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Human health risk assessment of heavy metal accumulation through fish consumption, from Machilipatnam Coast, Andhra Pradesh, India


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The progress of aquaculture, agriculture and industrial development activities has led to the increased pollutants emission into the coastal ecosystem. Heavy metals are one of the most common pollutants in the coastal area. This observation deals with the human health risk assessment of metal accumulation through the consumption of marine fish Liza macrolepis. The concentration of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cupper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated in muscle and liver of the fish in this coast. The study explains the heavy metal concentration in the fish and leads to health risk assessment in the human beings. The average measured concentrations (mg/kg) in the edible organs of fish were follows: Zn concentration was 34.6 and 38.2 that of Pb was 14.2 and 15.5, that of Ni was 10.4 and 11.8; that of Cu was 33.2 and 34.2; that of Hg 2.1 and 2.9 that of Cd were 0.8 and 0.9 in the muscle and liver respectively. The average " Target Hazard Quotient " (THQ) value of Zn goes to 17.9; Pb was 7.3; Ni was 5.3; Cu was 17.2; Hg was 1.08; and Cd was 0.4 recorded in the study area in food fish L. macolepis.
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International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health Vol.1 (5),pp. 121-125, July 2014
Available online at
© 2014 Journal Issues ISSN 2360-8803
Original Research Paper
Human health risk assessment of heavy metal
accumulation through fish consumption, from
Machilipatnam Coast, Andhra Pradesh, India
Accepted 4 July, 2014
Krishna, P.V.*,
V. Jyothirmayi
K. Madhusudhana Rao
Department of Zoology and
Aquaculture, Acharya Nagarjuna
University, Nagarjuna Nagar
522 510
Andhra Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding Author
E mail:
Tel: (+91) 9985206281,
Fax: +91.0863-2293378; 2293320
The progress of aquaculture, agriculture and industrial development
activities has led to the increased pollutants emission into the coastal
ecosystem. Heavy metals are one of the most common pollutants in the
coastal area. This observation deals with the human health risk assessment
of metal accumulation through the consumption of marine fish Liza
macrolepis. The concentration of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cupper
(Cu), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) were investigated in muscle and liver
of the fish in this coast. The study explains the heavy metal concentration in
the fish and leads to health risk assessment in the human beings. The
average measured concentrations (mg/kg) in the edible organs of fish were
follows: Zn concentration was 34.6 and 38.2 that of Pb was 14.2 and 15.5,
that of Ni was 10.4 and 11.8; that of Cu was 33.2 and 34.2; that of Hg 2.1 and
2.9 that of Cd were 0.8 and 0.9 in the muscle and liver respectively. The
average Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) value of Zn goes to 17.9; Pb was 7.3;
Ni was 5.3; Cu was 17.2; Hg was 1.08; and Cd was 0.4 recorded in the study
area in food fish L. macolepis.
Key words: Heavy metals, health risk, Liza macrolepis, Target hazard quotient
The rapid development of industrial activities has resulted
in heavy metal pollution, which is a significant health
hazard to human beings through food chain. Heavy metals
may enter into the ecosystems from different natural and
anthropogenic sources, including domestic waste water,
application of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers, shipping
and harbor activities, and also geological weathering of
earth crust (Yilmaz, 2009). According to World Health
Organization (WHO, 1991). Metal occurs less than 1% of
the earth’s crust, with trace amount generally found in the
environment and when these concentrations exceed a
stipulated limit, they may toxic to the surrounding
environment. The last three decades were witness to
several reports on the toxicity of heavy metals in human
beings, due to the contamination in the fish and fishery
organisms (Anim et al., 2011; Mohamad and Osman, 2014).
The accumulation of heavy metals in the aquatic
environment has direct consequence to man and to the
ecosystem. The impact of increasing concentration of such
metal in the environment is further enhanced by their poor
degradability, which results in bioaccumulation and
transport along successive links of the food chain
(Ciesielski et al., 2010).
Among the aquatic fauna, fish is the most susceptible to
heavy metal toxicants (Nwaedozie, 1998). It is well known
that fish are good indicators of chemical pollution and as a
result they long been used to monitor metal pollution in
coastal and marine environment. Adverse anthropogenic
activities on the coastal environment include aquaculture
operations, burning of fossil fuels and geologic weathering
Int. Res. J. Public Environ. Health 122
contribute to the heavy metals in the water bodies
(Erdogrul and Erbilir, 2007). Lee and Cundy (2001)
reported that human activities such as dredging and
reclamation in coastal environment can remobilize the
heavy metals from sediment to water.
Fishes lie at the top of the aquatic food chain and may
concentrate large amounts of metals from the water. Fish
take heavy metals from the surrounding water through
their gills which are the primary route for the uptake of
water borne pollutants and contaminated them in their
tissues (Allen and Wilson, 1991; Kalay et al., 1999). The
food of the fish is another source of these pollutants.
Krishna Kumar et al. (1990) have studied the heavy metal
concentration in marine zooplankton and invertebrates. All
forms heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems may be taken by
marine organisms and ultimately enter aquatic food chains
and accumulate in various concentrations in organisms
tissues (Tuzen, 2009). The study would provide a base line
data related to the heavy metal pollution stress in the
Machilipatnam coastal area and could help in designing
strategies aimed at the management of the control of the
metal pollution and associated with health risk.
