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Potential use of isomaltulose to produce healthier marshmallows

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Abstract

Isomaltulose is a non-cariogenic sugar with a lower glycemic index but with the same caloric value and visual appearance as sucrose. Therefore, isomaltulose could potentially be used to produce healthier candies. In this regard, the aim of this research was to evaluate isomaltulose as a traditional sugar replacer in soft marshmallow type candies, in order to provide added value to these widely consumed products, making it possible to capture a new market niche. 18 formulations were studied combining different sugars (sucrose, glucose syrup, fructose and isomaltulose) and different percentages of gelatine (4, 5 and 6). Analyses of composition (°Brix and moisture content), pH and water activity (aw), instrumental colour and texture as well as a sensorial analysis were performed. Marshmallows with isomaltulose combined with fructose exhibited the lowest values of pH (4.99-5.14). Moreover, formulations with similar amount of isomaltulose and fructose presented lower instrumental hardness, higher cohesiveness and springiness, and the best sensory acceptance. A PLS multivariate analysis showed a good correlation between instrumental and sensory-mechanical parameters. Therefore, instrumental measures of texture could be suitable for discerning an overall preference for marshmallows without using trained panellists.

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... Hydrogenated isomaltulose is known as isomalt or isomaltitol and this sugar alcohol has a very low glycemic index and is also noncariogenic but unlike isomaltulose has a reduced calorie value and an effect like dietary fibre in the gut [5]. Recently, several studies have been performed replacing sucrose by isomaltulose in sweet foods as gummies and marshmallows [6,7]. Isomaltulose was recognized as safe (GRAS) in 2005 [8]. ...
... Time did not cause significant changes in any of these parameters, except for the pH, which slightly increased after 15 days of storage. These results are coherent with those established in other studies on gummy confections [7,24]. Regarding the antioxidant activity, initially the commercial sample had the highest value due to the presence of vitamin C. On the other hand, the samples prepared with watermelon juice initially showed the same antioxidant activity but increased in the control and I50T50 samples over time. ...
... Finally, no significant differences were observed with respect to sweet taste, global acceptance, and intention of buying between the samples of jelly studied in the ANOVAs analyzed. These results are coherent with those established in other studies on gummy confections [7]. The total sugar content of marshmallows could be replaced by a mixture of isomaltulose and fructose in equal proportions. ...
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The replacement of sucrose by new noncariogenic and low glycaemic index sweeteners (isomaltulose and tagatose) and the addition of natural watermelon juice in jelly have been assessed in terms of composition, texture, colour, antioxidant activity, microbiology, and sensory properties. These analyses were performed initially and after 15 days of storage. Furthermore, the values were compared with those obtained in the analyses of a commercial watermelon jelly. The results showed that the antioxidant activity increased with the storage time in the control sample and in samples combining isomaltulose and tagatose. In addition, noncariogenic and low glycaemic index sweeteners did not affect the instrumental texture. However, the colour changed, especially in the sample containing tagatose only. Finally, the dessert containing tagatose and isomaltulose in equal proportion achieved a similar score in the sensory evaluation as the commercial one, showing the feasibility of using these sweeteners to reformulate watermelon jelly.
... In contrast with the research of Periche et al. (2014) who reported that the gummy confectionery made up of 30% IS and 70% fructose had the least aw at 0.79, which might imply a high stability of the gummy jelly. Moreover, replacement of sucrose by IS led to the moisture content of marshmallows increasing (Periche et al., 2015). ...
... except for the gummy jelly made from 100% IS which decreased only toughness and stickiness significantly (p<0.05). The result of this research was similar to research of Periche et al. (2014 and2015). The higher the proportion of IS, the lower the sweetness of the samples (Periche et al., 2015). ...
... The result of this research was similar to research of Periche et al. (2014 and2015). The higher the proportion of IS, the lower the sweetness of the samples (Periche et al., 2015). Due to the IS having only half the sweetening power of sucrose (Kaga and Mizutani, 1985), the replacement of sucrose with IS in gummy jelly could be its sweetening power compare to that of common sugar. ...
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The purpose of this research was to study the effects of gelatin (G) content (9, 12, and 15%) and isomaltulose (IS) content (20, 30, 40, 50, and 100%) on the physical and sensory quality of gummy jelly using 3 x 5 factorial design. The response surface methodology can be used to describe the interaction between G and IS on gummy jelly properties. For chemical properties, the water activity (aw) was in a range of 0.55 - 0.61 and the pH was 2.8 - 3.1. From the descriptive analysis, it was found that at constant IS content, increasing G content significantly decreased the intensity of sourness but significantly increased sweetness, toughness, stickiness and hardness (p≤0.05). However, in gummy jelly produced from 100% IS, the toughness and hardness decreased significantly (p≤0.05). At constant IS content, increasing G increased the intensity of the sourness, sweetness, stickiness, toughness, and hardness. Gummy jelly produced from 100% IS had a lower liking score than 40% IS. Gummy jelly containing 40% G and 12% IS gave a maximum significant score in appearance, transparency, sourness, texture and overall acceptance.
... Different combinations of sugars were used, as well as different levels of gelatin. Authors concluded that texture defines acceptability and intention of buying this type of product (Periche et al., 2015). ...
... Gelatin, being a protein, already aids in the distribution of flavorings and colorings, despite being responsible for the characteristic foam-like texture of marshmallows (De Vries et al., 2004;Karim and Bhat, 2008;GMIA, 2012). Periche et al. (2015) used 20 trained panelists and a nine-point hedonic scale to evaluate various attributes, including strawberry flavor of five pink marshmallows formulations, consisting of different sugar mixtures, levels of gelatin and amounts of strawberry flavoring. The marshmallow formulation which had double the amount of flavoring was rated the best, as panelists liked a more intense aroma in this kind of product. ...
... In the present study the same conclusions could have been drawn from the consumers, when presented with pink and white samples, awarding higher rankings to sweet taste for the pink samples than to the white samples, when in fact at least four of the samples had exactly the same sugar content (Table 1). In a study by Periche et al. (2015), a positive correlation was found for 'colour and overall appearance' of pink strawberry flavored marshmallows, containing different sugars and levels of gelatin. ...
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Mucilage from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica is under investigation for application in several foodstuffs. Since it can not form gels on its own, it is advised to be used in combination with other hydrocolloids. The aim of this study was to compare consumer liking of flavored and unflavored marshmallows made with wet mucilage, to that of a flavored and unflavored control sample (with 100% gelatin), as well as a flavored and unflavored commercial brand. Ninety-two consumers tasted the following six samples: white commercial (Manhattan); white control (gelatin); white mucilage (75% mucilage + 12.5% agar + 12.5% xanthan); pink commercial (Manhattan); pink control (gelatin); and pink mucilage (75% mucilage + 12.5% agar + 12.5% xanthan). Consumer liking was tested for taste, aftertaste, texture, as well as an overall acceptability of liking. The white mucilage marshmallows had the lowest ranking for taste, aftertaste, texture and overall acceptability, and differed significantly (p<0.05) from all the other samples. However, the pink mucilage marshmallow did not differ from the pink commercial one (which had the highest rankings for taste, aftertaste, texture, and overall acceptability) and pink control marshmallow. The differences between the white and pink mucilage marshmallows ranged between 2.75 and 2.89 on the hedonic scale. It could be concluded that flavoring successfully masked the distinctive aroma of the mucilage in the marshmallows, thereby also increasing scores for texture and overall acceptability. © 2016, Professional Association for Cactus Development. All rights reserved.
... Confectionery, on the other hand, is composed of various sugars and water. [2], these products have a globally growing market trend. ...
... However, in parallel with the changes in consumer trends and expectations, there are important expectations and demands for reducing the sugar, gelatin, artificial aroma and colorants or replacing them with natural ingredients and alternative bulking agents [4]. Because excessive consumption is associated with an increased incidence of obesity, dental caries and hyperglycemia result [2]. ...
... In recent years, the re-formulation of sugar content in foodstuffs with high caloric value or acute glycemic response has been among the priorities of international health authorities [5]. Confectionery consumers have demand and expectation for the production of conventional products with healthier and lower sugars, and in this product group, products that include innovations in terms of appearance, texture and aroma need to be introduced to the market [2]. Complete or partial substitution of sugar may be performed. ...
... The 7, 8, 9% commercial gelatin produced 15.5, 17.15, 18.40%, respectively. Standar of moisture in product 15-22% (Periche et al, 2015). Another study stated that marshmallow using gelatin 8% had a moisture content of 14.98-16.73% ...
... High gelatin concentrations increase the hardness and chewiness of marshmallows. In accordance with the result of Periche et al (2015), the higher the percentage of gelatine, the higher the hardness of marshmallow. However, the effect of gelatin on hardness also depends on sugar levels. ...
... In the period time from 1 to 30 days of storage and at the appropriate room temperature (18 °C), colour parameters were measured instrumentally with a colorimeter. Colour parameters (L: brightness, a: ±red-green and b: ±yellow-blue) of the dark chocolates produced were measured using colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan) and chroma (C*) and hue (h°) values were calculated using colour parameters by the following equations [27]: * = √ * 2 + * 2 (1) ...
