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HEURISTIC VIEW ON INTELLIGENT BUILDING DESIGNS AS A MEANS TO SAVE ENERGY

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Abstract -Intelligent building designs involve use of building management systems (BMS) and other technologies to provide automated control of the indoor environments. The main applications are in the automation of ventilation, heating and airconditioning systems in large functional buildings. The main aim of BMS application is to significantly save energy and reduce cost. Tremendous energy savings can be realized when BMS is applied in various building sectors such as: Lighting, Security, HVAC Automation and Control, Power Management, Fire & Transportation, Smart Metering and mechanical services. It has been duly established that buildings consume 40% of world’s energy and most of it is wasted when and where it is not needed. Lighting and HVAC control saves 50% energy. By automatically tuning the energy consumption in accordance with occupancy profile of a building, BMS significantly reduces the operational costs. Building integration also encompasses access control, intruder detection, lighting, digital video, power measurements and variable speed drives. This approach lowers capital expenditures because data networks are shared, there are less computers and servers, and devices have numerous uses. The introduction of BMS in buildings can lead to significant improvements in the operational performance, energy efficiency and reliability of building services. The present paper delves into the task of building automation systems and communications infrastructure necessary to address it.The paper also addresses the challenges involved in adopting BMS and how they can be mitigated. Case studies involving building structures where BMS is in use are presented to confirm the relationship between Building automation systems and energy saving.
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Proceedings of the
National Science Week (by NACOSTI), 11 - 15 May 2015
Abstract -Intelligent building designs involve use of
building management systems (BMS) and other
technologies to provide automated control of the
indoor environments. The main applications are in
the automation of ventilation, heating and air-
conditioning systems in large functional buildings.
The main aim of BMS application is to significantly
save energy and reduce cost. Tremendous energy -
savings can be realized when BMS is applied in
various building sectors such as: Lighting, Security,
HVAC Automation and Control, Power
Management, Fire & Transportation, Smart Metering
and mechanical services. It has been duly established
that buildings consume 40% of world’s energy and
most of it is wasted when and where it is not needed.
Lighting and HVAC control saves 50% energy. By
automatically tuning the energy consumption in
accordance with occupancy profile of a building,
BMS significantly reduces the operational costs.
Building integration also encompasses access control,
intruder detection, lighting, digital video, power
measurements and variable speed drives. This
approach lowers capital expenditures because data
networks are shared, there are less computers and
servers, and devices have numerous uses. The
introduction of BMS in buildings can lead to
significant improvements in the operational
performance, energy efficiency and reliability of
building services.
The present paper delves into the task of building
automation systems. Case studies involving building
structures where BMS is in use are presented to
confirm the relationship between Building
automation systems and energy saving.
*The author, Benard Mumo Makaa, is a former student of Jomo
Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology where he
pursued a BSc. Electrical and Electronic Engineering (2010-
2014).At the time of writing this paper he was an Electrical trainee
engineer at Howard Humphreys (EA) Ltd, a leading engineering
consulting firm. He can be reached at benmakaa@gmail.com,
Phone number: 0716518555.
Keywords, intelligent building designs, networks,
standards, automation
I. INTRODUCTION
Thirty percent. That is the amount of energy the
average commercial building wastes. It also been
established that buildings account for 40% of the
world’s energy use [1]. A buildings energy
consumption has a big impact on climate change and
business. An “intelligent building can help reduce
operational and energy costs, increase productivity
and make fast, accurate decisions on one’s energy
strategy [2].
The idea of an “intelligent Building” includes various
systems automation for Building control,
Communications, Security and fire. The main area
are generally covered in this concept:
Communications Network and Office
Automation.
Building Management System.
Integrated Services Infrastructure.
A. Building Management System (BMS).
This provides automatic monitoring and management
for electricity, ventilation, water supply, security and
fire control. The following systems are managed by
BMS: Building Automation System (BAS), Security
Automation System (SAS) & Fire Automation
System (FAS):
a. Building Automation System
(BAS)
Building Automation Systems (BAS) are centralized,
interlinked, networks of hardware and software,
which monitor and control the environment in
commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities.
This systems aims to centralize the remote
monitoring and control of all building facilities.
These include electricity, lighting, plumbing,
ventilation and air-conditioning, water supply and
drainage and environmental control systems. All
Heuristic View on Intelligent Building
Designs as a Means to Save Energy.
Benard Mumo Makaa*
Proceedings of the
National Science Week (by NACOSTI), 11 - 15 May 2015
these are controlled from a single center. Seamless
monitoring of all these systems ensures a reliable
working or living environment for tenants as well as
optimized human resources allocation for the
Property Manager and thus energy saving. BAS core
functionality keeps building climate within a
specified range, provides light to rooms based on an
occupancy schedule (in the absence of overt switches
to the contrary), monitors performance and device
failures in all systems, and provides malfunction
alarms to building maintenance staff. A BAS should
reduce building energy and maintenance costs
compared to a non-controlled building [3].
b. Security Automation System (SAS)
These systems are critical for providing a secure
environment and protecting the safety of tenants.