Fish samples (Liza macrolepis) are collected from fish
landing centre, at Machilipatnam (Lat: N16° 11' 3.768" and
Long: E 81° 8' 5.7588") of Bay of Bengal coast, and
transported to the laboratory in ice boxes and stored at -
10°C until subjected for future analysis. The fishes were
dissected and care was taken to avoid external
contaminated to the samples. Rust free stainless steel kit
was sterilized to dissect the fishes. None edible parts (Fins,
scales, intestine) removed and parts like muscle and liver
was chopped in to small pieces before air drying and then
dried on an oven at 60°C until constant weight was
obtained. The dried samples were powdered with pestle
and mortar. The resulting fine powder was stored until
chemical analysis. The samples (triplicate) were analyzed
to each metal (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Hg, and Cd) and was detected
in ash samples of fish muscle recoded in mg/kg according
to APHA (1998) using an Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer (GBC Avanthe model, Australia).
Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 12.0
software for windows. Mean and standard deviation (±) of
heavy metal concentrations in mg/kg dry weight of fish
muscle and liver were calculated.
Health risk assessment
Health risk assessment was calculated only for fish muscle.
The liver was eliminated according to common house hold
practices in this area.
Estimated daily intake (EDI):
EF = The exposure frequency 365 days/year.
ED = The exposure duration, equivalent to average life
time (65 years).
FIR = The fresh food ingestion rate (g/person/day) which
is considered to be India 55 g/person/day (Mitra et al.,
Cf = The conversion factor (= 0.208) (The content of fresh
weight (fw) to dry weight (dw) considering 79% of
moisture content).
Cm = The heavy metal concentration in food stuffs
(mg/kg dw).
WAB = Average body weight (bw) (average body weight
to be 60kg).
TA = Is the average exposure of time for non carcinogens
(It is equal to (EF×ED) as used by in many previous studies
(Wang et al., 2005).
Target hazard quotient
RfD: Oral reference dose (mg/kg bw/day).
THQ below 1 means the exposed population is unlikely
to experience obviously adverse effects, whereas THQ
above means that there is a chance of non-carcinogenic
effects, with an increasing probability as the value
The average concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu,
Hg and Cd) determined in fish muscle and liver are given
Table 1. The highest concentration of the metal in liver and
muscle tissue of was recorded in Zn, followed by Cu, Pb, Ni,
Hg and Cd. Higher concentration metals was recorded in
the liver compare with muscle tissues. Zn is essential
element and is an important component of the human body.
Further, zinc is an essential nutrient for almost all plants.
For this reason, algae growing in streams and lakes can
absorb a large part of the zinc dissolved in water. In
addition to its nutritive effect, zinc is also toxic to most
forms of plants when present in amounts exceeding certain
limits. In the present study shows that the average
concentration of fish muscle goes to 34.6 mg/kg and fish
liver goes to 38.2 mg/kg of zinc and it contain within the
permissible limits of WHO (2010) standards. Lead is a
heavy metal that occurs in nature mainly lead sulphide.
This metal is extremely insoluble and is readily absorbed by
organic matter, especially under reducing conditions.
Buckley and Hargrave (1989) reported that the lead
Krishna et al. 123
Table 1. Average heavy metals concentration (mg/kg dry weight) in liver and muscle
of Liza macrolepis collected from Machilipatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India
S. No.
Heavy Metals
Liza macrolepis
(No. Specimens-30)
(Means ± SD)
(Means ± SD)
Zinc (Zn)
Lead (Pb)
Nickel (Ni)
Cupper (Cu)
Mercury (Hg)
Cadmium (Cd)
Abbreviations: S.No. : Serial Number; SD: Standard deviation
sources of environmental contamination are from mining,
smelting and reprocessing operation and as a combustion
product of lead additives in gasoline. Lead has also been
used in a variety of paints and is a common constituent in
municipal and industrial wastes. Lead was causes mental
retardation among children and also hyper tension in
pregnant women (Beevens et al., 1976). Lead poising
causes by symptoms of intestinal crams, anemic condition
and fatigue (Umar et al., 2001). Lead is highly toxic to
aquatic organisms, especially fish (Rompala et al., 1984).
The biological effects of sub lethal concentrations of lead
included delayed embryonic development, suppressed
reproduction and inhibition of growth, increased mucous
formation, neurological problems, enzyme inhalation and
kidney dysfunction (Leland and Kawabara, 1985). The level
of average lead in muscle and liver goes to 14.2 and 15.2
mg/kg respectively. According to WHO (1985), the
maximum accepted limit was 2 mg/kg for food fish. The
present study indicated that the concentration of lead levels
was higher than permissible limits.
Nickel plays important role in the biology of organisms
and plants also. In the present study nickel was observed at
an average of 10.4 mg/kg in case of fish muscle, and 11.8
mg/kg (body weight) in case of liver. Our present study
shows that the average concentration was higher than
WHO (1985) and FAO (1989) standards. Copper is an
essential metal of number of enzymes, and also higher
levels of copper leads to toxic effects on biota. Excessive
intake of this metal results in its accumulating in the liver.