... To determine fat blooming of chocolate samples, whiteness index (WI) values were calculated depending on those measured colour parameters using the following equation [27]: ...
Article
In this study, sugar-free dark chocolate was produced from isomalt and maltitol by β V seeding technique as an alternative to conventional tempering process. The effect of β V seed concentrations on the particle size distribution, textural, rheological and melting properties of the end products was studied, and the results were compared with those of conventional sugar-free dark chocolates. For this aim, conched dark chocolates were melted and crystallized with β V seeds added at different concentrations (0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0 %, m/m). Conventional tempering process was performed by using temper machine (47–27–32 °C). Brightness, chroma, whiteness index and tetramethyl pyrazine content (as marker compounds of dark chocolate volatile compound) were not influenced by seeding technique compared to conventional tempering method. The water activity of the dark chocolate samples was substantially affected by β V seed level according to used bulk sweetener. However, all the values were determined below 0.4 which is critical limit for chocolate. Regarding overall acceptability, sugar-free dark chocolates tempered by β v seeds had very close scores compared with conventional one, implying that sugar-free chocolates can be produced by β v crystals with desired quality characteristics similar to conventional samples. Results of this study showed that it is possible to produce sucrose-free dark chocolates by using β V seeds with desired quality similar to chocolate produced by using conventional tempering.
... Spread and compound chocolate samples were stored the day after production at accelerated shelf-life conditions (25 °C and 70% RH) (Subramaniam, 2007). For 7-day periods for 12 weeks, L*, a* and b* values of samples were measured color stability (ΔE) values were calculated by using Equation 4 (Periche et al., 2015); ...
... All data are represented as means ± Standard deviation. considered to be a visual color change (Periche et al., 2015). This value was generally lower than 3.16 in 12 weeks storage period under ASL conditions in compound chocolate samples. ...
Article
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This study determines the possibility of using spread (SC) and compound chocolate (CC) as delivering agents of betalains, bioactive compounds and coloring agents. Therefore, the effects of various beetroot powder concentrations (0.0-1.00 g/100 g) on SC and CC’s quality parameters and the associated visual properties over a 12-week period under accelerated shelf-life conditions were investigated. The hardness and plastic viscosity values of CC significantly increased as the amount of beetroot powder increased (P<0.05), the particle size while melting behavior, water activity, moisture content and sensory properties did not significantly change (P<0.05). The D90 and textural properties (firmness, stickiness, adhesion, work of shear) of the SC samples were significantly affected with the addition of beetroot powder (P<0.05), but no significant differences were observed in moisture content, water activity and some sensory properties (P>0.05). The use of beetroot powder for both groups caused a significant decrease in the samples’ color values, and the redness associated with the pigment source also significantly increased (p<0.05). The findings revealed that high concentrations of beetroot powder did not significantly impact CC’s color stability to the same extent that it impacted the SC’s color stability. This study was made as a preliminary study to produce functional foods.
... Color parameters of compound chocolate and cocolin samples melted at water bath of 45 °C, namely L: brightness, a: ±red-green and b: ±yellow-blue, were determined using colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan). Chroma (C*) and hue (h*) values were calculated using the following equations [12]: ...
... When comparing the melting profiles of the compound chocolate and cocolin with those of conventional chocolate T onset and T end , it could be concluded that T onset values of the compound chocolate and cocolin fats were found as lower and T end values were higher than those of chocolates reported to be between 24.3-30.6 and 33.0-37.2 °C [4,12,17]. Differences between conventional chocolate and compound chocolate samples might have resulted from the fat type used in formulations. As known, palm stearin and palm olein combination except for cacao butter originating from cacao added to the formulation is used in the formulation of compound chocolate. ...
Article
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Compound chocolate and cocolin are widely used chocolate-derived products. However, we have not encountered any study about the influence of the particle size on the various quality parameters of these products. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of particle size on some physical (color properties, particle size distribution, rheology, microstructure and melting properties) and chemical properties (phenolic content, volatile composition and also FT-IR spectra of fats) of compound chocolate and cocolin samples. Refining level did not significantly affect color and melting properties, total phenolic content, thermal properties and FT-IR spectra of the fats extracted from the samples. D 90 values of compound chocolates and cocolins changed between 58.3–18.6 and 60.5–18.2 µm, respectively. Surface area of the samples also increased with refining process. Obtained rheological data were fitted to the Casson model with R 2 values ranged between 0.9863 and 0.999, and the corresponding parameters of the model, namely yield stress (τ 0) and plastic viscosity (η pl), significantly increased with decreasing particle size of the samples. Temperature sweep test was also performed, and temperature dependency of apparent viscosity of the samples changed with respect to refining process applied. Volatile composition of the samples was also determined by HS-SPME–GC/MS, and it concluded that both desired such as pyrazines and undesired such as acetic acid compounds for chocolate changed inversely proportional to particle size. According to the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that refining process and particle size are very substantial factors affecting the quality characteristics of the compound chocolate and cocolin samples.
... The number of publications has experienced oscillations throughout the years, remarkably increasing in specific periods, such as 2003, 2007, and 2015; where 22, 25, and 25 documents were published, respectively. These oscillations can be associated with the findings regarding isomaltulose use as a prebiotic, low cariogenic sugar and functional food (Bongers & Van den Heuvel, 2003;Matsuyama, Sato, Hoshino, Noda, & Takahashi, 2003); interest in optimization of conditions for increased isomaltulose production by free and immobilized microorganisms in (Cho et al., 2007Kawaguti & Sato, 2007;Kawaguti, Buzzato, & Sato, 2007;Krastanov, Blazheva, & Stanchev, 2007;Mundra, Desai, & Lele, 2007); and the incorporation of isomaltulose for the development of healthier products (Kunz, Brandt, Seewald, & Methner, 2015;Peinado, Rosa, Heredia, & Andrés, 2015;Periche, Heredia, Escriche, Andrés, & Castelló, 2015;, aside from the study of ingestion effects on the performance of athletic individuals (Kraemer et al., 2015;Oosthuyse, Carstens, & Millen, 2015;Soylu, Atayoğlu, İnanç, & Silici, 2015;Takeda et al., 2015;Young & Benton, 2015) in 2015. ...
... Researchers from the Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain) studied the combination of 50 g isomaltulose with 50 g fructose for the development of gummies (Periche et al., 2014) and marshmallows (Periche et al., 2015); and evaluated its characterization. These formulations presented great similarity to control formulations (made with sucrose and glucose syrup) in terms of stability of their physicochemical properties, and optical and mechanical properties. ...
Article
Consumers are concerned with the amount of sucrose added to foods and its effects on human health. One way to reduce this concern is through the consumption of sucrose substitutes, such as isomaltulose. Isomaltulose is an alternative sugar that should be regarded by the food industry as much healthier than sucrose, due to its beneficial properties; these include, low glycemic index and slow hydrolysis, prebiotic potential, and low cariogenic potential. In this work, a bibliometric analysis associated with a review of literature was conducted as a rigorous method for exploring and analyzing large volumes of scientific data, to understand the global scenario and identify the trends regarding isomaltulose. Important facts from its history and origin were discussed, as well the main research and countries that have contributed to its growing interest in the food industry. Over the years, from the discovery of new beneficial properties, more studies have been conducted, demonstrating that the interest in isomaltulose has been increasing. Finally, we concluded that isomaltulose is a promising sucrose substitute that could change the scenario of the sugar-rich foods market; and its use for the development of new products is highly encouraged.
... Color parameters of spray dried microalga biomasses and produced chewing gum samples were determined using colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan). Chroma (C*) values were calculated using the following Equation 1 (Periche et al., 2015). ...
Article
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In this study, usage possibility of the dried Porphyridium cruentum type microalga biomass in the chewing gum formulation as a natural colorant was investigated. For this aim, the effect of different spray dryer inlet temperatures (150-200 °C) on pigment (total carotenoid and chlorophyll-a) quantities and color properties ( L*, a*, b* and C*) of Porphyridium cruentum type microalga biomass were examined. P. cruentum were cultured using the tubular photobioreactor and harvested by centrifugation. The dried microalga was then added to chewing gum at different concentrations (0.5% and 1.0% w:w) as a natural red colorant. The amount of the total carotenoids in dried biomass ranged from 112.6 to 419.9 μg g -1 and chlorophyll-a from 511 to 1513 μg g-1. Considering sensorial analysis, algal taste increased with increasing microalga concentration ( p < 0.05). The studied factors had no significant effect on cohesiveness, (0.186-0.254), springiness (0.713-0.806) and resilience (0.014-0.015) parameters in chewing gums ( p < 0.05). However, a* value in chewing gum samples increased with drying temperature and usage amount (from 10.5 to 18.7) which increased red color intensity. According to the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that P. cruentum biomass had a potential use in chewing gum matrix.
