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CHARACTERIZATION AND LIPID PROFILE OF MACADAMIA NUTS (MACADAMIA INTEGRIFOLIA AND MACADAMIA TETRAPHYLLIA).

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A study on the physical and chemical characteristics and the lipid composition of the Macadamia nuts from Andalucía was carried out. Fruit size, cracking point, relative humidity, ash percentage, content and lipid composition was also characterized. Regarding the nutritional composition of the fruit, it was obtained a high content on vegetable fats in whose lipid profile stands out the oleic and palmitoic acid.
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Feb, 2014. Vol. 4, No. 9 ISSN2305-8269
International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
© 2012 - 2014 EAAS & ARF. All rights reserved
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33
CHARACTERIZATION AND LIPID PROFILE OF MACADAMIA
NUTS (MACADAMIA INTEGRIFOLIA AND MACADAMIA
TETRAPHYLLIA).
A.Sáez1, S. Montoya1, J. Cabrera1, C. Asensio2; E. Ortega1*
1* Dpt. of Edaphology and Agricultural Chemistry. College of Pharmacy. University Campus Cartuja,
s/n. 18071. University of Granada, Spain. Phone and Fax number: 958 243918/958 160963 E-mail:
eortega@ugr.es
2 Dpt. of Edaphology and Agricultural Chemistry. Graduate School of Engineering. University of
Almería. Carretera de Sacramento, s/n. La Cañada. 04120. Almería. Spain.
ABSTRACT
A study on the physical and chemical characteristics and the lipid composition of the Macadamia nuts
from Andalucía was carried out. Fruit size, cracking point, relative humidity, ash percentage, content and
lipid composition was also characterized. Regarding the nutritional composition of the fruit, it was
obtained a high content on vegetable fats in whose lipid profile stands out the oleic and palmitoic acid.
KEYWORDS: Macadamia nuts, cracking point, lipid profile, palmitoic acid.
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this study is the characterization
of the Macadamia nut cultivated in Andalucía
(figure 1), emphasizing the fruit size, cracking
point and lipid profile.
Macadamia is a tree naturally found in
the tropical and sub-tropical rainforests. Shape
and size vary, from 10 to 20m high in wooded
areas, although it only reaches 10m high in open
spaces (1).
There are ten species from which only
two of them, Macadamia integrifolia and
Macadamia tetraphyllia are commercially
important.
In Spain, the varieties Integrifolia and
Beaumont are being cultivated nowadays. This
last variety is a hybrid between the Integrifolia
and Tetrafillia (2). Although the beginning of
the cultures may not be determined precisely,
their location is found in the tropical and sub-
tropical area of Andalucía, Algarrobo Coast
(Málaga) and Marbella (Málaga) (3).
In order to measure the shell size, both
the Macadamia Integrifolia and the Macadamia
Beaumont, a slide caliper was used. The
cracking point was calculated on the basis of the
study “Mechanical Behaviour of Macadamia
Nut under Compression Loading”. According to
it, the operation of cracking Macadamia nuts is
the most critical and delicate step for achieve
high-quality kernels.
The nuts, usually at high moisture
content, are dried to recommended moisture,
before cracking, in a process that takes from 3
to 4 weeks at the expense of large energy
consumption (4).
To conclude with this study, the lipid
percentage was obtained for both varieties.
Macadamia nut is rich in monounsaturated fatty
acids (oleic and palmitoic acids) (MUFA) which
significantly reduce cholesterol (7) when being
included in human diet.
Recent studies examine the effects of
consuming macadamia nuts in
hypercholesterolemic male individuals.
Seventeen hypercholesterolemic male subjects
were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/day),
equivalent to 15% energy intake, for a period of
4 weeks. Once finalized this study, it was shown
that macadamia nut consumption modified
favorably the biomarkers of oxidative stress,
thrombosis and inflammation (8).
Macadamia oil has also cosmetic
applications, especially for the palmitoic acids
presence. These cosmetic applications include
lipbalms (7), creams to the skin, face soap (9),
Feb, 2014. Vol. 4, No. 9 ISSN2305-8269
International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
© 2012 - 2014 EAAS & ARF. All rights reserved
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34
sun creams (7), anti-cellulite (10), anti-wrinkle
(11), hands cream crema para shampoo (12),
etc.