Elements include: Anti-theft Security and Alarm
System, Electronic Control System, Access Control
System, Closed-Circuit TV Surveillance System.
c. Fire Automation System (FAS)
This system is supported by independent network and
cabling systems to ensure operation continues
nonstop, even during an emergency. When linked to
the building’s centralized control room, a second
level of monitoring is provided; and in case of fire,
various systems can interact directly to optimize all
necessary building facilities.
B. Communications Network & Office
Automation System
This includes office administration, Property
Management, and Business Intelligence Systems that
reduce heavy workloads and human error to enhance
efficiency, quality and the working environment as a
whole. Voice, Data, Video and Multimedia
Information Services, such as Video Conferencing,
Email and Electronic Data Exchange, are provided
via the building’s high-speed backbone network to
the benefit of each office [4].
II. EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENT
BUILDING DESIGNS.
The Dutch inventor, Cornelius Drebbel invented a
way to keep eggs warm and hatch them into baby
chicks. Building automation systems trace back to his
incubator thermostat. In the past century, building
controls advanced rapidly [5] .From the 1950s to
1990s alone, they evolved from pneumatics to
electronics to open protocols like BACnet. As
reported by the Metropolitan Energy Policy
Coalition, BAS can save $0.20(Ksh18) to
$0.40(Ksh36) in energy costs per sq. ft. For a
200,000 sq. ft. building, that means up to
$80,000(Ksh7200000) yearly savings.
Building automation systems Timeline.
Period
Development
1950’s
Reasonably accurate pneumatic
sensors &controllers, Fairly
comfortable environmental
conditions
1960’s
Improved system design &
performance, Proliferation of
sensor/receiver-controller
concept, Pneumatic control
systems are industry norm.
1970’s
Micro-chip analog electronic
control & computerized energy
management systems, Initial
computer based systems were
costly & performed minimal
control functions; typically only
monitored pneumatic control
systems
1980’s
Pneumatic systems continue,
Microprocessor based panels with
high density inputs & outputs,
Introduction of “Smart”
Controllers, Proliferation of
Application-Specific DDC
Control Modules, Higher System
Capability Per $ Investment.
1990’s
Electronic systems replace
pneumatics, Open Protocols
Introduced: BACnet, LON. World
Wide Web becomes popular
2000’s &
beyond
Internet Dominates BAS systems,
Wireless Technologies proliferate,
Smart Building Systems, Full
Building integration
a. Current BAS Issues.
Proprietary and open protocols
Proprietary individually controlled
Shared Strategic alliance
Open General use
Defacto Standard Industry accepted (e.g.
Ethernet, Modbus, IP, etc.)
Proceedings of the
National Science Week (by NACOSTI), 11 - 15 May 2015
Standard Agency/Association Approved
(e.g. Lontalk, BACnet, Arcnet, etc.)
b. Why open protocol?
Figure 1 Illustration of independent protocols.
Figure 2 Illustration of a standard protocols.
c. Levels of Interoperability
Co-existence
Systems don’t interfere nor do they co-operate.
Solution Specific
Requires Joint development & Engineering
Plug & Play
Effortless integration of various manufacturing
components
Interchangeability
Products are functionally identical
d. BAS features.
Software
Users connect to a BAS via software, a quality
program that help owners get the most from their
buildings. Most software offers an intuitive, 3D
graphical interface. Clear schematics let users interact
with the system their first time out and this helps on
training costs and time. With online connections,
some programs provide the power to monitor and
control facilities from anywhere, at any time. Remote
operation reduces crew time in the field. Facility
managers can also resolve problems faster for
building occupants. Recent BAS offer HTML 5-the
latest format. This enables users to access the systems
on a wide range of desktop computers and tablets,
without third-party plug-ins [5].
Control module
This is the central brains of a BAS. Many controllers
rely on the industry standard BACnet protocol. Some
of the many systems BACnet integrates are:
Heating and cooling
Lighting
Security
Access control
Fire and life safety
Elevators and escalators
The benefits of a powerful control module go beyond
cost savings from managing building systems. A
properly equipped BAS can also assist with tenant
billing for leased spaces. The result is more accurate
billing and better tracking of rent revenues.
Wall sensors
For building occupants, wall sensors are their touch
point to the BAS. Most of the interfaces are easy to
use just like today’s smart phones. The easy-to-
interpret icons enable building occupants to
understand at-a-glance multiple environmental
readings and building systems status. Displayed data
can include room and outside air temperatures,
relative humidity and CO2 (levels).