... For solution C after thermal processing, the soluble solid content (°Brix) and the pH was 108 measured using refractometer (Atago, RX500-α, Japan) at 20 ºC and using pH-meter (InoLab, 109 D82362-Germany), respectively (Periche, Heredia, Escriche, Andrés, & Castelló, 2015). ...
Article
Marshmallow is an aerated confectionery product, which consists mainly of gelatin, sugar solutions, glucose syrup and a foaming agent such as egg albumin. Gelatin is generally used as a foaming and gelling agent, but due to its limitations for consumption, many attempts have been made to use hydrocolloids as replacements. In this research, xanthan and guar gum, were added to formulations with the xanthan (x): guar (g) ratios of 100:0, 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 and a control sample containing only gelatin (G). Analysis of °Brix and moisture content, pH, water activity (a w ), density, overrun, texture, thermal, rheological and sensory properties were carried out. According to the results, density, a w and moisture content of the sample containing x25/g75, revealed no significant difference with the sample containing gelatin (p > 0.05). Texture results showed that x25/g75 sample led to a hardness similar to the control. The formulation containing x25/g75, had thermal behavior closer to the control, which exhibited “melt in mouth” behavior, gel strength and functionality properties similar to the control. Positive correlation was also observed between the hardness, melting temperature, and enthalpy. The study of viscoelastic properties showed that the values of storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) were dependent on frequency and the G′ were always higher than G″ in all samples. Also, considering the desirable sensory properties of the samples, xanthan/guar with a ratio of 25:75 (x25/g75) having positive interaction with other ingredients can be suggested as good alternative for gelatin in production of gelatin-free marshmallow.
... The SCI-mode (Specular Component Included) was used. Brightness (L*), redness (a*) (AE red-green) and yellowness (b*) (AE yellow-blue) values of the samples were measured (Periche et al. 2015). Prior to the measurements, the device was calibrated with a standard white tile. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal concentration of milk, whey and buttermilk powder by using mixture design for the formulation of compound milk chocolate. The influence of buttermilk as a milk and whey substitute on the main physicochemical parameters of compound milk chocolate was investigated. The optimisation of the variables indicated that using 35.660% milk powder, 27.957% whey powder and 36.383% buttermilk produced the optimum milk chocolate with the highest desirability without undesirable changes in the quality properties. Chocolates containing equal amounts of buttermilk and milk powder and also equal amounts of whey powder and buttermilk powder demonstrated high consumer acceptability.
... Colour parameters (L*: brigthness, a*: ±redgreen and b*: ±yellow-blue) of the compounds produced were measured by colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan) and chroma (C*), hue (h) and whiteness index (WI) values were calculated by using these parameters according to the following equations (Periche et al., 2015); ...
Article
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In the present study, synbiotic milk chocolate including Lactobacillus acidophilus and inulin was prepared using βv seeds as an alternative to conventional tempering method. For this aim, different concentrations of βv seeds (0.5-1.5%) were used in the chocolate production. The effect of βv seed concentration on water activity, moisture content, hardness value, color and rheological properties of the chocolate was examined and compared with those of the sample produced by conventional tempering method. Water activity and moisture content values of the samples were found to be very close to each other. Hardness value was significantly affected by βv seed concentration. Yield stress and plastic viscosity values decreased with increasing seed concentration. All of the quality parameters highlighted that βv seed can be used as a pre-crystallization technique without negatively affecting quality characteristics, providing economic gain and fast production when compared with classical one.
... Colour parameters of milk chocolate samples were determined using a colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan). Chroma (C*), hue (h*), whiteness index (WI*) values were calculated using the following equations (Periche et al. 2015); ...
Article
In this study, milk chocolate was enriched with different forms of omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA after conching process followed by tempering process. Total EPA and DHA contents of the milk chocolate samples increased to 168.1 and 13.8 mg/25 g chocolate, respectively. The main quality properties (melting, rheological, textural colour, aw and sensory) of the milk chocolate samples were also determined. Viscosity and yield stress values of molten milk chocolates ranged between 7685–15,600 mPa s and 79.1–237.5 Pa, respectively. The results indicated that rheological parameters were influenced by the addition of various forms of EPA/DHA sources in different levels (P < 0.05). Also, EPA/DHA source component addition did not significantly affect the Tonset and Tend of the samples. According to the sensory analysis results, chocolate with microencapsulated form of EHA/DHA source had the highest overall acceptance among the enriched chocolate samples. Usage potential of milk chocolate as a delivery agent of EPA and/or DHA was confirmed.
... Відомими є технології маршмелоу стійкого до плавлення з використанням харчової мікрокристалічної целюлози [2], суміші різних сахаридів [3], зі спіруліною [4], на основі полісахаридів рослинного та мікробного походження [5] тощо. З метою поліпшення харчової цінності маршмелоу виготовляють із сухим бджолиним пилком [6]. ...
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An actual problem of the development of marshmallow with natural anthocyanin dyes was solved. The object of the investigation was organoleptic, physicochemical, antioxidant properties of the products during storage for 30 days. The subject of the investigation was 6 samples of marshmallow. They differed in the type of a structuring agent  gelatin or gelatin with solubilized substances and the type of a dye  a water or water-alcohol extract of Sudanese rose сryopowder or water-alcohol extract of black chokeberry сryopowder. For the new types of marshmallow with natural anthocyanin dyes, the quality indexes necessary for the product were provided. Moisture content is within 19.0...21.5 %, density is 0.51...0.67 gcm3, reducing substances content does not exceed 13.6 %, total acidity is 3.5 degrees. The use of natural anthocyanin dyes allows increasing the antioxidant properties of the finished product. The value of the antioxidant capacity for all of the developed samples is 2...2.5 times more than that of the samples, made without the dyes. It was found that short-term (up to 2 days) storage of marshmallow with natural anthocyanin dyes at a temperature of (15...18)°C and relative air humidity of 60…75 % is possible without packaging. Storage of the products hermetically packed in polyethylene wrap and a cardboard box provides high indexes of quality, preservation of colour intensity within a long time (up to 30 days). It was shown that antioxidant properties of marshmallow with water-alcohol extract of Sudanese rose and black chokeberry сryopowders remain stable and do not depend on the type of packaging. The developed new types of marshmallow with natural anthocyanin dyes expand the range of confectionery and can be used for correction of the human diet.
... Colour parameters of chocolate samples namely, L*: brigthness, a*: ± red-green and b*: ± yellow-blue were determined using a colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan). Chroma (C*) and hue (h*) values were calculated using the following equations (Periche, Heredia, Escriche, Andrés, & Castelló, 2015); * = * + * C a b 2 2 ...
Article
Emulsifiers are the components used in chocolate technology especially due to their effects on the flow behavior. The most common used emulsifiers are lecithin and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR). In this study, the effects of lecithin (0.25–0.500 g/100 g) and PGPR (0.00–0.25 g/100 g) usage on the rheological properties, texture (hardness, fracturability), formation of βv polimorph and colour values of milk chocolate were studied by using Mixture Design technique. The ratio of lecithin:PGPR did not significantly affect color of milk chocolate, but yield stress and viscosity of samples were found to be statistically significantly affected (p < 0.05). Formation of βv polimorph was found to induced by increasing lecithin content while decreasing PGPR. Fracturability and hardness increased with PGPR addition. The results of the present study indicated that lecithin:PGPR ratio in milk chocolate was important for crystallization behavior as well as processability of the inter-mediate products and the quality of the end-products.
... This value is determined based on the difference in L* and a* between the first and the last measurement. ΔE value above 3.00 is considered to be a noticeable color change (Periche et al. 2015). Therefore, ΔE value measurements below 3.00 indicate that the samples have color stability under the relevant conditions. ...
Article
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Colored chocolate products have gained importance in recent years. This increases the importance of identifying potential natural colorants for chocolate technology. In this study, Nannochloropsis oculata microalgae which were grown by using tubular photobioreactor in two different forms (spray-dried and encapsulated by using a spray dryer and maltodextrin (50%)), were used in white chocolate composition (0.00–0.75 g) as a coloring agent. The color stability (ΔE) values for all sample groups were determined below the visibility level of 3.0 under accelerated shelf life conditions (25 °C/70% RH) for 28 days. The water activity, moisture and ash content, hardness, yield stress, plastic viscosity, and melting properties of white chocolate samples showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) and the other quality characteristics were found to be acceptable. The chlorophyll-a content of white chocolate samples was between 9.60–22.9 μg g−1. It was found that the sensory properties of the samples as appearance, texture, melting in the mouth, and odor were not affected by level of microalgae use (P > 0.05). However, it was noteworthy that there was a decrease in taste and overall acceptability according to usage level of dried and encapsulated microalgae (P < 0.05). As a result, it was determined that spray-drying technique is preferred for use of microalgae in chocolate composition.
... Chroma (C*), hue angle (h) and whiteness index (WI) were calculated using the following equations (Eq. 2-4) [27]: ...
