The previous chapter documented the intellectual interests of the Albertine Electors, which included a serious engagement with early modern scientific theory and its practical applications. In the period under discussion it was impossible to have such interests without also concerning oneself with the so-called occult arts. Indeed, the modern distinction between provable scientific fact arrived ... [Show full abstract] at by deductive reasoning and then tested through controlled experiment and intuitive and imaginative concepts which relate rather to the world of the spirit and the imagination simply did not exist for the early modern mind. For the latter the observable world gave but a glimmer of the reality which lay beneath, by definition a hidden reality which could be uncovered only by applying the techniques of natural or white magic. The physical world was thought to be peopled by spirit forces, which could, indeed had to be, harnessed to man’s purposes. So the twin processes of understanding this occult world and manipulating it went hand in hand, and metaphysical speculation and practical experimentation were inseparable.