For all their beneficts Macadamia nut is
globally use in the sweet industry to make
chocolate, biscuits, bread, ice-creams and
desserts (13). This nuts can be consumed raw,
roast, salted…
On the negative side, high content of
unsaturated fatty acids leads to oxidative
reactions, which result in rancidity that
decreases the quality of the nut. Drying is thus
needed to reduce the nut moisture content and
hence alleviate the above-mentioned problem
(14).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Three samples of Macadamia nuts were
used. Two of them of the variety Integrifolia
(cultivated in Algarrobo Coast and
Experimental Center la Mayora) and one of the
variety Beaumont (cultivated in Marbella).
Shell size, cracking point, % relative
humidity, ash content as well as the lipid
content and profile were measured.
In order to measure the shell diameter,
a slide caliper was used, Stainless Hardened.
Cracking of the shell was carried out
on the basis of the study “Mechanical Behaviour
of Macadamia Nut under Compression
Loading”. According to the study, the operation
of cracking Macadamia nuts is the most critical
and delicate step for achieve high-quality
kernels (15). For that the nut was subjected to a
uniform pressure along three directions (figure
2): axis numbered 1, axis numbered 2 and axis
numbered 3. A hydraulic press was used loaned
by the company Argos S.L.-, Mod. E181.
Hydraulic Oil Hydrus Oil H146, whose load
speed is 0.35 KN/s.
There are two main basic mechanisms
which are commonly used to remove the nut
shell. One of them is really important because
consists in cracking and breaking the shell piece
by piece.
It was found that the optimum speed of
the knife varied not only with the physical
condition of the nuts, such as moisture content,
but also with the variety. Nuts of different
moisture content, different varieties and
different curing time after harvest required
different knife speeds to minimize the amount
of unhusked and cracked nuts (16).
The relative humidity is determined
drying the sample in an oven Selecta Dry-Big
200297 at 105ºC.
The lipid content was obtained through
the extraction procedure SOXLHET, according
to the UNE 55030 standard.
In order to determine the lipid profile, a
gas chromatograph with flame ionization
detector Varian CP-3800 Gas Chromatograph
with column was used: 60mx0.25 mmx0.2 µm.
Stationary phase VF-624ms. Type WCOT
Fused Silica. Injection volume 1µL., carrying
out the analysis of the three copies of each
sample.
The temperature program is shown in table 1.
RESULTS
Size, moisture and ash results from the analyzed
samples, as well as the variety appear in table 2.
As it can be seen, the size of the variety
Beaumont is smaller than this of the variety
Integrifolia; the ash content is similar and the
relative humidity is between 1,78 % and 1,86 %.
The variety Integrifolia contains more moisture
that the Beaumont one.
According to (14) Macadamia nut quality
depends significantly on its moisture; (17)
reported that when the moisture content is in the
range 1.2-1.6% (d.b.) macadamia nut has higher
stability against lipid oxidation. (18) suggested
that macadamia nut should not be dried at
temperatures higher than 40ºC when the nut
moisture content is higher than 8.7-11.1% (d.b).
Figures 3, 4 and 5 represent the force (KN) to
be supplied, in the three directions (axis x, y, z),
in order to break the shell.
A high content in lipids (62-74%) was obtained
(table 3).
The lipid profile of the three analyzed samples
appears in table 4 and a cromatogram shell
sample in figure 6.
These samples show the predominant content in
oleic acid (64.7-65.1%). The other predominant
Feb, 2014. Vol. 4, No. 9 ISSN2305-8269
International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
© 2012 - 2014 EAAS & ARF. All rights reserved
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35
fatty acid is the palmitoic with quantities
between (9-12.7%).
DISCUSSION
Macadamia nut is not very common in
Spain, but it is commercialized by different
brands. Most of them come from South
America and Australia.
The nuts cultivated in the south of
Spain (Andalucía) are located in the southern
Mediterranean area of semiarid subtropical
climate, specifically in the Algarrobo Coast and
Marbella (Málaga) and correspond to the
varieties Integrifolia and Beaumont.