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Çikolata üretiminde pre-kristalizasyon prosesi, konvansiyonel olarak yüksek sabit yatırım maliyeti gerektiren ekipmanlar kullanılarak çok aşamalı ısıl işlemler ile yürütülmektedir. Uygun olmayan temperleme işlemi başlıca çikolata kalite kusurlarından olan yağ çiçeklenmesi ile sonuçlanmaktadır. Tohumlama adı verilen alternatif temperleme işlemi ise, çikolata ve/veya kakao yağından elde edilen bV ve/veya bVI kristal tohumların çikolataya ilave edilmesi sonucu gerçekleştirilebilir. Bu çalışmada, prebiyotik lif olarak 9.00 g/100 g düzeyinde inulin (DP<10) ve probiyotik aktiviteye sahip L. acidophilus içeren bitter çikolatalarda farklı düzeylerde (0,50-1.50 g/100 g) tohum kristal (bV) kullanımının başlıca kalite parametreleri ve probiyotik canlılıktaki proses stabilitesi üzerine etkisi incelenmiştir. Konçlama prosesi sonrası 9.00 log CFU/25 g düzeyinde probiyotik ilavesi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Probiyotik canlılık düzeyinde proses kaynaklı yaklaşık 0.50 – 1.50 log cfu/25 g aralığında kayıp olduğu, prekristalizasyon tekniği olarak tohumlama tekniği uygulamasının, kullanılan tohum kristal miktarından bağımsız olarak probiyotik canlılık düzeyi üzerinde olumsuz etkisi belirlenmiştir (P<0.05). Ancak çalışma kapsamında yeralan başlıca çikolata kalite parametrelerinden su aktivitesi, nem, renk (L*, C*, h°, WI), tekstür (sertlik), reolojik özellikler (akma basıncı (yield stress) ve plastik viskozite) ve duyusal profil için tohumlama tekniği uygulamasının avantaj unsuru olabileceği belirtilmiştir. Probiyotik ve/veya sinbiyotik bitter çikolata geliştirilmesinde tohum kristal ilavesi aşamasında karıştırma süresi optimizasyonu ile daha yüksek probiyotik canlılık düzeyine ulaşılması mümkün olabilir.
... According to Fontana (2005), most confectionary products present water content between 0 and 22%, depending on the formulation. Thus, for gummies made with gelatin, water and different concentrations of glucose syrup, isomalt and fructose, moisture percentage of 16 and 31% were obtained, where the gummies with glucose and fructose syrup as ingredients showed the highest value (Periche et al., 2015). Figure 1 shows the sorption isotherms of sweet potato gummies developed by BIOTEC research group at different temperatures (4, 20 and 30 °C at atmospheric pressure). ...
Article
The present study is about the development of a techno-functional confectionery (soft candy), based on native raw materials from the Chaqueña region. In order to analyze it shelf life, the sorption isotherms were determined at 4, 20 and 30 ° C. Several mathematical models were applied to adjust the sorption behavior, with Peleg's model being the one that best fit the experimental data. The results obtained in this study, open an opportunity for future work in which the food developed can be used as a carrier of functional compounds such as fibers, proteins, bioactive compounds and natural dyes, among others.
... Color values of HCC samples were analyzed by colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan) with six replications. The obtained L* (brightness), a* (±red-green) and b* (±yellow-blue) color values were used for calculation of Chroma (C*) and hue (h • ) values of HCC samples using Equation (2), (3), respectively (Periche, Heredia, Escriche, Andres, & Castello, 2015). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to valorize hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) cake (HC), which is a by-product of hazelnut oil industry, in compound chocolate (HCC) as a partial replacer of sugar and milk originated powders (MOP: skimmed milk and whey powder in equal amounts). D-optimal mixture design was used to optimize HCC formulation. The optimum sugar, MOP, and HC amount were selected as 25.0–40.0, 6.0–21.0, and 0.0–15.0 g/100 g, respectively. The Casson model with high R² values (0.9882–0.9948) was used to determine yield stress and plastic viscosity values of samples which were varied between 1.47 and 2.35 Pa, and 1.17–1.42 Pa s, respectively. Furthermore, particle sizes and water activity were determined between 25.67 and 78.20 μm and 0.31–0.38, respectively. Total phenolic content in HCC samples, their digestibility, and bioaccessibility ranged from 1389 to 3367; 2601–3955 mg GAE/kg, and 112–187% respectively. Also, hardness and brittleness were ranged between 7.85 and 11.55 N and 0.52–1.02 mm, respectively. The sensorial characteristics of the samples along with flow behavior and physico-chemical properties indicated that HC may be used as a healthy and low-cost ingredient in HCC formulation to partially substitute sugar and MOP.
... Colour parameters (L: brightness, a: ±red-green and b: ±yellow-blue) of the compounds produced were measured by colourimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan), and chroma (C*), hue (h°) and whiteness index (WI) values were calculated depending of those measured parameters by the following equations [28] : ...
Article
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In this study, stability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. paracasei in synbiotic sugared and sugar-free milk chocolates within 90 days storage was investigated, considering inline as prebiotic. Probiotic bacteria inoculation at 9.0 log cfu/25g and usage of inulin with Degree of Polymerization (DP)<10 and DP>23 at a concentration of 9.0g/100g were investigated. At the end of 90 days, at least 6.5 log cfu/25 g probiotic bacteria were determined in the samples containing L. acidophilus, whereas, this value was determined as 5.9 log cfu/25 g for L. paracasei. Therefore, it was concluded that L. acidophilus was more stable in terms of viability level in the milk chocolates prepared by sugar, maltitol, and inulin DP was effective on viability levels of probiotics (p<0.05). Moreover, inulin DP was also found effective on water activity, melting, rheological properties, textural properties and colour of milk chocolate (p<0.05). Quality parameters were affected by inulin DP, except rheological properties.
... Therefore the investigations lead us to the development of new types of products using natural herbal ingredients. Supplements may contain mixture of various saccharides [2]; polysaccharides of herbal and microorganism nature [3]; barley-malt and polymalt extracts, carrot and pumpkin juices, flour of fried wheat seeds [4], isomaltytol, eritrytol, maltytol, its mixtures with fructose [5], hummiarabic [6,7]. Among herbal dyes special place possess cryopowders, produced by cryogenic milling of raw materials. ...
Article
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Creation of marshmallow with natural dyes is impossible without investigation of properties of products and estimation of its quality. Our objects of investigation were organoleptic, physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of the products at storage for 30 days. The six of marshmallow samples were the objects of our research. They differed in the type of structuring agent - gelatin or gelatin with solubilized substances and the type of dye – water or water-alcohol extract of cryopowder from Sudanese rose or water-alcohol extract of cryopowder from вlack chokeberry. Necessary indexes of quality are supplied for the new types of marshmallow with natural dyes. Moisture content (19.0 ... 21.5 %), total acidity (3.5 °Brix), density (0.51 ... 0.67 g/cm³), reducing substances content (not more than 13.6 %) were determined by standard methods. Use of natural anthocyanin dyes let us to increase antioxidant properties of the ready product. Value of antioxidant capacity of the new samples, determined with use of galvanostatic coulometry method, is in 2 ... 2.5 times more than the same results for samples, made without the dyes. It was established that short time storage (up to 2 days) of marshmallow with natural anthocyanin dyes at temperature (15...18)°С and relative air humidity 60...75 % is possible without packing materials. Storage of the products in hermetically polyethylene wrap and cardboard box provides high indexes of quality, stability of colour in long time (up to 30 days). It was shown that antioxidant properties of marshmallow with water-alcohol extracts of cryopowder from Sudanese rose and black chokeberry remain stable. The new developed types of marshmallow with natural anthocyanin dyes makes wide market of confectionery and can be used for correction of feeding of a man.
... Colour parameters (L: brightness, a: ±red-green and b: ±yellow-blue) of the compounds produced were measured by colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan) and chroma (C*), hue (h°) and whiteness index (WI) values were calculated by using these parameters according to the following equations [31]: * = √ * 2 + * 2 (1) ...
Article
In the present study, the effect of different polymerization degree of inulin on the quality parameters of conventional and sugar-free dark chocolate products as well as on the vitality of probiotics used in the chocolates were investigated. To produce sugar-free dark chocolates prepared with the addition of maltitol, Lactobacillus paracasei/L. acidophilus and inulin with DP higher than 23 and lower than 10 were used as probiotic and prebiotic agents, respectively. After 90 day of storage, more than 6 log cfu/25 g probiotics were observed in the chocolates produced by supplementing of 9 log cfu/25 g probiotics. Considering the probiotic level for both conventional and sugar-free dark chocolate, the highest probiotic level was observed in the samples prepared from L. acidophilus and inulin with DP<10. In addition, inulin with DP<10 was found as more suitable in terms of rheological characteristics of the samples. Other quality parameters (texture, colour, melting profile and water activity) changed in narrow range which was allowable when compared with the control samples. Consequently, sugar-free chocolate containing L. paracasei and L. acidophilus could be produced which might satisfy the expectations of the consumers and appropriate to industrial production similar to conventional chocolate. The findings of the present study highlighted the importance of the selection of the most suitable prebiotic/probiotic combination for maximizing probiotic level in the chocolate products.