Proceedings of the
National Science Week (by NACOSTI), 11 - 15 May 2015
Figure 3 Full BAS Integration.
Figure 4 Internet Integration
Figure 5 Old Co-existent buildings
Figure 6 Current technology.
III. CASE STUDIES
Smart services offerings use sophisticated analytics
to collect, interpret, and act upon data from building
systems and the BAS, giving firms the tools they
need to manage energy consumption, reduce
operating costs, minimize environmental impact,
improve system reliability and uptime, and resolve
problems sooner and more effectively. One study
found that firms using an active monitoring
intelligent services option are able to resolve as many
as 40% of building system problems in 30 minutes or
less, with many problems resolved remotely,
eliminating the need for service calls[6].
Some of the stakeholders who need to adopt and
create awareness as regarding intelligent buildings
include:
Commercial building automation system
(BAS) vendors
HVAC, lighting, fire & life safety, and
security & access equipment and system
vendors
Commercial building infrastructure systems
integration and engineering firms
Building owners and managers
Energy service companies (ESCOs)
Utilities
Government agencies
Investor community
Proceedings of the
National Science Week (by NACOSTI), 11 - 15 May 2015
a. University of Denmark classroom
study (2005)
Decreased classroom temperature from 25 ˚C to 21.5
˚C [7]:
Math performance increased 28%
Reading speed increased 24%
Increased ventilation: 1175 to 840 ppm CO2
Math performance increased by 14%
b. UCLA School Facility report
(2002)
Building condition with most influence on student
achievement: Air Conditioning [8]
c. Helsinki University of
Technology + LBNL
Summarized findings of multiple research [9]
Min complaints, Max Productivity at 22 - 24
˚C
Productivity dropped 2% /˚C above 24 ˚C
Sick Building Syndrome:
Symptoms & complaints @ min 22-24 ˚C
Typical office building: Save $560/employee/year
Far outweighed increased energy costs
Figure 7 Summarized findings of multiple research.
Building Performance impacts people cost
d. Cornell University Data Entry
Study (2004)
Measured keystrokes & errors at an insurance
company [10].
Raised temp from 20˚C to 25˚C (≈ 40% RH)
Increase keystrokes by 150%
Decreased errors by 44%
Productivity increase ≈ $64/hour per worker
e. Tour Elithis
Dijon, France 2009, first positive energy office
building in the world at standard costs
Energy savings/year: € 65,320
Renewable energy produced: 189,660 kW
Source: Sauter.
Figure 8 Tour Elithis
IV. CHALLENGES
In Kenya, most property owners and managers have
adopted and embraced partially the idea of intelligent
buildings. Most have centralized security and
communications systems and little has been made use
of building automation systems. What could be the
reason? As it can be established, few of them carry
out energy audits of their buildings and hence they
may never discover how energy is wasted and how
this can be mitigated.
In most public managed buildings (especially public
universities), a lot of electrical energy is wasted when
lights are left on 24hrs in most of the lecture halls and
theatres. The same is prevalent in other public and
private institutions. Millions of Kenyan shillings
could be saved if Building Automation Systems are
adopted.
Proceedings of the
National Science Week (by NACOSTI), 11 - 15 May 2015
A policy requiring mandatory energy audits should
be enforced. A national survey should be carried out
to establish why Kenya is lagging behind in adoption
of Building Automation systems and why building
owners are reluctant to adopt BAS.
V. CONCLUSION
It has been established that intelligent buildings could
be one of the answers to climate change. It remains
the work of policy makers and building owners to
adopt these systems.
Building automation systems save energy and thus
energy costs. Today’s BAS technology enables high
performance buildings that are more energy efficient,
cost less to operate, provide a better indoor
environment for occupants, and have a smaller
environmental footprint.
More sophisticated electronic sensors and BAS make
it easier to personalize comfort settings and avoid
conditioning air in vacant spaces and thus reduce
energy waste.
Leading suppliers of building automation systems:
.
Others include: Sauter, KMC Controls.
VI. REFERENCES:
[1]Krigger, J.; Dorsi, C. (2004). Residential Energy:
Cost Savings and Comfort for Existing Buildings.
Helena, MT: Saturn Resource.
[2] Buildingsolutions.honeywell.com, 'HVAC and
BMS | Building Management and Intelligent Building
Solutions'. [Online]. Available:
https://buildingsolutions.honeywell.com/en-
US/solutions/hvacbuildingmanagement/Pages/default
.aspx. [Accessed: 13- Feb- 2015].
[3] A. So and W. Chan, Intelligent building systems.
Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1999.
