Article

The Effects of Active Participation on Student Learning

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Abstract

The effects of active participation on student learning of simple probability was investigated using 20 fifth-grade classes randomly assigned to level of treatment. Five trained participating teachers taught a lesson to four classes (two with and two without active participation). Lessons were video and audio taped and checked for instructional bias; time expended on lessons was monitored. The dependent variable measure was a IS-Item multiple-choice test administered immediately following the lesson. Class means served as the measurement unit for analysis using an independent samples t test; the statistical hypothesis was rejected at the .05 level. It was concluded that active student participation exerts a positive influence on fifth-grade student achievement of relatively unique instructional material.

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... Tambahan, prestasi akademik murid yang mempunyai kebimbangan komunikasi adalah rendah kerana mereka cenderung untuk mengasingkan diri dan bersifat lemah (helplessness) di dalam kelas (McCrosskey, Butterfield & Payne 1989). Hal ini kerana,proses pembelajaran menuntut guru dan murid untuk memberi komitmen yang tinggi dan secara berkala dalam aktiviti berfikir, memberi maklum balas dan membuat penilaian ke atas sesuatu yang diketahui serta tidak diketahui (Pratton & Hales, 1986). Ini membuktikan bahawa terdapat banyak komunikasi yang berlaku dalam proses pembelajaran maka jelas menunjukkan komunikasi merupakan intipati kepada penglibatan aktif di dalam kelas. ...
... According to Pratton and Hales (1986), and Von Glaserfeld (2005), the students spent more time in doing activities that required thinking, responding and verifying their knowledge. Therefore, active participation of students (social constructivism) was affirmed to be an efficient instructional approach for creating & sustaining motivation and passion for knowledge Mvududu and Thiel-Burgess (2012) that social constructivism is widely touted as an approach to probe for students' level of understanding and to show that that understanding can increase and change to higher level of thinking. ...
... Digital Field Trip Students interact with a video to explore a destination linked to course content. Note: Definitions of emerging instructional strategies were derived from Storme, Vansieleghem, Devleminck, Masschelin, & Simons, 2016;Bali, 2014;Durkin, 1978;Bloom, 1968;Anderson & Pearson, 1984;Renshaw, 2004;Kvale, 2006;Bass, 2014;Novak, 2010;Breen & Martin, 2018;Sundheim, 2015;Robertson, 2009;Lawrence, Dunn, & Weisfeld-Spolter, 2018;Rosell, Beck, Luther, Goedert, Shore, & Anderson, 2005;Spickard, Alrajeh, Cordray, & Gigante, 2002;Pratton & Hales, 1986;Howard, 1998;Buschlen & Dvorak, 2011;Jacobson, Militello, & Baveye, 2009;Capobianco, Loizzo, & Burgess, 2009. Reading has emerged in prior discussions of MOOC pedagogy (Storme, Vansieleghem, Devleminck, Masschelin, & Simons, 2016;Bali, 2014). ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to identify the pedagogical strategies used for instruction and assessment in leadership-oriented MOOCs and gain a more refined understanding of the current state of MOOCs in leadership education. The study also seeks to fill the gaps in the body of knowledge surrounding leadership MOOCs. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a form of distance education course used across content areas. They have been celebrated as revolutionizing the way learners access education and the way colleges and universities could expand the notion of education on a global scale beyond their traditional campuses. The use of MOOCs in leadership education attracts students for the purposes of education and professional development. This content analysis engages the current state of leadership MOOCs through a review of the literature, a description of the methodology, and presents the results and discussion that emerge. This study examines 96 leadership MOOCs across the MOOC platforms of Coursera, EdX, FutureLearn, Canvas.net, and Standford Online through a content analysis research framework. The study concludes with a discussion of leadership MOOC pedagogy and position as a vibrant and flexible delivery method for leadership education and professional development on a global scale. Advisor: L. J. McElravy
... Our study's results confirmed that class attendance and class participation were important determinants of academic success (Moore, Armstrong, andPearson 2008, Pratton andHales 1986). As much as frequent attendance positively affects the students' performance during exams, skipping class led to poor test results (Marburger 2001;Lin and Chen 2006). ...