Sources of contamination in natural sediments are often
related to mining wastes, industrial metal manufacturing
and processing, corrosion products or as a result of
excessive use of antifouling paints in marine areas. Copper
is also often association with sewage sludge, where it is
most likely complexes with a variety of organic compounds.
In the present study the results shows that the average
concentration of copper in fish muscle goes to 33.2 mg/kg
(body weight) in case of muscle where as liver goes to 34.2
mg/kg, which is higher than the permissible limits set by
WHO (1985).
Mercury is highly dangerous as it readily bio accumulates
in the aquatic organisms. Methyl-Hg the most toxic form of
mercury is a known neurotoxin. Consumption of Hg
contaminated fish on regular basis therefore has been
recognized to cause of severe health problems. Mercury
concentration of above permissible levels in fish muscle can
be associated with emaciation, decreasing in coordination,
losing appetite_ and mortality in fish (Eisler, 1987).
Mercury pollution in aquatic ecosystems has received great
attention since the discovery of mercury as the cause of
Minamata disease in Japan in the 1950’s. Mercury
poisoning in the adult brain is characterized by damage of
discrete visual cortex areas and neuronal loss in the
cerebellum granule layer (Vettori et al., 2003). Further,
mercury poisoning during the early stages of nervous
system development may cause catastrophic consequences
for infants who exhibit widespread neural impairment
(Harada, 1995). In the present study mercury average
concentration was 2.1 mg/kg in muscle tissue and 2.9
mg/kg in the liver which was higher than permissible levels
of WHO (1985). Cadmium is toxic element which shows
their carcinogenic effect on aquatic biota and humans. It is
widely distributed at low levels in the environment and is
not an essential element for humans, animals and plants. In
the present study Cd shows 0.8 mg/kg in case of muscle
and liver 0.9 mg/kg. According WHO(1989), the pregnant
women and breast feeding woman are likely to be at much
greater risk due to the vulnerability of embryos and infants
exceeding due to the permissible limits of Cd.
Heavy metals are one of the more serious pollutants in
our natural environment due to their toxicity. The efficiency
of metal up take from polluted water may different
ecological need, metabolism and contaminated level, food
and sediment as well as other environmental factors such
as temperature, salinity and interacting gent (Rauf et al.,
2009). When the organisms are exposed to high level metal
in an aquatic environment, they can absorb the available
metals directly from the environment via the gills or
Int. Res. J. Public Environ. Health 124
Table 2. THQ values of muscle in Liza macrolepis collected
from Machilipatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Heavy Metals
Liza macrolepis
(No. Specimens-30)
Muscle THQ ± SD
Zinc (Zn)
Lead (Pb)
Nickel (Ni)
Cupper (Cu)
Mercury (Hg)
Cadmium (Cd)
Abbreviations: S.No: Serial Number; THQ: Target Hazard Quotient;
SD: Standard deviation
contaminated water and food, thus accumulated them in
their tissues and enter the food chain and extend to so
many other problems to humans (Ahmad and Othman,
Fish is one of the most important food sources and thus,
intake of trace elements form capture fish, especially toxic
elements if one of great concern for human health. To
evaluate the health risk to people in Machilipatnam Coast,
the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) of heavy metal was
estimated on the concentrations of metal in fish muscle and
daily fish consumption. The predominant pathways for
heavy metal uptake, target organs, and organisms
sensitivity are highly variable and are dependent of factors
such as metal concentrations, age, site, physiological status,
habitat preferences, feeding behavior and growth rates of
fish (Chapman et al., 1996). The increasing demand of food
safety has accelerated researching regarding the risk
associated with consumption contaminated by heavy metal
(Mansour et al., 2009). In the present study our results
clearly showed that the all observed metals are higher than
that of results reported by Li et al. (2014) and Mohamad
and Osman (2014).
The estimated Target Hazard Quotient of the observed
heavy metals through consumption of fish was given in
Table 2. The average THQ values for individual heavy
metal are above 1, except cadmium. Ambedkar and
Maniyan (2011) concluded that the heavy metal
concentration were above the maximum levels
recommended by regulatory agencies and depending on
daily intake by consumers, might represent a risk for
human health. Li et al.(2014) reported that highest total
THQ value poses relatively higher potential health risks of
human beings, particularly for the people residing in the
areas with serious metal pollution.
Finally, we conclude that long term continuous
monitoring is essential of metal pollution in Machilipatnam
coast. The THQ values of the all the studied metals in fish
samples were above 1 except Cd. It is suggesting that the
concentration of the metals in fish muscle from
Machilipatnam coast pose to health hazards to the
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... Saha and Zaman (2013) found higher Cd (1.365 mg kg −1 ) in fish from central market of Rajshahi City in Bangladesh. Present study observed lower cadmium level comparing to fish form India (Krishna et al. 2014;Malik et al. 2010;Sankar et al. 2006). In case of fish from Oman, Al-Busaidi et al. (2011) found corresponding range of Cd (0.01-0.034 mg kg −1 ) in Arius bilineatus to present study while Ali et al. (2013) found higher level of Cd (1.1 ± 0.5 mg kg −1 ) in Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta). ...