The ashes percentage is practically
similar in all the samples.
The variety Beaumont is the smallest
one, with 20.7 mm., which represents 11.8% of
the 1 and 7.13% of the sample 3, both from the
variety Integrifolia.
As well, the relative humidity shows a
slight difference of 0.52% between the values of
the samples (3.87-3.35%) from the variety
Integrifolia comparing to the variety Beaumont.
This is really important considering its influence
in the drying process and its subsequent
cracking (19). These authors state that low
moisture content helps the shell cracking to
improve the better extraction of the fruit.
Figures 3, 4 and 5 indicate that the
cracking values regarding the axis x are between
0.7 y 1,8 KN, regarding y between 1.1 and 4.2
KN and z between 0.6 and 2 KN with a small
standard deviation and a covariance which only
reaches 3%. This shows that the preferred
cracking direction is the axial one (axis z),
which has a minimum value of 0.6 KN.
Technologically recommended direction for the
cracking of the different commercial nuts. A
representation which shows the relation among
the three cracking directions demonstrates the
importance of the appropriate choice in order to
eliminate the shell for its marketing.
The kernel has high lipid content, with
a (majority) average value of 74.28% and
composed of oleic acid 65.1% and 12.7% in
palmitoic acid.
The Macadamia oil prevents the
oxidation of cells due to its content in palmitoic
acid. This fatty acid is naturally found in the
babies’ skin. As we age, the quantity of this acid
decreases. The Macadamia acts as an
antioxidant and delays aging. This anti-aging
action is of the main cosmetic use (20).
Recent studies use the Macadamia nut
as one of the main ingredients for the
preparation of the food products for the human
consumption. Optimum values from nuts
(24.8%) and honey (75.2%) were mixed,
because the nuts is rich in unsaturated fatty
acids (MUFA) and the honey is rich in sugars as
fructose (38.7 %), glucose (31.4%) and sucrose
(1.50%), (21).
CONCLUSIONS
- The size range (diameter) of the
different samples shows values
between 20.0-23.0mm. for the shells.
The natural variety Beaumont is the
smallest.
- There is a slightly difference, the
relative humidity (0.5%), between the
samples of the two studied varieties.
- The preferred cracking point for both
varieties of shells is the axial direction,
showing a higher cracking value in the
variety Beaumont due to the physical
characteristics of the shell.
- The kernel has high lipid content, with
an average value of 74.28% and mostly
composed of oleic acid 65.1%. It also
has a high content in palmitoic acid
(12.7%) in relation with the variety
Beaumont.
- According to the physical, chemical
and stability characteristics of the
macadamia oil, this oil can be used in
food and cosmetic industry besides to
the nutraceutic field.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Feb, 2014. Vol. 4, No. 9 ISSN2305-8269
International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
© 2012 - 2014 EAAS & ARF. All rights reserved
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36
Agricultural Chemistry, University of
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Gomal University Journal of Research.
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http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/MG/MG
05200.pdf
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Improving quality of macadamia nut
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37
TABLES
Table 1. Temperature program.
Total time: 60,33
Carrier gas: He (Helio)
Column flow: 1.2mL/min
Table 2. Average size values and % of moisture and ashes.
Sample
Size (mm.)
Moisture
(%)
Ashes (%)
1
23.47±0.45
1.86±1.21
0.037±0.006
2
20.70±0.49
1.79±0.95
0.052±0.008
3
22.29±0.45
1.85±1.20
0.037±0.005
n= 25 (number samples)
Sample 1,3 (Variety Integrifolia)
Sample 2 (Variety Beaumont)
Table 3. Lipid content of the three analyzed samples.
Sample
Lipid percentage
1
62.02±0.30
2
68.62±0.60
3
74.28±0.43
n=7 ( number of samples)
Table 4. Lipid profile of the three analyzed samples.
Rate (ºC/min)
Step (ºC)
Time (min.)