Article
The primary goal of higher education institutions is to support all students in the pursuit of academic success, which requires timely assistance for ‘at risk’ students. The adoption of learning management systems results in a large amount of data that can be collected, processed and utilised to improve the students’ learning experiences. This research examines the potential applications of analytics techniques for extracting insights from student-generated content in an academic setting. It showcases how different text analytics techniques, from descriptive content analysis, semantic network analysis, to topic modelling support the discovery of new insights from unstructured, user-generated data. We looked at 968 letters written by ‘at risk’ students in an Australian-based university in Southeast Asia to examine the difficulties the students faced, which led to their academic failure. The results show that time management, family, learning, assessment, and subjects were the leading causes of poor performance, but in a more nuanced way than was expected. Students often faced multiple challenges, one led to another, which resulted in the failing grades. Our study contributes a set of effective text analytics techniques for extracting insights from student data, providing the preliminary guidelines for an information system to detect early at risk students.
... It has been found wanting as a technique for mastering skills (Heward & Wood, 2015). Research suggests that active participation, when combined with teacher feedback, is a much more effective way to boost student performance (Freeman et al., 2014;Pratton & Hales, 1986). Allowing only a few students to respond to questions does not offer sufficient opportunities for all students to actively participate and is not a replacement for increasing engagement and the ongoing progress monitoring afforded by ASR. ...
Article
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Active Student Responding (ASR) is a powerful set of low cost strategies teachers can use to improve student achievement. ASR occurs when a student makes a response by answering questions or responding in a variety of ways that communicates the student’s understanding of the content being taught during the lesson. The more opportunities the student has to respond, the increased likelihood the student is learning. Increasing active responses allows teachers to rapidly assess performance. As opportunities to respond increase so does opportunities for praise and corrective feedback that results in accelerated learning. Attending and being on-task are insufficient ways for teachers to know if learning is occurring. For a teacher to know if a student is actually learning a written, action, or oral response is required. The more opportunities to respond the more quickly students master lessons. ASR strategies are designed to engage all students regardless of class size and ASR avoids the common problem of having only high achievers answer questions while low achievers remain silent, thus escaping detection. Examples of ASR strategies include; guided notes, response slates, response cards, and choral responding.
... The results of this study support a study by Prokop et al. (2007) where fifth grade students drew abiotic and living objects more frequently after participation in a 1-day outdoors field trip. Another study by Pratton and Hales (2015) concluded active student participation positively influences fifthgrade student achievement. These key findings support ELT, in that, when students are actively participating in activities, they are more likely to remember the experiences. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate an existing environmental education program involving a partnership between formal and nonformal educators. The outcomes of this study support the use of an outdoor field trip as an effective teaching strategy in positively changing students’ beliefs about the environment. This study also proposes Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory as a framework and pedagogical basis for designing, implementing, and assessing effective outdoor field trips.
... Hence, I designed my accounting pedagogy lessons to involve much group work, peer-assessment and peer-teaching. Pratton and Hales (2015) discovered during their research, that students in a social constructivist educative setting who participated actively in the lesson performed better in assessments than those who were present in the customary lecture. Pratton and Hales also took note of the fact that the students who took part in discussions and deliberations and engaged in dialogue with others about their beliefs and perspectives eventually arrived at logical deductions on their own. ...
... Instructors of university courses often strive to push students beyond simple memorisation of material. Active learning strategies, or strategies that facilitate participation and encourage students to engage with the material in deeper ways, are often implemented to fulfill these goals (Buskist & Benassi, 2012;Hake, 1998;Handelsman et al., 2004;Pratton & Hales, 1986). One such active learning strategy is incorporating audience response systems such as clickers. ...
Article
Instructors often implement technology-based active learning pedagogies, such as clickers, to maximise student engagement and facilitate learning outcomes. Despite the abundance of clicker research, no work has directly compared student performance as well as student perceptions of clickers to a distinct, non-technological active learning pedagogy. Using a mixed methods quasi-experimental design, the current research compared clickers to a collaborative active learning pedagogy, student discussion groups. As predicted, clickers were evaluated more favourably than discussion groups. Qualitative analysis of students' open-ended evaluations augmented these quantitative findings. Secondary analyses suggested that student performance was equivalent for clicker and discussion sections. Together, these results suggest that incorporating clickers into introduction courses may improve students' attitudes towards the instructor's pedagogy without any negative consequences for performance.