... Present results also coincide with earlier investigations of Cu in fish from Persian Gulf (Agah et al. 2009), fish from Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean Sea (Turkmen et al. 2008). The current study found lower copper level in fish muscles with respect to those earlier reports (Krishna et al. 2014;Sadeghi et al. 2019;Ali et al. 2013;Kamal et al. 2015;Alizada et al. 2020;El-Nemr 2003;Mendil et al. 2010). ...
... Considerably higher level of Zn has been noted in previous studies on fish samples from Bangladesh (Raknuzzaman et al. 2016;Rahman et al. 2012), fish collected from India (Kumar and Mukherjee 2011;Krishna et al. 2014), fish from Red Sea and Arabian Gulf (Kamal et al. 2015), frozen and canned marine fish of Korea (Islam et al., 2010). Several studies found similar Zn content in fish (Sankar et al. 2006;Ali et al. 2013;Alizada, et al. 2020;Agah et al. 2009;Cunningham et al. 2019;Turkmen et al. 2008). ...
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Substantial quantity of fish has been imported to Bangladesh without adequate food safety assessment which can pose a serious health risk to local people. This study analyzed the trace metals and organochlorine pesticides residues and the associated human health risk in 33 imported fishes (9 species) from four countries (India, Myanmar, Oman, and United Arab Emirates) collected from three different ports (Benapole, Bhomra, and Chittagong) of Bangladesh with invoice lists from the port authorities. Trace metal concentrations were determined using graphite furnace absorption spectrometry and flame absorption spectrometry. The two organochlorine pesticides (Aldrin and Chlordane) residues were determined by GC-MS and found as below detection level (BDL). The trace metal concentrations (mg/kg-ww) in imported fish samples ranged as As 0.008 to 0.558, Pb 0.004 to 0.070, Cr 0.010 to 0.109, Cd 0.00 to 0.083, Ni 0.011 to 0.059, Co BDL to 0.067, Mn BDL to 0.0780, Fe 1.780 to 10.77, Cu 0.055 to 0.632, and Zn 0.898 to 9.245. Concentrations of As and Cd were higher than the food safety guideline. Considering the source country of imported fishes, fish samples from Oman were mostly contaminated by the trace metals. The estimated daily intake (EDI) was higher for Cr. However, the target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal and total THQ for combined metals were lower than 1, indicating no apparent non-carcinogenic health risk for consumers. The cancer risk (CR) was within the acceptable range. But extensive monitoring of these toxic chemicals is needed prior to import these fishes to the country. Given the self-sufficiency in fish production, this study also argues whether Bangladesh needs to import the fishes at all.
... In terms of the probability of cancer and non-carcinogenic threats to human health, these recommended values are insufficient. Thus, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed quantitative frameworks for calculating heavy metal hazard index (HI) and target cancer risk (TR) (Jyothirmayi and Madhusudhana Rao, 2014)). These indexes must be calculated for all the ecosystems where the fishery is a source of livelihood and compared with FAO and WHO maximum limits (FAO, 1983). ...
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Asian tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) of Chilika lagoon, India was studied regarding the metal accumulation and its associated human health risks. It showed a tendency of metal accumulation in the following order: Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Cr > Pb > Cd. A two-way ANOVA indicated the metal accumulation was insignificant with respect to season (n = 421, p = 0.59) and sector (n = 32, p = 0.61). The estimated daily intake (EDI), targeted hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI), and carcinogenic risks (CR) revealed no potential human health risks and were safe for consumption. The pollution load index (PLI) of <1, Geo-accumulation index (Igeo,) and contamination factor (CF) indicated that the study area was unpolluted. This pioneering study highlighted that P. monodon was nurtured well in the healthy habitat of Chilika lagoon and the fair level of metal content made it an excellent source of dietary components.
... Heavy metals are persistent and toxic Meland, 2010), especially when multiple heavy metals are found at elevated concentrations . Heavy metals accumulate in fish (and other aquatic species), resulting in biochemical changes and human health risks via the consumption of fish (Krishna et al., 2014;Vinodhini and Narayanan, 2008). Other documented impairments correlated with urbanization include the "urban stream syndrome" where channel morphology changes due to erosion and flashy responses to rain events and occur (Walsh et al., 2005) affecting ecologic functions and increased cost to purify drinking water (Gaffield et al., 2003 knowledge of the quality of discharge from urban watersheds is required before effective management can be planned (Fletcher and Deletic, 2007;Taebi and Droste, 2004). ...