Initial
155
2,00
1,0
182
12,00
3,0
210
10,00
Fatty acid
%
(M.1)
%
(M.2)
%
(M.3)
Myristic
0,4
0,6
0,5
Palmitic
8,4
9,5
8,8
Palmitoic
11,4
12,7
9,0
Stearic
5,8
3,7
7,0
Oleic
64,7
64,8
65,1
Linoleic
2,5
1,5
1,7
Arachidic
3,4
3,0
3,9
Linolenic
0,2
0,2
0,1
Behenic
0,8
0,8
0,9
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International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
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38
FIGURES
Figure 1. Macadamia nut from the tree.
Figure 2. Representation of the three directions of the nut.
Figure 3. Cracking point in the three directions of the sample 1.
Axis numbered 2
(Axis y)
Axis numbered 3
(Axis x)
Axis numbered 1 (Axis z)
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39
Figure 4. Cracking point in the three directions of the sample 2.
Figure 5. Cracking point in the three directions of the sample 3.
Figure 6. Cromatogram shell sample.
... Macadamia nut is a rich source of vitamins (especially tocotrienols and squalene), essential minerals, dietary fibres, proteins, phenolics with antioxidant capacities (Maguire et al., 2004;Wall, 2010;Minh et al., 2018). Macadamia nut is highly valued by its oil content with the high percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-7 palmitoleic acid (Akhtar et al., 2006;Silva et al., 2008;Saez et al., 2014). The oleic acid content is an important indicator reflecting the attributes of macadamia nut (Suporntip et al., 2012). ...
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The moisture sorption isotherms of macadamia nut were determined using a gravimetric method at 25, 35 and 45 °C, and over a range of relative humidities. The Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer (GAB) model was found to adequately describe the sorption characteristics. Differential and integral thermodynamic parameters were calculated to provide an understanding of the properties of water associated with food stability during storage. The monolayer values obtained with the BET and GAB models were very close and moisture content corresponding to the maximum integral enthalpy was in practical terms the same. The lowest lipid oxidation took place in the nuts stored within the minimum integral entropy zone (a w = 0.436, 35 °C). Penetration tests showed that the nuts stored at a w = 0.436 had minimum penetration depth changes with time.
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The operation of cracking Macadamia nuts is the most critical and delicate step for achieving high-quality kernels. The nuts, usually at high moisture content, are dried to a recommended moisture, before cracking, in a process that takes from 3 to 4 weeks at the expense of large energy consumption. The present paper examines the basis of shell rupture which is needed for the development of new methodologies or techniques to reduce the drying period and to obtain a more efficient kernel extraction process. Requirements in terms of force, specific deformation and energy for initial rupturing of the macadamia nut shell under compression were experimentally investigated as a function of moisture content, nut size, and compression load position. The experiments have shown that there is a compression position for which force, specific deformation and energy values are minimal, independent of nut size and shell moisture. A damage evaluation of compressed nuts showed a trend for the void between kernel and shell to be the greatest at this position with the force acting longitudinally through the hilum.
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Evaluation of basic properties of macadamia nut oil. Department of pharmacy and alternative medicine. Islamia
  • A Naveed
  • Mahmood
  • Asadullah
  • M Malik
  • S Bakhsh
Naveed, A.; Mahmood; Asadullah, A; Malik, M. and Bakhsh, S. Evaluation of basic properties of macadamia nut oil. Department of pharmacy and alternative medicine. Islamia, University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Gomal University Journal of Research. 2006. Vol 22, pág 21-27.
The macadamia. University of Florida Available in: http
  • S E Malo
  • C W Campbell
Malo, S. E.; Campbell, C.W. The macadamia. University of Florida. 2005. Available in: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/MG/MG 05200.pdf
Cleasing cosmetic. Publication Nº
  • E Obayashi
Obayashi, E. Cleasing cosmetic. Publication Nº JP2005306818 A. 2005. 10. (10)Zubko, T; Astafieva, H;
Publication Nº UA80058 (C2)
  • V Metiolkina
  • S Olena
  • Cream Anticellulite
Metiolkina, V; Olena, S. Cream anticellulite. Publication Nº UA80058 (C2). 2007. (11) Romanovska, N; Romanovsky, M;