... It was found that the sample with a high content of isomaltulose exhibited higher moisture content and a w . The similar results were reported by Periche et al. (2015) who found that the moisture content and a w of marshmallows with 60 g of glucose syrup and 40 g of isomaltulose were higher than those with 60 g Formulation numbers corresponds to the numbers shown in Table 1 J Food Sci Technol of glucose syrup and 40 g of sucrose. It could be concluded that the samples contained isomaltulose exhibiting the high moisture content and a w . ...
Article
Riceberry, a Thai black rice variety (Oryza Sativa L.) has been developed with the aim to provide high iron and low glucose to consumers. Therefore, riceberry could potentially be used to produce healthier processed foods. In this regard, a D-optimal mixture design was employed for the optimization of the steamed rice cakes which included ten combinations of riceberry flour (RF), xanthan gum (XG) and glutinous rice flour (GRF). The influence of RF substitution for GRF with XG addition on the texture, physicochemical and sensory properties, as well as the estimated glycemic index (eGI) of the steamed rice cakes, were studied. The results demonstrated that RF, XG, and GRF had a noticeable effect on eGI, textural, and sensory properties of the steamed rice cakes. XG was the variable that most affected hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and gumminess of the steamed rice cakes by the positive effect. XG had a negative effect on hydrolysis index and eGI. The optimum mixture obtained on a basis of overall liking, hardness, adhesiveness, gumminess, and eGI value contained 39% RF, 1% XG, and 60% GRF with desirability equal to 0.673. For filling, the red bean paste with 100% isomaltulose substitution for sucrose indicated the lowest value of eGI and the highest score of the overall liking. The optimum steamed rice cakes stuffed with the red bean paste used isomaltulose as a sucrose replacer were classified as the medium GI food.
... Insoluble solids which include the fibers were (0.8% to2.4%) compared to control and blank were (1.8% and 2.8%, respectively), while ash content was from ( 0.11 % to 0.46 %) compared to the control and the blank were( 0.16% and 0.14%, respectively). Finally, it was clear from these data that, the processed marshmallow product has nutritional value and it could be considered as a good source of fiber, ( Periche et al., 2015). ...
Research
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All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievel system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electric, mechanical, photocoping, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner (Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University). 792 Bull. Fac. Agric., Cairo Univ., 71: 297-360 (2020). ABSTRACT Marshmallow is a special product of chewing soufflé, processed on the basis of sugar and gelatin. It belongs to popular confectionery products. Marshmallow is one of the earliest confections known to humanity. Currently, the world is moving towards maximizing their natural sources, which are used in food processing, with avoiding addition of artificial colors or flavors. Sugar, glucose syrup and gelatin are the main components of marshmallow sweets. Gelatin is useful for joints and articular ligaments of bones. It is clear that, sugar and glucose syrup are one of the main factors for obesity, diabetes and most of other diseases. This research, tended to solve this problem by producing marshmallow (candy) without glucose syrup and reducing the amount of sugar. Resorted juices of some fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, persimmon, wholly prickly pear, carrots and pumpkin were used as alternative colors and flavor compared to the commercial marshmallow (control) and the blank sample (with glucose syrup), as a novel marshmallow candy product. The obtained results indicated that, wholly prickly pear marshmallow sample had superior value of antioxidative activity (60.41%). Wholly prickly pear sample was the lowest (39.27%) total sugar. Wholly prickly pear, carrot and pumpkin were characterized by most of the mineral contents, except Selenium mineral content which was (0.0 ppm). The water activity (a w) in general, indicated that, there are no significant differences at p ≤ 0.05., before or after storage period. Reconstitution ratio values after 6 hrs., for some samples were the best compared to (control and blank). The consumers preferred the classical marshmallow with golden syrup (blank), strawberries, and pumpkin as well. Wholly prickly pear enriched marshmallow compared to control sample. Therefore, we recommend to make marshmallows from natural sources and free of glucose syrup with a little sugar, to reduce the processing cost and keep the children health as well as the adults. It can provide a final product with natural and healthy ingredients.
... Furthermore, chroma (C*) and hue (h°) values were determined (Periche et al., 2015). Mean values from four replicate assessments were measured. ...
Article
The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of dried apple pomace (DAP) as a partial replacer for sucrose on the compound chocolate and chocolate spread formulation. The DAP concentrations changed between 4-20 g/100 g. The results indicated that with the increase of DAP in the chocolate samples, particle size, hue angle and total amount of phenolic substances of samples increased. However, the hardness, color parameters and overall acceptance decreased. Furthermore, firmness and spreadability of spreads were evaluated between 4.04-5.98 N and 1.92-3.05 N.mm, respectively. Presence of polyphenols and dietary fiber indicated that this by-product could be used as a healthy ingredient in chocolate and spread formulation to partially replace sucrose. However, during the processing of the DAP; the initial particle size of pomace can be further reduced by increasing the grinding speed, time or number of grinding steps.
... The commercial sample with the highest value for lightness was WW (Table 4). In a study by Periche et al. (2015), it was found that the factor that had the greatest influence on lightness, was the percentage of gelatin; the higher the level of gelatin, the higher the lightness. Although there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the samples for this color attribute, all samples were light, which is of importance for the consumer looking for a white marshmallow. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to replace gelatin in marshmallows with different concentrations of fluid mucilage, combined with different concentrations of powdered hydrocolloids. Nine different formulations were prepared: control (100% gelatin); 75% mucilage + 25% xanthan (MX); 75% mucilage + 25% agar-agar (MA); 75% mucilage + 25% guar (MG); 80% mucilage + 20% xanthan (8M2X); 80% mucilage + 20% agar-agar (8M2A); 80% mucilage + 20% guar (8M2G); 75% mucilage + 12.5% xanthan + 12.5% agar-agar (MXA); 75% mucilage + 12.5% xanthan + 12.5% guar (MXG); and 75% mucilage + 12.5% agar-agar + 12.5% guar (MAG). Consistency, texture, tenderness of gel and shear measurements were determined, along with color (L* values, as well as C* and H° values) and aw. There were significant (p<0.05) differences between the different samples for all measurements. The best formulation for gelatin replacement was found to be the 75% mucilage + 12.5% xanthan + 12.5% agar combination (MXA), as it only differed significantly (p<0.05) from the control (100% gelatin) sample in regard to shear, as measured by the Warner Bratzler Shear. It was significantly (p<0.05) less tender and resembled the shear of commercially available marshmallows in South Africa. All samples had a light, greyish yellow color. © 2016, Professional Association for Cactus Development. All rights reserved.
... To date, there are few literature data reporting the nutritional profile of marshmallows. However, Periche, Heredia, Escriche, Andrés and Castelló [56] studied the substitution of isomaltulose in marshmallows and stated that the recommended moisture range for this class of products tends to vary between 15-22 g of water/100 g. In turn, Yudhistira, Affandi and Nusantari [57] observed the effects of adding spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) on the physical, chemical and sensory properties of marshmallows, reporting moisture values between 11.71% and 17.56% and ash values between 0.22% and 0.44%. ...
Article
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Flowers of the genus Impatiens are classified as edible; however, their inclusion in the human diet is not yet a common practice. Its attractive colours have stirred great interest by the food industry. In this sense, rose (BP) and orange (BO) I. balsamina flowers were nutritionally studied, followed by an in-depth chemical study profile. The non-anthocyanin and anthocyanin profiles of extracts of both flower varieties were also determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array and mass spectrometry detector (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS). The results demonstrated that both varieties presented significant amounts of phenolic compounds, having identified nine non-anthocyanin compounds and 14 anthocyanin compounds. BP extract stood out in its bioactive properties (antioxidant and antimicrobial potential) and was selected for incorporation in “bombocas” filling. Its performance as a colouring ingredient was compared with the control formulations (white filling) and with E163 (anthocyanins) colorant. The incorporation of the natural ingredient did not cause changes in the chemical and nutritional composition of the product; and although the colour conferred was lighter than presented by the formulation with E163 (suggesting a more natural aspect), the higher antioxidant activity could meet the expectations of the current high-demand consumer.
... Confectionary gelled products can contain different sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, inverted sugar, or glucose syrups. The addition of sugars changes the taste of gels and affects the decrease of water activity and stability of the final product [2]. Among the common hydrocolloids used in developing fabricated and confectionary food gels, agar-agar can be an effective gelling agent which can form a thermo-reversible and stable gel over a wide range of temperatures [3,4]. ...