While urban development provides many services to humanity, it also substantially impacts the environment and ecology of natural areas. Urbanization involves the conversion of forested and agricultural lands to impervious surfaces such as buildings, houses, roads, parking lots, and sidewalks. Stormwater runoff occurs when rainfall is not captured in depressional storage or is unable to infiltrate the soil surface. Land use changes may increase the generation and transport of pollutants and rate and volume of stormwater runoff, leading to increased pollutant load, flooding, in-stream erosion, and elevated stream temperatures. In urban areas developed prior to the Clean Water Act, stormwater is, in many cases, discharged without treatment. In recent decades, low impact development techniques, such as stormwater control measures (SCMs), have been increasingly adopted by municipalities to mitigate urban non-point source pollution. Efficacy of SCM retrofits run the gamut from success to failure. Thus, there is a need to fully understand the factors that affect stormwater quality and quantity to guide management. Urban land use and land cover (LULC) has been recognized as a strong influencer of stormwater quality and hydrology. Herein, I performed a meta-analysis utilizing stormwater quality data from the published literature spanning 360 unique urban watersheds. Furthermore, I monitored stormwater quality and hydrology from (urban and forested) watersheds in Ohio. Results indicate water quality can be further improved with a regionalization scheme. More specifically, regional climate substantially affected the quality of runoff. From the meta-analysis, it was observed that there is an absence of stormwater quality in certain regions of the world, one of which was the midwestern United States. Thus, stormwater models cannot be accurately calibrated or validated for this region. Analysis of local stormwater data (i.e., Dayton, Ohio metropolitan area) revealed LULC and rainfall patterns influenced the quality of runoff. Recent data also suggest stormwater quality is not temporally static (i.e., over years or decades), which opens various avenues for future research. Though design of SCMs is typically based on predicted runoff volume or peak flow rate, findings from water quality monitoring suggest placement of SCMs should also be considered in design (e.g., locate SCMs in hot spots for the generation of a pollutant of interest). Due to simplified hydrologic models, subjective parameter selection, and changing climatic patterns, the prediction of hydrologic responses contains large uncertainty. To bolster widely accepted models, I compared monitored hydrologic responses to predicted responses utilizing a variety of methodologies. Model performance varied with rainfall depth and watershed characteristics such and LULC and imperviousness. Thus, there was no one best model for every scenario, but the provided discussion will aide managers in selecting which model would provide the most accurate results under given circumstances. SCMs are often retrofitted with pollutants of concern in mind; however, these systems may provide treatment for other non-target pollutants. For example, stream temperature has been identified as the most important environmental cue to aquatic species behavior. Thermal impairments to receiving streams are commonly associated with impervious surfaces, yet ponds, wetlands, detention basins, and other noninfiltrating SCMs that are commonly retrofitted (or installed in new developments) further exacerbate stormwater temperature as they are subjected to solar radiation, often with little shading. Infiltrating SCMs such as bioretention and permeable pavements have shown promising reductions in stormwater temperature at the site-scale, but it is still unknown how a network of SCMs retrofitted at the watershed scale can ameliorate thermal impacts. My goal was to address this gap in knowledge to better inform other management strategies (e.g., riparian buffers, clustered imperviousness, underground storage/conveyance) that may need to be considered to protect cold-water ecosystems. Results indicate the best method of reducing thermal mass exported to receiving streams is through runoff volume mitigation, as runoff temperatures (monitored at watershed outlets) from watersheds with SCM retrofits were not different from watersheds without SCMs. It is commonly accepted in the literature that hydrologic mitigation is most critical for reducing the export of priority pollutants. In the final chapter of this dissertation, I addressed the effectiveness of five different maintenance techniques (two of which are new to the literature) to restore hydraulic function across five different permeable pavements by quantifying surface infiltration rates (SIRs) before and after maintenance activities. Three of the maintenance activities significantly improved SIRs, but results varied in effectiveness based on in-situ pavement conditions and operational factors. Thus, many maintenance take-aways were addressed such as performing maintenance during dry periods, topping up of joint aggregate after maintenance, and avoiding permeable pavement in high traffic/high speed areas.
... Heavy metals are persistent and toxic Meland, 2010), especially when multiple heavy metals are present (Ma et al., 2016). Heavy metals accumulate in fish (and other aquatic species), resulting in biochemical changes and human health risks via their consumption (Krishna et al., 2014;Vinodhini and Narayanan, 2008). Other documented impairments correlated with urbanization include the "urban stream syndrome" where channel morphology changes due to erosion and flashy responses to rain events, causing reduced ecological functions (Walsh et al., 2005) and increased cost to purify drinking water (Gaffield et al., 2003). ...
Urban stormwater is a substantial source of non-point source pollution. Despite considerable monitoring efforts, little is known about stormwater quality in certain geographic regions. These spatial gaps induce uncertainty when extrapolating data and reduce model calibration capabilities, thereby limiting pollutant load reduction strategies. In this study, stormwater quality was monitored from 15 watersheds to characterize pollutant event mean concentrations (EMCs) and loads as a function of urban and forested (i.e., surrogates for pre-development) land use and land covers (LULCs) and rainfall patterns from a geographic region where these data are sparse. Residential and heavy industrial, heavy industrial, and industrial and commercial LULCs, respectively, were the primary generators of nutrients, total suspended solids (TSS), and heavy metals. Increased rainfall intensities (average and peak) significantly increased the EMCs of all particulate bound pollutants. Pollutant loads increased with rainfall depth and, in general, did not follow the same LULC trends as EMCs, suggesting loads were influenced substantially by watershed hydrologic responses. Mean annual urban loads of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, TSS, and zinc (Zn) ranged from 0.4 (low density residential [LDR]) to 1.5 (heavy industrial), 3.2 (single family residential [SFR]) to 11.5 (heavy industrial), 122.6 (SFR) to 1219.9 (heavy industrial), and 0.1 (LDR) to 0.7 (commercial) kg/ha/yr, respectively. Annual urban loads of TSS were 3.5 to 34 and - 1.5 to 6.8-fold greater than annual loads from forested and agricultural watersheds, respectively. Mean annual loads of heavy metals from urban LULCs were substantially greater than loads produced by forested and agricultural watersheds (e.g., 8.6 to 92 and 6.8 to 73-fold greater, respectively, for Zn), while loads of nutrients were generally similar between urban and agricultural watersheds. Findings herein suggest non-point source pollution will continue to threaten surface water quality as land is developed; results can help guide the development of cost-efficient stormwater management strategies.