... This participation ratio is in the same ballpark range reported for clickers (85% in Gauci, Dantas, Williams, & Kemm, 2009). Previous studies with SRS showed that higher participation is positively correlated with higher students' achievements (Pratton & Hales, 1986). This result is encouraging since it demonstrates that the use of smartphones as a replacement for clickers has similar effectiveness as clickers without the hassle of managing their distribution and collection as well as setting of a special wireless infrastructure needed for their operation. ...
Article
Recently, there is an explosive growth of smartphone availability. In this work, we studied how mobile and Internet-based Student Response System improves the learning process. We used a free software application (Socrativeß) to create a set of questions that can be deployed during the class. It was used in four different courses in three different academic colleges. The students were asked to evaluate the contribution of this tool to their own learning process. Participation was usually very high and introducing this tool encouraged continuous learning. It also enabled a better feedback to the teacher about the class level.
... Maintaining a brisk teaching pace increases children's opportunities to respond and reduces opportunities for behavior problems (Forsyth & Archer, 1997). When students are actively engaged and responding, they are learning (Greenwood et al., 1984;Pratton & Hales, 1986). Interestingly, Knapp and Desrochers (2009) found that students prefer interactive instruction in which they play a prominent role. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Narrative interventions are a class of language interventions that involve the use of telling or retelling stories. Narrative intervention can be an efficient and versatile means of promoting a large array of academically and socially important language targets that improve children's access to general education curriculum and enhance their peer relations. The purpose of this tutorial is to supply foundational information about the importance of narratives and to offer recommendations about how to maximize the potential of narrative interventions in school-based clinical practice. Method Drawing from decades of cognitive and linguistic research, a tutorial on narratives and narrative language is presented first. Ten principles that support the design and implementation of narrative interventions are described. Results Clinicians can use narrative intervention to teach story grammar, complex language, vocabulary, inferencing, and social pragmatics. Storytelling, as an active intervention ingredient, promotes the comprehension and production of complex language. Conclusion When narrative intervention is implemented following a set of principles drawn from research and extensive clinical experience, speech-language pathologists can efficiently and effectively teach a broad set of academically and socially meaningful skills to diverse students.
... ICTs can be used to facilitate constructivist learning environment for teaching thinking skill in various academic disciplines and for various educational levels (Chan, 2002;Ng'ambi & Johnston, 2006). Researchers have argued that the implementation of constructivist principles has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of teaching and learning (Pratton & Hales, 1986;Santmire, Giraud, & Grosskopf, 1999) and to prepare lifelong learners (Huang, 2002). Constructivist model of teaching on the college level would be more effective than the traditional approach, where the students would be more actively involved in the learning processes (Schell & Janicki, 2013). ...
Article
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This study investigated university students’ preferences when the principles of constructivism are applied in their learning of programming languages with the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the factors which influence these preferences.‎ The respondents for this study were 193 students from three courses teaching programming languages in computer labs. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study involved one group of students who were taught programming languages based on the principles of constructivism and another group which was taught using the lecture-based teaching methods. At the end of the courses, data were collected through a questionnaire instrument that consisted of set of questions on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, and ANOVA. The results show that in their learning of programming languages, the students had strong preferences for using each of the principles of constructivism considered in this study. The results showed that there were no significant differences in students’ preferences regarding the use of constructivist principles based on gender, age, major, and prior experience in constructivist learning except for one scale. To maximize students' learning, students' preferences regarding the characteristics of the classroom learning environment should govern educational practice. The recommendations for higher education are related to educational practice as well as to ways of using ICTs to support university students' learning in general and to support the learning of programming languages in particular.
... [24][25][26][27] Pratton and Hales found that the difference between active participation classes compared with the nonactive participation classes in regard to class enrollment, class attendance at the time at treatment was presented and they found that the mean of the classes taught through active participation was greater than that of the classes taught without active participation. [28] Females received significantly less total communication, less praise, less negative behavior, feedback, less neutral procedure feedback, and less nonacademic feedback. [19,22] There is overwhelming evidence of a common pattern of interaction in classrooms best summarized in Flanders "rule" of two-third'; that is, in almost all classrooms, two-thirds of the time someone is talking and two-third of that time it is the teacher who speaks. ...