Article
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This study aimed to determine the effect of the addition of chokeberry juice concentrate (CJC) and foaming agent (egg albumin) with different percentages on the selected physical properties of agar gel. The agar gels with the addition of 5, 10, and 20% concentrations of chokeberry juice concentrate and with fructose addition were prepared. In addition, the foamed gels with different concentrations of egg albumin (in the range 0.5–2.0%) and CJC were produced. The water content, colour, density, hold-up and some mechanical and TPA (Texture Profile Analysis) descriptors as well some structural and acoustic emission parameters of non-aerated and foamed gels were analysed. The addition of CJC changed the colour of agar gel with fructose, the attractive appearance of the aerated gel was also linked with the addition of concentrate. The addition of 20% of CJC and foaming agent created samples with very low hardness, cohesiveness, and gumminess, and the structure of the aerated samples was characterised by the larger bubble diameter and the wider distribution of their size. The more promising texture and structure properties were obtained for samples with aerated gels with 5 and 10% addition of chokeberry juice concentrate. Jakubczyk, E.; Kamińska-Dwórznicka, A. Effect of Addition of Chokeberry Juice Concentrate and Foaming Agent on the Physical Properties of Agar Gel. Gels 2021, 7, 137. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels7030137
... Colour parameters of compound chocolates (L*: brightness, a*: AEred-green and b*: AEyellow-blue) were measured by a colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Japan), and chroma (C*) and hue (h°) values were calculated by using the following equations (Periche et al., 2015): ...
Article
Chocolate compound was produced using ball mill refiner, and the effect of agitator shaft speed and refining time on the physical quality parameters (particle size, colour and steady-state rheology) of compound chocolate was determined using response surface methodology. The shaft speed and refining time range were selected between 40–60 r.p.m. and 10–30 min, respectively. Determination coefficient of the models established for particle size, Newtonian viscosity and colour parameters (brightness, chroma and hue angle) were found to be very close to unity. Increasing shaft speed and time induced a reduction in particle size and an increase in viscosity of the samples. Temperature sweep test was also performed, and the obtained data were successfully fitted to Arrhenius equation to calculate the corresponding parameters representing temperature dependency of the compounds. The results highlighted that the establishment of such models can provide essential information in terms of optimisation of production processes regarding usage purpose of the compound chocolate.
... To cope with these issues nowadays there are natural sweeteners such as tagatose, isomaltulose and oligofructose (FDA 2005(FDA , 2010(FDA , 2011, which need to be studied in order to check their capacity to replace sucrose and other sugars in traditional foods as jelly desserts. In this sense, previous studies had been carried out to reformulate confectionary products with isomaltulose such as strawberry jam (Peinado et al. 2012(Peinado et al. , 2013, gummy confections (Periche et al. 2014) or marshmallows (Periche et al. 2015a). Tagatose and oligofructose have been also studied in orange marmalade (Rubio-Arraez et al. 2015) and the combination of isomaltulose, stevia and oligofructose in marshmallows (Periche et al. 2015b). ...
Article
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In this study the effect of sweeteners with low glycemic index and non-cariogenic characteristics (isomaltulose, oligofructose and tagatose) in jelly prepared with citrus juice has been evaluated considering a citrus jelly formulated with sucrose as reference. The soluble solids, moisture content, pH, water activity, antioxidant capacity, optical and mechanical properties of jelly made using different sweeteners was determined during storage. Besides, mesophilic aerobics and moulds and yeasts was also counted to determine their stability over time. Sensory evaluation of the citrus jelly has also been done. The results showed the antioxidant activity decreased during storage in all formulations. Tagatose increased lightness whereas coordinates a*, b* and chrome of all the jellies prepared using new sweeteners were lower than jellies with sucrose. However, citrus jelly with only oligofructose or tagatose or with the mixture of isomaltulose and tagatose were most closely resembled to the control jelly with respect to mechanical properties. Jelly prepared with the combination of isomaltulose and tagatose in equal proportions obtained the best score in the sensorial analysis.
... According to the results of color analysis and color stability values under ASL conditions, no effect was observed between microalgae drying and encapsulation methods. A ΔE value above 3.00 is considered to be a noticeable color change (Periche et al 2015). Results of this study indicated that the microalgal pigments were not influenced by the WSC process illustrating the compatibility of using microalgae as a pigment source in spread formulation. ...
Article
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In this study, dried or encapsulated Nannochloropsis oculata microalgal biomass was used in spread samples (0.00–0.75 g (100 g)⁻¹ spread) as natural pigment source. Physicochemical properties, color stability, and rheological and sensory properties were investigated to assess the possibility of using microalgae biomass in white chocolate spread (WCS). The results showed that the chlorophyll-a amount increased while water activity, L*, a*, b*, and C* values significantly decreased upon incorporation of increased quantities of microalgae into WCS. Under accelerated shelf-life conditions for 35 days (25 °C/70% RH), ΔE values for all spread samples were determined as < 3.0 which is critical limit for the color stability. Additionally, the sensory evaluation showed that spreads prepared with 0.125–0.500 g (100 g)⁻¹ spread microalgae biomass presented acceptable sensory attributes. According to the results studies performed with trained panelists, the sensory appearance and textural parameters of white chocolates spreads did not modify by microalgae addition (P > 0.05). The encapsulation application had advantages in terms of pigment amount and color stability. As a result, the use of N. oculata biomass may be an alternative ingredient to develop colored-spread products after drying or encapsulation by using spray-dryer method.
... Gels play an important role in the production of many food materials such as jelly or dairy products [1]. The addition of sugars and other dry ingredients to gels may significantly modify their taste and storage stability due to a decrease in water content and water activity [2]. Gelled products can be also created with addition of fruit purees and juices. ...
Article
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This study aimed to determine the effect of the addition of apple juice concentrate (AJC) on the properties of agar gel and dried materials. Agar gels with the addition of apple juice concentrate in the range of 5–20% were prepared with or without the addition of maltodextrin. The gels were also soaked in the solution of AJC. The water content, water activity, densities, some mechanical and acoustic descriptors of gels, and the freeze-dried gels were analysed. The porosity and shrinkage of dried products were also investigated. The addition of AJC significantly changed mechanical and acoustic properties of gels. The hardness of gels decreased with a higher addition of concentrate. Dried samples with a lower concentration of sugars (the lower addition of AJC) were characterised by lower shrinkage and higher porosity, as well as crispness and glass transition temperature. The investigated mechanical and acoustic properties of dried gels showed the addition of apple concentrate at the level of 5% to agar solution was optimal.
... Color parameters (L: brightness, a: ± red-green and b: ± yellowblue) of the compounds produced were measured by colorimeter (Chroma Meter CR-400, Konica Minolta, Tokyo, Japan) and chroma (C * ), hue (h°) and whiteness index (WI) values were calculated by using these parameters according to the following equations (Periche, Heredia, Escriche, Andrés, & Castelló, 2015): ...
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inulin DP on viability levels (0–90 days) of the different probiotics (Lactobacillus paracasei and L. acidophilus) and the main chocolate quality parameters (texture, water activity, thermal properties, rheological properties, color) in sugared and sugar-free white chocolates. For this purpose, 9.00 log cfu/25 g probiotic microorganisms were inoculated into the chocolate samples after conching process. At the end of the 90 day period, probiotic viability was determined above 6.61 log cfu/25 g and L. acidophilus showed higher levels of viability in all samples. Sucrose including samples had higher hardness value ranging between 4343 and 5145 g. L. paracasei and inulin with higher DP including maltitol chocolate showed the highest melting temperature as 35 °C. Inulin DP and the presence of probiotic had significant effects on chocolate quality parameters other than rheological properties, however, these effects were found to be tolerable.
Article
Marshmallow is foam like confectionery product. Albumin is a protein of animal origin, which is used in the production of marshmallow and is generally used for stabilizing and foaming purposes, with various disadvantages such as limited pH and ionic strength diversity. The objective of this study was to take the advantage of foam forming ability of soapwort extract in the production of marshmallow. For this purpose soapwort extract was added to the formulations with soapwort(s):albumin (a) ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100. Density, overrun, texture, rheological and sensory properties were examined using mixture design to establish model for the quality parameters mention with respect to albumin and soap extract concentration. Density, overrun, color and some sensory properties (springiness, overall acceptance) revealed significant difference (p<0.10). Considering the sensory properties, the use of s25/a75 ratios can be suggested as an alternative that improves product properties in marshmallow production.
Article
In this study, dark chocolate enriched with EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) was developed using various forms and origins. Quality characteristics such as physical, thermo-gravimetric, rheological, textural and sensory properties of chocolates were investigated. The highest EPA/DHA stability was determined in samples prepared by free-flowing powder and microencapsulated forms of omega-3 fatty acids (FA). The L∗ and C∗ values varied from 32.16–33.37 and 7.45–8.09, respectively for the all samples. Hardness values ranged between 6422 and 8367 N and the use of EPA/DHA in the triglyceride form caused softer chocolate whereas control sample was the hardest sample. Melting and rheological properties were not significantly affected by the studied EPA/DHA sources (P < 0.05). Microencapsulated EPA/DHA added chocolate was the most preferred source whereas sample with algae oil showed the lowest acceptability. According to the results, dark chocolate can be used for delivering omega-3 FA by considering their origin and physical form.