... Fish consumption is considered one of the principal routes of human exposure to PTE pollution, which presents long-term health risks when PTE concentrations accumulate above critical thresholds. PTE are neurotoxins, and their ingestion can result in developmental abnormalities in foetuses and, at high levels, death (Abbasa et al., 2015;Krishna et al., 2014). Exposure to concentrations of PTE exceeding allowable limits may result in Minamata disease, with renal and hepatic damage, growth reduction, mental retardation, carcinogenic effects and, in some cases, death (García-Lestón et al., 2010;Harada, 1995;Hu, 2002;Jan et al., 2015). ...
... Fish consumption is considered one of the principal routes of human exposure to PTE pollution, which presents long-term health risks when PTE concentrations accumulate above critical thresholds. PTE are neurotoxins, and their ingestion can result in developmental abnormalities in foetuses and, at high levels, death (Abbasa et al., 2015;Krishna et al., 2014). Exposure to concentrations of PTE exceeding allowable limits may result in Minamata disease, with renal and hepatic damage, growth reduction, mental retardation, carcinogenic effects and, in some cases, death (García-Lestón et al., 2010;Harada, 1995;Hu, 2002;Jan et al., 2015). ...
The study's objective was to evaluate using olive stone biochar (OSB), an inexpensive agro-waste product, to adsorb and remove inorganic mercury from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) aquaculture systems. First, the OSB's adsorption capacity was evaluated by testing different concentrations: 1, 2 and 3 g L⁻¹ for 0, 24, 48, 72 and 120 h. The concentration of Hg decreased with increasing OSB concentration up to 48 h, with the highest Hg adsorption rate observed at 2 g OSB L⁻¹. An experimental study assessed the OSB's impact on Nile tilapia immune status and growth efficiency. The experiment used 180 Nile tilapia divided into four treatment groups (CONT, OSB, Hg and Hg +OSB), with three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed a normal basal diet twice daily for 60 d. The CONT group served as a control without any treatment. The OSB group was exposed to 2 g OSB L⁻¹ of water, the Hg group was exposed to 0.084 mg Hg L⁻¹, and the Hg +OSB group was exposed to 0.084 mg Hg L⁻¹ with 2 g OSB L⁻¹. Hg exposure caused liver and renal dysfunction and reduced growth performance, haematological indices, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase and non-specific immune parameters. Adding OSB to the pond water reduced these effects. In conclusion, adding 2 g OSB L⁻¹ to aquarium water and changing it every 48 h mitigates the immunosuppressive effects of sub-chronic mercury toxicity and lowers mercury residues in fish muscle.
... Fe and Cu is also an essential trace element for animal metabolism. It was reported that Zn, Fe, and Cu are the most abundant elements in the muscle followed by other metals [15][16]. Therefore, it could be explained that the slightly high levels of these metals are necessary for biological functions of organisms. ...
The concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), aluminium (Al), and iron (Fe) in the carapace meat of female and male blue swimming crabs (Portunus segnis) from the northeastern Mediterranean Sea in the Gulf of Mersin, Turkey, are investigated in the current study. The order of average heavy metal concentrations in carapace meat samples in both male and female species was Zn>Fe >Cu>Al>Mn>Cr>Pb. From the obtained results, the levels of some metals such as Cu, Zn, and Fe were higher than the acceptable values for human consumption designated by various health organizations. The comparison of our results with previous studies showed that blue swimming crab (Portunus segnis) have been contaminated with heavy metals. The occurrence of high levels of Cu, Zn, and Fe in the aquatic environment is thought to be a result of industrial and maritime traffic activities in Mersin Bay. It may be suggested that continuous care must be taken-especially according to the season-to biomonitor the heavy metal levels if they always exceed the maximum permitted concentrations for human consumption.