Article
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Aim: This study examines the effect of teacher talk and interaction on students' achievement in Tabriz high schools. Methods: This research was a descriptive and correlation study. Sixty teachers and 800 students by multistage random sampling are selected for study. For gathering data, the observation method based on Flanders interaction analysis categories was used. The validity of the instrument was approved by Flanders and other researchers. The reliability of the Flanders interaction analysis was measured by inter-observer agreement ranged from 0.85 to 1.00. Result: The results showed an independent t-test revealed no significant difference between male and female talk and teaching style. A one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in praises or encouragements in teaching mathematics, empirical sciences, and humanities. Conclusion: Humanities teachers encouraged students more than those of mathematics and empirical sciences. In addition, the direct teaching is negatively correlated with students' achievement.
... [24][25][26][27] Pratton and Hales found that the difference between active participation classes compared with the nonactive participation classes in regard to class enrollment, class attendance at the time at treatment was presented and they found that the mean of the classes taught through active participation was greater than that of the classes taught without active participation. [28] Females received significantly less total communication, less praise, less negative behavior, feedback, less neutral procedure feedback, and less nonacademic feedback. [19,22] There is overwhelming evidence of a common pattern of interaction in classrooms best summarized in Flanders "rule" of two-third'; that is, in almost all classrooms, two-thirds of the time someone is talking and two-third of that time it is the teacher who speaks. ...
... A number of various methods, strategies and material based on the level, objectives and subject of the lesson can be used in the process (Karakaya, 1997; Keyser, 2000). Research conducted at various levels and fields have established that the personal involvement of students in learning processes increases their success (Kimonen and Nevalainen, 2005; Pratton and Hales, 1986; Ransdell and Gaillard-Kenney, 2009; Prince, 2004; Felder and Brent, 2003). In this context, according to John Dewey's thesis " learning by doing " in his book titled Schools of Tomorrow (1915), using learning by doing process wherever possible is an important method in raising students' attention and interest (UPDL, 2013). ...
Article
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This paper reports a 2 semester study conducted with 74 undergraduate students of Architecture at the Istanbul Kültür University to investigate the extent of architectural design students’ use of urban design information in their projects by learning by doing method. In the first semester, students performed a comprehensive analysis of the Yenikapı-İnebey Quarter of Istanbul in terms of urban design criteria. In the second semester, students were given the task of creating a massing study of an architectural design project which was not constrained in terms of function, hmax or building coefficient, near the project site. This was followed by an open ended question to identify the criteria which influenced the designs of the students. The results of the research reveal that, in terms of learning by doing method, the students are competent to carry the knowledge and aspects of urban design to the lower scales of design.
... Students' class participation has been considered by researchers to be one of the important factors related to positive learning outcome (Crombie, Pyke, Silverthorn, Jones, & Piccinin, 2003;Murray & Lang, 1997;Pratton & Hales, 1986). To encourage students' class participation, instructors have adopted a personal response system (PRS), commonly known as a clicker system, in the classroom. ...
Article
This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific design guidelines to advance instructional benefits; the third developed a PRS and revised it based on pilot implementations; and the fourth engaged instructors and students in evaluating the PRS in terms of the class participation and learning support as well as design components. The authors provide an overview of the design and development process and summarize the results of the evaluation on design components. The results of this study inform educational researchers about the usefulness of a participatory design approach to formulate design components of educational software. This study also provides a natural guide toward future research on the relationship between each design aspect and learner performance when using a PRS.
... Most of the students were satisfied with courses' instructional design. Active participation in learning process increases the percentages of the course participation and the probability of completing the course with success by making student's take responsibility for their own learning ( Dart, 2006;Pratton & Hales, 1986;Ransdell & Gaillard-Kenney, 2009). The applications related to active learning theory should take part in courses and obtained scientific findings should be shared continuously. ...
Article
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According to the constructivist approach, ensuring students' active participation, revealing a product and acquiring an ability of presentation of their product are important educational attainments. In the light of these facts, Schank's approach of "Goal-Based Scenario" was taken into consideration and administered to students during teaching "Research Methods" course. During this process students assumed the role of "researcher", formed a "research article" as the product and presented this article in the "student conference." In this context, 30 students wrote their opinions about the process and the product of the course. Thus, the effectiveness of this approach was tried to be revealed based on students' opinions. Based on the findings, it can be said that this approach has fulfilled its purpose and all students gained really different achievements and experiences from this process.