Article
In this study, Chlorella vulgaris biomass, which was cultivated in pilot scale tubular photobioreactor biomass were encapsulated by using spray‐dryer (SD) and response surface I‐optimal methods. The independent variables were SD inlet temperature (170‐190°C), maltodextrin (25‐75%, w/w, in dm) and C. vulgaris biomass (25‐75%, w/w, in dm). The amount of pigments (total carotenoid, chlorophyll‐a), crude protein, physico‐chemical (moisture content and water activity), color properties (L*, a*, b*, C* and hue angle), particle size distribution and drying efficiencies of encapsulated samples were determined. The moisture (1.42‐7.18 g/100 g), total carotenoid (0.91‐1.91 mg/g) and chlorophyll‐a (2.48‐5.84 mg/g) contents were modelled significantly (P<0.05). It was observed that the size and coalescence tendencies of samples were affected by used maltodextrin ratio. According to the results of this study, it is important to determine the SD process conditions and the maltodextrin amount considering the aimed applications, such as coloring agent in confectionery, beverage and/or dairy technologies.
Article
This study examined the effect of black carrot extract (BCE), an important anthocyanin source, in the composition of different cocoa products (white spread and compound chocolate) with a factorial design. Water activity, moisture content, color, textural, sensory, melting and flow behavior properties of the samples were determined. Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of samples were determined before and after in vitro digestion. Moisture content, particle size, hardness, a*, h°, yield stress, plastic viscosity values increased in compound chocolate samples significantly (P <0.05). Particle size, a* and h° values increased in spread samples, but no significant effect on sensory properties was determined. BCE in compound chocolate caused a decrease in the sensory parameters. The bioaccessibility values for total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in both groups were determined as 125.5‐244.4% and 118.6‐255.8%, respectively. These values show BCE may be an important phenolic delivering agent without any intolerable quality character change.
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In this study, the use of barberry fruit (Berberis crataegina DC.) extract was investigated as a natural red colorant in chewing gum, jelly, and marshmallow samples at different percentages (1%, 5%, and 10%). The color stability (ΔE) values were determined for all sample groups and it was observed that the barberry extract had higher color stability than beet juice concentrate, which was used in the control chewing gum samples as a natural red colorant. The water activity values were within the specified limits for all sample groups except the jelly samples and 10% colorant added chewing gum. The antioxidant and anti-radical properties of all the samples were significantly improved by the addition of the barberry extract. According to the results of the texture profile, the hardness values of all chewing gum and marshmallow samples decreased with the addition of barberry extract, and this decrease became even more important as the concentration increased.
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The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of hazelnut cake as a partial replacer for sugar, milk and whey powders on the chocolate spread. A D-optimal mixture design was used to determine the effect of different mixtures of sugar, total milk originated powders (MOP), as milk powder and whey powder, and hazelnut cake (HC) on the physicochemical properties, as well as in vitro digestion of total phenolic compound before and after digestion and its bioaccessibility. Results were described by appropriate mathematical models defined by using best-fitting analysis. According to the results, the fitted models illustrated a desirable coefficient of determination (≥81%). The optimization of the variables indicated that using 43.562% sugar, 7.186% MOP and 7.252% HC produced the optimum chocolate spread with the highest desirability (1.00) without unwanted variations in the quality properties. The HC as an industrial by-product could be used in chocolate spread to increase bioactive compounds and also to decrease product costs by decreasing the sugar, milk and whey powder of the final product.
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This is the first study in which the effect of degree of polymerization (DP) (˂10 and ≥23) of inulin (6.00, 9.00 and 12.0 g/100 g) on main quality parameters (color, texture, water activity, sensory properties and melting behavior) of compound chocolate’s (CC) were investigated. According to the determined L* values, using inulin (12 g/100 g) with high DP resulted in more glossy samples (P<0.05). Except ∆h value, melting parameters of CC were not affected. However hardness of samples (391.9 ‐ 587.1 g) were determined in a wide range. The CC samples including inulin with higher DP had higher aw values (P<0.05). According to results of sensory analysis, using low DP inulin (< 12 g/100 g) has advantages when comparing with higher DP inulin containing samples. As a result, DP is an important parameter for developing chocolate enriched with inulin as a fiber source, prebiotic and/or bulking agents.
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Background Foam-gels are one of the most important multicomponent-model systems in the aerated confectionary for which investigating their microstructure seems necessary. In this research, the structure–function relationship of xanthan gum/guar gum (XG/GG) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract powder (LEP) was investigated in a high sugar medium. Foam-gel systems were prepared at 4:10% to 8:20% ratios LEP to biopolymer. Results The results showed that increasing the LEP content reduced both the melting point and enthalpy, probably due to the higher overrun and the weaker junctions. Boosting the XG/GG ratio led the mechanical properties to enhance, whereas increasing the LEP concentration weakened all textural parameters, which could be due to the poor structure of the network in the presence of the foaming agent, increased moisture content and overrun. In the whipped mixture samples containing 10 g kg⁻¹ XG/GG, higher foaming capacity was observed. By increasing the level of the biopolymers, smaller and more uniform air cells were formed according to the SEM study. At the higher concentration of LEP, smaller bubbles and increased porosity were seen, which could be attributed to the availability of surfactant in the interfacial layer. Conclusion Maximum structural strength was achieved at 4:20 ratio of LEP to XG/GG. In the rheological experiments, pseudoplastic behavior was seen in all samples. Generally, this model system can be simulated for other herbal extracts containing natural surfactants like saponins. Achieving a more detailed understanding of these structures and their interactions can help in formulating novel food products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties and glucose tolerance of cookies made with palatinose as an alternative sweetener to sucrose. Analysis of texture properties showed that the hardness (8.63 kg‐force) of the control (sucrose) was significantly different (p < 0.05) from that of the cookies containing palatinose (5.34–8.51 kg‐force). The pH of the cookies showed an increasing trend with an increase in the palatinose replacement ratio. Cookies containing palatinose had significantly lower L values and higher values than that of cookies made with 100% sucrose. The overall acceptance of the cookies was highest (4.07) for the samples containing 80% sucrose/20% palatinose. Moreover, the oral glucose tolerance test and area under the curve of cookies containing palatinose showed relatively lower values compared to those of the control. Discrimination of sweetness sensory in the same mixing ratios of sucrose and palatinose did not significantly differ (Table 3).
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The aim of this study was to replace gelatin and albumin with three levels of xanthan gum and guar gum (1, 1.5 and 2%) and three levels of chubak extract (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%) in marshmallow and evaluate physicochemical and organoleptic properties of new formulations. The results of physicochemical experiments showed that in all samples containing 0.6% of Chubak extract, density and overrun significantly decreased and increased, respectively. The moisture content and water activity in samples containing different levels of gum and chubak extract significantly increased in comparison to control (P
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This study aimed to investigate the structural and microstructural changes which were effective on marshmallow dough properties at various albumin percentages (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9%) and whipping speeds (250, 500, 750, and 1000 rpm) simulated with a rheometer and three levels of a lab-scale mixer at different processing times. In the model (rheometer) system, the most suitable whipping speed was selected as 750 rpm, since the maximum viscosity at the shortest time was achieved. In both systems, adding albumin created higher viscosity and smaller bubble size. Generally, the bubble size decreased during the whipping process. In the real system, the bubble size was larger than the model system, which could be due to intensive beats and more entrance of air. Increasing the network solidity with prolonged whipping caused the structure to break and disturb the big bubbles and decrease the quantity of the trapped air.
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Consumers are increasingly demanding products with natural ingredients and functional properties. The replacement of conventional sugars with recently available sugars or sweeteners could result in the perception of candies as healthier products. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of isomaltulose, oligofructose and stevia extracts on the physicochemical, mechanical, optical and antioxidant properties as well as the shelf life of marshmallows. A sensory test was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of these ingredients on the acceptance of this product. The instrumental and sensorial textural results indicate that the sucrose and glucose syrup in commercial marshmallows could be replaced by a mixture of isomaltulose, oligofructose and stevia. Adults found the new and the traditional marshmallows to be very similar. However, children only found similarities in terms of the texture. These new marshmallows, besides being more microbiologically stable, have added value due to their antioxidant properties.
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 Sixty honey samples from six different production zones of the provinces of Salamanca, Zamora and Cáceres (west Spain) were analyzed for 13 common legal physico-chemical parameters and 17 sugars in order to test for their geographical classification. Application of linear stepwise discriminant analysis to a number of variables made of a selection of analytical results and simple mathematical functions of them allowed, firstly, discrimination between honeys from these six zones and, secondly, discrimination between honeys from the three zones of the province of Salamanca. The eight most discriminant variables selected for the six zones were a combination of nine physico-chemical parameters and sugars, with 85.00% of correctly classified samples; for the three zones of the province of Salamanca, regarded with special interest in our study, seven variables were selected (consisting of seven single physico-chemical parameters and sugars) with a result of 100.00% of correctly classified samples.
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Health professionals and people with diabetes recognize nutrition therapy as one of the most challenging aspects of diabetes care and education (1). Adherence to meal planning principles requires the person with diabetes to learn specific nutrition recommendations. It may require altering previous patterns of eating and implementing new eating behaviors, which requires motivation for a healthy lifestyle and may also require participation in exercise programs. Finally, individuals must be able to evaluate the effectiveness of these lifestyle changes. Despite these challenges, nutrition is an essential component of successful diabetes management.
