privaten Haushalte demonstrieren andererseits Zahlungsbereitschaft durch das Zahlen von Eintrittsgeldern und die Entrichtung von Spenden. Durch Kommunikation über das Internet können auch kleine Spendenbeiträge als Crowdfunding von vielen Beteiligten eingesammelt werden. Der von der Bevölkerung gewünschte Erhalt von Kulturgütern kann über die Zahlungsbereitschaft ermittelt werden.
Article
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Networked information technologies have brought about extensive changes in the production and distribution of creative cultural work. Inspired by the widespread success of Free-Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS), many proponents of open access advocate reconceptualisation of existing legal protection frameworks in creative works. This paper traces the attempted appropriation of Creative Commons (CC) licences by filmmakers and the consequent formation of an Open Content Filmmaking (OCF) movement. OCF proponents articulated notions of technology-enabled transformation in content creation and distribution, similar to those that inspire the visions of FLOSS and CC advocates. It examines how these creators attempted to address the relevance of openness to their own activities and develop practical open models for filmmaking. Difficulties experienced in establishing viable livelihoods with OCF (as FLOSS developers had done), created tensions between those with a pragmatic or more ideological orientation. The initial vision of a consistent OCF movement, enabled by CC, thus became fragmented. In contrast to FLOSS, where many actors were able to find ways to develop sustainable careers within the industry while contributing to Open Source Software, such generic strategies have not readily emerged for OCF. Drawing insights from Sørensen’s (1996) Social Learning framework (Learning technology, constructing culture. Sociotechnical change as social learning: University of Trondheim, STS working paper 18/96) in this paper we untangle the elaborate but often messy strategies deployed by Open Content Filmmakers (OCFs) and trace the multiple and often partial ways they have worked out to utilise CC elements and tools in producing, monetising and distributing their films.
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