... Digital Field Trip Students interact with a video to explore a destination linked to course content. Note: Definitions of emerging instructional strategies were derived from Storme, Vansieleghem, Devleminck, Masschelin, & Simons, 2016;Bali, 2014;Durkin, 1978;Bloom, 1968;Anderson & Pearson, 1984;Renshaw, 2004;Kvale, 2006;Bass, 2014;Novak, 2010;Breen & Martin, 2018;Sundheim, 2015;Robertson, 2009;Lawrence, Dunn, & Weisfeld-Spolter, 2018;Rosell, Beck, Luther, Goedert, Shore, & Anderson, 2005;Spickard, Alrajeh, Cordray, & Gigante, 2002;Pratton & Hales, 1986;Howard, 1998;Buschlen & Dvorak, 2011;Jacobson, Militello, & Baveye, 2009;Capobianco, Loizzo, & Burgess, 2009. Reading has emerged in prior discussions of MOOC pedagogy (Storme, Vansieleghem, Devleminck, Masschelin, & Simons, 2016;Bali, 2014). ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study is to identify the pedagogical strategies used for instruction and assessment in leadership-oriented MOOCs and gain a more refined understanding of the current state of MOOCs in leadership education. The study also seeks to fill the gaps in the body of knowledge surrounding leadership MOOCs. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a form of distance education course used across content areas. They have been celebrated as revolutionizing the way learners access education and the way colleges and universities could expand the notion of education on a global scale beyond their traditional campuses. The use of MOOCs in leadership education attracts students for the purposes of education and professional development. This content analysis engages the current state of leadership MOOCs through a review of the literature, a description of the methodology, and presents the results and discussion that emerge. This study examines 96 leadership MOOCs across the MOOC platforms of Coursera, EdX, FutureLearn, Canvas.net, and Standford Online through a content analysis research framework. The study concludes with a discussion of leadership MOOC pedagogy and position as a vibrant and flexible delivery method for leadership education and professional development on a global scale.
... Persuading students to actively participate in classroom discussions is difficult in and of itself, but becomes even more difficult when the topic may be deemed sensitive, controversial, or personal. Pratton and Hales (1986) defined active participation as " the result of a deliberate and conscious attempt on the part of a teacher to cause students to participate overtly in a lesson " (p. 211). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to use an audience response system (ARS) to engage students in classroom discussions concerning sensitive and controversial topics (e.g., business ethics), assess students ethical orientation and conduct in unethical behaviors, and encourage reflection on their personal level of ethicality. Students used ARS devices to respond anonymously to questions regarding specific business-related ethical scenarios in a Principles of Marketing class. Students were asked six questions regarding their own conduct in certain behaviors and one question to evaluate their self-reported level of ethicality before the lecture/discussion and then again after the lecture/discussion. Nearly ninety-two percent of the students (n=65) reported that they believed they were an ethical person at the beginning of the lecture/discussion and only seventy-three percent of the students (n=52) reported that they believed they were an ethical person at the end of the lecture/discussion. The study showed that an ARS can be used to engage students in classroom discussion that results in significant student reflection on the topic.
... Students may remain silent because of lack of opportunity or socially related fear or anxiety (Dickman, 1993;Reynolds and Nunn, 1997). Literature has suggested the integration of innovative technologies could increase students' participation in mathematics classrooms, and such participation could increase student achievement (Freeman et al., 2014;Hake, 1998;Pratton & Hales, 1986;Roschelle, Penuel, & Abrahamson, 2004). SRS can allow students to respond to questions anonymously, and this could potentially promote their classroom participation. ...
... Se están superando los métodos tradicionales a los que estábamos acostumbrados, para darle paso a métodos más participativos e integradores, influenciados por diferentes disciplinas que logran trascender los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje. En esta oportunidad la herramienta que se propone hace uso de elementos como el juego que es considerado como una actividad de carácter universal, común para todos los seres humanos, en cualquier época y condiciones de la vida que potencia habilidades, favorece y estimula las cualidades morales de los niños y las niñas (Crespillo Álvarez, 2010) Esta herramienta que nació en el curso de Ecología de la licenciatura en Ciencias Naturales pretende que por medio de la búsqueda del aprendizaje activo (Huber, 2008) se pueda estimular, no la adversidad ni la ridiculización del contrincante, sino la construcción social de conocimiento y el aprendizaje significativo (Ausubel, Novak y Hanesian, 1983), comprendiendo cómo interactúan los organismos de un ecosistema y elaborando estrategias didácticas e interactivas que demandan la participación activa (Pratton y Hales, 1986). Inicialmente se parte desde una indagación por los conceptos previos que los estudiantes tienen frente a las relaciones que pueden existir en un ecosistema colombiano. ...