[4] W. Coad, Energy engineering and management
for building systems. New York: Van Nostrand
Reinhold Co., 1982.
[5] Businessballs.com, 'intelligent buildings design,
intelligent homes design, smart homes and building
management systems technology'. [Online].
Available:
http://www.businessballs.com/intelligentbuildingsdes
ign.htm. [Accessed: 16- Feb- 2015].
[6] Johnsoncontrols.com, 'Building Management
Systems | Johnson Controls Inc.'. [Online]. Available:
http://www.johnsoncontrols.com/content/us/en/produ
cts/building_efficiency/case_studies2/building-
management-systems.html. [Accessed: 11- Feb-
2015].
[7] P. Wargocki et al, The Effects of Classroom Air
Temperature and Outdoor Air Supply Rate on the
Performance of School Work by Children, Technical
University of Denmark, 2005.
[8] Earthman, Glen I. (2002). School Facility
Conditions and Student Academic Achievement. Los
Angeles, CA: UCLA’s Institute for Democracy,
Education, & Access (IDEA).
[9] Olli Seppanen et al, Control of Temperature for
Health and Productivity in Offices, Helsinki
University of Technology, 2004.
[10] Cornell news release & slide presentation:
http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Oct04/temp.pr
oductivity.ssl.html
Links for more information:
www.automatedbuildings.com
www.bacnet.org
www.lonmark.org
www.betterbricks.com
www.caba.org
www.ashrae.org
www.atkinsonelectronics.com
www.johnsoncontrols.com
www.honeywell.com
www.invensys.com
www.sbt.siemens.com
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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A field intervention experiment was conducted in two classes of 10-year-old children. Average air temperatures were reduced from 23.6 o C to 20 o C and outdoor air supply rates were increased from 5.2 to 9.6 L/s per person in a 2x2 crossover design, each condition lasting a week. Tasks representing 8 different aspects of school work, from reading to mathematics, were performed during appropriate lessons and the children marked visual-analogue scales each week to indicate SBS symptom intensity. Increased ventilation rate increased work rate in addition, multiplication and number checking (P
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In this book, we have introduced a variety of current technologies involving artificial intelligence being applied to modern building systems, such as HVAC systems, electrical services systems, vertical transportation systems and fire services etc. It is foreseeable that technologies will be developed rapidly in the next decade and successful implementations of them will ensure effective, reliable, robust and energy efficient building systems. In this chapter, we shall look at several advancements in related areas, including the central data management, linkage to the information superhighway, distributed intelligence, the concept of open system, human comfort based control, home automation, multi-media user interface.
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Residential Energy: Cost Savings and Comfort for Existing Buildings
  • J Krigger
  • C Dorsi
Krigger, J.; Dorsi, C. (2004). Residential Energy: Cost Savings and Comfort for Existing Buildings. Helena, MT: Saturn Resource.
HVAC and BMS | Building Management and Intelligent Building Solutions
  • Buildingsolutions
Buildingsolutions.honeywell.com, 'HVAC and BMS | Building Management and Intelligent Building Solutions'. [Online]. Available: https://buildingsolutions.honeywell.com/en
intelligent buildings design, intelligent homes design, smart homes and building management systems technology
  • Businessballs
  • Com
Businessballs.com, 'intelligent buildings design, intelligent homes design, smart homes and building management systems technology'. [Online]. Available: http://www.businessballs.com/intelligentbuildingsdes ign.htm. [Accessed: 16-Feb-2015].
[5] Businessballs.com, 'intelligent buildings design, intelligent homes design, smart homes and building management systems technology'. [Online] Available: http://www
  • W Coad
W. Coad, Energy engineering and management for building systems. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1982. [5] Businessballs.com, 'intelligent buildings design, intelligent homes design, smart homes and building management systems technology'. [Online]. Available: http://www.businessballs.com/intelligentbuildingsdes ign.htm. [Accessed: 16-Feb-2015]. [6] Johnsoncontrols.com, 'Building Management Systems | Johnson Controls Inc.'. [Online]. Available: http://www.johnsoncontrols.com/content/us/en/produ cts/building_efficiency/case_studies2/building- management-systems.html. [Accessed: 11-Feb- 2015].
Building Management Systems | Johnson Controls Inc
  • Johnsoncontrols
  • Com
Johnsoncontrols.com, 'Building Management Systems | Johnson Controls Inc.'. [Online]. Available: http://www.johnsoncontrols.com/content/us/en/produ cts/building_efficiency/case_studies2/buildingmanagement-systems.html. [Accessed: 11-Feb-2015].
School Facility Conditions and Student Academic Achievement
  • Glen I Earthman
Earthman, Glen I. (2002). School Facility Conditions and Student Academic Achievement. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA's Institute for Democracy, Education, & Access (IDEA).