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This book covers key areas of environment and earth science. The contributions by the authors include electron radiation belt, secular geomagnetic variation, mid-latitude aurora, tree line shift, climate change, regeneration modes, coefficient of linear extensibility, potential of linear extensibility, geometric factor, isotropy, lithospheric plates, plate tectonics, carbon cycle, biodiversity, extinction, photosynthesis, photorespiration, ecological compensation point, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, orogenic period, geo synclynal period, heavy metals, blue swimming crab, shrimp biodiversity, autoclaving, sprouting, thermal energy, earth’s expansion, mantle, pseudo-fluid geosphere, inner core, reverse gravity, remote sensing, floodplain, deposited sediment, bioremediation, contaminated soils, bacterial species, petroleum products, exhaust emissions, health hazards, LHR engine, fuel performance, exhaust emissions. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of environment and earth sciences
The potential hazards of metals due to pollution in freshwater have become of great concern to both aquatic life and consumers of fishery products. This study aimed to assess the level of metals accumulation and potential risk associated to metals in Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Cassava croaker) in Usuma dam, Abuja, Nigeria. Twenty (20) fish samples were randomly selected and the heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) measured with Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Non-carcinogenic (hazard quotient HQ and hazard index HI) and carcinogenic (cancer risk CR) effects of these metals on humans were assessed. The study demonstrated low levels of the metals (below WHO guideline) in this sequence Cd<Cu<Zn<Pb. The estimated daily ingestions values were 0.144, 0.306, 0.047, and 0.499 mg/kg/daily/person for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd respectively while the recorded values were within recommended limits. The HI showed collective adverse health risk with Pb contributing 70.46% and the carcinogenic risk (CR) of 5.52 was higher than the safe limit (1 × 10⁻⁴) indicating the potential for carcinogenic risk. In this regard, it is necessary for the National Environmental Standard and Regulation Enforcement Agency (NESREA) and policymakers to ensure the environmental safety of the Usuma dam to sustained and mitigate unwholesome health impacts on the population.
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Due to the toxicity of trace metals and the propensity of fishes to bioaccumulate metals in their tissues, we investigated the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) in the muscles of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodidatatus) collected from open markets in Mozambique. Fe and Hg were the most and least bioaccumulated metals in the fishes, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between sites for the analytes. Furthermore, we estimated the possible health risks (estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), and maximum allowable consumption rate (CRlim)) associated with fish consumption. The concentrations of As, Cd, and Pb exceeded the recommended maximum permissible limits (MPL) in fish samples, ranging between 5.65 – 12.7, 1.05 – 12.9, and 1.88 – 6.45 mgkg-1, respectively, whereas values lower than MPL viz. 5.25 – 18.9, ND – 0.033, and 30.8 – 52.3 mgkg-1 were observed for Cu, Hg, and Zn, respectively. Similarly, the EDI (mgkg-1day-1) were below the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) with decreasing order: Fe >Zn >Cu >As >Cd >Pb>Hg. However, the THQ (mg kg-1) was slightly > 1 for As and Cd in some samples. Moreover, the CRlim (kg day-1) showed a decreasing order of Hg >Fe >Zn >Pb> Cu >Cd >As. Generally, consumers are susceptible to health hazards associated with As and Cd. Hence, regular toxicological monitoring of the fishes from the study area is imperative.
Technical Report
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Surface sediment samples collected in 1986 and 1988 from 224 stations within Halifax inlet (Bedford Basin, Halifax Harbour, the Northwest Arm and Harbour Approaches) were analyzed for grain size, total and organic carbon and total elemental analysis for silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and lithium (Li). Measurements of porosity, oxidation reduction potentials (Eh), oxygen uptake and dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in pore water were carried out with samples collected in 1988. Relative to other estuarine and coastal bays in eastern Canada, sediments in Halifax inlet are enriched with organic carbon and the metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg) characteristic of sewage and industrial contamination. Significant correlations (p>0.99) occurred between these metal concentrations and organic carbon content but no significant relationships existed with the percentage of mud in samples.
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The accumulation of metals like Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc in five freshwater fish Megalaspis cordyla, Heteropneustes fossilis, Tilapia mossambica, Mystus vittatus and Mugil cephalus, from vellar River Tamil Nadu, India, January 2010 to June 2010 were investigated in the present study. The levels of metals accumulated were analyzed through the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results shows the Cr concentrations were the maximum levels followed by Cd > Cu > P b >Zn among the metals analyzed, Zn were the lowest concentration in the five fish species. The levels of metals accumulated by the fish are may be due to increased fertilizers, agricultural wastes, industrial effluents and some anthropogenic activities. The magnitudes of metals concentration were discussed with the available literature.
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The concenlration of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn in fishes, shell fishes and seaweed near a caustic soda plant has been measured. Trace metal concentration in the oyster (Crassostrea cucullata), mussel (Pema viridis) and seaweed (Sargassum tenerimum) collected from the vicinity of discharge point were found to be com-paratively high. It is found that oysters are more effective bioaccumulators for Zn, Cu, and Cd, whUe mussels and seaweeds for Pb and Mn. There were no significant differences between the whole soft tissue for Pb and Cd concentration of P. viridis collected from a relatively clean and contaminated sites. The kidney and mantle showed significant differences for all the trace metals, gill for Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd and digestive gland for Zn, Cu and Cd. The kidney was found to be a major site of trace metal accumulation followed by digestive gland, from both the sites.