Research
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O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar uma abordagem histórica para o delineamento de uma atividade investigativa que tem como tema a Teoria Celular.
... Unlike the work reported in [2], [9] and [14], the aim of our work is to recognize the actions of a student in a single image frame during the online courses using a single laptop camera pointing at each student. Furthermore, we focus on the recognition of actions that relate to the physical presence, active participation, and distraction as indicated in the relevant literature [5,6,8,11,12]. ...
... They use facial expression algorithms based on the VGG16 network and different CNN architectures. In our work, instead of focusing on the analysis of facial expressions, we consider the recognition of actions that relate to the physical presence (Raddon, 2006), active participation (Pratton and Hales, 1986), and distraction (Baron, 1986) as indicated in the relevant literature. ...
... In fact, the essence of the interaction between a student and a teacher depends primarily on the skills of the teacher, on whom much depends regarding the educational process [5]. The successful educational process starts with a teacher, who is primarily responsible for highlighting the significance of what is being presented, and then comes his role in providing a smooth and simple scientific material that helps students in the cognitive process [6]. ...
Article
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Despite the abundance of scientific textbooks, references, and educational websites, students in the 1st year of the bachelor of dental surgery (BDS) program face some academic challenges. Distress, learning difficulties, and study discontinuation are all possible outcomes of these challenges. The present study was motivated by the scarcity of literature pertaining to the obstacles faced by the 1st year dental students in learning and understanding dental materials courses, and other difficulties, which students encounter during their foundation year, BDS 1st year. A questionnaire was prepared and distributed among undergraduate students at different levels of study year of the BDS program. Six different year study levels were chosen for the current study; the total number of participants was 111. Statistical analysis (chi-square test) was performed on the data collected, using SPSS version 20.0 software. Results showed complete agreement on most areas of difficulties the students encountered during their BDS 1st year study. The majority of the examined students were of the opinion that the difficulties they encountered in their BDS 1st year were not due to one certain subject, such as dental materials courses, but rather because of a collection of overlapping factors that contributed to study difficulties, thereby amplifying their impact on the study and comprehension of dental materials courses. In addition, the examined students showed more interest and eagerness towards acquiring more knowledge of dental materials, particularly towards dental materials II (clinical dental materials). Students consider dental materials courses as a basic introduction to the field of dentistry; besides, a thorough understanding of its various uses is a key factor in excellence in the dentistry field. Keywords: BDS 1st year, dental materials, study difficulties, academic challenges, dental undergraduates. 6(10): 462-468.
... Contrastly, in reality, it could interpret abstraction and symbolism. The thinking method is relevant to a sequential task such as verbal expression, writing, reading, auditorial association, locating facts and details, phonetics and symbolism (Hales, 2015). However, the right brain works in a random, irregular, intuitive, and holistic manner. ...
Article
The implementation of effective learning materials has become a fundamental need in the process of teaching biology at school. Brain-based learning (BBL) materials in 21st-century learning need to be supplemented with analytical and evaluation skills or the so-called higher-order thinking skills (HOTS). Thus, this study aims to examine the effectiveness of the implementation of brain-based learning materials on the excretory system toward students higher-order thinking skills. This study was a research and development which applied the 4-D model Thiagarajan by using a test to measure the effectiveness of the materials developed after being used in three meetings from four classes in different schools with a total of students 125 people. The result of this study revealed that students from four schools had good higher-order thinking skills with average scores respectively 81.8 (Class A), 80.7 (Class B), 80.4 (Class C), and 81 (Class D).
... Active participation can be defined as a process in which the student himself/herself constructs his/her own knowledge by interacting with the learning environment designed by the teacher. This process occurs as a result of teacher's deliberate and conscious attempt to encouraging active participation in the classroom milieu (Pratton & Hales, 1986). Therefore, the discourse that the teacher uses in the classroom consciously or unintentionally has the power to affect the active participation of the students in the class. ...
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... The data analysis for this section was used to answer the research question, What instructional pedagogies are used in leadership-oriented MOOCs? This section will address the results from instructional strategies and instructional assessment strategies provided by the previous research (Jenkins, 2016 Computer-based Learning Note: Sources include Storme, Vansieleghem, Devleminck, Masschelin, & Simons, 2016;Bali, 2014;Durkin, 1978;Bloom, 1968;Anderson & Pearson, 1984;Renshaw, 2004;Kvale, 2006;Bass, 2014;Novak, 2010;Breen & Martin, 2018;Sundheim, 2015;Robertson, 2009;Lawrence, Dunn, & Weisfeld-Spolter, 2018;Rosell, Beck, Luther, Goedert, Shore, & Anderson, 2005;Spickard, Alrajeh, Cordray, & Gigante, 2002;Pratton & Hales, 1986;Howard, 1998;Buschlen & Dvorak, 2011;Jacobson, Militello, & Baveye, 2009;Capobianco, Loizzo, & Burgess, 2009 One hundred and forty-four different words were coded during analysis. Table 6 provides a summation of the evaluated characteristics in this study. ...
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... 31,32 Moreover, the accomplishment of multifaceted and authentic tasks over a long period of time, along with providing opportunities to reflect on the health-based learning experiences from different points of view, allow students to acquire those transversal skills they need in the real life. These innovative approaches are helpful in involving pupils in the control of the learning environment 33,34 and can be also useful to generate a respectful climate in the classroom, where pupils can freely practice social skills and lower anxiety due to competition or pressure of success. 35 Furthermore, researches on anti-bullying programmes have proved that structures, conditions, and learning settings (school environment) are at least as significant as individual factors. ...
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Assesses present and possible future process–outcome research, emphasizing methodological considerations. A case is made for compiling detailed normative data about classrooms, including explication and integration of process–process and process–outcome relations. It is suggested that large field studies addressed to classroom instruction in general will give way to studies designed with particular contexts in mind, using measures of both processes and outcomes (especially short-term outcomes) appropriate to these contexts. (72 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
"No man can be acquainted with all of psychology today." The past and future place within psychology of 2 historic streams of method, thought, and affiliation—experimental psychology and correlational psychology—is discussed in this address of the President at the 65th annual convention of the APA. "The well-known virtue of the experimental method is that it brings situational variables under tight control… . The correlation method, for its part, can study what man has not learned to control or can never hope to control… . A true federation of the disciplines is required. Kept independent, they can give only wrong answers or no answers at all regarding certain important problems… . Correlational psychology studies only variance among organisms; experimental psychology studies only variance among treatments. A united discipline will study both of these, but it will also be concerned with the otherwise neglected interactions between organismic and treatment variables. Our job is to invent constructs and to form a network of laws which permits prediction." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of the teacher-learner strategy (TLS) project is ostensibly to test different instructional arrangements in different national contexts to see which ones obtain the best results. The logic of this approach is compelling. Yet it is the orderly appearance of the TLS project tha might its greatest problem. The doctrine of external appearances refers to an intellectual and reductionist treatment of a problem such that once a systematic set of procedures that appear to address a problem is adopted, it is assumed that the problem disappears. That is, the systematic set of procedures becomes the focus rather than the problem itself. Looking at the past, there is no evidence to support the view that programs such as the TLS have made any difference in measurable outcomes or in processes of schooling. Even if the TLS experimens are designed in ways that are technically acceptable with respect to sampling and data analysis, the pitfalls of cross-national experiments are overwhelming in four areas: specification and identification of treatments, the determination of appropriate criteria of effectiveness, the conduct of the experiment, and the interpretation and generalization of results (from ERIC database).
Advances in teacher effectiveness research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education
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The tasks of teaching and learning in classrooms Austin: University of Texas. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No
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Improved instruction. EI Segundo, California: Theory Into Practice (TIP) Publications
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Behavioral analysis and instructional sequencing Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education (dist
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Student characteristics and teaching
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The design of instruction The changing American school, 65th Yearbook, Part II Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education
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Teachers make a difference
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