Article

Isolation of High Antibiotic Resistant Fecal Bacteria Indicators, Salmonella and VibrioSpecies from Raw Abattoirs Sewage in Peri-Urban Locations of Nairobi, Kenya

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Abstract

The research was conducted to determine indicator organisms’ relationship to specific human pathogens and any presence of antibiotic resistance. Isolationof indicator organisms,Salmonella and Vibrio species was carried out using standard laboratory methods. Sensitivity to antibiotics was determined by the agar diffusion technique. The fecal bacteria load was found to be 6.2 x 10 6 , 5.3 x 10 5 , 2.5 x 10 4

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... Antibiotics such as tetracycline, doxycycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and streptomycin are used with adjunct in rehydration therapy and are critical in the treatment of septicemia patient 50,55,56 . Resistance to many of these drugs in general Vibrio pathogens have been reported in various African countries including Kenya 51,57,58,59,60,61,62 . Antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens isolated from childhood diarrhea in four provinces of Kenya reported resistance of 100% of Vibrio pathogens to Nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol; sensitivity of 100% to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline and resistance of 50% to ampicillin 60 . ...
... However, the resistance profiles indicate that these antibiotics will be less effective for treating non-01 V. cholera infections. In deed comparing with another previous study in Kenya 61 , the resistance of this pathogen against tetracycline in the current study is slightly higher than the previous 61 . However the resistance of ciprofloxacin against Vibrio species was lower in the current study than the previous because this drug is expensive for the population in the studied site and it is not purchased over the counter 61 . ...
... However, the resistance profiles indicate that these antibiotics will be less effective for treating non-01 V. cholera infections. In deed comparing with another previous study in Kenya 61 , the resistance of this pathogen against tetracycline in the current study is slightly higher than the previous 61 . However the resistance of ciprofloxacin against Vibrio species was lower in the current study than the previous because this drug is expensive for the population in the studied site and it is not purchased over the counter 61 . ...
... The isolation of Salmonella species from the present study is consistent with the reports of previous studies in abattoir wastewater both in Nigeria and Kenya [28,30]. This observation is not strange as Salmonella is a pathogen that persists and able to survive and proliferate in different environment [28]. ...
... This observation is not strange as Salmonella is a pathogen that persists and able to survive and proliferate in different environment [28]. Although, resistance (68.8%) of Salmonella strains in this study to tetracycline is a bit high, it is however lower compared to the 90% and 80% reported in similar studies carried out in Nsukka, South Eastern, Nigeria [31] and Nairobi, Kenya [30] respectively. The reason for the difference may be due to the concentration of the antibiotics used, which was 25µg as against the 30µg used in this study. ...
... Nonetheless, it has been previously reported that tetracycline resistance genes are present in Escherichia coli and Salmonella species isolated from an oxytetracycline production wastewater [35]. Furthermore, the findings that 100% of Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin are in agreement with similar studies in Nigeria [37] and elsewhere [32]; this is however higher than 88.7% [33], 60% [30], 58.3% [36] and 55.8% [34] previously reported in some other studies. Tetracycline and ampicillin are widely used in the treatment of animal diseases in Nigeria. ...
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The discharge of untreated abattoir wastewater constitutes public health concern because diseases are transmitted through contaminated water bodies. Contaminated water supply systems used for drinking and other purposes have been implicated in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical, bacteriological qualities of abattoir wastewater in Ibadan and antibiotics resistance patterns of Salmonella species from the wastewater. Wastewater samples were collected from the slaughter slab and drainage. Physico-chemical parameters, total bacteria counts (TBC) and total coliform counts (TCC) were determined using standard procedures. Salmonella species were isolated from the samples using pour plate techniques and identified using biochemical tests, while susceptibility test of the isolates against 10 antibiotics was determined using disc diffusion technique. The physico-chemical parameters of the wastewater showed total dissolved solids of 4,150 mg/l and 2300 mg/l for slaughter slab and drainage respectively while biochemical oxygen demand was 867.2 mg/l and 698.5 mg/l. Dissolved oxygen was between 0.01 mg/l and 0.02 mg/l; the mean value of TBC and TCC ranged between 4.24x 107- 4.78x107 cfu/ml and 3.03x107-3.51x107cfu/ml respectively. Salmonella species isolated were 48 and were all resistant to ampicillin and ceftriazone. The strains of S. enterica subspecies enterica exhibited resistance to eight antibiotics combination (AMP-TET-OFX-AMC-CLX-CRO-STR-SXT, AMP-TET-AMC-CLX-CRO-CHL-STR-SXT) while two of the isolates were pan-resistant. The abattoir wastewater must be properly treated before being discharged into the environment as it is evident that it harbours multiple antibiotic resistant pathogens.
... Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium of the family Vibrionaceae and is known worldwide as the etiological agent of cholera which it associated with the diarrheal disease .V. cholera is found mostly in aquatic environment; water, therefore, plays an important role in the transmission and epidemiology of cholera [11]. Vibrio species have also been reported in sewage [12]. Which is one of the most deadly enteric diseases acquired from contaminated water and food in many areas. ...
... The present study demonstrated that bacterial isolates were resistant to antibiotics due to repeated use as therapeutics or commonly used as feed additives for animals Vibrio species were more frequently detected in samples which also showed a high incidence of fecal bacteria indicators [12]. Due to rapid economic decline because of the wars; most of the wastewater treatment in Iraq has not been functioned according to golden rules. ...
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Aquatic environment is one an important factors to transmitted the pathogens to human. A total 70 of water samples collected from the Tigris River during September 2013 to December 2015. The objective of our study is to isolate the most common pathogenic bacteria from river and was identified according to the IMViC & the selective agars. All the diagnosed genera of bacterial isolates of Tigris River in Baghdad City were among Vibrionaceae & Enterobacteriaceae Families. The results for the three-year were diverse of different genera of microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Vibrio cholera, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter and other. The study also aimed at determination of antibiotic susceptibility/resistance of isolated bacteria. Antibiotics selected were Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Meropenem, Erythromycin and Nalidixic acid. Many pathogenic bacteria isolates of the river were resistant to antibiotics.The significant results were shortly discussed.
... Such microorganisms could get into water bodies and later be taken home for drinking. The study also demonstrated that the microbes were resistant to antibiotics commonly used as feed additives (tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfonamides) or therapeutics (penicillin and tetracycline) [2]. ...
... This may explain the reason for antimicrobial resistance observed in this study because antibiotics residues end up in animal products that later get consumed by humans. In addition, some strains of Escherichia and Salmonella have capsular K and Vi antigens which protect them from access to antimicrobials [2]. Moreover, water sources having antimicrobial deposits, use of antimicrobials as animal feeds addictives and lot of usage of antimicrobial as disinfectants in the environment have greatly contributed to antimicrobial resistance [9]. ...
... The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the use of Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (7). The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters and graded according to sensitive, intermediate or resistant (6). ...
... Because People in Nakuru North keep livestock, they could be using allot of antibiotics in treating animals (19). This could be a contributing factor to the high level of resistance witnessed in the current study (6). In addition, seepage of antibiotics into water sources and the selection pressure posed by their increased usage in the environment could be another possibility (14,24). ...
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Nakuru North sub-county is located 160 Km Northwest of Nairobi at an altitude of 1859 m above sea level. It has an area of 593 Km 2 with a population density of 25.3 per Km 2. The residents often suffer from diarrhoeal diseases which could possibly be due to intake of contaminated foods. The study was aimed at determining the microbial levels of raw cow's milk, animal intestinal wastes, fruits and vegetable salads, waste water and drinking water. A total of 896 samples; raw cow's milk (112), animal intestinal waste (112), fruits and vegetable salads (112), waste water (112) and boiled (112), chlorinated (112), filtered (112) and solar disinfected (112) waters were collected and analyzed between May 2012 and April 2013. The microorganisms isolated were confirmed using biochemical tests. Out of the eight hundred and ninety six (896) samples examined 28.1 % (252/896) were positive for all the microbial isolates. The prevalence of total coliforms was 100 %, Salmonella (33 %) and E. coli 32.1 %. Total coliforms showed the highest mean resistance (26.0 %) followed by Salmonella (16.9 %) while E. coli showed the least mean resistance (15.5 %). However, there was no significant deference (p = 0.98) in resistance among total coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli at 0.05 level of significant. Foods, environmental and treated water samples are highly contaminated with microorganisms hence they are a great public health problem in the area. We recommend prudent waste disposal in order to control cross contamination in curbing this problem.
... Such microorganisms could get into water bodies and later be taken home for drinking. The study also demonstrated that the microbes were resistant to antibiotics commonly used as feed additives (tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfonamides) or therapeutics (penicillin and tetracycline) [2]. ...
... This may explain the reason for antimicrobial resistance observed in this study because antibiotics residues end up in animal products that later get consumed by humans. In addition, some strains of Escherichia and Salmonella have capsular K and Vi antigens which protect them from access to antimicrobials [2]. Moreover, water sources having antimicrobial deposits, use of antimicrobials as animal feeds addictives and lot of usage of antimicrobial as disinfectants in the environment have greatly contributed to antimicrobial resistance [9]. ...
... The incubation box was closed and incubated at a temperature 37 °C for 24 h as described by the manufacturer and the results were determined according to API 20E catalogue. The microorganisms were further identified using colony morphology, Gram staining and motility test [13]. ...
... The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by use of Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) [13]. Sterile wire loop was used to pick 3 colonies of each Shigella spp., E. coli and Salmonella spp. ...
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Nakuru North sub-county is a peri-urban area which has both dry and wet seasons. Its residents rely mostly on untreated water sources for daily water needs due to unreliable water supply from the urban council. However, this water has not been evaluated on its quality despite residents solely depending on it. This study was aimed at determining the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water drawn from River Kandutura and water taps in Nakuru North sub-county. In addition, the study was aimed at carrying out sensitivity test of the isolates to antibiotics and determining effectiveness of solar disinfection in water treatment. A total of 510 water samples; river (255) and taps (255) were collected and analyzed between January and December 2013. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was carried out using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion test. Out of five hundred and ten (510) samples examined for microorganisms, 36.86 % (188/510) were positive for E. coli, Shigella and Salmonella. Water used by Nakuru North sub-county residents is highly contaminated thus posing public health risk. Solar disinfection experiment indicated a possibility of effective decontamination of water up on exposure to sun light for 3-5 h. E. coli showed the highest resistance (26.3 %) followed by Salmonella (17.4 %) while Shigella showed the least (17.1 %). However, there was no significant deference (p=0.98) in resistance among total coliforms, Total heterotrophic and Salmonella at 0.05 level of significant. There is a need to enforce laws and policies on proper waste disposal as part of water pollution control.
... Salmonellae have also been reported to be present in aquatic environments. The presence of Salmonella and other enteric microorganisms in aquatic environments can be a source of disease when water is used for drinking, recreational activities or irrigation purposes [6]. Water-borne diseases pose serious health risks which could result in consequences of economic value in many parts of the world. ...
Article
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Salmonella specie were isolated from Nworie River and then tested against several antibiotics to include; Gentamycin, Streptomycin, Amoxycillin, Kanamycin, Oxacillin, Ofloxacin, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Aztreonam and Ceftazidime. Salmonella isolates obtained from the river were resistant to at least three different antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to Amoxycillin, Oxacillin and Iminipem showing a 100% resistant rate, while showing sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, Aztreonam, Gentamycin, Ceftazidime, Kanamycin, Streptomycin, and Ofloxacin at sensitivity rates of 71.4%, 7.1%, 77.1%, 11.4%, 44.3%, 48.6% and 78.6% respectively. The antibiotic-resistant Salmonella species were further tested against the aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts of Vernonia amygdalina leaf, stem and roots to assess their antibacterial potential at a concentration of 100mg/ml. Aqueous extracts of the leaf, stem and roots showed no activity against antibiotic resistant Salmonella isolate, while the ethanol and acetone extracts showed activity rates of 20% and 17% for roots, 14.3% and 12.9% for stem, and, 15.7% and 11.4% for leaf. The results from this study further confirms the antibacterial potentials of Vernonia amygdalina against antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates.
... An abundance of comprehensive reports, guidelines, and recommendations at international and national levels have been published to tackle the threats posed by antibiotic resistance [11]. Several studies have reported the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in abattoir wastes [12][13][14], and among these bacteria, multidrugresistant Salmonella [13] and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) 0157:H7 [15] were detected. S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus have also been reported from the abattoir environment [16]). ...
Article
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The release of untreated wastes from abattoirs into the environment and nearby water bodies poses a significant threat to public health. Such litters may contain pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study investigated 80 samples collected from butchering tables, slaughter slabs, meat rinsing points, and abattoir wastes receiving water from two abattoirs (A and B). Total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC) for each sample was determined, and Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were isolated and identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on all bacterial isolates against nine locally used antibiotics. Overall, 118 bacterial isolates, comprising E. coli (42.5%), Salmonella spp. (27.5%), Shigella spp. (37.5%), and S. aureus (40.0%), were recovered. Of the 118 bacterial isolates, 104 (88.1%) were multidrug-resistant, including 58 (55.8%) from abattoir A and 46 (44.2%) from abattoir B; however, this difference was not statistically significant ( p = 0.6837 ). Of the 32 S. aureus isolates, 29 (90.6%) were multidrug-resistant. All S. aureus were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, kanamycin, and amikacin. Similarly, 31 (91.2%) of the 34 E. coli isolates recovered in this study were multidrug-resistant. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. also showed high levels of multidrug resistance corresponding to 81.8% and 86.7%, respectively. All isolates of E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella were 100% resistant to ampicillin and 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Minimum and maximum mean values for TEC were 3.62-5.83 log CFU/mL for abattoir A and 4.08–5.56 log CFU/mL for abattoir B. The highest and lowest TEC counts were from slaughter slab and upstream water, respectively, in each abattoir. Our results indicate a predominance of multidrug-resistant bacteria in abattoir wastes and their receiving waters in the study sites. Hence, we recommend the treatment of abattoir wastes before disposal and improved hygiene and sanitation practices to enhance public health.
... Though the link between drug resistance in bacteria contaminating food items and increased clinical cases of resistant infections not fully defined; so the presence of bacteria in food items and their environment might play a role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance amongst food-borne pathogens and other microorganisms [9,10]. [11,12] in a literature report suggested that abattoir were important environmental reservoirs for Vibrio species. And given the proposition that environmental reservoir of toxigenic Vibrio species and/or non-enterotoxigenic environmental Vibrio strains may serve as progenitors for future enterotoxin producing epidemic strains, it becomes imperative to monitor abattoir for potential Vibrio pathogens. ...
... All these will influence the overall prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria within an ecosystem. It is therefore important to educate the general public on effective procedures to sanitize kitchen surfaces, utensils, and hands, especially after handling raw meat, a premise that has also been supported by [14] & [20]. ...
Article
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Antibiotic resistance has become a big public health concern. Experiments were carried out to assess the antibiotic resistance pattern in coliform bacteria isolated from different sources in Iwo, Nigeria. Coliform bacteria were isolated on nutrient and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD) agar media and identified using standard procedures. Antibiotic multidisc containing ceftazidime (30µg), cefuroxime (30µg), gentamicin (10µg), ciprofloxacin (5µg), ofloxacin (5µg), augmentin (30µg), nitrofurantoin (300µg), and ampicillin (10µg) were used to study the resistance patterns of the isolates. Statistical analyses were carried out using the analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and the PAST (paleontology statistics) software analytical package where applicable. Twenty-five (25) Coliform bacteria consisting of four genera were isolated and identified. Enterobacter had the highest occurrence (44%) followed by Klebsiella (24%), E. coli (20%) while Citrobacter had the lowest occurrence (12%). Overall more Coliform isolates were recovered at the abattoir (8), cafeteria (6), poultry (5), cow ranch (4) and hostel sewage (2). The highest resistance observed by the isolates was to ampicillin (91%) followed by augmentin (55%), while many of the isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, gentamicin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR for 16S RNA) method was carried out to screen for CTX-M gene in beta-lactam resistant isolates. A number of organisms have developed multiple resistances to several antibiotics and of major concern are Coliforms in which new resistance characteristics have been discovered leading to increasing resistance to drug therapies. This may become a great public health concern if not curbed.
... Various pollutants such as antimicrobial agents, pharmaceuticals, detergents, disinfectants and industrial residues are introduced into the aquatic environment through sewage, industrial and hospital effluents, which can lead to the development of resistance towards antibiotics. The existence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in local habitats such as public drinking water systems, soil, rivers, lakes, sewage and wastewater treatment plants is an alarming global health issue (Al-Bahry et al., 2012;Ash et al., 2002;Atieno et al., 2013;Baquero et al., 2008;DebMandal et al., 2011;Guo et al., 2013;Huang et al., 2011;Munir et al., 2011;Narasimhulu et al., 2010;Reinthaler et al., 2003;Samra et al., 2009;Thevenon et al., 2012;Unno et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Hussain Sagar is a man-made lake originally designed for drinking water purpose that receives domestic sewage and industrial effluents through drainage canals due to rapid residential and industrial growth. Also, every year thousands of idols are immersed into the lake during festivals. In this context, a comprehensive study was initiated for monitoring the lake water quality. Various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, EC, TDS, COD and chlorophyll a were analyzed using APHA standard methods Water was also monitored for heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and antibiotic resistant bacteria. The average values for heterotrophs were found to be 8.6 × 10⁴ and 2.8 × 10⁴ CFU/mL before and after idol immersion, respectively. While the average values for total coliforms and E. coli were 5 × 10⁴ and 5 × 10²; 1.2 × 10⁴ and 7.2 × 10¹ CFU/mL, for the respective sampling periods. The mean values for ampicillin and gentamicin resistant bacteria were 5.9 × 10³ and 6.9 × 10²; and 2.2 × 10³ and 5.4 × 10² CFU/mL, respectively. It was found that TDS, COD and chlorophyll a values were decreased after idol immersion due to extensive cleaning. The statistical results showed no correlation between faecal bacteria and physico-chemical parameters and one way-ANOVA indicated statistically significant differences between the mean values of different sampling locations, with respect to COD and E. coli at 95% confidence. However, enormous load of coliforms and E. coli indicated severe contamination of the lake with domestic sewage and human excreta. Thus, the water is not suitable for human consumption/drinking purpose. Notably, incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in lake water is a potential threat to both public health and the environment. Thus, regular monitoring and applying appropriate corrective actions are needed to improve the water quality.
... were present in the waste. Also, several studies in Africa have been done by different researchers on abattoir wastes and different pathogenic bacteria were recovered from untreated abattoir wastewaters (Benka-Coker &Ojior 1995;Abiade-Paul et al. 2005;Nyamboya, Okemo, &Ombori, 2013). ...
... Although abattoir effluents have been reported [7,8] to be important environmental reservoirs for Vibrio species, there is a dearth of information in the literature on antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Vibrio species isolated from abattoir effluents in Nigeria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibiogram of Vibrio species isolated from abattoir effluents in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. ...
Article
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Introduction: The antibiograms of Vibrio species isolated from abattoir effluents in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria were investigated with respect to their public health significance. Methodology: Vibrio species were isolated and identified using standard microbiological and molecular techniques, while antibiogram of isolates was tested and interpreted using the disk diffusion method described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Of 150 presumptive isolates, 48 (32%) were confirmed to be Vibrio spp. by PCR; of these, 23 (47.9%) were V. cholerae, 11 (22.9%) were V. fluvialis, 8 (16.7%) were V. vulnificus, and 6 (12.5%) were V. parahaemolyticus. The antibiogram revealed that Vibrio species were generally resistant to ampicillin (60%–67%), trimethoprim (80%–100%), and tetracycline (60%–83%), whereas they were sensitive to ceftriaxone (86%–100%), the aminoglycosides (67%–100%), imipenem (86%–100%), ofloxacin (83%–100%), and chloramphenicol (67%– 100%). The isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) with an average MAR index of 0.23. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that abattoir effluents are important reservoirs for multidrug-resistant Vibrio species that might be considerable contributors to the recurrent episodes of epidemic cholera and non-Vibrio cholera infections in Nigeria.
... Salmonellae have also been reported to be present in aquatic environments. The presence of Salmonella and other enteric microorganisms in aquatic environments can be a source of disease when water is used for drinking, recreational activities or irrigation purposes [6]. Water-borne diseases pose serious health risks which could result in consequences of economic value in many parts of the world. ...
Article
Full-text available
Salmonella species were isolated from Nworie River and then tested against several antibiotics to include; Gentamycin, Streptomycin, Amoxycillin, Kanamycin, Oxacillin, Ofloxacin, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Aztreonam and Ceftazidime. Salmonella isolates obtained from the river were resistant to at least three different antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to Amoxycillin, Oxacillin and Iminipem showing a 100% resistant rate, while showing sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin, Aztreonam, Gentamycin, Ceftazidime, Kanamycin, Streptomycin, and Ofloxacin at sensitivity rates of 71.4%, 7.1%, 77.1%, 11.4%, 44.3%, 48.6% and 78.6% respectively. The antibiotic-resistant Salmonella species were further tested against the aqueous, ethanol and acetone extracts of Vernonia amygdalina leaf, stem and roots to assess their antibacterial potential at a concentration of 100mg/ml. Aqueous extracts of the leaf, stem and roots showed no activity against antibiotic resistant Salmonella isolate, while the ethanol and acetone extracts showed activity rates of 20% and 17% for roots, 14.3% and 12.9% for stem, and, 15.7% and 11.4% for leaf. The results from this study further confirms the antibacterial potentials of Vernonia amygdalina against antibiotic- resistant bacterial isolates.
... The MAR indexes in microorganisms isolated from Municipal council's treated sewage were beyond 0.02 indicating that there has been high risk of exposure to antibiotics. This is in concurrence with a study carried out by (Atieno et al., 2014). The possible reasons could be indiscriminate use of antibiotics in both human and animal therapy. ...
... Our findings prove that wastewater effluents are an important source of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, as reported elsewhere (James et al. 2003;Byarugaba 2004). Atieno et al. (2013) also stated that the release of pathogenic enteric microorganisms into aquatic environments can be a source of disease when water is used for drinking, recreational activities or irrigation. It has also been noted that the prevalence of pathogenic enteric bacteria in wastewater effluents (and hence in receiving water sources) increases public health risk if the bacteria are antibiotic-resistant because of the reduced efficacy of antibiotic treatment against human diseases caused by such bacteria (Tendencia and De la Pena 2002;Wenzel and Edmond 2009). ...
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Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a third of the population directly relying on surface water sources for drinking and daily use.
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Diseases are the worst enemy to man currently. This study was aimed at isolating pathogenic bacteria from water obtained from shallow wells in Dundori Kenya. Also, the study aimed at testing the isolates for sensitivity to antibiotic metabolites previously extracted from Actinomycetes isolates from soils of Egerton University. Water samples were collected from shallow wells randomly selected from Dundori and abbreviated as A, B, C, D, and E. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from the water samples using the membrane filtration technique. The isolates were characterized using biochemical means. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was carried out using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Comparison of means was carried out using one way ANOVA. Shallow wells B, D and E were highly contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Biochemical characterization of the isolates indicated that the most common isolates were Vibrio cholera, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus sp, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. There was no significant difference between the zones of inhibition produced by the antibiotic metabolites (F=2.149 P=1340) when tested against the test isolates. There were no significant differences between the MIC's of the antibiotic metabolites on the bacterial pathogens (F=2.01 P=0.15). Water from some shallow wells in Dundori is highly contaminated with Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus. The pathogens can effectively be controlled using antibiotics from the Actinomycetes. There is a need to sensitize the residents of the study area on ways of preventing seepage of contaminants into the shallow wells.
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Mangroves provide a unique ecological niche to different microbes which play a significant role in nutrient recycling as well as various environmental activities. However, with the increase in urbanization, estuarine mangrove ecosystems are getting affected by different ways. Several ‘non-innate’ matters are getting introduced into these environments. Since last decade, increased incidences of pathogens in mangroves have been documented. Despite of their atypical environment, these pathogens can adapt, survive and persist in the mangrove. Several pathogenic bacteria of public health significance and their abundance have been reported. Evidences suggest that the mangrove biota being used as food plays a major role in the transmission of pathogens. Apparently, mangrove ecosystem is acting as a reservoir for many pathogens. This chapter describes the occurrence of different pathogens of public health significance in mangroves, the potential of mangroves as a reservoir of pathogens and the role of associated biota in transferring these pathogens to humans.
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