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The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Sr) were detected by ICP-OES in muscle tissues and gills of Nile Tilapia (O. niloticus) collected from the effluent of sewage treatment plant, and the released sewage-treated water into the White; and in water samples collected from four station along the sewage treatment plant. The highest concentration of the heavy metal in tissues and gills of was recorded for Sr, followed by Fe, Zn, Cu and Pb, where Sr and Fe recorded higher concentrations in the muscle compared to fish gills. The same trend was found in the other heavy metals. The range of Fe was (10.6 – 11.6 μg/g) in water from sampling stations, with no significant difference between the four stations, while, the level was (2.2 - 3.2 μg/g) in muscle and fish gills. The level of Sr in water was (6.32 – 7.86 μg/g) with increased concentration in station 4, the discharge point of the treated waste-water into the WN; and (2.1 -3.4 μg/g) in muscle and fish gills. The concentration of lead was (0.11 – 0.2 μg/g) in water with the highest level in station 3, the discharge point of industrial effluents and (0.2 – 0.3 μg/g). The level of Zn was (0.5 - 0.9 μg/g) in muscle and fish gills, and (<0.0001 μg/g), but long-term disposal of wastewater into the Nile resulted in high level of Zn and Cu in the tissues and gills of the fish. In conclusion, the levels heavy metals observed in the fish and water samples can be considered as a serious matter of concern as it may be consumed and be harmful to human health in the study area. More safe and economic methods for the elimination of heavy metals from contaminated waters are needed and continuous assessment of the level of pollution of the Nile waters and fish with heavy metals is also necessary.
The present study was conducted to determine heavy metal (cadmium and chromium) concentrations in gills, kidneys, liver, skin, muscles and scales of three fish species (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala) from three stations viz. Lahore Siphon (Up stream), Shahdera Bridge and Baloki Headworks (Down stream) in the river Ravi, Pakistan. Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly depending upon the type of fish tissues and locations. The concentrations of cadmium and chromium differed significantly (p<0.001) among five fish organs and three sites and non-significantly between the three fish species. Fish liver appeared to have significantly higher tendency for the accumulation of cadmium and chromium (4.26 ± 1.57 and 6.23 ± 1.14 μgg-1), while gills had minimum concentrations (1.10 ± 0.53 and 1.46 ± 0.52 μgg-1) of these metals. Generally, Catla catla showed higher levels of metal concentrations than Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala. Metal contamination was highest at Baloki Headworks, probably due to inclusion of more effluents from industrial and sewage water.
Regulating metals on the basis of simple measures of bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms gives misleading results. Simple bioaccumulation factors are useful in characterizing the hazard posed by hydrophobic organic compounds, but the bioaccumulation of metals is more complex. For metals that are essential for health, many organisms have the ability to control and maintain internal metal concentrations in the presence of significant variations in external concentrations. Hence bioaccumulation factors expressed as the ratio of wet tissue concentration and water concentration must vary according to external concentration. Regulations that specify a single generic accumulation factor are thus inappropriate.
We conducted this project to assess the concentrations of natural and anthropogenic contaminants in fish of the Missouri River from the Nebraska/South Dakota border to Kansas City, Missouri. We collected 45 composite samples of eight fish species from nine locations on the river. We were unable to collect all species at all locations, but the collections allowed us to compare concentrations within trophic levels and at different locations. Comparisons in this project are based on concentrations in composites of fish that may have been of different ages. Also, the comparisons of different species should be treated with caution because' different species respond to contaminants in different ways and may have normal concentrations of metals or organic contaminants that differ from other species. Fish from seven of the nine locations were analyzed for arsenic, mercury, selenium, and 11 other metals, for organochlorine compounds, and for aliphatic hydrocarbons. Fish from two of the sampling locations were analyzed only for organochlorines. Aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, and zinc concentrations in the fish samples were high enough to warrant further studies. Lead concentrations were high enough to warrant further study, especially downstream from Dakota City, Nebraska. Chromium and nickel concentrations were high relative to concentrations found in other locations. Beryllium, iron, mercury, selenium, and tellurium concentrations need not concern resource managers. Chlordane and heptachlor concentrations were well below the geometric means from the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program {NCBP}, but the total concentrations of those compounds exceeded the 1973 National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering {NAS/NAE} recommendation for protection of aquatic life in 14 of the 45 samples analyzed. Five of the samples were more than double the protection level. Most of the chlordane- and/or heptachlorcontaminated samples came from Blair, Nebraska or downstream. Half of the values exceeding the NAS/NAE recommendation were from Atchison, Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri. Thirteen of the fish composites exceeded the 1984 NCBP nationwide mean dieldrin concentration in fish. Concentrations in a paddlefish from Blair, Nebraska and in the channel catfish and shovel nose sturgeon composites from Rulo, Nebraska exceeded the NAS/NAE recommendation for dieldrin concentration. In addition, the presence of aldrin in the shovel nose sturgeon sample from Rulo suggests recent inputs of the banned chemical into the Missouri River.
The levels of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in eight species of cultured freshwater fishes from Jiangxi province were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. All the studied trace element levels in fish muscles from Jiangxi province did not exceed Chinese national standard and European Union standard, and they were often lower than previous studies. The calculated target hazard quotient values for all the studied trace elements in fish samples were much less than 1, suggesting that the studied trace elements in fish muscles from Jiangxi province had not pose obvious health hazards to consumers. As and Cd concentrations in northern snakehead were much higher than that in other fishes, demonstrating that this fish species could be valuable as a bioindicator of As and Cd in environmental surveys. In addition, the highest concentrations of Fe, Zn, and moderate contents of other essential trace elements in crucian carp indicated that crucian carp could be a good nutrient source of essential trace elements for human health.