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This review explores whether fructose consumption might be a contributing factor to the development of obesity and the accompanying metabolic abnormalities observed in the insulin resistance syndrome. The per capita disappearance data for fructose from the combined consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup have increased by 26%, from 64 g/d in 1970 to 81 g/d in 1997. Both plasma insulin and leptin act in the central nervous system in the long-term regulation of energy homeostasis. Because fructose does not stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, the consumption of foods and beverages containing fructose produces smaller postprandial insulin excursions than does consumption of glucose-containing carbohydrate. Because leptin production is regulated by insulin responses to meals, fructose consumption also reduces circulating leptin concentrations. The combined effects of lowered circulating leptin and insulin in individuals who consume diets that are high in dietary fructose could therefore increase the likelihood of weight gain and its associated metabolic sequelae. In addition, fructose, compared with glucose, is preferentially metabolized to lipid in the liver. Fructose consumption induces insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriacylglycerolemia, and hypertension in animal models. The data in humans are less clear. Although there are existing data on the metabolic and endocrine effects of dietary fructose that suggest that increased consumption of fructose may be detrimental in terms of body weight and adiposity and the metabolic indexes associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, much more research is needed to fully understand the metabolic effect of dietary fructose in humans.
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Obesity is a major epidemic, but its causes are still unclear. In this article, we investigate the relation between the intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and the development of obesity. We analyzed food consumption patterns by using US Department of Agriculture food consumption tables from 1967 to 2000. The consumption of HFCS increased > 1000% between 1970 and 1990, far exceeding the changes in intake of any other food or food group. HFCS now represents > 40% of caloric sweeteners added to foods and beverages and is the sole caloric sweetener in soft drinks in the United States. Our most conservative estimate of the consumption of HFCS indicates a daily average of 132 kcal for all Americans aged > or = 2 y, and the top 20% of consumers of caloric sweeteners ingest 316 kcal from HFCS/d. The increased use of HFCS in the United States mirrors the rapid increase in obesity. The digestion, absorption, and metabolism of fructose differ from those of glucose. Hepatic metabolism of fructose favors de novo lipogenesis. In addition, unlike glucose, fructose does not stimulate insulin secretion or enhance leptin production. Because insulin and leptin act as key afferent signals in the regulation of food intake and body weight, this suggests that dietary fructose may contribute to increased energy intake and weight gain. Furthermore, calorically sweetened beverages may enhance caloric overconsumption. Thus, the increase in consumption of HFCS has a temporal relation to the epidemic of obesity, and the overconsumption of HFCS in calorically sweetened beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity.
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In a previous study conducted at the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation (CMCRC/ERF), we demonstrated for the first time that aspartame (APM) is a multipotent carcinogenic agent when various doses are administered with feed to Sprague-Dawley rats from 8 weeks of age throughout the life span. The aim of this second study is to better quantify the carcinogenic risk of APM, beginning treatment during fetal life. We studied groups of 70-95 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats administered APM (2,000, 400, or 0 ppm) with feed from the 12th day of fetal life until natural death. Our results show a) a significant dose-related increase of malignant tumor-bearing animals in males (p < 0.01), particularly in the group treated with 2,000 ppm APM (p < 0.01); b) a significant increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in males treated with 2,000 ppm (p < 0.05) and a significant dose-related increase in incidence of lymphomas/leukemias in females (p < 0.01), particularly in the 2,000-ppm group (p < 0.01); and c) a significant dose-related increase in incidence of mammary cancer in females (p < 0.05), particularly in the 2,000-ppm group (p < 0.05). The results of this carcinogenicity bioassay confirm and reinforce the first experimental demonstration of APM's multipotential carcinogenicity at a dose level close to the acceptable daily intake for humans. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that when life-span exposure to APM begins during fetal life, its carcinogenic effects are increased.
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The present study examined whether acids were produced in media enriched with palatinose, palatinit, erythritol and maltitol by bacterial strains isolated from the dental plaque of children. Out of 146 bacteria isolated from 3 children as predominant bacteria, 95 strains (65%) were identified as Actinomyces, which constituted the major portion of isolates. Among these 146 bacteria, 48 strains (33%) degraded palatinose, 17 strains (12%) degraded palatinit, 2 strains degraded erythritol and none degraded maltitol. Most palatinose-degrading bacteria were Actinomyces. The present study clearly demonstrated that dental plaque contained a significant number (33%) of bacteria which to degraded palatinose to acids, while other sugar substitutes, i. e., palatinit, erythritol and maltitol, categorized as sugar alcohols, were not degraded by the predominant bacteria.
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Dry fermented sausage (“Chorizo”) was reformulated to produce better lipid compositions (reduced fat content and improved fatty acid profile) by replacing the pork backfat by a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils) stabilized in a konjac matrix. Proximate analysis, fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation and sensory analysis were studied. The fat content was 99–130 g/kg in the low-fat versus 316 g/kg in the normal fat sausages. The incorporation of an oil-in-konjac matrix reduced (P < 0.05) saturated fatty acid content and increased (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), improving the n–6/n–3 ratio in dry sausage. Reducing fat decreased (P < 0.05) hardness and increased (P < 0.05) cohesiveness, with no effect (P > 0.05) on springiness and chewiness. The reformulation process produced a decrease (P < 0.05) in all sensorial parameters, compared with the control sample, although in all the sausages appearance, flavour and juiciness scored above the middle value on the hedonic scale.
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Three fracture test methods: uniaxial compression, uniaxial tension and torsion were examined by interpreting results using theories upon which the methods were based. In each of these tests, the fracture of gels can occur as a result of shear, compression or tension. The fracture properties determined from uniaxial compression and tension were compared with torsion testing, a suitable reference technique. Shear stress and strain in uniaxial compression were comparable with shear stress and strain in torsion. However, the tensile stress in compression is not in agreement with that in torsion. Tensile stress or shear stress values in uniaxial tension were generally comparable with tensile or shear stress values in torsion, while the strain levels in uniaxial tension were typically much lower than those in uniaxial compression or torsion. This result could be related to the fracture strain being a function of elongation necessary to reduce the specimen cross section to an area producing the critical fracture stress. The comparison among different methods revealed shear stress and strain can be the fracture criteria for uniaxial compression, and tensile stress can be the fracture criterion for uniaxial tension, whereas the fracture strain criterion in uniaxial tension cannot be specified. Possible mechanisms for differences among methods are discussed in the manuscript.
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A Conference was held in Paris in 2006 to review the safety and benefits arising from the replacement of sucrose with the intense sweetener aspartame. The intakes of aspartame are only about 10% of the acceptable daily intake, even by high consumers, so that the safety margin is about 3 orders of magnitude. The safety of aspartame was confirmed in the EFSA Opinion of a recent controversial rodent cancer bioassay. There is increasing evidence that even modest reductions in the intake of calories can reduce the risk factors associated with a number of diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A key issue addressed at the conference was whether the replacement of sucrose with aspartame could result in a prolonged decrease in calorie intake that was of similar magnitude to that necessary to produce a health benefit. A recent meta-analysis of published data showed that an adequate, prolonged weight reduction could be achieved with aspartame. It was recognised that risk assessment alone gave an unbalanced impression to regulators and consumers, and that in the future quantitative risk-benefit analyses should be able to provide more comprehensive advice.
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Isomaltulose is a natural occurring disaccharide composed of alpha-1,6-linked glucose and fructose. Commercial isomaltulose is produced from sucrose by enzymatic rearrangement and has been used as a sugar in Japan since 1985. It is particularly suitable as a non-cariogenic sucrose replacement and is favorable in products for diabetics and prediabetic dispositions. In vivo studies with rats and pigs indicate that isomaltulose is completely hydrolyzed and absorbed in the small intestine. This is supported by in vitro studies showing that intestinal disaccharidases from various species (including man) can hydrolyze isomaltulose. The rate of hydrolysis, however, is very slow compared with sucrose and maltose. Thus, blood glucose and insulin levels in humans after oral administration rise slower and reach lower maxima than after sucrose administration. After absorption, fructose and glucose are metabolized as typical for these monosaccharides. From intravenous studies it can be assumed that any systemic isomaltulose would be hydrolyzed as well, or excreted in urine. In several subchronic toxicity studies, the administration of large doses (up to 7.0 and 8.1 g/kg body weight/day in male and female rats, respectively) of isomaltulose, did not result in adverse effects. Isomaltulose induced neither embryotoxic or teratogenic effects in rat foetuses, nor maternal toxicity at levels up to 7 g/kg body weight/day. Isomaltulose was non-mutagenic in the Ames test. As hydrolysis in the small intestine is complete, even high levels of isomaltulose are well tolerated in animals and humans. In studies with healthy as well as diabetic subjects high doses up to 50 g were tolerated without signs of intestinal discomfort. On the basis of the data reviewed it is concluded that the use of isomaltulose as an alternative sugar is as safe as the use of other digestible sugars consisting of glucose and fructose.
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Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible.