Article

A New Genus of Odontopygid Millipeds from Tanzania (Diplopoda: Spirostreptida: Odontopygidae)

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Abstract

The new generic taxon Calyptomastix is proposed to accommodate the type species Odontopyge kakandae Kraus, 1958, and, tentatively, Odontopyge dorsalis Carl, 1909, Haplothysanus leviceps Attems, 1909, and Spirostreptus pardalis Gerstäcker, 1873, all from Tanzania. This genus is defined by the broad basal separation of the male genitalia, the elongated basal whorl (torsion) of the gonopod telopodite, and the concealment of the solenomere within apical folds of the telopodite.

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... Seven, including four new species described here, see Hoffman & Howell (2012). ...
... The four previously known species are distributed in D.R. Congo and Tanzania. One of these, C. kakandae (Kraus, 1958a), originally described from D.R. Congo, occurs close to the Eastern Arcs, west of the Tanzanian southern Highlands (Rukwa Region, Sumbawanga District) (Hoffman & Howell 2012). ...
... Abbreviations: APS = mesapical prefemoral setae; CXS = coxosternal setae; ss = smaller prefemoral setae. Scale bars = 0.2 mm.Genus CalyptomastixHoffman & Howell, 2012 ...
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The fauna of the millipede family Odontopygidae in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania is reviewed. Species from the North Pare, South Pare, West Usambara, East Usambara, Nguru, Rubeho, Uluguru and Rungwe Mts are treated. The odontopygids of the Udzungwa Mts have been subject of a series of previous papers and are only treated marginally. Six new genera and 25 new species are described: Antipustia gen. nov., Aptyctosmilax gen. nov., Multipronopea gen. nov., Notogallanus gen. nov., Praludivera gen. nov., Uncodrama gen. nov., Antipustia hoteldolichoiuli gen. et sp. nov., Aptyctosmilax helenae gen. et sp. nov., Calyptomastix ingemanni sp. nov., Calyptomastix vuasu sp. nov., Calyptomastix xystopygoides sp. nov., Calyptomastix zoltani sp. nov., Chaleponcus jolantae sp. nov., Chaleponcus nesrineae sp. nov., Chaleponcus schioetzae sp. nov., Chaleponcus sergeii sp. nov., Chaleponcus soerensenae sp. nov., Geotypodon cristinae sp. nov., Lamelloramus frederiksenae sp. nov., Multipronopea agneteae gen. et sp. nov., Notogallanus mastacembalus gen. et sp. nov., Praludivera paralellamella gen. et sp. nov., Raduliverpa donatellae sp. nov., Spinotarsus axeli sp. nov., Syndesmogenus estelleae sp. nov., Uncodrama coronata gen. et sp. nov., Xystopyge bentemarieae sp. nov., Xystopyge doggartae sp. nov., Xystopyge hippocampus sp. nov., Xystopyge minnae sp. nov., and Xystopyge voluntariorum sp. nov. The discussion focuses on diversity and distribution patterns, the justification for monotypic (monospecific) genera, and the following morphological character types: the ozopore series, the limbus, the number of setae on the anal valves, the first pair of male legs, the gonopod sternum, and the sternum of the rudimentary 9th leg-pair.
... Hoffman (1991 rectified the situation and formally synonymized Omopyge under Odontopyge, but by this action he left a large number of species originally described in or subsequently transferred to Odontopyge 'orphaned', i.e., without a valid genus name. Some of these have been transferred to other genera by Hoffman & Howell (1981, 2012, Hoffman (2000Hoffman ( , 2002 and , but very many remain orphaned. Kraus (1960) was aware of the situation and therefore accepted Attems' (1909) designation of Odontopyge kilimandjaronus Attems, 1909, as type species of Odontopyge, mentioning that the ICZN would be asked to make Attems' designation valid. ...
... The unsatisfactory state of odontopygid taxonomy was characterized as follows by Hoffman & Howell (2012): "That classification of odontopygid millipeds remains in a highly unsettled condition is due both to the inherent complexity of the male genitalia and the traditional reliance on a few obvious key-characters (a priori definition) instead of groupings made on the basis of overall similarity of the appendages. Either approach is further complicated by frequent contradictory states of characters as expressed in coxal or telopodital regions. ...
... This way, a more satisfactory classification may one day be obtained, but until then, in order to be able to handle the amazing diversity of odontopygids, several existing genera need to be revised and probably split into several smaller genera. This approach might seem to be at variance with the ideas expressed by Hoffman & Howell (2012), i.e., "traditional reliance on a few obvious key-characters (a priori definition) instead of groupings made on the basis of overall similarity", but at least as a temporary solution such a splitting approach will be useful. Taking the monographic work of Kraus (1960Kraus ( , 1966 as the starting point, several such splits have already been made by Demange (1981), , Hoffman (2002) and Hoffman & Howell (2012). ...
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The new genus Geotypodon gen. nov. is described. It includes two species from the Udzungwa Mountains: G. millemanus gen. et sp. nov. (type species) and G. submontanus gen. et sp. nov., one species from nearby Iringa: G. iringensis gen. et sp. nov., and 18 previously described species hitherto incorrectly assigned to Odontopyge Brandt, 1841.
... Work on the present checklist was initiated by KMH and the late Richard L. Hoffman (1927Hoffman ( -2012. Richard Hoffman devoted a very big share of his enormous productivity to Tanzanian millipedes and described numerous species, not only in his weighty monographs of the endemic Afrotropical families Oxydesmidae ) and Gomphodesmidae (Hoffman 2005a), but also in very many (relatively) short papers dealing with many different families, as is very evident from the list of references for the present paper. ...
... However, several species-and not only widespread 'tramp'species-have been collected in other countries, sometimes at a considerable distance from the Tanzanian localities, e.g. Calyptomastix kakandae which was reported by Hoffman & Howell (2012) ca. 600 km from the type locality in D.R. Congo. ...
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The hitherto monospecific genus Pleonoporus is revised based on the syntypes of P. robustus Attems, 1938, housed in Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (NHMW), as well as on specimens of what we interpret as a new species of the genus, Pleonoporus tanzanicus sp. nov., collected in Tanzania and housed in the Museum of Nature – Zoology, Leibnitz Institute for the Analysis of Biodiversity Change (ZMH) for more than a century. Both species are described based on habitus and gonopod structures and illustrated with micrographs, whereas scanning electron microscope images are also provided for the new species. This paper further highlights the importance of natural history collections for taxonomic research and studies on species diversity in general.
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Two species of the genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, are recorded from the Udzungwa Mountains: P. asperginis sp. nov. and P. kraepelini (Attems, 1896). Prionopetalum stuhlmanni Attems, 1914 is synonymized under P. kraepelini. Odontopyge fasciata Attems, 1896, is transferred from Prionopetalum to Aquattuor Frederiksen, 2013, and new illustrations are given. A new illustrated key to species of Prionopetalum is provided.
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